Silk sentence example
She wore silk pajamas and a woolen sweater.
She wore white slacks, an emerald-green silk blouse and high-heeled shoes.
She wore a silk blouse, Jimmy Choo's and a pencil skirt with a slit up the side, which gave just a glimpse of leg that went on forever.
Silk.The silk industry occupied f34,000 hands in 1901.
Made of material softer than silk, the black dress she wore pooled at the top of her feet.Advertisement
Their bodies were slick with sweat, and she lingered in the afterglow, lost in the heat and silk of his skin.
The bed was the largest she'd ever seen, with a finely spun silk bedspread of pale yellow.
They stood in front of an airy, light tent resembling a silk sheet suspended in midair over a table.
She had long blonde hair like spun silk, a perfectly proportioned figure and blue-green eyes that made you feel you were looking into the sea.
He wore black jeans, a dark gray Versace silk sport shirt with the cuffs rolled up, and a pair of A. Testoni loafers.Advertisement
As the powers of the telescope were gradually developed, it was found that the finest hairs or filaments of silk, or the thinnest silver wires that could be drawn, were much too thick for the refined purposes of the astronomer, as p p they entirely obliterated the image of a star in the more powerful telescopes.
Silk Buckingham, and he was a regular contributor for the rest of his life.
The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
The silk fabrics of France hold the first place, particularly the more expensive kinds.
Up comes the cotton, down goes the woven cloth; up comes the silk, down goes the woollen; up come the books, but down goes the wit that writes them.Advertisement
A tradesman's wife was showing a rent in her shawl and telling how much the shawl had cost; another was saying that all silk goods had now got dear.
Its material may be linen, wool, cotton or silk; but silk only is the rule for deacons.
Gold and silk embroidery, filigree work, morocco and richly-braided jackets are produced for home use and for sale in Bosnia, Macedonia and Montenegro.
The chief industrial establishments are a large ammunition factory and an engine factory; but manufactures of cotton, silk, velvet, pottery and paper, sugar-refining and tanning are also extensively carried on.
It was muted black, made out of material smoother than silk that draped over her arm like a second skin.Advertisement
There were no traditional decorations such as pictures or mirrors on the walls, but colorful cords and streams of what might have been silk edging the corners and dangling from high ceilings.
His high-water trousers exposed black silk socks with little ladders up the sides, held in place with garters, something Dean hadn't seen in decades.
You can't make a silk purse out of a sow's ear.
In the earliest the conductor was represented by long metal wires, supported by silk or other insulating material, and left to pick up the air's potential.
At an early date Hastings was placed in charge of an aurang or factory in the interior, where his duties would be to superintend the weaving of silk and cotton goods under a system of money advances.Advertisement
The micrometer of Auzout and Picard was provided with silk fibres or silver wires instead of the edges of Gascoigne, but one of the silk fibres remained fixed while the other was moved by a screw.
Meanwhile he had been appointed physician advising on the establishment of a silk factory.
The hilly regions of Limousin, Prigord and the Cvennes are the home of the chestnut, which in some places is still a staple food; walnuts grow on the lower levels of the central plateau and in lower Dauphin and Provence, figs and almonds in Provence, oranges and citrons on the Mediterranean coast, apricots in central France, the olive in Provcnce and the lower valleys of the Rhneand Durancc. Truffles arc found under Silk Cocoons.
Amongst exports manufactured goods (silk, cotton and woollen goods, fancy wares, apparel, &c.) come before raw materials and articles of food (wine and dairy products bought chiefly by England).
No doubt the bird had mistaken the purple silk for something good to eat.Advertisement
He was dressed in a dark-green dress coat, knee breeches of the color of cuisse de nymphe effrayee, as he called it, shoes, and silk stockings.
The room was utterly feminine, from the pale colors to the silk and lace accents and carved furniture.
Jealous. She never used silk with me.
Nothing made sense to her numbed mind, aside from the fragrant ocean, the fine sand that slid through her fingers like silk, and the warm-cool sensations caused by a combination of afternoon sun and sea breeze.
The night was clear and cool, the sky a beautiful pageant of dark blue silk and brilliant stars, of streaking meteors and two glowing orbs.Advertisement
The city has extensive manufactures of heavy machinery, electric supplies, brass and copper products and silk goods.
With the development of cotton and silk industries the town has increased enormously, and is now second in importance only to Derby among the towns of the county.
Amongst imports raw materials (wool, cotton and silk, coal, oilseeds, timber, &c.) hold the first place, articles of food (cereals, wine, coffee, &c.) and manufactured goods (especially machinery) ranking next.
The city's manufactures idclude cotton, woollen and silk textiles, cigars and cigarettes, and dulces, or sweetmeats, Morelia being noted throughout Mexico for the latter, particularly for a variety called Guayabate.
The important silk industry, however, began to revive about 18go, and dairy farming is prosperous; but the condition of the vilayet is far less unsettled than that of Macedonia, owing partly to the preponderance of Moslems among the peasantry, and partly to the nearness of Constantinople, with its Western influences.Advertisement
The export that comes next in value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore, maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber.
In both there are species which form no nest or burrow, others which construct a simple silk-lined tunnel in the soil, and others which close the aperture of the burrow with a hinged door; while both share the habit of lining the burrow with silk to prevent the infall of loose sand or mould; and the species which make an open burrow close the aperture with a sheet of silk in the winter during hibernation and open it again in the spring.
The merchant put the gold in a bag of purple silk which he tied to his belt underneath his long cloak.
With a sinking heart, wretched as she always was now when she found herself in a crowd, Natasha in her lilac silk dress trimmed with black lace walked- -as women can walk--with the more repose and stateliness the greater the pain and shame in her soul.
While this was being given, Prince Andrew heard the whisper of a woman's voice and the rustle of a silk dress behind the door.Advertisement
Several times on glancing that way he noticed behind that door a plump, rosy, handsome woman in a pink dress with a lilac silk kerchief on her head, holding a dish and evidently awaiting the entrance of the commander-in-chief.
They were a handsome couple, the elegant woman's hair so fine and blonde it resembled white silk.
Xander was instantly fascinated by the sensation of downy fur and cotton spun so finely, it was like silk.
This latter type appears to be the true "tabby"; since that word denotes a pattern like that of watered silk.
Akhmim has several mosques and two Coptic churches, maintains a weekly market, and manufactures cotton goods, notably the blue shirts and check shawls with silk fringes worn by the poorer classes of Egypt.Advertisement
On the hills the baobab and hyphaene palm are characteristic; on the plateau are stretches of open savanna, and park-like country with clumps of silk cotton and shea-butter trees.
At South Manchester, an attractive industrial village, a silk mill was built in 1838; the silk mills of one firm (Cheney Brothers) here cover about 12 acres; the company has done much for its employees, whose homes are almost all detached cottages in attractive grounds.
The coils are wound with copper wire (covered with silk), 10 mils.
Helmond is one of the industrial centres of the province, and possesses over a score of factories for cotton and silk weaving, cotton printing, dyeing, iron founding, brewing, soap boiling and tobacco dressing, as well as engine works and a margarine factory.
He sometimes held the carbon powder against the diaphragm in a small tr ans' shallow cell (from a quarter to half an inch in diameter and about an eighth of an inch deep), and sometimes he used what he describes as a fluff, that is, a little brush of silk fibre with plumbago rubbed into it.
The chief productions are wheat, wine, oil, mastic, figs, raisins, honey, wax, cotton and silk.
During the period 1900190 the average annual production of silk cocoons was 53,500 tons, an of silk 5200 tons.
Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
There are several public assay offices in Italy for silk; the first in the world was established in Turin in 1750.
In the mining and woollen industries they have fallen, but have increased in mechanical, chemical, silk and cotton industries.
In some trades, for instance the silk trade, women earn little more than lod.
The diminution was due to a smaller exportation of raw silk and oil.
The principal exports are silk and cotton tissues, live stock, wines, spirits and oils; corn, flour, macaroni and similar products; and minerals, chiefly sulphur.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
Those who were reconciled were deprived of all honourable employment, and were forbidden to use gold, silver, jewelry, silk or fine wool.
Its cloth and silk manufactures are important, and owing to the opening up of extensive coalfields in the district almost every branch of iron industry is carried on.
Silk fabrics, coarse woollen cloth, paper and clocks are manufactured.
Live-stock and agricultural products are exported; the chief imports are wood and raw silk.
Bourg is the capital and Belley is the seat of a bishop. Jujurieux, in the arrondissement of Nantua, has the most important silk factory in the department, occupying over 1000 workpeople.
St Rambert, in the arrondissement of Belley, besides being of industrial importance for its manufactures of silk and paper, possesses the remains of a Benedictine abbey, powerful in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries.
There is trade in walnuts, walnut-oil, silk, cattle, &c.
In 1890 General Maclean, the British consul-general, reported that there were 650 silk, 40 carpet and 320 shawl looms at work.
The carpet-looms at work now number several hundreds, while looms of silk and shawl number less than half what they did in 1890.
With France there is a large traffic in wines, spirits, silk, fruit, vegetables and general provisions.
Its industries include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metalwork, silk embroidery, &c. Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay, Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son.
There are also tanneries, dye-works and manufactures of silk, linen and woollen fabrics, leather and starch.
The larva makes a globular case of .sand stuck together with fine silk spun, it is said, from a slender spinneret at the posterior end of the body.
Gold-working, the making of arms and musical instruments, wood-carving, cotton, silk and gold thread weaving are of importance.
It contains breweries, tanneries, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and silk factories, and exports skins, cloth, cocoons, cereals, attar of roses, "dried fruit, &c. Sofia forms the centre of a railway system radiating to Constantinople (300 m.), Belgrade (206 m.) and central Europe, Varna, Rustchuk and the Danube, and Kiustendil near the Macedonian frontier.
Altogether raw silk and silk yarn to an annual value exceeding 1-1 millions sterling are exported from Russia.
Next after cottons come woollens, silk, cloth, chemicals, machinery, paper, furniture, hats, cement, leather, glass and china and other products.
The silk-mills employ silk obtained from the Caucasus, Italy and France.
It is supposed to be the Camanes of Ptolemy, and was formerly a very flourishing city, the seat of an extensive trade, and celebrated for its manufactures of silk, chintz and gold stuffs; but owing principally to the gradually increasing difficulty of access by water, owing to the silting up of the gulf, its commerce has long since fallen away, and the town has become poor and dilapidated.
Among the borough's manufactures are stoves and furnaces, malt liquors and silk.
The industries of the town include cotton spinning and weaving, silk spinning, the manufacture of tobacco, ropes, metal-ware, furniture, &c. The market gardens of the neighbourhood are famous, and there is a considerable shipping trade by the river and the Ludwigskanal.
The cultivation of silk cocoons, formerly a flourishing industry, has greatly declined in recent years, but efforts are now being made to revive it.
Owing to its excellent harbour Baku is a chief depot for merchandise coming from Persia and Transcaspia - raw cotton, silk, rice, wine, fish, dried fruit and timber - and for Russian manufactured goods.
The chief manufactures are silk, confectionery and earthenware; and there is besides a considerable trade in fruit, grain and cattle.
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.
An epidemic of a fatal character had ruined the French silk producers.
Carpets (especially at Shusha), silk, cotton and woollen goods, felts and fur cloaks are made, and small arms in Daghestan and at Tiflis, Nukha and Sukhumkaleh; silversmiths' work at Tiflis, Akhaltsikh and Kutais; pottery at Elisavetpol and Shusha; leather shoe-making at Alexandropol, Nukha, Elisavetpol, Shusha and Tiflis; saddlery at Sukhum-kaleh and Ochemchiri on the Black Sea and at Temirkhan-shura in Daghestan; and copper work at Derbent and Alexandropol.
The annual average value maybe put at not quite £2,000,000, machinery and tin-plate being a long way the most important items. There is further a small transit trade through Transcaucasia from Persia to the value of less than half a million sterling annually, and chiefly in carpets, cocoons and silk, wool, rice and boxwood; and further a sea-borne trade between Persia and Caucasian.
He was the son of John Strype, or van Stryp, a member of a Brabant family who, to escape religious persecution, settled in London, in a place afterwards known as Strype's Yard in Petticoat Lane, as a merchant and silk throwster.
For many of these this county has long been famous, especially for that of silk, which is carried on to a large extent in Derby, as well as in Belper and Duffield.
It is the seat of cotton, calico, silk, machinery and other industries, and excellent wine is grown there.
The Blackstone and its tributaries provide considerable water power; and there are various manufactures, including cotton goods, silk goods, and horse-shoes and other iron ware.
Numerous wealthy families reside here, and the town has a trade in olive-oil, silk and velvet.
Almuces were occasionally made of silk or wool, but from the 13th century onward usually of fur, the hem being sometimes fringed with tails.
Its damasks and other silk stuffs with patterns of extraordinary beauty surpassed in variety and splendour those of the other chief centres of silk-weaving, such as Florence and Genoa.
On occasions of festivals or pageants the balconies, the bridges, the boats, and even the facades of the houses, were hung with rich Eastern carpets or patterned textiles in gold and coloured silk.
Their success in the struggle for existence, as already indicated, must be assigned in a great measure to the possession of silk glands and to their power of manipulating the silk for a variety of purposes.
Several facts point to the conclusion that the primary use of this secretion was the formation of egg-cases or cocoons by the female, for this is the only constant use for which the silk is employed, without exception, by all species.
The probable reason for the wall-lines being concentric is that lines passing over the radii as nearly as possible at right angles are the shortest that can be laid on; they therefore use up a smaller quantity of silk and take a shorter time to spin than threads crossing the radii in any other direction; and at the same time they afford them the greatest possible support compatible with delicacy and strength of construction.
Its whereabouts is thus, to a great extent, concealed both from enemies searching for spiders and from insects suitable for food; and its open meshwork of strong threads makes it much less liable to be beaten down by rain or torn to shreds by winds than if it were a flat sheet of closely woven silk.
There are many other uses to which silk is put, besides those mentioned above.
It was formerly supposed that this custom was peculiar to a single species, which was called the "gossamer" spider from the fact that the floating webs, when brought to the earth by rain or intercepted by bushes and trees, coat the foliage or grass with a sheeting of gossamer-like silk; but the habit is now known to be practised by the newly-hatched young of a great variety of species belonging to several distinct families.
As a commercial product spider-silk has been found to be equal, if not superior, to the best silk spun by lepidopterous larvae; but the cannibalistic propensities of spiders, making it impossible to keep more than one in a single receptacle, coupled with the difficulty of getting them to spin freely in a confined space, have hitherto prevented the silk being used on any extensive scale for textile fabrics.
The first act of the female after oviposition is to wrap her eggs in a casing of silk commonly called the cocoon.
Sometimes, as in Pholcus, it is merely a thin network of silk just sufficient to hold the eggs together.
More often it consists of a thick felting of silk, either spun in one continuous piece into a globular form, as in the Aviculariidae, or composed of two plate-like pieces, an upper and a lower, united at the edges and lenticular in shape, as in some of the Lycosidae.
As the tide rises the spiders take refuge in crevices and spin over their retreat a sheet of silk, impervious to water, beneath which they oie in safety with a supply of air until the ebb exposes the site again to the sun.
It also distinguishes the true cotton from the silk cottons or flosses, the fibres of which have no twist, and do not readily spin into thread, and for this reason, amongst others, are very considerably less important as textile fibres.
The chief of these silk cottons is kapok, consisting of the hairs borne on the interior of the pods (but not attached to the seeds) of Eriodendron anfractuosum, the silk cotton tree, a member of the Bombacaceae, an order very closely allied to the Malvaceae.
These special qualities are its fineness, strength, elasticity and great natural twist, which combined enable it to make very fine, strong yarns, suited to the manufacture of the better qualities of hosiery, for mixing with silk and wool, for making lace, &c. It also mercerizes very well.
Corn, wine, oil, wool, silk, fruits and liquorice (a speciality of the district) are exported.
They dressed in flowing robes of silk, and their women wore oriental gauzes covered with sequins.
Other articles of export are silk cocoons, wool, hides, sponges, eggs and fruits (oranges, almonds, raisins and the like); the amounts of cotton, tobacco and wine sent out of the country are small.
This second coil is suspended by a number of silk fibres, and to the coil is also attached a spiral spring the other end of which is fastened to a torsion head.
When a current is passed through the instrument it causes one end of the movable system to tilt downwards, and the other end upwards; the sliding weight is then moved along the tray by means of a silk cord until equilibrium is again established.
In those intended for alternating currents, the main current through the movable coil, whether consisting of one turn or more than one turn, is carried by a wire rope, of which each component strand is insulated by silk covering, to prevent the inductive action from altering the distribution of the current across the transverse section of the conductor.
Fishing and agriculture constitute the chief resources of the islanders, whose ancient silk industry is still maintained.
In 1018 the yearly tribute due to Venice was fixed at ten pounds of silk or five pounds of gold.
There are manufactures of wool and silk, and of straw hats and pottery.
The principal manufactures of the Malays are cotton and silk cloths, earthenware and silver vessels, mats and native weapons.
The Malays wear a loose coat and trousers, and a cap or headkerchief, but the characteristic item of their costume is the sarong, a silk or cotton cloth about two yards long by a yard and a quarter wide, the ends of which are sewn together, a forming a kind of skirt.
Of the vegetable oils, in addition to cotton-seed and coco-nut, olive oil is the basis of soaps for calico printers and silk dyers; castor oil yields transparent soaps (under suitable treatment), whilst crude palm oil, with bone fat, is employed for making brown soap, and after bleaching it yields ordinary pale or mottled.
This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
The staple silk industry (which dates from the 16th century) has declined, the number both of filande (establishments wherein the cocoons are unwound) and of filatoje (those wherein the silk is spun) having diminished.
The solution possesses a considerable tinctorial power, dyeing silk in the cold.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
The chief manufactures are silk brocades, gold and silver thread, gold filigree work, German-silver work, embossed brass vessels and lacquered toys; but the brasswork for which Benares used to be famous has greatly degenerated.
The silk industry, formerly important, still employs about 300 women and girls in four spinning establishments.
Mosquitoes are rarely troublesome; gadflies, and a large spider (hangeyu), which spins a web resembling golden silk, are common, as are scorpions and centipeces.
The beautiful ceiba (Bombax ceiba L., Ceiba pentandra) or silk cotton tree is the giant of the Cuban forests; it often grows to a height of 100 to 150 ft.
Several creeks and the upper Cape Fear river furnish considerable waterpower, and in or near Fayetteville are manufactories of cotton goods, silk, lumber, wooden-ware, turpentine, carriages, wagons, ploughs, edge tools and flour.
Under the auspices of the Ottoman public debt administration silk culture is also carried on with much success, especially in the vilayets of Brusa and Ismid.
The more special industries of Turkey are tanning, and the manufacture of muslin, velvet, silk, carpets and ornamental weapons.
The estimated receipts from the " Tithes " (including tobacco and silk, both hypothecated to the Public Debt Administration) are £T6, 73 1,107.
The total " direct taxes " (inclusive of tobacco and silk tithes) are thus estimated to amount to £T13,725,892.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
Thus the total value of the silk tithe in Turkey increased in the period named from about £T20,000 to £T276,500, and the total annual value of the crop from about £T200,000 to £T2,765,000, or by nearly 22 millions pounds sterling.
So famous was the silk of Bagdad, manufactured in the Attabieh quarter (named after Attab, a contemporary of the Prophet), that the place-name passed over into Spanish, Italian, French and finally into English in the form of "tabby," as the designation of a rich-coloured watered silk.
The Cambodians show skill in working gold and silver; earthenware, bricks, mats, fans and silk and cotton fabrics, are also produced to some small extent, but fishing and the cultivation of rice and in a minor degree of tobacco, coffee, cotton, pepper, indigo, maize, tea and sugar are the only industries worthy of the name.
An enormous development of agricultural resources has taken place within the Brahmaputra basin of late years, chiefly in the direction of tea cultivation, as well as in the production of jute and silk.
It is known as the silk rubber tree, probably on account of the silky hairs which are attached to the seeds.
Paper, cotton, silk, linen and hemp are manufactured.
Large quantities of lac and tussur silk are gathered in the hilly tract.
Both cotton and silk are woven, and plates, &c., are carved from soap-stone.
The principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and foodstuffs.
The bar-magnet, if suspended horizontally in a paper stirrup by a thread of unspun silk, will also come to rest in the magnetic meridian with its marked end pointing northwards.
Wheat, flour and silk are exported.
Campbell also devoted himself a good deal to criminal business, but in spite of his unceasing industry he failed to attract much attention behind the bar; he had changed his circuit from the home to the Oxford, but briefs came in slowly, and it was not till 1827 that he obtained a silk gown and found himself in that "front rank" who are permitted to have political aspirations.
The metallurgical works of the Societe de la Franche-Comte are established in the city and there are saw-mills, printing-works, paperfactories, distilleries, and manufactories of boots and shoes, machinery, hosiery, leather, elastic fabric, confectionery and artificial silk.
Syria, and manufactures textiles in silk, cotton and wool, carpets and leather commodities, besides being the centre of a large district growing cereals, pistachios and fruit.
When an attempt is made to represent in colour the actual distribution of the races (as in Dr Chavanne's Geographischer and statistischer Handatlas) the effect is that of occasional blotches of solid colour on a piece of shot silk.
Besides its manufactures of leather, silk, velvet and ribbons, Gandia has a thriving export trade in fruit, and imports coal, guano, timber and flour.
Silk spinning and weaving are carried on on antiquated lines, and silkworms are reared in a desultory fashion.
The production of the so-called "artificial silk" depends on this action.
It is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural district, and manufactures bamboo hats, silk and native fibre goods.
It is an important centre of the silk industry, and has several silkspinning factories.
It has a trade in silk.
The streets were hung with rich cloths of silk arras and tapestry; the aldermen and principal men of the city threw out of their windows handsful of gold and silver, to signify their gladness at the king's return; and the conduits ran with wine, both white and red.
The silk manufactories at Spitalfields were then established.
There was a large balcony extending along the front of the house which was fitted with a canopy and hangings of crimson damask silk.
Chrysaniline (diamino-phenylacridinei) forms red-coloured salts, which dye silk and wool a fine yellow; and the solutions of the salts are characterized by their fine yellowish-green fluorescence.
As compared with the Hindu, the Burmese wear silk instead of cotton, and eat rice instead of the cheaper grains; they are of an altogether freer and less servile, but also of a less practical character.
There large numbers of people follow this occupation as their sole means of livelihood, whereas silk and cotton weaving throughout the province generally is carried on by girls and women while unoccupied by other domestic duties.
By far the largest of the imports are cotton, silk and woollen piece-goods, while subordinate imports include hardware, gunny bags, sugar, tobacco and liquors.
Yeola is an important centre for weaving silk and cotton goods.
The lower edge and the sleeves are usually garnished with lace, lined with violet or red silk in the case of prelates, or - more rarely - with embroidered borders.
The fine picture of "Christ bearing the Cross" (wrongly ascribed to Giorgione), according to Burckhardt once in the Palazzo Loschi, is now in the Gardner collection at Boston, U.S.A. The most important manufacture is that of silk, which employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
It is the chief centre in Germany of the cotton, wool, silk and velvet manufactures, and of upholstery, drapery and haberdashery of all descriptions, of printed calicoes, of Turkey-red and other dyes, and of fine chemicals.
In 1760 the manufacture of silk was introduced, and dyeing with Turkey-red in 1780; but it was not till the end of the century that its industries developed into importance under the influence of Napoleon's continental system, which barred out British competition.
A solution of the oxide in the chloride has the property of dissolving silk, and hence is employed for removing this fibre from wool.
A broad stream or canal crosses the city from south to north, and forms the principal highway for boat traffic. The main trade of the place is in raw silk, but some silk fabrics, such as flowered crape (chousha), are also manufactured.
Silk is largely worn even by the lowest classes of the inhabitants.
Its articles of clothing, silk goods and millinery also enjoy a great reputation for the taste with which they are manufactured.
Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
In 1905 the city ranked sixth among the cities of the country in the manufacture of silk and silk goods, its most important industry.
Allentown's total factory product in 1905 was valued at $16,966,550, of which $3,901,249, or 23%, was the value of silk and silk goods.
The silk industry was introduced in 1881.
The value of trade probably exceeds 2,000,000, principal exports being rice, raw silk, dry fruit, fish, sheep and cattle, wool and cotton, and cocoons, the principal imports sugar, cotton goods, silkworm "seed" or eggs (70,160 worth in 1906-7), petroleum, glass and china., The trade in dried silkworm cocoons has increased remarkably since 1893, when only 76,150 lb valued at 6475 were exported; during the year 1906-7 ending 10th March, 2,717,540 lb valued at 238,000 were exported.
The only industries are carpetweaving and the manufacture of cotton and silk stuffs.
There are seven large silk-moths, of which two only (Bombyx mon and Anthenaea yama-mai) are employed in producing silk.
The materials used were water-colors, brushes, usually of deer-hair, and a surface of unsized paper, translucid silk or wooden panel.
The same fundamental rule applied, too, whether the field of the decoration was silk, paper or metal.
Privacy was obtained by blinds of split bamboo, and the parent chamber was, separated from the ambulatory by similar bamboo blinds with silk cords for raising or lowering them, or by curtains.
All the architectural and decorative details, all the carvings and colors, all the accessories everything was wrought in silk, and each of the 1500 figures forming the procession wore exactly appropriate costume.
The soft silk known as habutaye is a favorite ground for such work, but silk crape also is largely employed.
In short, the little chisel becomes in his fingers a painters brush, and when it is remembered that, the basis upon which he works being simply a thread of silk, his hand must be trained to such delicacy of muscular effort as to be capable of arresting the edge of the knile at varying depths within the diameter of the tiny filament, the difficulty of the achievement will be understood.
Velvet, however, is not capable of being made the basis for pictures so elaborate and microscopically accurate as those produced by the yuzen process on silk crape or habutaye.
They were often Vehkles constructed of rich lacquer; the curtains suspended in front were of the finest bamboo workmanship, with thick cords and tassels of plaited silk, and the draught animal, an ox of handsome proportions, was brilliantly caparisoned.
The chief articles of manufacture are machinery, woollen and cotton goods, silk ribbons, paper, tobacco, leather, china, glass, clocks, jewellery and chemicals.
Imports include cotton and silk goods, coal, iron and steel, petroleum, timber, raw wool, cotton yarn and cork.
The jungles afford good pasturage in the hot weather, and abound in lac, silk cocoons, catechu, resin and the mahud fruit, which is both used as fruit and for the manufacture of spirits.
There are indigo factories, and other industries include the weaving of tussur silk and the making of coarse glass.
The weekly reviews dealing generally with literature, science and art are the Literary Gazette (1817-1862), first edited by William Jerdan; the Athenaeum (1828), founded by James Silk Weeklies.
The principal industry is the manufacture of silk; camels' hair and woollen fabrics are also made.
Raw cotton and silk are the principal exports, while manufactured goods are imported from Russia.
The larvae known as caddis-worms are aquatic. The mature females lay their eggs in the water, and the newly-hatched larvae provide themselves with cases made of various particles such as grains of sand, pieces of wood or leaves stuck together with silk secreted from the salivary glands of the insect.
In the latter case the larva crawls about the bottom of the water or up the stems of plants, with its thickly-chitinized head and legs protruding from the larger orifice, while it maintains a secure hold of the silk lining of the tube by means of a pair of strong hooks at the posterior end of its soft defenceless abdomen.
Before passing into the pupal stage, the larva partially closes the orifice of the tube with silk or pieces of stone loosely spun together and pervious to water.
The sign of the electrification imparted to the electroscope when so charged - that is, whether positive or negative - can be determined by rubbing the sealing-wax rod with flannel and the glass rod with silk, and approaching them gently to the electroscope one at a time.
Let a metal ball be suspended by a silk thread, and the canister lid so fixed to the thread that when the lid is in place the ball hangs in the centre of the canister.
The chief industries are brewing and art metal-working, also printing, metal-founding, and the manufacture of cloth, silk, tools and cards for wooldressing.
The principal products are rice, oil-seeds, lac, tussur silk, horns, hides, wax and a little iron.
Though restricted to the citadel, the medieval town became the administrative and ecclesiastical capital of Peloponnesus, and enjoyed a thriving trade and silk industry until in 1147 it was sacked by the Normans.
Its chief exports are seedless grapes ("currants"), olive-oil, silk and cereals.
Its silk industry and its position at the entrance to the Alpine passes gave it some importance even then.
Among its manufactures are foundry and machine-shop products, flour, silk, waggons, shoes, gloves, furniture, wire cloth and cigars.
The commodities otherwise mostly dealt in are opium, tea, rice, oil, raw cotton, fish and silk.
Silk and worsted goods are other important manufactures.
It has manufactures of silk, cotton and hosiery and is a market for cheese and grain.
In practice the solid or plummet is suspended from the balance arm by a fibre - silk, platinum, &c. - and carefully weighed.
The principal exports are rice and teak, and the principal imports, cotton and silk goods and gold-leaf.
The principal products of its numerous factories are silk, cotton, woollen and mixed fabrics, velvet, iron goods, machinery, shoes, cables, soap and cigars.
Among its manufactures are fertilizers, bottles, carbonated beverages, flour, beer, shoes, silk thread, aprons, brooms, leather, bricks, and tiling and structural iron.
The diadem, which was of eastern origin, was a fillet or band of linen or silk, richly embroidered, and was worn tied round the forehead.
The linen or silk diadem was eventually exchanged for a flexible band of gold, which was worn in its place round the forehead.
Among the city's manufactures are boilers, machines, glass, chemicals, terra cotta, brick, iron pipes and couplings, gas engines, cutlery and silk.
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
Besides a silk mill, malthouses and engineering and agricultural implement works, there is a brisk trade in farm produce.
A century later, silk, lace and damask weaving were introduced by French refugees, and became very important industries.
The manufacture of thread lace was replaced by silk weaving about 1750, but this has decayed.
There are large manufactures of cloth, silk, matting, bricks, and boots and shoes, and a considerable agricultural trade.
It is an important centre of trade, with manufactures of cotton and silk goods, shawls, brass-ware, soap and leather.
Of the other textile industries none except the manufacture of carpets and rugs and silk and silk goods has become very prominent, and yet the total value of all textile products in 1905 was $123,668,177.
Its industries include wool-weaving and spinning, dyeing, iron-founding, the manufacture of cotton and silk goods, machinery, sewing machines and machine oil, leather and tobacco, and printing (books and maps) and flower gardening.
The experiment is usually performed, in a more striking manner, with a bell-jar and a number of small light wooden balls suspended by silk strings to a fixed frame above the jar, so as to be just in contact with the widest part of the glass.
Industries include straw-plaiting and the weaving of canvas and silk.
It is a strip of stuff, usually silk, some 21-- yards long by 4 inches broad; in the middle and at the ends, which are commonly broadened out, it is ornamented with a cross.
The usual material of medieval stoles was silk, and the better ones were embroidered with silk, gold thread, pearls, &c.
Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines.
Coal and ironstone are mined; there are iron-works, and bricks, hats, ribbons and tape and silk are made.
Her dress was of Spitalfields silk; her veil of Honiton lace; her ribbons came from Coventry; even her gloves had been made in London of English kid - a novel thing in days when the French had a monopoly in the finer kinds of gloves.
It has silk and paper manufactures.
The government has since 1903 given attention to sericulture, and steps have been taken to improve Siamese silk with the aid of scientists borrowed from the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture.
In 1 555 a number of Protestant inhabitants were expelled for religious reasons, and going to Zurich founded the silk industry there.
He is also identified with the devil; thus, in accordance with old German tradition, he is dressed as a nobleman (ein edler Junker), all in red, with a little cape of stiff silk, a cock's feather in his hat, and a long pointed sword; at the witches' Sabbath on the Brocken he is hailed as "the knight with the horse's hoof," and Sybel in Auerbach's Keller is not too drunk not to notice that he limps.
The city has an extensive coal trade and numerous manufactures, among which are lead pencils, leather goods, silk goods, wall-paper and caskets.
In industrial enterprise silk and linen goods and iron wares are almost the only products of any note.
From Bengal are imported opium, drugs and cloths; from China, teas, raw silk, silk piece-goods, coarse China wares, paper, and innumerable smaller articles for the Chinese settlers.
Among the chief articles brought to these fairs (which were largely frequented by Italian, French and Swiss merchants) were cloth, silk, armour, groceries, wine, timber and salt, this last coming mainly from Provence.
In that year, and again in 1825, great reductions were made in the duties on raw materials, especially on wool, raw silk, flax and iron, while considerable reductions were also made in the duties on manufactured goods.
In that treaty the concessions made to France were the reduction by Great Britain of duties on wines and spirits, and the admission, free of duty, of some important French products, notably silk manufactures, gloves, and other products in which the French had superiority.
The silk manufacture, as to which the first great changes had been made in 1824, and on whose products the duties had been kept higher in previous acts than on other manufactures, was thus compelled, notwithstanding violent opposition, to face unfettered foreign competition.
But this does not hold good of some manufactures; especially not of the silk industry, and some parts of the woollen and linen trades.
Wild silk is another valuable article of export.
Jerba has a considerable reputation for the manufacture of the woollen tissues interwoven with silk which are known as burnous stuffs; a market for the sale of sponges is held from November till March; and there is a considerable export trade in olives,.
Silk culture and carpet manufacture have flourished for ages at Khotan, and the products always find a ready sale at Kashgar.
The value of its factory products in 1905 was $ 1 7, 1 4 6, 33 8 (1 4.3% more than in 1900), the more important being those of steel works and rolling mills ($4,528,907), blast furnaces, steam railway repair shops, cigar and cigarette factories ($1,258,498), foundries and machine shops ($953,617), boot and shoe factories ($922,568), flouring and grist mills, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments and silk mills.
The principal industries are the manufacture of silk and cotton and of copper dishes and utensils.
Woollen, cotton, silk and mixed stuffs, paper, flour and beer are manufactured at Roermond.
Palma has a thriving trade in grain, wine, oil, almonds, fruit, vegetables, silk, foodstuffs and livestock.
Silk is largely produced, and tobacco, wine, flax, hemp and fruits are cultivated.
The industries of Prato embrace the manufacture of woollens (the most important), straw-plaiting, biscuits, hats, macaroni, candles, silk, olive oil, clothing nd furniture, also copper and iron works, and printing.
The culture of silk, flax, grapes (for wine-making) and fruits and cereals in general, and the manufacture of flour and of woollen, flannel and cotton fabrics, were carried on under a rule requiring every adult to labour 12 or 14 hours each day in field or mill.
The chief manufactures are silk goods (21.6% of all in value) and other textiles, but large quantities of foundry and machine-shop products, malt liquors, flour, and planing mill products are also manufactured.
The city manufactures silk, leather, tapestry, woollens, linen and cotton, and has an active general trade.
Besides fruits and agricultural produce, its exports include raw silk, [[Cotton (disambiguation)|cotton, opium, ]]-water, attar of roses, wax and the dye known as Turkey red.
The principal textile manufactures in order of importance are worsted, employing some 36,000 hands, females considerably outnumbering males; woollens, employing some 8000, silk and cotton.
C. Lister (Lord Masham) introduced the silk and velvet manufacture, having invented a process of manipulating silk waste, whereby what was previously treated as refuse is made into goods that will compete with those manufactured from the perfect cocoon.
The cotton trade was soon afterwards introduced; and silk manufacture was begun by the Huguenots, who had settled in Dublin in considerable numbers after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
According to the decisions of the Congregation of Rites chasubles must not be of linen, cotton or woollen stuffs, but of silk; though a mixture of wool (or linen and cotton) and silk is allowed if the silk completely cover the other material on the outer side; spun glass thread, as a substitute for gold or silver thread, is also forbidden, owing to the possible danger to the priest's health through broken fragments falling into the chalice.
Factories are still in infancy, but silk is spun.
An extensive trade is carried on in peltry, silk goods, iron and wooden wares, salt fish, grain, cattle and horses.
A silk mill was erected here in 1770, and there was also an attempt to foster the cotton trade, but the lack of means of communication made the undertaking impossible.
Other industries include the manufacture of gold and silver thread, silk brocades, pottery, paper and shoes.
The prosperity of Ahmedabad, says a native proverb, hangs on three threads - silk, gold and cotton; and though its manufactures are on a smaller scale than formerly, they are still moderately flourishing.
It has manufactures of cotton, tobacco and leather, and a large trade in wine, silk cocoons and red pepper.
Malmesbury has an agricultural trade, with breweries, tanneries and manufactures of silk and pillow lace.
The Embiidae live in warm countries, and are very retiring in their habits, hiding under stones where they spin webs formed of silk produced by glands in the basal segments of the fore-feet.
The smaller box, which held the ginseng, was lined with sheet-lead; the ginseng further enclosed in silk wrappers was kept in little silkencovered boxes.
The cover of the root, according to its quality, was silk, either embroidered or plain, cotton cloth or paper."
The principal manufacture is cotton goods; among the other products are lumber, flour, cotton waste, cotton-seed oil and cake, ice, silk, boilers and engines, and general merchandise staples.
The exports which come next in value are opium, wood-oil, hides, beans, cotton yarn and raw silk.
The inhabitants are enterprising and prosperous, many of them leaving their native city to push their fortunes elsewhere, while of those that remain the greater part is employed in the manufacture of silk and cotton goods, or in the production of fruit.
The manufacture of silk is carried on at Gorz, and in and around the village of Haidenschaft.
The industries comprise metallurgy, machine-making, chemicals, silk and cotton weaving, tanning and leather-working.
The imports include wheat, flour, Indian corn, jerked beef (carne secca), lard, bacon, wines and liquors, butter, cheese, conserves of all kinds, coal, cotton, woollen, linen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, earthenand glasswares, railway material, machinery, furniture, building material, including pine lumber, drugs and chemicals, and hardware.
Rio de Janeiro has manufactures of flour from imported wheat, cotton, woollen and silk textiles, boots and shoes, readymade clothing, furniture, vehicles, cigars and cigarettes, chocolate, fruit conserves, refined sugar, biscuits, macaroni, ice, beer, artificial liquors, mineral waters, soap, stearine candles, perfumery, feather flowers, printing type, &c. There are numerous machine o nd repair shops, the most important of which are the shops of the Central railway.
The chief industries are tanning and hand weaving, both silk and cotton.
The town has manufactures of silk, majolica and bricks.
It crystallizes in red octahedra and dyes silk and wool yellow.
The industries of Pistoia include iron and steel works, especially manufactures of glass, silk, macaroni, woollens, olive oil, ropes, paper, vehicles and fire-arms. The word "pistol" is derived (apparently through pistolese, a dagger - dagger and pistol being both small arms) from Pistoia, where that weapon was largely manufactured in the middle ages.
The webs and nests, &c., formed by spiders are also of silk.
Among the Chinese the name of the silkworm is " si, " Korean " soi "; to the ancient Greeks it became known as Q?p, the nation whence it came was to them ?r?pE S and the fibre itself o ptKc v, whence the Latin sericum, the French soie, the German Seide and the English silk.
They brought with them four Chinese girls, who instructed the court and the people in the art of plain and figured weaving; and to the honour of these pioneer silk weavers a temple was erected in the province of Settsu.
At a period probably little later a knowledge of the working of silk travelled westward, and the cultivation of the silkworm was established in India.
Aristotle's vague knowledge of the worm may have been derived from information acquired by the Greeks with Alexander the Great; but long before this time raw silk must have begun to be imported at Cos, where it was woven into a gauzy tissue, the famous Coa vestis, which revealed rather than clothed the form.
Towards the beginning of the Christian era raw silk began to form an important and costly item among the prized products of the East which came to Rome.
Notwithstanding its price and the restraints otherwise put on the use of silk the trade grew.
Justinian also endeavoured, through the Christian prince of Abyssinia, to divert the trade from the Persian route along which silk was then brought into the east of Europe.
By him they were induced to return to China and attempt to bring to Europe the material necessary for the cultivation of silk, which they effected by concealing the eggs of the silkworm in a hollow cane.
Ordericus Vitalis, who died in the first half of the 12th century, mentions that the bishop of St Evroul, in Normandy, brought with him from Apulia in southern Italy several large pieces of silk, out of the finest of which four copes were made for his cathedral chanters.
Into England silk manufacture was introduced during the reign of Henry VI.; but the first serious impulse to manufactures of that class was due to the immigration in 1585 of a large body of skilled Flemish weavers who fled from the Low Countries in consequence of the struggle with Spain then devastating their land.
The bulk of the French Protestant weavers settled at Spitalfields, London - an incorporation of silk workers having been there formed in 5629.
In 1825 a public company was formed and incorporated under the name of the British, Irish and Colonial Silk Company, with a capital of 1,000,000, principally with the view of introducing sericulture into Ireland, but it was a complete failure, and the rearing of the silkworm cannot be said ever to have become a branch of British industry.
An effort made in 1619 obtained greater success, and, the materials being present, the Virginian settlers were strongly urged to devote attention to the profitable industry of silk cultivation.
In the prospectus of Law's great Compagnie des Indes Occidentales the cultivation of silk occupies a place among the glowing attractions which allured so many to disaster.
Onward till the period of the War of Independence bounties and other rewards for the rearing of worms and silk filature continued to be offered; and just when the war broke out Benjamin Franklin and others were engaged in nursing a filature into healthy life at Philadelphia.
About 1838 a speculative mania for the cultivation of silk developed itself with remarkable severity in the United States.
The most singular feature in connexion with the history of silk is the persistent efforts which have been made by monarchs and other potentates to stimulate sericulture within their dominions, efforts which continue to this day in British colonies, India and America.
The silk glands or vessels consist of two long thick-walled sacs running along the sides of the body, which open by a common orifice - the spinneret or seripositor - on the under lip of the larva.
The larvae are killed and hardened by steeping some hours in strong acetic acid; the silk glands are then separated from the bodies, and the vis cous fluid drawn out to the condition of a fine uniform line, which is stretched between pins at the extremity of a board.
The thread so ejected forms the silk of commerce, which as wound in the cocoon consists of filaments seriposited from two separate glands (discovered by an Italian naturalist named Filippi) containing a glutinous or resinous secretion which serves a double purpose, viz.
That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made to yield, was the object of the cultivator.
From 1850 onwards French cultivators were compelled, in order to keep up their silk supply, to import graine from uninfected districts.
Partly supported by imported eggs, the production of silk in France was maintained, and in 1853 reached its maximum of 26,000,000 kilos of cocoons, valued at 117,000,000 francs.
In 1867 de Quatrefages estimated the loss suffered by France in the 13 years following 1853, from decreased production of silk and price paid to foreign cultivators for graine, to be not less than one milliard of francs.
But this fact enabled the cultivator to know with assurance whether the worms on which he bestowed his labour would yield him a harvest of silk.
The Cynthia moth, Attacus cynthia, is domesticated as a source of silk in certain provinces of China, where it feeds on the Ailanthus glandulosa.
These are only a few of the moths from which silks of various usefulness can be produced; but none of these presents qualities, saving perhaps cheapness alone, which can put them in competition with common silk.
About one-sixth of this weight is pure cocoon, and of that one-half is obtainable as reeled silk, the remainder consisting of surface floss or blaze and of hard gummy husk.
Under favourable conditions it is estimated that i r kilogrammes of fresh cocoons give 1 kilogramme of raw silk for commerce, and about the same quantity for waste spinning purposes.
Sir Thomas Wardle of Leek, in his handbook on silk published in 1887, showed by a series of measurements that the diameter of a single cocoon thread or bave varied from o oth to -nth part of an inch in diameter in the various species of Bombycides, whilst those of the Saturnides or wild species varied from - 0 oth to 3-0 0 th part of an inch.
On this account the fibres of tussur or tussore silk tend to split up into fine fibrillae under the various preparatory processes in manufacturing, and its riband structure is the cause of the glassy lustre peculiar to the woven and finished fibres.
Silk fibre consists essentially of a centre or core of fibroin, with a covering of sericin or silk albumen, and a little waxy and colouring matter.
It has the characteristic appearance of pure silk - a brilliant soft white body with a pearly lustre - insoluble in water, alcohol and ether, but it dissolves freely in concentrated alkaline solutions, mineral acids, strong acetic acid and in ammoniacal solution of oxide of copper.
Silk is readily distinguished from wool and other animal fibres by the action of an alkaline solution of oxide of lead, which darkens wool, &c., owing to the sulphur they contain, but does not affect silk, which is free from that body.
Again, silk dissolves freely in common nitric acid, which is not the case with wool.
The rod-like appearance of silk and its absence of markings under the microscope are also easily recognizable features of the fibre.
Here we must distinguish between the reeled silk and the spun or waste silk manufactures.
The former embraces a range of operations peculiar to silk, dealing as they do with continuous fibres of great length, whereas in the spun silk industry the raw materials are treated by methods analogous to those followed in the treatment of other fibres (see Weaving).
It is only floss, injured and unreelable cocoons, the husks of reeled cocoons, and other waste from reeling, with certain wild silks, which are treated by the spun silk process, and the silk thereby produced loses much of the beauty, strength and brilliance which are characteristic of the manufactures from reeled silk.
This assortment is of great consequence for the success of the reeling operations, as uniformity of quality and evenness and regularity of fibre are the most valuable features in raw silk.
The object of reeling is to bring together the filaments (bave) from two or more (generally four or five, but sometimes up to twenty) cocoons, and to form them into one continuous, uniform, and regular strand, which constitutes the " raw silk " of commerce.
To do this, the natural gum of the cocoons which holds the filaments together must be softened, the ends of the filaments of the required number of cocoons must be caught, and means must be taken to unwind and lay these filaments together, so as to form a single uniform rounded strand of raw silk.
As the reeling proceeds the reeler has to give the most careful attention to the thickness of the strand being produced, and to introduce new cocoons in place of any from which the reelable silk has become exhausted.
In this way a continuous uniform fibre or strand of raw silk of indefinite length is produced.
The apparatus used for these purposes in some localities is of a very primitive kind, and the reeling being uneven and lumpy the silk is of inferior quality and low value.
With comparatively simple appliances, on the other hand, a skilled reeler, with trained eye and delicate touch, can produce raw silk of remarkably smooth and even quality.
A girl with a small hand brush of twigs keeps stirring them in the water till the silk softens, and the outer loose fibres (floss) get entangled with the twigs and come off till the end of the main filament (maitre brin) is found.
The object of crossing (croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated into a compact single fibre of raw silk.