Silesia Sentence Examples
One of the strongest towns in Silesia it was besieged several times during the 17th and 18th centuries.
In 1847 he began to act as Privatdozent in the university, and founded with Reinhardt the Archiv fiir pathologische Anatomie and Physiologic, which, after his collaborator's death in 1852, he carried on alone, and in 1848 he went as a member of a government commission to investigate an outbreak of typhus in upper Silesia.
During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.
The nearest enemy was Bohemia, to whom Poland had lately been compelled to pay tribute for her oldest possession, Silesia.
The Polish coalfields belong to another Carboniferous area of deposit, which extended over Silesia.Advertisement
On his return to Liegnitz he helped to spread the principles of the Reformation in the principality and in Silesia, while warning his colleagues against the abuse of the doctrine of justification by faith.
Meanwhile the Anabaptists obtained a footing in Silesia, and suspicions of Schwenkfeld's sympathy with them were aroused.
In Silesia they formed a distinct sect, which has lasted until the present time.
In 1720 a commission of Jesuits was despatched to Silesia to convert them by force.
Most of them fled from Silesia into Saxony, and thence to Holland, England and North America.Advertisement
Frederick the Great of Prussia, when he seized Silesia, extended his protection to those who remained in that province.
Gleiwitz is the centre of the mining industry of Upper Silesia.
This variety, which seems to have been originally bred in Silesia, is not less well-flavoured than the normally coloured tench, and grows to the same size, viz., to 6 and even 8 lb.
At a later time he reproached himself for not having dethroned the Hohenzollerns outright; but it is now known that Alexander would have forbidden this step, and that he dissuaded Napoleon from withdrawing Silesia from the control of the House of Hohenzollern.
Early in April he sought to gain the help of ioo,000 Austrian troops by holding out to Francis of Austria the prospect of acquiring Silesia from Prussia.Advertisement
This category includes German places located in the Prussian provinces of East Prussia, West Prussia, Posen, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania, and places in the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
After the Seven Years' War Moravia was united in one province with the remnant of Silesia, but in 1849 it was made a separate and independent crownland.
Therefore, when her inheritance was assailed at the beginning of her reign, she fought for it with every weapon an honest woman could employ, and for years she cherished the hope of recovering the lost province of Silesia, conquered by Frederick.
Down to the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 she went on fighting for Silesia or its equivalent.
In the years following the peace she applied herself to finding allies in France and Russia who would help her to recover Silesia.Advertisement
From both ridges spurs of greater or less length are sent off at various angles, whence a magnificent view is obtained from Breslau to Prague; the lowlands of Silesia, watered by the Oder, and those of Bohemia, intersected by the Elbe and the Moldau, appearing to lie mapped in relief.
After his abdication he married the countess and spent the rest of his life in quiet retirement upon his private estate in Silesia.
In 1770 the Council of the Confederation was transferred from its original seat in Silesia to Hungary, from whence it conducted diplomatic negotiations with France, Austria and Turkey with the view of forming a league against Russia.
He sought the establishment of a Czech kingdom which should include Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, and in his zeal for Czech autonomy he even entered into an alliance with the Conservative nobility and with the extreme Catholics.
In Germany Torstensson was sweeping the imperialist forces before him through Silesia and Moravia.Advertisement
According to this, the Austrian troops already in Bohemia, 1st corps, Count Clam-Gallas, 30,000 strong, were to receive the Saxons if the latter were forced to evacuate their own country, and to act as an advanced guard or containing wing to the main body under Feldzeugmeister von Benedek (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 10th corps) which was to concentrate at Olmiitz, whence the Prussian staff on insufficient evidence concluded the Austrians intended to attack Silesia, with Breslau as their objective.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
On the death of the last duke of Liegnitz in 1675, the duchy came into the possession of the Empire, which retained it until the Prussian conquest of Silesia in 1742.
The first to establish a beet-sugar factory was his pupil and successor, Franz Carl Achard, at Cunern (near Breslau) in Silesia in 180r.
It may also be accompanied by pyrites, galena, arsenides and antimonides, quartz, calcite, dolomite, &c. It is widely distributed, and is particularly abundant in Germany (the Harz, Silesia), Austro-Hungary, Belgium, the United States and in England (Cumberland, Derbyshire, Cornwall, North Wales).
Calamine chiefly occurs in Spain, Silesia and in the United States.
In Silesia the introduction of gas-firing has led to the use of furnaces containing eighty muffles.
They invaded Europe about 1237 under the leadership of Bail Khan, a younger son of Juji, eldest son of Jenghiz Khan, passed over Russia with slaughter and destruction, and penetrated into Silesia, Poland and Hungary, finally defeating Henry II., duke of Silesia, at Liegnitz in the battle known as the Wahlstatt on the 9th of April 1241.
Pomerania and Silesia also had their special periodicals in the first quarter of the 18th century.
During the campaign of 1866 he received the command of an army consisting of four army corps; he was assisted by General von Blumenthal, as chief of the staff, but took a very active part in directing the difficult operations by which his army fought its way through the mountains from Silesia to Bohemia, fighting four engagements in three days, and showed that he possessed genuine military capacity.
Bretschneider (Ober die Lage des Christenthums in unserer Zeit, 1832) having attracted the notice of Friedrich Wilhelm III., he was called to Breslau as theological professor and consistorial councillor, and in 1843 became "general superintendent" of the province of Silesia.
Magnetic pyrites, copper pyrites, zinc blende and arsenical pyrites are other and less important examples, the last constituting the gold ore formerly worked in Silesia.
Plattner, who suggested that the residues from certain mines at Reichenstein, in Silesia, should be treated with chlorine after the arsenical products had been extracted by roasting.
The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.
Silesia, now split up into seventeen principalities, was the bone of contention between them; and when Casimir suddenly invaded that country, took Wschowa, and made Prince Charles of Bohemia a prisoner, war between the two kingdoms actually broke out and Casimir was besieged in Cracow by the Czechs.
After the war of 1866 (in which as a Prussian major-general he organized a Hungarian corps in Silesia) Klapka was permitted by the Austrian government to return to his native country, and in 1867 was elected a member of the Hungarian Chamber of Deputies, in which he belonged to the Deak party.
The Polish king, John Casimir, fled to Silesia.
In German Silesia there is a third rich field, which extends into Austria (Austrian Silesia and Galicia), for which country it forms the chief home source of supply (apart from lignite).
According to a calculation made by P. Frech in 1900, on the basis of the then rate of production, the coalfields of central France, central Bohemia, the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian province of Saxony and the north of England, would be exhausted in 100 to 200 years, the other British coalfields, the Waldenburg-Schatzlar and that of the north of France in 250 years, those of Saarbriicken, Belgium, Aachen and Westphalia in 600 to Boo years, and those of Upper Silesia in more than 1000 years.
A modification of this method, which originated in Silesia, is now becoming of importance in many European coalfields.
Mispickel occurs in metalliferous veins with ores of tin, copper, silver, &c. It is occasionally found as embedded crystals, for example, in serpentine at Reichenstein, Silesia.
The king of Prussia had some reason to complain of the sudden desertion of his ally, but there is no evidence whatever to substantiate his accusation that Bute had endeavoured to divert the tsar later from his alliance with Prussia, or that he had treacherously in his negotiations with Vienna held out to that court hopes of territorial compensation in Silesia as the price of the abandonment of France; while the charge brought against Bute in 1765 of having taken bribes to conclude the peace, subsequently after investigation pronounced frivolous by parliament, may safely be ignored.
Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinmas.
It is the centre of the mining district of Upper Silesia, and its population is mainly engaged in such operations and in iron and zinc smelting.
By the peace of 1742, Frederick the Great regained Schwiebus with the rest of Silesia, and it was incorporated with the department of Glogau.
Some of its constituent territories, however, notably Bohemia and the lands of the Bohemian crown (Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia) enjoyed, up to the year 1620, many centuries of independent existence and played an important, sometimes a dominating, part in the political and religious history of central Europe.
Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and Russinia, united to form one State with a single central Government having its seat at Prague.
Vast entailed estates were the property of a small group of landlords (in Bohemia 37.7%, in Moravia 34.4%, in Silesia 39.9% of all land belonged to owners representing 0.1% of the population), while great masses of the people did not own a single acre of their native land.
In Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia the standard of education - elementary, higher and technical - is excellent, and there are practically no illiterates - a state of affairs attributable to the interest which the Czech nation (imbued with the traditions of Comenius) had ever taken in education.
Having at first rejected the demand of the Bohemians for greater religious liberty, the emperor was soon obliged to yield to superior force, and in 1609 he acceded to the popular wishes by issuing the Letter of Majesty (Majestdtsbrief), and then made similar concessions to his subjects in Silesia and elsewhere.
But Masovia to the north, and Great Poland to the north-west, refused to recognize the supremacy of Little Poland, while Silesia soon became completely germanized.
Pursuing his way to Silesia, Batu overthrew the confederated Silesian princes at Liegnitz (April 9), and, after burning all the Silesian towns, invaded Hungary, where he routed King Bela IV.
For a time it seemed highly probable that Poland would be completely germanized, like Silesia, or become a part of the new Bohemian Empire which Wenceslaus II.
The sons of the gentry, denied proper instruction at home, betook themselves to the nearest universities across the border, to Goldberg in Silesia, to Wittemberg, to Leipzig.
Jagiellonic Out of the ancient Piast kingdom, mutilated by the Period, loss of Silesia and the Baltic shore, arose a republic 1386-1572.
King John Casimir, betrayed and abandoned by his own subjects, fled .to Silesia, and profiting by the cataclysm which, for the moment, had swept the Polish state out of existence, the Muscovites, unopposed, quickly appropriated nearly everything which was not already occupied by the Swedes.
In 1871 he was appointed president of the governmental district of Gumbinnen in East Prussia, in 1875 district president (Bezirksprdsident) in Lorraine, and in 1877 Oberprdsident in Silesia.
As Oberprdsident of Silesia he had already done much to mitigate the rigour of the application of the "May Laws," and as minister of public worship and of the interior he continued this policy.
In July 1628 Kepler accordingly arrived with his family at Sagan in Silesia, where he applied himself to the printing of his ephemerides up to the year 1636, and whence he issued, in 1629, a Notice to the Curious in Things Celestial, warning astronomers of approaching transits.
Its position on the Vistula and at the junction of several railways makes it the natural mart for the exchange of the products of Silesia, Hungary and Russian and Austrian Poland.
The intervention of Austria in the War of Liberation, and the consequent advance of the Allies under the Austrian field-marshal Prince Schwarzenberg from Prague upon Dresden, recalled Napoleon from Silesia, where he was engaged against the Prussians and Russians under Blucher.
Cotton linings include silesia, originally a linen cloth made in Silesia and now usually a twilled cotton cloth which is dyed various colours; Italian cloth, a kind of jean or sateen produced originally in Italy.
A smaller part, called Austrian Silesia, is included in the empire of Austria-Hungary.
German Silesia is bounded by Brandenburg, Posen, Russian Poland, Galicia, Austrian Silesia, Moravia, Bohemia and the kingdom and province of Saxony.
Besides the bulk of the old duchy of Silesia, it comprises the countship of Glatz, a fragment of the Neumark, and part of Upper Lusatia, taken from the kingdom of Saxony in 1815.
Physiographically Silesia, is roughly divided into a flat and a hilly portion by the so-called Silesian Langental, which begins on the south-east near the river Malapane, and extends across the province in a west-by-north direction to the Black Elster, following in part the valley of the Oder.
Nearly the whole of Silesia lies within the basin of the Oder, which flows through it from south-east to north-west, dividing the province into two approximately equal parts.
Among the chief feeders of the Oder are the Malapane, the Glatzer Neisse, the Katzbach and the Bartsch; the Bober and Queiss flow through Silesia, but join the Oder beyond the frontier.
The parts of lower Silesia adjoining Brandenburg, and also the district to the east of the Oder, are sandy and comparatively unproductive.
Large estates are the rule in Silesia, where about a third of the land is in the hands of owners possessing at least 250 acres, while properties of 50,000 to 100,000 acres are common.
The great wealth of Silesia, however, lies underground, in the shape of large stores of coal and other minerals, which have been worked ever since the 12th century.
The coal measures of Upper Silesia, in the south-east part of the province, are among the most extensive in continental Europe, and there is another large field near Waldenburg in the south-west.
A busy manufacturing activity has long been united with the underground industries of Silesia, and the province in this respect is hardly excelled by any other part of Prussia.
Weaving has been practised in Silesia, on a large scale, since the 14th century; and Silesian linen still maintains its reputation, though the conditions of production have greatly changed.
The trade of Silesia is scarcely so extensive as might be expected from its important industrial activity.
At the census of 1905 the population of Silesia was 4,942,611, of whom 2,120,361 were Protestants, 2,765,394 Catholics and 46,845 Jews.
The Roman Catholics, most of whom are under the ecclesiastical sway of the prince bishop of Breslau, are predominant in Upper Silesia and Glatz; the Protestants prevail in Lower Silesia, to the west of the Oder, and in Lusatia.
The nobility is very numerous in Silesia, chiefly in the Polish districts.
The decisive factor in the separation of Silesia from Poland was furnished by a partition of the Polish crown's territories in 1138.
Silesia was henceforth constituted as a separate principality, and in 1201 its political severance from Poland became complete.
A yet more important result of the partition of 1138 was the transference of Silesia to the German nation.
The independent dynasty which was then established was drawn under the influence of the German king, Frederick Barbarossa, and two princes who in 1163 divided the sovereignty among themselves as dukes of Upper and Lower Silesia inaugurated the policy of inviting German colonists to their vacant domains.
More extensive immigrations followed, in the course of which the whole of Silesia was covered with German settlements.
By the end of the 13th century Silesia had virtually become a German land.
The growing resources of the Silesian duchies are exemplified by the strength of the army with which Henry II., duke of Lower Silesia, broke the force of the Mongol invasion at the battle of Liegnitz (1241), and by the glamour at the court of the Minnesinger, Henry IV.
The intervention of these kings resulted in the establishment of their suzerainty over the whole of Silesia and the appropriation of several of its petty states as crown domains.
In consequence of these raids the German element of population in Upper Silesia permanently lost ground; and a complete restitution of the Slavonic nationality seemed imminent on the appointment of the Hussite, George Podiebrad, to the Bohemian kingship in 1457.
But a drastic revolution in their government was imposed upon them by the German king, Ferdinand I., who had been prevented from interference during his early reign by his wars with the Turks, and who showed little disposition to check the Reformation in Silesia by forcible means, but subsequently reasserted the control of the Bohemian crown by a series of important enactments.
Accordingly the Silesian estates never again chose to exercise initiative save on rare occasions, and from 1550 Silesia passed almost completely under foreign administration.
But this respite from trouble was ended by the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), which brought Silesia to the verge of ruin.
Silesia remained a principal objective of the various contending armies and was occupied almost continuously by a succession of ill-disciplined mercenary forces whose depredations and exactions, accentuated at times by religious fanaticism, reduced the country to a state of helpless misery.
An important epoch in the history of Silesia is marked by the year 1740, when the dominion of Austria was exchanged for that of Prussia.
The empress Maria Theresa, who was at this time involved with other enemies, was unable to prevent the occupation of Lower Silesia by Frederick and in 1741 ceded that province to him.
In the following year Frederick renewed his attack and extorted from Austria the whole of Silesia except the districts of Troppau, Teschen and Jagerndorf, the present province of Austrian Silesia.
Silesia was repeatedly overrun by Austrian and Russian troops, and Frederick's ultimate expulsion seemed only a question of time.
The annexation by Frederick was followed by a complete reorganization ' in which the obsolete powers of the local dynasts were abolished and Silesia became a mere province of the highly centralized Prussian state.
Moreover Frederick, who had proved by his wars the importance which he attached to Silesia, was indefatigable in times of peace in his attempts to justify his usurpation.
Making yearly visits to the country, and further keeping himself in touch with it by means of a special "minister of Silesia," he was enabled to effect numerous political reforms, chief of which were the strict enforcement of religious toleration and the restriction of oppressive seignorial rights.
After its incorporation with Prussia Silesia ceases to have an independent political history.
In 1815 it was enlarged by a portion of Lusatia, which had become detached from Silesia as far back as the 11th century and since then had been annexed to the kingdom of Saxony.
Silesia is divided by a projecting limb of Moravia into two small parts of territory, of which the western part is flanked by the Sudetic mountains, namely the Altvater Gebirge; while the eastern part is flanked by the Carpathians, namely the Jablunka Gebirge with their highest peak the Lissa Hora (4346 ft.).
A great proportion of the surface of Silesia is occupied by the offshoots of these ranges.
The province is traversed by the Vistula, which rises in the Carpathians within eastern Silesia, and by the Oder, with its affluents the Oppa and the Olsa.
The mineral wealth of Silesia is great and consists in coal, iron-ore, marble and slate.
Like its adjoining provinces, Silesia boasts of a great and varied industrial activity, chiefly represented by the metallurgic and textile industries in all their branches.
The local diet is composed of 31 members, and Silesia sends 12 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
By promising to restore Schwiebus to Silesia after his accession he won the support of the emperor Leopold I.; but eventually he gained his end in a peaceable fashion.
He had served his apprenticeship in the art of government first as prince of Glogau and subsequently as governor of Silesia and margrave of Lusatia under his elder brother Wladislaus of Bohemia and Hungary.
Silesia, already more than half Germanized, had for generations been the battle-ground between the Luxemburgers and the Piasts, and was split up into innumerable principalities which warred incessantly upon their neighbours and each other.
His little principality of Glogau soon became famous as a'model state, and as governor of Silesia he suppressed the robber knights with an iron hand, protected the law-abiding classes, and revived commerce.
Carrying out his share of the bargain by occupying Silesia and Lusatia, where he displayed much clemency, the Saxon elector had thus some part in driving Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, from Bohemia and in crushing Protestantism in that country, the crown of which he himself had previously refused.
The name of Leczycanie is given to the inhabitants of the marshes of the Ner, that of Kurpie to those of the Podlasie; Kujaw14.cy, Szl4cy in the Silesia, and Gorale in the Carpathians.
Southern Poland possesses abundant minerals, especially in the Kielce mountains and the region adjacent to Prussian Silesia.
Then comes a range of lesser hills clustering together to form the frontier between Silesia and Bohemia.
To these belongs the upper Silesian coal-basin, which occupies a considerable area in south-eastern Silesia.
Carboniferous and Devonian beds are also found south-east of the Bohemian massif, where lies the extensive coal-field of Silesia.
Still more to the east, in the province of Silesia, both Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are again met with, but they are to a large extent concealed by the recent accumulations of the great plain.
While the average summer warmth of Germany is 60 to 62, the January temperature falls as low as 26 to 28 in West Prussia, Posen and Silesia, and 22 to 26 in East Prussia and upper Silesia.
Mecklenburg, Brandenburg and Lusatia, Saxony and the plateau of Thuringia, West Prussia, Posen and lower Silesia are also to be classed among the more arid regions of Germany, the annual rainfall being 16 to 20 in.
In the Prussian provinces of Silesia and Posen the eastern parts ate mixed territories, the German language progressing very slowly among the Poles.
The Poles are in the majority in upper Silesia (Government district of Oppeln; 55%) and the province of Posen (60%).
The Wends are decreasing in number, as are also the Lithuanians on the eastern border of East Prussia, Czechs are only found in Silesia on the confines of Bohemia.
The population is thickest in upper Silesia around Beuthen (coal-fields), around Ratibor, Neisse and Waldenburg (coal-fields), around Zittau (kingdom of Saxony), in the Elbe valley around Dresden, in the districts of Zwickau and Leipzig as far as the Saale, on the northern slopes of the Harz and around Bielefeld in Westphalia.
In the valley of the Saale and Elbe (near Dresden), and in lower Silesia (between Guben and Grunberg), the number of vineyards is small, and the wines of inferior quality; but along the Rhine from Basel to Coblenz, in Alsace, Baden, the Palatinate and Hesse, and above all in the province of Nassau, the lower slopes of the hills are literally covered with vines.
The main centre is in East and West Prussia, then follow the marsh districts on the Elbe and Weser, some parts of Westphalia, Oldenburg, Lippe, Saxony and upper Silesia, lower Bavaria and klsace-Lorraine.
Bee-keeping is of considerable importance, particularly in north Germany and Silesia.
It is extracted from the ores in the mines of Freiburg (Saxony), the Harz Mountains, upper Silesia, Merseburg, Aix-la-Chapelle, Wiesbaden and Arnsberg.
Lead is produced in considerable quantities in upper Silesia, the Harz Mountains, in the Prussian province of Nassau, in the Saxon Erzgebirge and in the Sauerland.
It is mostly found in upper Silesia, around Beuthen, and in the districts of Wiesbaden and Aix-la-Chapelle.
Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.
Saxony is predominant in the production of textiles, though Silesia and Westphalia manufacture linen.
The chief seats of this manufacture are the RhenishdistrictsofAix-la-Chapelle, Dtiren, Eupen and Lennep, Brandenburg, Saxony, Silesia and lower Lusatia, the chief centres in this group being Berlin, Cottbus, Spremberg, Sagan and Sommerfeld.
The manufacture of woollen and half-woollen dress materials centres mainly in Saxony, Silesia, the Rhine province and in Alsace.
Furniture covers, table covers and plush are made in Elberfeld and Chemnitz, in Westphalia and the Rhine province (notably in Elberfeld and Barmen); shawls in Berlin and the Bavarian Vogtland; carpets in Berlin, Barmen and Silesia.
Although linen was formerly one of her most important articles of manufacture, Germany is now left far behind in this industry by Great Britain, France and Austria-Hungary, This branch of textile manufacture has its principal centres in Silesia, Westphalia, Saxony and Wurttemberg, while Hirschberg in Silesia, Bielefeld in Westphalia and Zittau in Saxony are noted for the excellence of theirproductions.
The manu facture is carried on to the largest extent in the Rhine province, in Saxony and in Silesia.
Of the above 131 illiterates in 1900-1901, 114 were in East and West Prussia, Posen and Silesia.
In Brandenburg, Lusatia, Silesia, Posen and Saxony, where there was no strong Bronze age tradition, Hallstatt influence is very noticeable.
Among the Lugii we may probably include the Silingae, who afterwards appear among the Vandals in Spain, and whose name is preserved in Slavonic form in that of the province Silesia.
Boleslaus of Poland, who was now a very powerful sovereign, having conquered Lusatia and Silesia, brought Bohemia also under his rule and was soon at variance with the German king.
This came from the Mongols who ravaged the eastern frontiers of the country, but the peril was warded off by the efforts of Henry II., duke of Silesia, who lost his life in a fight against these foes near Liegnitz in April 1241, and of Wenceslaus I., king of Bohemia.
The result was that when he died in November 1378 he wore the crowns of the Empire, of Gei many, of Bohemia, of Lombardy and of Burgundy; he had added Lower Lusatia and parts of Silesia to Bohemia; he had secured the mark of Brandenburg for his son Wenceslaus in 1373; and he had bought part of the Upper Palatinate and territories in all parts of Germany.
So utterly had he shattered the emperors power that he could doubtless have marched straight to Vienna; he preferred, however, to proceed through central into southern Germany, while his Saxon ally, the elector John George, recovered Silesia and Lusatia and invaded Bohemia.
To be more at freedom she concluded peace with Frederick, and ceded Silesia to him, although greatly against her will.
Maria Theresa never gave up the hope of winning back Silesia, and, in order to secure this object, she laid aside the jealousies of her house, and offered to conclude an alliance with France.
From the Polish districts of West Prussia, Posen and Silesia a number of repre sentatives have continued to be sent to Berlin to protest against their incorporation in the empire.
The growth of the Polish population has caused much anxiety; supported by the Roman Catholic Church, the Polish language has advanced, especially in Silesia, and this is only part of the general, tendency, so marked throughout central Europe, for the Slays to gain ground upon the Teutons.
Reference may be made to a Verein for this purpose in Saxony and to others in Silesia and in Mecklenburg.
The whole of Austria and nearly the whole of Styria were mainly Lutheran; in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, various forms of Christian belief struggled for mastery; and Catholicism was almost confined to the mountains of Tirol.
Although, then, as the result of the war, Silesia was by the treaty of Dresden transferred from Austria to Prussia, while in Italy by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 cessions were made at the expense of the house of Habsburg to the Spanish Don Philip and to Sardinia, the Austrian monarchy as a whole had displayed a vitality that had astonished the world, and was in some respects stronger than at the beginning of the struggle, notably in the great improvement in the army and in the possession of generals schooled by the experience of active service.
So far as Austria was concerned, the Seven Years' War in which France and Austria were ranged against Prussia and Great Britain, was an attempt on the part of Maria Theresa to recover Silesia.
The loss of Silesia led Austria to look for " compensation " elsewhere.
A great party, led by Palacky and Rieger, demanded the restoration of the Bohemian monarchy in its fullest extent, including Moravia and Silesia, and insisted that the emperor should be crowned as king of Bohemia at Prague as his predecessors had been, and that Bohemia should have a position in the monarchy similar to that obtained by Hungary.
In Silesia the Germans had a considerable majority, and as.
Frederick sent an ambassador to Vienna, offering, in the event of his rights in Silesia being conceded, to aid Maria Theresa against her enemies.
The queen of Hungary, who regarded the proposal as that of a mere robber, haughtily declined; whereupon Frederick immediately invaded Silesia with an army of 30,000 men.
A second Prussian victory was gained at Chotusitz, near Caslau, on the 17th May 1742; by this time Frederick was master of all the fortified places of Silesia.
Maria Theresa, in the heat of her struggle with France and the elector of Bavaria, now Charles VII., and pressed by England to rid herself of Frederick, concluded with him, on the 11th of June 1742, the peace of Breslau, conceding to Prussia, Upper and Lower Silesia as far as the Oppa, together with the county of Glatz.
He knew well that Maria Theresa would not, if she could help it, allow him to remain in Silesia; accordingly, in 1744, alarmed by her victories, he arrived at a secret understanding with France, and pledged himself, with Hesse-Cassel and the palatinate, to maintain the imperial rights of Charles VII., and to defend his hereditary Bavarian lands.
The latter victory was decisive, and the peace of Dresden (December 2 5, 1 745) assured to Frederick a second time the possession of Silesia.
Maria Theresa had never given up hope that she would recover Silesia; and as all the neighbouring sovereigns were bitterly jealous of Frederick, and somewhat afraid of him, she had no difficulty in inducing several of them to form a scheme for his ruin.
In November 1757, however, when Europe looked upon him as ruined, he rid himself of the French by his splendid victory over them at Rossbach, and in about a month afterwards, by the still more splendid victory at Leuthen, he drove the Austrians from Silesia.
In the former year Frederick triumphed, at a heavy cost, over the Russians at Zorndorf; and although, through lack of his usual foresight, he lost the battle of Hochkirch, he prevented the Austrians from deriving any real advantage from their triumph, Silesia still remaining in his hands at the end of the year.
The result was that, on the 15th of February 1763, a few days after the conclusion of the peace of Paris, the treaty of Hubertusburg was signed, Austria confirming Prussia in the possession of Silesia.
Pomerania and Neumark were freed from taxation for two years, Silesia for six months.
Prussia having declared for the cellular system constructed the well-known Moabit prison in Berlin, also those of Ratibor in Silesia and of Herford in Westphalia, while those of Graudenz, Breslau, Werden and Cologne have been added since.
From 1311 to 1675 Brieg was the capital of an independent line of dukes, a cadet branch of the Polish dukes of Lower Silesia, by one of whom the castle was built in 1341.
In 1704 it began to spread through Poland, and later to Silesia, Lithuania, Prussia and a great part of Germany and Scandinavia.
It is one of the oldest towns in Silesia; its town hall dates from the 16th century, and it has a Roman Catholic church built in the 13th century and restored in 1862.
Her original demands were Silesia (she held most of the fortresses there), Pomerania (which had been in her possession for nearly twenty years), and a war indemnity of 20,000,000 rixdollars.
Both these tribes appear to have inhabited the upper part of the basin of the Oder, and the name of the Silingae is preserved in Silesia.
Eventually it became part of the latter country, and in 1534 was sold to the house of Habsburg, from whom it was taken by Frederick the Great during his attack on Silesia.
The situation of Berlin, midway between the Elbe and the Oder, with which rivers it is connected by a web of waterways, at the crossing of the main roads from Silesia and Poland to the North Sea ports and from Saxony, Bohemia and Thuringia to the Baltic, made it in medieval days a place of considerable commercial importance.
As regards numbers, it occupies the second place amongst the Austrian provinces, coming after Galicia, and as regards density of population it stands third, Silesia and Lower Austria, which contains Vienna, standing higher.
In 1446 a general meeting of the estates of Bohemia together with those of Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia - and so-called " lands of the Bohemian crown " - took place.
Prolonged desultory warfare continued up to 1478, when a treaty concluded at Olmi tz secured Bohemia to Vladislav; Matthias was to retain the so-called " lands of the Bohemian crown " - Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia - during his lifetime, and they were to be restored to Bohemia after his death.
In reply, however, to a second deputation, the emperor Ferdinand declared on the 8th of April that equality of rights would be secured to both nationalities in Bohemia, that the question of the reunion of Moravia and Silesia to Bohemia should be left to a general meeting of representatives of all parts of Austria, and that a new meeting of the estates of Bohemia, which would include representatives of the principal towns, would shortly be convoked.
They did so, after stating that they took this step without prejudice to their view that Bohemia with Moravia and Silesia constituted a separate state under the rule of the same sovereign as Austria and Hungary.
The first of the German wars began in 1109, when Henry, materially assisted by the Bohemians, invaded Silesia.
Gorlitz, next to Breslau, is the largest and most flourishing commercial town of Silesia, and is also regarded as classic ground for the study of German Renaissance architecture.
This was attacked so violently as profane and revolutionary that he was compelled to resign his office and seek refuge in Silesia.
The largest iron-works in Silesia is situated at KOnigshiitte, and includes puddling works, rollingmills, and zinc-works.
Erzberger's power in German politics was based upon his great influence with the Catholic working classes in the Rhineland and Westphalia, in central Germany and in Silesia.
The second great mountain-system of Austria, the Carpathians, occupy its eastern and north-eastern portions, and stretch in the form of an arch through Moravia, Silesia, Galicia and Bukovina, forming the frontier towards Hungary, within which territory they principally extend.
The Vistula and the Oder both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sandomir.
The Oder has also its source in Moravia, flows first east and then north-east through Austrian Silesia into Prussia.
It is not till Silesia that the Palaeozoic formations again rise to the surface.
The Carboniferous coal-fields of Silesia and Bohemia are of the greatest importance; while Jurassic coal is worked at Steyerdorf and Ftinfkirchen in Hungary, and lignite at many places in the Tertiary beds.
The duchy of Teschen belonged to the dukes of Upper Silesia, and since 1298 it stood under the suzerainty of Bohemia.
We must notice, first, how in arranging the terms of peace he opposed the king and the military party who wished to advance on Vienna and annex part of Austrian Silesia; with greater foresight he looked to renewing the old friendship with Austria, and insisted (even with the threat of resignation) that no territory should be demanded.
In the beginning of the 11th century Glogau, even then a populous and fortified town, was able to withstand a regular siege by the emperor Henry V.; but in 1157 the duke of Silesia, finding he could not hold out against Frederick Barbarossa, set it on fire.
A genus Zonatrichites, compared with species of Cyanophyceae, has been described as a Calcareous alga from Liassic limestones of Silesia.
In 1537 he had concluded a treaty with Frederick III., duke of Liegnitz, which guaranteed to the Hohenzollerns the succession to the Silesian duchies of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau in the event of the ducal family becoming extinct; this arrangement is important as the basis of the claim made by Frederick the Great on Silesia in 1740.
Then Frederick the Great, having secured Silesia, abandoned his claim to Julich, which thus passed to Sulzbach when, in 1742, the family of Neuburg became extinct.
All the Germans in Silesia had to get out, or take polish nationality.
Again and again, during his absence on the public service, the barons and prelates would assemble to compass his ruin or dispose of his crown, when, suddenly, " like a tempest," from the depths of Silesia or of Bosnia, he would himself appear among them, confounding and scattering them, often without resistance, always without bloodshed.
Casimir began by tying the hands of the Teutonic Order by the truce of Thorn; he induced the king of Bohemia to relinquish his claims to the Polish throne by consenting to leave him a free hand in Silesia (conference of Trencsen, early in 1335); and subsequently he attended the celebrated congress of Visegrad (November 12December 3, 1 335), where Charles Robert entertained him and the king of Bohemia magnificently.
Traced eastward into north Germany, Thuringia and Silesia, the limestones pass into the detrital culm formations, which owe their existence to a southern uplifted massif, the complement of the synclines already mentioned.
As it was, the Austrian forces, disorganized in the long confusion of the Turkish wars, were in no condition to withstand Frederick the Great, when in 1740, at the head of the splendid army bequeathed to him by his father, he invaded Silesia (see Austrian Succession, War Of).