Sierra sentence example
Its lower course is through the territory of Sierra Leone, and it enters the sea as the Sulima.
Being built midway between the Sierra de Priego and Sierra Parapanda, and commanding the open valley between these ranges, it became one of the chief frontier fortresses of the Moors in the 15th century.
It is picturesquely situated in Eagle valley, near the east base of the Sierra Nevada, at an elevation of 4720 ft.
In 1462 Pedro de Cintra extended Portuguese exploration along the African coast and discovered Sierra Leone.
Indigenous palms grow in the valleys of the Sierra Jose Ignacio, also to some extent in the departments of Minas, Maldonado and Paysandu.Advertisement
The Liberian coast has few lagoons compared with the adjoining littoral of Sierra Leone or that of the Ivory Coast.
The fauna of Liberia is sufficiently peculiar, at any rate as regards vertebrates, to make it very nearly identical with a "district" or sub-province of the West African province, though in this case the Liberian "district" would not include the northernmost portions of the country and would overlap on the east and west into Sierra Leone and the French Ivory Coast.
Nowhere, perhaps, does the flora of West Africa attain a more wonderful development than in the republic of Liberia and in the adjoining regions of Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast.
In a general way it is supposed that the lands lying between the lower St Paul's river and the Sierra Leone frontier are not much mineralized, except that in the vicinity of river mouths there are indications of bitumen.
Sierra Leone, however, was chosen first on account of its possessing an admirable harbour.Advertisement
The Sierra Leone-Liberia frontier was demarcated in 1903; then followed the negotiations with France for the exact delimitation of the Ivory Coast-Liberia frontier, with the result that Liberia lost part of the hinterland she had claimed.
There are three custom-houses, or ports of entry on the Sierra Leone land frontier between the Moa river on the north and the Mano on the south, and nine ports of entry along the coast.
In 1675 a court intrigue, conducted by his rivals and supported by the younger Don John of Austria, was so far successful that he was driven from court; but the queen gave him the title of marquis of Villa Sierra, and appointed him ambassador to Venice.
Part of his property, and the title of Villa Sierra, but not the grandeeship, were restored to his wife and children.
In the north it is due to the fact that the winds from the Pacific lose most of their moisture, especially in winter, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; in the south it is due to the fact that the region lies in a zone of calms, and light, variable winds.Advertisement
The Sierra Nevada range, which forms the western rim of the Basin, sends into the state a single lofty spur, the Washoe Mountains.
Large animals, such as the black and the grizzly bear, and deer are found on the slopes of the Sierra Mountains, and antelope, deer and elk visit the northernmost valleys in the winter.
In the Washoe Mountains, as in the rest of the Sierra Nevada range, there is a heavy growth of conifers, extending down to the very valleys; but in many places these mountains have been almost deforested to provide timbers for the mines.
In the central, north-eastern and north-western sections, embracing the counties of Nye, Elko and Humboldt, the average annual rainfall varies from 7 to 8 in.; in the west-central section, at the foot of the Sierra, the average is about 10 in.
Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be - "king of the men of the two religions."Advertisement
Its territory is divided into two nearly equal parts by the eastern branch of the Sierra Madre Occidental, the northern part belonging to the great central plateau region, and the southern to an extremely broken region formed by the diverging branches of the Sierra Madre, with their wooded terraces and slopes and highly fertile valleys.
In piercing the Sierra Morena it forms a series of foaming rapids, and only begins to be navigable at Mertola, 42 m.
There are soap and flour mills and metallurgic factories in the town, and iron, copper and lead mines in the neighbouring Sierra de Almenara.
In Sierra Leone little success has been met with, but on the Gold Coast some cotton better than middling American has been grown, and the association has concluded an agreement with the government for an extension of its work.
The state occupies an elevated plateau, extending from two spurs of the Sierra Madre, called the Sierra Fria and Sierra de Laurel, eastward to the rolling fertile plains of its eastern and south-eastern districts.Advertisement
Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1 77418 3 2), whom he married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to writing several West African vernaculars.
Alora, which is an ancient and picturesque town, with several Moorish ruins, occupies an outlying hill of the Sierra de Tolox, and overlooks a fertile valley where maize, sugar-cane and datepalms are cultivated.
Legislative sanction was, however, given to the establishment of the Sierra Leone Company, for the colonization of a district on the west coast of Africa and the discouragement of the slave trade there.
It was for some time thought that from Sierra Leone as a centre industry and civilization might be diffused amongst the nations of the continent; and in 1822 the colony (which in 1847 became the independent republic) of Liberia had been founded by Americans with a similar object; but in neither case have these expectations been adequately fulfilled.
The Sierra de Cobre, a part of the system in the vicinity of Santiago, has a general elevation of about 3000 ft.Advertisement
The mountains beyond Guantanamo are locally known by a variety of names, though topographically a continuation of the Sierra Maestra.
Of the almost innumerable river cascades, those of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, and in particular the Moa cascade, have already been mentioned.
The foundation of the island is formed of metamorphic and igneous rocks, which appear in the Sierra Maestra and are exposed in other parts of the island wherever the comparatively thin covering of later beds has been worn away.
Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.
Connorn, newly mated to Sierra.Advertisement
The surrounding country is a sterile and gloomy wilderness exposed to the cold and blighting blasts of the Sierra.
The Portuguese being in his rear, and Wellesley closing with him, the only good road of retreat available lay through Amarante, but he now learned that Beresford had taken this important point from Silveira; so he was then compelled, abandoning his guns and much baggage, to escape, with a loss of some s000 men, over the mountains of the Sierra Catalina to Salamonde, and thence to Orense.
A little north of Coimbra, the road which Massena followed crossed the Sierra de Bussaco (Busaco), a very strong position where Wellington resolved to offer him battle.
The next day Massena turned the Sierra by the Boyalva Pass and Sardao, which latter place, owing to an error, had not been occupied by the Portuguese, and Wellington then retreated by Coimbra and Leiria to the lines, which he entered on the 11th of October, having within them fully ioo,000 able-bodied men.
Wellington had further organized the Spanish forces - Castanos (40,000), with the guerrilla bands of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and northern Spain; Copons (io,000) in Catalonia; Elio (20,000) in Murcia; Del Parque (12,000) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell (15,000) in Andalusia.Advertisement
The capital of Tamaulipas is Ciudad Victoria (pop. in 1900, 10,086), a small sierra town on the Monterrey and Tampico railway about 120 m.
In 1818 Sir Charles McCarthy, governor of Sierra Leone, obtained the cession of the islands to Great Britain from the chiefs of the Baga country, and in 1882 France recognized them to be a British possession.
They were then the headquarters of several Sierra Leone traders.
It ascends the Parana to the great falls of Guayra, or Sete Quedas, and thence westward along the water-parting of the Sierra de Maracayu to the cerro of that name, thence northerly along the Sierra d'Amambay to the source of the Estrella, a small tributary of the Apa, and thence down those two streams to the Paraguay.
The mining operations are chiefly centred in the Sierra Mojada, Sierra Carmen, and in the Santa Rosa valley.Advertisement
This branch consists of parallel chains enclosing elevated valleys, in one of which lies the town of Merida at the height of 5410 ft., overlooked by the highest summit of the chain (Picacho de la Sierra, 15,420 ft.).
The sierra contains the water-parting between the basin of the Orinoco and those of the small rivers on the north-west.
West of the Maritime Andes low ranges (3500-5000 ft.) trend northwards from the end of the Sierra de Merida towards the coast on the east side of the Lake of Maracaibo, while the region on the west of that lake consists of lagoon-studded lowlands.
Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the Cerros Yaparana (7175 ft.) and Duida (8120 ft.) in the Parima sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8228 ft.), and the celebrated flat-topped Mt Roraima (8530 ft.) in the Pacaraima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana.
The rocks of Falcon are believed by Sievers to belong to the Andean system; while the outlying peninsula of Paraguana probably belongs, geologically, to the same massif as Goajira and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Maria in Colombia.Advertisement
The Sierra Madre crosses the southern part of the state parallel with the coast, separating the low, humid, forested districts on the frontier of Tabasco from the hot, drier, coastal plain on the Pacific. The mountain region includes a plateau of great fertility and temperate climate, which is one of the best parts of Mexico and contains the larger part of the population of the state.
Coffee-planting is a new industry on the Pacific slope of the Sierra Madre at elevations of 2000 to 4000 ft., and has met with considerable success.
The surface of the state is much broken by the Sierra Madre Occidental, which extends through it from north to south and covers its entire width with parallel ranges, enclosing fertile valleys.
The longest is the Yaqui, which has its source on the eastern side of the Sierra Tarahumare in Chihuahua and breaks through several ranges of the Sierra Madre before reaching the gulf near Guaymas.
The soil of the sierra valleys is fertile, and when it is irrigated forage and cereal crops may be grown in abundance.
It occupies the Jucar valley, south of the Sierra de Zorras, a low range of hills which terminates eastward in Cape Cullera, a conspicuous headland surmounted by a lighthouse.
This kind of jalap, the Purga de Sierra Gorda of the Mexicans, was traced by Hanbury to I pomaea simulans.
It grows in Mexico along the mountain range of the Sierra Gorda in the neighbourhood of San Luis de la Paz, from which district it is carried down to Tampico, whence it is exported.
Peru is divided longitudinally into three well-defined regions, the coast, the sierra and the montana.
The sierra is the region of the Andes, and is about 250 m.
The region of the Cordilleras of the Andes is divided into Puna, or lofty uninhabited wilderness, and sierra, or inhabitable moun- Sierra.
For purposes of description the sierra of Peru may be divided into four sections, each embracing portions of all three ranges.
The great rivers of the sierra are the Maranon, rising in the lake of Lauricocha and flowing northward in a deep gorge between the Maritime and Central Cordilleras for 350 m., when it forces its way through the mountains at the famous Pongo de Manseriche and enters the Amazonian plain.
The southern valleys of this part of the sierra furnish streams which form the main rivers of Pampas, Pachachaca and Apurimac. These, uniting with the Mantaro, form the Ene, and the Ene and Perene (which drains the province of Tambo) form the Tambo.
The great variety of elevation within the sierra produces vegetation belonging to every zone.
Similar rocks are also found in the Cordillera Negra, but the volcanic centres appear to have been in the Sierra Nevada.
There are two distinct general types - the coast tribes occupying the fertile river valleys, who are employed on the plantations, in domestic service in the cities, or in small industries of their own, no longer numerous; and the sierra tribes, who are agriculturists, miners, stock-breeders and packers, still comparatively numerous.
The Cholos may be roughly estimated at about 1,800,000 and form by far the larger part of the sierra population.
In the sierra there is the same regular plan wherever the site is level enough.
Only in the sierra and montana regions is it possible to maintain a large population and develop the industries upon which their success as a nation depends.
These roads added much to the productive resources of the country, but their extension to the sierra districts was still a vital necessity.
They connect all the important cities, towns and ports, but cover only a small part of the republic. The cost of erecting and maintaining telegraph lines in the sierra and montana regions is too great to permit their extensive use, and the government is seeking to substitute wireless telegraphy.
Maize is another important food product which is generally cultivated along the coast and in the lower valleys of the sierra.
Cacao is another montana product, although like coffee it is cultivated in the warm valleys of the sierra, but the export is small.
These are sun-dried, packed in bales, and distributed throughout the sierra region, where coca is used by the natives as a stimulant.
In the sierra region, wheat, barley, oats, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), alfalfa, Indian corn, oca (Oxalis tuberosa) and potatoes are the principal products.
The conquering tribe or tribes had made their way to the sierra from the plains, and found themselves a new land sheltered from attack amidst the lofty mountains that hem in the valley of Cuzco and the vast lake basin of Titicaca, situated 12,000 ft.
Freetown is picturesquely situated on a plain, closed in behind by a succession of wooded hills, the Sierra Leone, rising to a height of 1700 ft.
As many as 150 different tribes are represented in the Sierra Leonis of to-day.
The most noted citizens are Bishop Crowther and Sir Samuel Lewis, chief justice of Sierra Leone 1882-1894.
Since 1861-1862 there has been an independent Episcopal Native Church; but the Church Missionary Society, which in 1804 sent out the first missionaries to Sierra Leone, still maintains various agencies.
Nuevo Leon lies partly upon the great Mexican plateau and partly upon its eastern slopes, the Sierra Madre Oriental crossing the state N.W.
A branch of the Sierra Madre extends northward from the vicinity of Salinas, but its elevations are low.
The average elevation of the Sierra Madre within the state is slightly under 5500 ft.
It is shut off to the east and south by the Sierra Maestra.
Its surface is roughly broken by mountain ranges extending southward from the Sierra de Ajusco, forming numerous valleys opening southward.
There is a wide variation of climate for so small a territory, the higher elevations of the Sierra de Ajusco being cold and humid (the Mexican Central crosses the range at an elevation of 9974 ft.); the lower spurs mild, temperate and healthy, the lower valleys subtropical, hot and unhealthy.
The river rises on the western slope of the Muela de San Juan (5225 ft.), a mountain which forms part of the Sierra de Albarracin, 88 m.
The principal right-hand tributaries, besides the Gallo and Zezere, are the Jarama, descending from the tableland of New Castile a little below Aranjuez, the Alberche and the Tietar, which collect their head waters from opposite sides of the Sierra de Gredos, and the Alagon, from the rough and broken country between the Sierras de Gredos and Gata.
For this reason, amongst others, no census had been taken up to 1906 of Northern Rhodesia, the British possessions and protectorates of eastern Africa, or, again, of Nigeria and the protectorates attached to the West African colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone and Lagos.
The traders are chiefly Fanti, Sierra Leonians, Senegalese and Mandingos.
Cabra is built in a fertile valley between the Sierra de Cabra and the Sierra de Montilla, which together form the watershed between the rivers Cabra and Guadajoz.
In this region it is known as the Sierra de Tilaran.
Running south-west to north-east, and united on the north with one of the offsets of the Pyrenees, is the range of the Sierra Llena, which bisects Catalonia, and forms its central watershed.
It is built partly on the beach and partly on the slopes of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta towards the S.E.
The slopes are precipitous on the east coast, but on the west they break down in hills and terraces to the Pacific. This range may be considered a southward continuation of the Californian Sierra Nevada.
The Sierra Madre Occidental consists of several parallel ranges in the north, where a broad belt of country is covered with a labyrinth of ridges and valleys.
The most eastern of these are known as the Sierra Tarahumare and Sierra del Durango, and the most western as the Sierra del Nazareno, Sierra Yaqui and Sierra Fuerte.
These converge in southern Sinaloa and Durango to form the Sierra de Nayarit.
Near the 10th parallel the great chain again divides, the eastern part crossing the southern end of the plateau, and the western, or Sierra Madre del Sur, following the shore line closely to Tehuantepec. The Sierra Madre Occidental has but few noteworthy elevations, its culminating points being the Nevado de Colima (14,363 ft.) and Volcan de Colima (12,750 ft.) in the state of Jalisco.
In the Sierra de Nayarit the Cerro Pimal rises to an elevation of 11,319 ft., and in the extreme south the Cerro del Leone to 10,302 ft.
The Sierra Madre Oriental consists of a broken chain of ranges extending along the eastern margin of the plateau from the great bend in the Rio Grande south-eastward to about the 19th parallel.
In a general sense these ranges may be considered part of the eastern branch of the Sierra Madre Occidental, which turns eastward on the 10th parallel and crosses the plateau in a south by east direction.
Southward the plateau is traversed by many low ranges and breaks down in terraces, forming one of the most fertile and attractive parts of the republic. Close to the capital are the Sierra de Ajusco, whose highest point is 13,078 ft.
The Pacific coast has several deep and well sheltered bays; but they are separated from the interior by the rough and difficult ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
They form the greater part of the Sierra Madre Oriental and also cover most of the central plateau.
The coast is low and extremely arid, and would be uninhabitable were it not for the proximity of the Sierra Madre, where a light rainfall is experienced, and for the numerous rivers that cross the arid belt between the mountains and the sea.
The windward slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental receive the greater part of the rainfall, and the winds, deprived of their moisture, pass over the northern plateau without further precipitation.
Then, there are the mangrove-fringed coasts and the dripping wooded slopes where rare orchids thrive, and above these, on the inland side of the sierra, a treeless, sun-scorched table-land where only the cactus, yucca, and other coarse vegetation of the desert can thrive without irrigation.
In the Southern Sierra Madre, the " oyamel " and " ocote pine are the giants of the forest, sometimes rising to a height of 100 ft.
They inhabit the western Sierra Madre region from Sinaloa southward to Chiapas, the higher plateau states, which region was the centre of their empire when Cortes conquered them, and parts of Vera Cruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca, Morelos, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi.
It is celebrated because of the difficulties overcome on the precipitous eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre, the beauties of the mountain scenery through which it passes, and the rapid transition from the hot, humid coastal plain to the cool, arid plateau, 7924 ft.
In the sierra regions of western Chihuahua and Durango, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi, and the plateau states farther south, the rainfall is more abundant and the conditions more favourable.
Next in importance is the breeding of sheep, which is largely confined to the cooler sierra districts.
But the financial situation was desperate; the federal revenue, mostly from customs - which were evaded by extensive smuggling - was not half the expenditure; and Indian revolts in Yucatan (1847-1850) and in the Sierra Gorda had added to the strain.
It was discovered by a hunter named Dowd in pursuit of a bear in 1852, but had been visited before by John Bidwill, who crossed the Sierra in 1841.
Guatemala is naturally divided into five regions - the lowlands of the Pacific coast, the volcanic mountains of the Sierra Madre, the so-called plateaus immediately north of these, the mountains of the Atlantic versant and the plain of Peten.
It is known near Guatemala city as the Sierra de las Nubes, and enters Mexico as the Sierra de Istatan.
The direction of the great volcanic cones, which rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a more southerly trend, especially towards Salvador; here the base of many of the igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills of the range.
It is, however, impossible to subdivide the Sierra Madre into a northern and a volcanic chain; for the volcanoes are isolated by stretches of comparatively low countr y; at least thirteen considerable streams flow down between them, from the main watershed to the sea.
Viewed from the coast, the volcanic cones seem to rise directly from the central heights of the Sierra Madre, above which they tower; but in reality their bases are, as a rule, farther south.
A better idea of this region is conveyed by the native name Altos, or highlands, although that term includes the northern declivity of the Sierra Madre.
A few of the streams of the Pacific slope actually rise in the Altos, and force a way through the Sierra Madre at the bottom of deep ravines.
A range called the Sierra de Chama, which, however, changes its name frequently from place to place, strikes eastward towards British Honduras, and is connected by low hills with the Cockscomb Mountains; another similar range, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, continues east to Cape Cocoli between the Polochic and the Sarstoon; and a third, the Sierra de las Minas or, in its eastern portion, Sierra del Mico, stretches between the Polochic and the Motagua.
Between Honduras and Guatemala the frontier is formed by the Sierra de Merendon.
Fruits, grain and medicinal plants are obtained in great abundance, especially where the soil is largely of volcanic origin, as in the Altos and Sierra Madre.
Retalhuleu, among the southern foothills of the Sierra Madre, is one of the centres of coffee production, and is connected by rail with the Pacific port of Champerico, a very unhealthy place in the wet season.
Several smaller lakes occur in the basins of western Nevada, next east of the Sierra Nevada.
The Cascade Range enters from Canada, trending sotithward across the international boundary through ThePacifk Washington and Oregon to latitude 41; the Sierra Ranges.
The lower coast ranges, nearer the ocean, continue a little farther southward than the Sierra Nevada, before giving way to that part of the Basin Range province which reaches the Pacific in southernmost California.
The Sierra Nevada may be described, in a very general way, as a great mountain block, largely composed of granite and deformed metamorphosed rocks, reduced to moderate relief in an earlier (Cretaceous and Tertiary?) cycle of erosion, sub-recently elevated with a slant to the west, and in this position sub-maturely dissected.
The mountains in the southern part of the block, which had been reduced to subdued forms in the former cycle of erosion, were thus given a conspicuous height, forming the High Sierra, and greatly sharpened by revived erosion, normal and glacial.
The western slope of the Sierra Nevada hears fine forests similar to those of the Cascade Range and of the Coast Range, but of more open growth, and with the redwood exchanged for groves of big trees (Sequoia gigantea) of which the tallest examples reach 325 ft.
Gold occurs in quartz veins traversing various formations (some as young as Jurassic), and also in gravels, which were for the most part deposited previous to the uplift of the Sierra block.
Farther south, through Oregon and northern California, many members of the coast ranges resemble the Cascades and the Sierra in offering well-attested examples of the uplift of masses of disordered structure, that had been reduced to a tame surface by the erosion of an earlier cycle, and that are now again more or less dissected.
Several of the ranges ascend abruptly from the sea; their base is cut back in high cliffs; the Sierra Santa Lucia, south of San Francisco, is a range of this kind; its seaward slope is almost uninhabitable.
The Arctic or ArcticAlpine zone covers in the United States only the tops of a few mountains which extend above the limit of trees, such as Mt Katahdin in Maine, Mt Washington and neighboring peaks in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and the loftier peaks of the Rocky, Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The Canadian zone crosses from Canada into northern and northwestern Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, northern Michigan, and north-eastern Minnesota and North Dakota, covers the Green Mountains, most of the Adirondacks and Catskills, the higher slopes of the mountains in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, the lower slopes of the northern Rocky and Cascade Mountains, the upper slopes of the southern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a strip along the Pacific coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, interrupted, however, by the Columbia Valley.
The Arid Transition life-zone comprises the western part of the Dakotas, north-eastern Montana, and irregular areas in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas, covering for the most part the eastern base of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains and the higher parts of the Great Basin and the plateaus.
This was the demonstration of the fact that gold existed in large quantities along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada of California.
In five years from the discovery of gold at Coloma on the American river, the yield from the auriferous belt of the Sierra Nevada had risen to an amount estimated at between sixty-five and seventy millions of dollars a year, or five times as much as the total production of this metal throughout the world at the beginning of the century.
In the latter part of the decade1850-1859the territories adjacent to California on the east, north and south were overrun by thousands of miners from the Sierra Nevada goldfields, and within a few years an extraordinary number of discoveries were made, some of which proved to be of great importance.
Veins of cinnabar are known elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada regions but not in workable quantities.
The northern part of Albacete belongs to the high plains of New Castile, the southern is generally mountainous, traversed by low ranges or isolated groups of hills, which culminate in the Sierra de Alcaraz on the borders of Granada, where several summits reach 5000 ft.
On the north, its valley is bounded by the wild Sierra Morena; on the south, by the mountains of the Mediterranean littoral, among which the Sierra Nevada, with its peaks of Mulhacen (11,421 ft.)and Veleta(11,148 ft.), is the most conspicuous.
The former, which rises in the Sierra de Merida, which overlooks the Lake of Maracaibo, has 16 large affluents; the latter has its sources near the Colombian city of Pamplona, and they are only separated from the basin of the river Magdalena by the "Oriental" Andean range.
The most noted of those in the Sierra, visited every summer by tourists, hunters and mountaineers, are the Hetch Hetchy Valley, a wonderful counterpart of Yosemite in the Tuolumne canyon; Tehipitee Valley, in the Middle Fork canyon of King's river; and the King's river Yosemite in the South Fork canyon, the latter being larger and deeper than the Merced Yosemite.
This plateau has a natural frontier of high mountains on all sides, except on the borders of Leon and Murcia; it is also bisected by the Sierra de Guadarrama and Sierra de Gredos, which extend in a southwesterly direction across the central districts, and form the dividing line between Old and New Castile.
The existing frontier is marked on the north by the Cantabrian Mountains; on the east by the Sierra de la Demanda with its offshoots, and by the Serrania de Cuenca; on the south by the Sierra Morena; and on the west by various minor ranges which link together the three more or less parallel chains of the Sierra de Gredos, Sierra de Guadalupe and Sierra Morena.
At Sierra Leone also there is high land.
The name now is seldom used, the Grain coast being divided between the British colony of Sierra Leone and the republic of Liberia.
To two regions only of the coast is the name Guinea officially applied, the French and Portuguese colonies north of Sierra Leone being so styled.
The Church Missionary Society came in 1804 and has worked heroically and successfully, though the largest mission now is that of the Wesleyans, who came in 1811, settling first at Sierra Leone.
While on his way home, on leave of absence, he died at Sierra Leone on the 30th of November 1864.
South of the Sierra lies the Alcudia valley, owned by the crown, and used as pasture for immense flocks of sheep.
Alhama is finely situated on a ledge of rock which overlooks a deep gorge traversed by the river Marchan or Alhama; while the rugged peaks of the Sierra de Alhama rise behind it to a height of 6800 ft.
The situation of the Alhambra is one of rare natural beauty; the plateau commands a wide view of the city and plain of Granada, towards the west and north, and of the heights of the Sierra Nevada, towards the east and south.
Near the Sierra Leone frontier this high land is continued westward to within 20 m.
Among them are the Great and Little Scarcies, whose lower courses are in Sierra Leone, and the Rio Grande which enters the sea in Portuguese Guinea.
The other tribes named are but sparsely represented in French Guinea, the coast region south of the Nunez and all the interior up to Futa Jallon being occupied by the Susu, a tribe belonging to the great Mandingan race, which forced its way seaward about the beginning of the 18th century and pressed back the Timni into Sierra Leone.
During the administration of Noel Ballay (1848-1902), governor of the colony 1890-1900, Konakry was transformed from a place of small importance to one of the chief ports on the west coast of Africa and a serious rival to Freetown, Sierra Leone.
Large herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are raised in Futa Jallon; these are sent in considerable numbers to Sierra Leone, Liberia and French Congo.
During 1876-1880 new treaties were concluded with the chief tribes, and in 1881 the almany (or emir) of Futa Jallon placed his country under French protection, the French thus effectually preventing the junction, behind the coast lands, of the British colonies of the Gambia and Sierra Leone.
In the east part of the state is the magnificent Sierra Nevada, a great block of the earth's crust, faulted along its eastern side and tilted up so as to have a gentle back slope to the west and a steep fault escarpment facing east, the finest mountain system of the United States.
The Sierra proper, from Lassen's Peak to Tehachapi Pass in Kern county, is about 430 m.
Far higher and grander than the Coast Range, the Sierra is much less complicated, being indeed essentially one chain of great simplicity of structure.
Very few in the entire Sierra are passable by vehicles.
Of the mountain scenery the granite pinnacles and domes of the highest Sierra opposite Owen's Lake - where there is a drop eastward into the valley of about 10,000 ft.
All of the Sierra lakes and ponds are of glacial origin and there are some thousands of them.
In 1812 great destruction was wrought by an earthquake that affected all the southern part of the state; in 1865 the region about San Francisco was violently disturbed; in 1872 the whole Sierra and the state of Nevada were violently shaken; and in 1906 San Francisco (q.v.) was in large part destroyed by a shock that caused great damage elsewhere in the state.
On the eastern side of both rivers are various important tributaries, fed by the more abundant rains and melting snows of the western flank of the Sierra; but these streams also shrink greatly in the dry season.
The popular name is applied to Owen's lake, at the end of Owen's river; to Mono lake, into which flow various streams rising in the Sierra between Mount Dana and Castle Peak; and to Death Valley, which contains the " sink " of the Amargosa river, and evidently was once an extensive lake, although now only a mud-flat in ordinary winters, and a dry, alkaline, desert plain in summer.
Tulare lake, which with Buena Vista lake and Kern lake receives the drainage of the southern Sierra, shows extreme local variations of shore-line, and is generally believed to have shrunk extremely since 1850, though of this no adequate proof yet exists.
Unlike the northern Sierra, the ranges of Southern California are broken down in a number of places.
The region to the east of the Sierra, likewise in the Great Basin province, between the crest of that range and the Nevada boundary, is very mountainous.
Along both the Coast Range and the Sierra considerable rainfall is certain, although, owing to the slight snow accumulations of the former, its streams are decidedly variable.
A heavy rain-belt, with a normal fall of more than 40 in., covers all the northern half of the Sierra and the north-west counties; shading off from this is the region of 10-20 in.
White-tailed deer and especially black-tails are found on the high Sierra; the mule deer, too, although its habitat is now mainly east of the range, on the plateau, is also met with.
The sage-hen is abundant on the eastern flank of the Sierra.
As the redwood is limited to the Coast Range, so the big tree is limited wholly to the Sierra Nevada.
On the Sierra the underbrush is characterized by the pungent manzanita, the California buckeye and the chamiso; the last two growing equally abundantly on the Coast Range.
In the south artesian wells, and in the Great Valley the rivers of the Sierra slope, are the main source of water-supply.
Oranges, lemons and walnuts come chiefly from that section, but citrus fruits grow splendidly in the Sierra foothills of the Sacramento Valley, and indeed ripen earlier there than in the southern district.
Leiberg, " Forest Conditions in the Northern Sierra Nevada " (1902); California Board of Forestry, Reports (1885-); semi-revolutionary rulers of 1831-1832 and 1836 (Alvarado), whose title rested on revolution, or on local choice under a national statute regarding gubernatorial vacancies.
Valdepenas is the largest town in the Campo de Calatrava, an extensive plain north of the Sierra Morena.
The northern portion is generally level; the soil is of indifferent quality, strong and marly in a few places, but rocky in all the valleys of the Sierra de Avila; and the climate alternates from severe cold in winter to extreme heat in summer.
The principal mountain chains are the Guadarrama, separating this province from Madrid; the Paramera and Sierra de Avila, west of the Guadarrama; and the vast wall of the Sierra de Gredos along the southern frontier, where its outstanding peaks rise to 6000 or even 8000 ft.
The ridges which ramify from the Paramera are covered with valuable forests of beeches, oaks and firs, presenting a striking contrast to the bare peaks of the Sierra de Gredos.
The town stands in a valley of an inland range of the Sierra Madre Oriental, at an elevation over 8000 ft.
There was some production of gold by the Mexicans, but the silver mining was unimportant until 1881, when the Lake Valley silver mines in Sierra county began to yield.
The leading goldand silver-producing counties are Socorro, Grant, Sierra and Dona Ana.
Indians taken down from the sierra get ague and dysentery.
The permanent residents are generally limited to the major-domo and his family; and in the dry season labourers are hired, of any colour that can be obtained - some from the low country, others from the highlands - for three, four, or five months, who gather in and grind the cane, and plant for the harvest of the following year; but the staff of resident Indian labourers, such as exists in the farms of the sierra, cannot be kept up in the Yungas, as these half-warm valleys are called.
It is broken to some extent in crossing the province of Antofagasta, the southern division being known as the Sierra de Huatacondo.
It includes the peninsula of Sierra Leone-23 m.
Except in the Sierra Leone peninsula, Sherbro Island and Turner's Peninsula, the colony proper does not extend inland to a greater depth than half a mile.
Sierra Leone is a well-watered, well-wooded.
North of it are the Sierra Leone and Scarcies estuaries; to the south is Yawry Bay.
In the Sierra Leone peninsula the hills come down to the sea, elsewhere a low coast plain extends inland 30 to 50 m.
South of the estuary of the Scarcies the deep inlet known as the Sierra Leone river forms a perfectly safe and commodious harbour accessible to the largest vessels.
It joins the Moa within Sierra Leone.
The Sierra Leone peninsula, the site of the oldest British settlement, lies between the estuary of the same name and Yawry Bay to the south.
The coast lands are unhealthy and have earned for Sierra Leone the unenviable reputation of being "the white man's grave."
Of fruit trees there are among others the blood-plum (Haematostaphis Barteri) with deep crimson fruit in grape-like clusters, and the Sierra Leone peach (Sarcocephalus esculentus).
The coffee and cotton plants are indigenous; of grasses there are various kinds of millet, including Paspalum exile, the so-called hungry rice or Sierra Leone millet.
Sierra Leone is inhabited by various ethnic groups, the chief being the Timni, the Sulima, the Susu and the Mendi.
The majority of the Sierra Leonis are nominally Christian.
The law of Sierra Leone is based upon common law of England modified by local ordinances.
Sierra Leone (in the original Portuguese form Sierra Leona) was known to its native inhabitants as Romarong, or the Mountain, and received the current designation from the Portuguese discoverer Pedro de Sintra (1462), either on account of the "lion-like" thunder on its hill-tops, or to a fancied resemblance of the mountains to the form of a lion.
An English fort was built on Bance Island in the Sierra Leone estuary towards the close of the 17th century, but was soon afterwards abandoned, though for a long period the estuary was the haunt of slavers and pirates.
In 1791 Alexander Falconbridge (formerly a surgeon on board slave ships) collected the surviving fugitives and laid out a new settlement (Granville's Town); and the promoters of the enterprise - Granville Sharp, William Wilberforce, Sir Richard Carr Glyn, &c. - hitherto known as the St George's Bay Company, obtained a charter of incorporation as the Sierra Leone Company, with Henry Thornton as chairman.
Whilst the governors found great difficulty in building up an industrious and agricultural community out of the medley of Africans brought to Sierra Leone, they had also to contend with the illicit slave trade which flourished in places close to the colony.
In 1866 Freetown was made the capital of the new general government set up for the British settlements on the West Coast of Africa (comprising Sierra Leone, Gambia, the Gold Coast and Lagos, each of which was to have a legislative council).
In 1874 the Gold Coast and Lagos were detached from Sierra Leone, and the Gambia in 1888.
Both French and British military expeditions had been sent against the Sofas - Moslem mercenaries who, under the chieftainship of Fulas or Mandingos like Samory, ravaged the hinterland both of Sierra Leone and French Guinea.
This agreement finally shut out Sierra Leone from its natural hinterland.
Meantime (in April 1898) the Mendi tribes rose, and massacred several British and American missionaries, including four ladies, at Rotifunk and Taiama, some native officials (Sierra Leonis) in the Imperri district, and a large number of police throughout the country.
It is not only the loftiest part of the sierra, but also the highest land in the whole Ionian group. The name "Black" was given from the darkness of the pine woods which still constitute the most striking feature in Cephalonian scenery, although their extent has been greatly curtailed by fire.
The Senegal was reached in 1445, Cape Verde was passed in the same year, and in 1446 Alvaro Fernandes pushed on almost as far as Sierra Leone.
The eastern rampart of the Bolivian highlands comprises two distinct chains - the Sierra de Cochabamba on the north-east and the Sierra de Misiones on the east.
The Mamore, the upper part of which is called the Chimore, rises on the north-east slopes of the Sierra' de Cochabamba a little south of the 17th parallel, and follows a northerly serpentine course to its confluence with the Beni, the greater part of which course is between the 65th and 66th meridians.
The principal Bolivian tributary of the Mamore, the Guapay or Grande, which is larger and longer than the former above their confluence and should be considered the main stream, rises in the Cordillera Oriental east of Lake Pampa Aullaguas, and flows east to the north extremity of the Sierra de Misiones, where it emerges upon the Bolivian lowlands.
The other large Bolivian tributaries of the Mamore, all rising on the north-east flanks of the Andes, are the Chapare, Secure, Manique or Apere and Yacuma, the last draining a region of lakes and swamps north of the Sierra Chamaya.
It possesses only one large river in Bolivia, the Pilcomayo, which rises on the east slopes of the Cordillera Oriental opposite the south end of Lake Pampa Aullaguas and flows east and south-east through the sierra region to the Bolivian Chaco.
Nothing definite is known of its tributaries in the Chaco, but in the sierra region it possesses a number of small tributaries, the largest of which are the Cachimayo, Mataca and Pilaya or Camblaya, the latter formed by the Cotagaita and San Juan.
The Bermejo, which is an Argentine river, receives one large tributary from the Bolivian uplands, the Tarija or Rio Grande, which drains a small district south-east of the Santa Victoria sierra.
Another considerable stream of this region, which is lost in the great marshy districts of the Bolivian plain, is the Parapiti, which rises on the eastern slopes of the Sierra de Misiones and flows north-east through a low plain for about 150 m.
There is a trade route across the plains from Santa Cruz de la Sierra to Puerto Suarez, on the Paraguay, and the Bolivian government contracted in 1908 for a railway between these two points (about 497 m.) but the traffic is inconsiderable.
The capital and only large town of the department is Santa Cruz De La Sierra (pop., in 1900, 15,874; in 1906, estimated, 20,535), on the Piray, a tributary of the Mamore, 1450 ft.
The original site of Santa Cruz de la Sierra was in the uplands, but it was removed to its present site about 1590, the phrase "de la Sierra" being kept.
Guadix occupies part of an elevated plateau among the northern foothills of the Sierra Nevada.
He saw the Yosemite Valley, the Big Trees, and botanized in the Sierra Nevada and at Gray's Peak.
The chief sierras, or ranges, are those of Maria, in the north; Estancias and Oria, north of the Almanzora river; Filabres, in the middle of the province; Cabrera and Gata, along the southeast coast; Alhamilla, east of the city of Almeria; Gador in the south-west; and, in the west, some outlying ridges of the Sierra Nevada.
Garnets are found in the Sierra de Gata and in the Sierra Nevada fine marble is quarried.
The trail entered what is now Utah, just east of the Dolores river, crossed the Grand river near the Sierra La Salle and the Green river at the present crossing of the Denver & Rio Grande railway, proceeded thence to the Sevier river and southward along its valley to the headwaters of the Virgin river, which it followed southward, and then westward, so that its line' left the present state near its south-west corner.
Cephalotus occurs only near Albany in Western Australia, Heliamphora on the Roraima Mountains in Venezuela, Darlingtonia on the Sierra Nevada of California, and these three genera too are as yet monotypic; of Sarracenia, however, there are seven known species scattered over the eastern states of North America.
Between the 5th and 6th parallels the range divides into two branches, the eastern passing into Venezuela, where it is called the Cordillera de Merida, and the northern continuing north and north-east as the Sierra de Perija and the Sierra de Oca, to terminate at the north-eastern extremity of the Goajira peninsula.
West of this range, and lying between the 10th parallel and the Caribbean coast, is a remarkable group of lofty peaks and knotted ranges known as the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the highest snowcrowned summit of which rises 17,389 ft.
Its general elevation is below that of the Central Cordillera, and it has few summits rising above the line of perpetual snow, the highest being the Sierra Nevada de Cocui, in lat.
The remaining rivers of the Caribbean system, exclusive of the smaller ones rising in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, are the Zulia and Catatumbo, which rise in the mountains of northern Santander and flow across the low plains of the Venezuelan state of Zulia into Lake Maracaibo.
The depth of the bay ranges from 42 to 19 fathoms. The town stands at the foot of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, which restricts the area of cultivatable land in its immediate vicinity, and the enclosing high lands make the climate hot and somewhat dangerous for foreigners.
In all these branches of the Andes the folds run approximately in the direction of the chains, but the Sierra de Santa Marta appears to belong to a totally distinct system of folding, the direction of the folds being from west to east, bending gradually towards the south-east.
Sievers, "Die Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and die Sierra de Perija," Zeits.
The low ridges of the Sierra de Perija do not wholly shut out these moisture-laden winds, but they cause a heavy rainfall on their eastern slopes, and create a dry area on their western flanks, of which the Vale of Upar is an example.
The higher masses of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta cover a very limited area, leaving the trade winds a comparatively unbroken sweep across the northern plains until checked by the Western Cordillera, the Panama ranges and the Sierra de Baudo, where a heavy precipitation follows.
It occupies a height crowned by a medieval fortress, among the foothills of the Sierra del Cano.
It grows at considerable elevations in southern Europe, in the Alps, Apennines, Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada (4000 to 8000 ft.).
He obtained an office in the financial department of the government; and in 1795 was made intendant of the colonies which had just been founded in Sierra Morena and Andalusia.
The only regular ranges in Panama are in the extreme western part where the Costa Rica divide continues into Panama, and, immediately south of this and parallel to it, the Cordillera of San Blas, or Sierra de Chiriqui, where the highest peaks are Chiriqui (11,265 ft.) and, on the Costa Rican boundary, Pico Blanco (11,740 ft.) and Rovalo (7020 ft.) there are two passes, 3600 and 4000 ft.
These ranges are outliers of the Pyrenees, which extend along the northern frontier, forming there the lofty Sierra del Cadi with the peak of Tosa (8317 ft.).
The central districts are watered by the Llobregat, which rises at the base of the Sierra del Cadi, and flows into the sea near Barcelona, the capital, after receiving many small tributaries.
Its best known mines are those of the Sierra de Famatina, 16,400 ft.
The capital of the province is La Rioja (pop., 1904, about 6000), on the eastern flank of the Sierra de Velasco, about 1770 ft.
The surface consists of a narrow coastal zone where tropical conditions prevail, a broad belt of mountainous country covered by the ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental and their intervening valleys where oak and pine forests are to be found, and an intervening zone among the foothills of the Sierra Madre up to an elevation of 2000 ft., where the conditions are subtropical.
Thus Diniz Diaz, Nuno Tristam, and others reached the Senegal in 1445; Diaz rounded Cape Verde in the same year; and in 1446 Alvaro Fernandez pushed on almost to our Sierra Leone, to a point 10 leagues beyond Cape Verde.
The capital, Chilpancingo, or Chilpancingo de los Bravos (pop. 7497 in 1900), is a small town in the Sierra Madre about 110 m.
A trading station called Georgetown is situated on McCarthy's Island, so named after Sir Charles McCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who in 1824 was captured and beheaded by the Ashanti at the battle of Essamako.
The principal imports, of which over s come from Great Britain or British colonies, are cotton goods, kola-nuts (from Sierra Leone), tobacco, rice, sugar and spirits.
When the slave trade was abolished, the settlement was placed under the jurisdiction of the governor of Sierra Leone, and was formally annexed to Sierra Leone on the dissolution of the Royal African Company (1822).
Similar tribes are found along the coast to the Bissagos Islands, though the introduction in Sierra Leone and Liberia of settlements of repatriated slaves from the American plantations has in those places modified the original ethnic distribution.
To her colonial empire in America he added the greater part of Santo Domingo, Tobago and Dominica; he restored Guiana; prepared for the acquisition of Louisiana by supporting Cavelier de la Salle; extended the suzerainty of the king on the coast of Africa from the Bay of Arguin to the shores of Sierra Leone, and instituted the first commercial relations with India.
A narrow watershed separates it from the headwaters of the o P streams flowing south-west through Sierra Leone.
In other parts, as in the Basque country, in Galicia, in the Serrania de Cuenca (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Jiicar), in the Sierra de Albarracin (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Guadalaviar), there are extensive tracts of undulating forest-clad hill country, and almost contiguous to these there are apparently boundless plains, or tracts of level table-land, some almost uninhabitable, and some streaked with irrigation canals and richly cultivatedlike the Rcquena of Valencia.
The greater part of the interior of Spain is composed of a table-land bounded by the Cantabrian Mountains in the north and the Sierra Morena in the south, and divided into two by a series Central of mountain ranges stretching on the whole from east Table-land to west.
Farther south the mountains clustered on the east of the table-land (Sierra de Albarracin, Serrania de Cuenca) long rendered direct communication between Valencia and Madrid extremely difficult, and the principal communications with the east and south-east are effected where the southern table-land of La Mancha merges in the hill country which connects the interior of Spain with the Sierra Nevada.
In the south the descent from the table-land to the valley of the Guadalquivir is again comparatively gradual, but even here in the eastern half of the Sierra Morena the passes are few, the most important being the Puerto de Despeflaperros, where the Rio Magana, a sub-tributary of the Guadalimar, has cut for itself a deep gorge through which the railway ascends from Andalusia to Madrid.
Between Andalusia and Estremadura farther west the communication is freer, the Sierra Morena being broken.
Of these chains, to which Spanish geographers give the name Carpetano-Vetonica, the most easterly is the Sierra de Guadarrama, the general trend of which is from south-west to northeast.
It is the Montes Carpetani of the ancients, and a portion of it (due north of Madrid) still bears the name of Carpetanos Composed almost entirely of granite, it has an aspect when seen from a distance highly characteristic of the mountains of the Iberian Peninsula in general, presenting the appearance of a saw-like ridge (sierra) broken up into numerous sections.
The chief passes across the Sierra are those of Somosierra (4692 ft.) in the north-east, Navacerrada (5837 ft.), near Pealara, and Guadarrama (5010 ft.), a few miles farther south and west; these are crossed by carriage roads.
A region with a highly irregular surface, filled with hills and parameras, separates the Sierra de Guadarrama from the Sierra tie Gredos farther west.
This is the loftiest and grandest sierra in the whole series.
On the west another rough and hilly tract, similar to that which divides it from the Sierra de Guadarrama in the east, separates it from the Sierra de Gata, the westernmost and the lowest of the Spanish sierras belonging to the series.
The Sierra de Gredos has a road across it connecting Avila with Talavera de Ia Reina by the Puerto del Pico; but for the most part there are only bridle-paths across the Gredos and Gata ranges, and no railway crosses either of them, although the line from Plasencia to Salamanca skirts the Sierra de Gredos on the west.
The southern system of mountains bounding the Iberian table-landthe Sierra Morena (q.v.)is even less of a continuous chain than the two systems last described.
Even more important than the mountains bounding or crossing the table-land are those which are connected with it only at their extremities; viz, the Pyrenees (q.v.) in the north-east, the Sierra Nevada and the coast ranges in the south.
These ranges are continued farther west by the Sierra de Alhama and Sierra, de Ahdalajiz.
To Spanish geographers the coast ranges just mentioned are known collectively as the Sierra Penihetica.
Although not comparable in altitude with the Pyrenees (highest summit Aneto, 11,168 ft.) or the Sierra Nevada (highest summit Mulhacen, 11,421 ft.), the coast ranges frequently attain an elevation of over 5000 ft., and in some cases of over 6000 ft.
North-east of the Sierra Nevada two small ranges, Alcaraz and La Sagra, rise with remarkable abruptness from the plateau of Murcia, where it merges in that of the interior.
It stretches from Gahicia arc Asturias on the north to the valley of the Guadaiquivir on tiw south, and includes the mountains of Castile, the Sierra de Toledc and the Sierra Morena.
Archean rocks are exposed in the north of the Peninsula, particu larly along the great Pyrenean axis, in Galicia, Estremadura, tb Sierra Morena, the Sierra Nevada and Serrania de Ronda.
The largest tract of them is to be seen to the south of the Cantabrian chain; but another, of hardly inferior extent, flanks the Sierra de Guadarrama, and spreads out over the great plain from Madrid to Cceres.
They likewise appear in Castile, forming the sierras of Gredos and Guadarrama; farther south they rise in the mountains of Toledo, in the Sierra Morena, and across the provinces of Cordova, Seville, Huelva and Badajoz as fal as Evora in Portugal.
There occur also quartz-porphyry (Sierra Morena, Pyrenees, &c), diorite, porphyrite, diabase (well developed in the north of Andalusia, where it plays a great part in the structure of the Sierra Morena), ophite (Pyrenees, Cadiz), serpentine (forming an enormous mass in the Serrania de Ronda), trachyte, liparite, andesite, basalt.
The southern zone, to which the name of African has been given, embraces the whole of Andalusia as far as the Sierra Morena, the southern half of Murcia and the province of Alicante.
The endemic species are naturally most numerous in the mountains, and above all in the loftiest ranges, the Pyrenees and the Sierra Nevada; but it is a peculiarity of the Spanish tableland, as compared with the plains and table-lands of central Europe, tha.t it also possesses a considerable number of endemic plants and plants of extremely restricted range.
Among other characteristic trees are the Spanish pine (Pinus hispanica), the Corsican pine (P. Li,r-icio), the Pinsapo fir (Abies Pinsapo), and the Quercus Tozza, the last belonging to the slopes of the Sierra Nevada.
Besides the cattle reared for field-labor and (in the northern provinces) for regular dairy farming, bulls for bull-fighting are specially reared in many parts of the country, particularly in the forests of Navarre, the mountains separating the two Castiles, the Sierra Morena, and the Serrania de Ronda in Granada, and also in separate enclosures on the islands of the Guadalquivir.
In the mountain country of Cuenca, Albacete, and the Sierra Nevada the natives known as the Orospedans were entirely independent in the middle of the 6th century.
There was a disposition on all hands, save among the irreconcilable Christians of the Sierra de Ronda, to accept peace under a capable master.
Castile, by its geographical position as the centre of Spain from Cantabria to the Sierra Morena, was the forefront of the struggle with the Moors.
Overthrow At the Navas de Tolosa, just south of the Sierra of the Morena, the Almohdes received the final overthrow Almohdes.
Many of the kings industrial enterprises, such as the Bavarian colony, established by him on the southern slope of the Sierra Morena, passed away without leaving much trace.
The Douro rises south of the Sierra de la Demanda, in the Pico de Urbion, an isolated mountain mass 73 8 9 ft.
In Spain the Douro receives from the right the rivers Pisuerga, Valderaduey and Esla, and from the left several small streams which drain the Sierra Guadarrama, besides the more important rivers Adaja, Tormes and Yeltes; in Portugal it receives the Agueda, C6a and Paiva from the left, and the Sabor,.
The eastern chain begins north of the equator at 6000 ft., gradually rises to the height of Nevado (14,146 ft.), Pan de Azucar (12,140 ft.), and in the Sierra Nevada de Cochi attains to peaks of 16,70o ft.
An unmistakable batrachian of this order, referred by its describer to Palaeobatrachus, a determination which is only provisional, has been discovered in the Kimmeridgian of the Sierra del Montsech, Catalonia (25), in a therefore somewhat older formation than the Wealden Caudata Hylaeobatrachus.
The United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) was retained to help monitor the cease-fire.
Sierra Rica, based near ancient, organic chestnut woods in southern Spain, sells cooked and peeled chestnuts in jars.
Like many places in the Sierra Nevada, this is a landscape of dramatic granite domes.
For the first 100 km, the way climbs the foothills of the Sierra de Guadarrama - high granite moorland.
What precisely is happening in sierra leone and new guinea?
A still hardier mountaineer is the Sierra juniper (Juniperus occidentalis ), growing mostly on domes and ridges and glacier pavements.
Sierra Pole Creek To show photomicrographs with the Swift microscope, we skip ahead to May of 2001.
White Towns to the Southern Plains (grade 2) Visit atmospheric pueblos blancos and descend to the coast via a rugged sierra.
We are able to supply motorsport parts for R.S cosworth, sierra & escort, also for the ford racing puma.
Alternatively, for the more adventurous, Cotopaxi, in the central sierra, is Ecuador's most frequently climbed volcano.
Having company health insurance life sierra worse or broker to work.
The woman died after a white ford sierra collided with her on Castle Hill Road in Hindley.
Mr Kamara, whose father is from Sierra Leone, has not assaulted his racist tormentors over the six years of living in Stubbington.
Everyone in Sierra Leone has been deeply traumatized by the war...
In 1212 Mahommed III., "En-Nasir" (1199-1214), the successor of El Mansur, was utterly defeated by the allied five Christian princes of Spain, Navarre and Portugal, at Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena.
The line starts at the intersection of the 23rd parallel with the 67th meridian and runs south-westerly and southerly to the mountain and volcano summits of Rincon, Socompa, Llullaillaco, Azufre, Aguas Blancas and Sierra Nevada, thence to the initial point of the British award.
The pampas, which cover so large a part of the republic, have no native trees whatever, and no woods except the scrubby growth of the delta islands of the Parana., and a fringe of low thorn-bushes along the Atlantic coast south to Mar Chiquita and south of the Tandil sierra, which, strictly speaking, does not belong to this region.
It is formed by the confluence of three head-streams, one of which rises on the northern versant of La Sagra (7875 ft.), a mountain in Granada, while the other two spring from the Sierra de Segura, in Jaen.
The Mano or Bewa river rises in the dense Gora forest, but is of no great importance until it becomes the frontier between Liberia and Sierra Leone.
The extreme north of Liberia is still for the most part a very well-watered country, covered with a rich vegetation, but there are said to be a few breaks that are rather stony and that have a very well-marked dry season in which the vegetation is a good deal burnt up. In the main Liberia is the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its existing fauna.
As the origin of the Sierra Leonis and the Americo-Liberian settlers was very much the same, an increasing intimacy is growing up between the English-speaking populations of these adjoining countries.
East and south of the Sierra de Merida and the Maritime Andes the region is thinly populated and little known.
Notwithstanding that Freetown possesses an abundant and pure water-supply, drawn from the adjacent hills, it is enervating and unhealthy, and it was particularly to the capital, often spoken of as Sierra Leone, that the designation "White Man's Grave" applied.
The mountain ranges which form part of the great Mexican Plateau consist of two marginal chains known as the Sierra Madre Occidental, on the west, the Sierra Madre Oriental, on the east, and a broken, weakly-defined chain of transverse ranges and ridges between the 18th and 10th parallels known as the Cordillera de Anahuac. All these chains are known locally under diverse names.
The floor of this depression being below baselevel, it has necessarily come to be the seat of the mountain waste brought down by the many streams from the newly uplifted Sierra Nevada on the east and the coast ranges on the west; each stream forms an alluvial fan of very gentle slope; the fans all become laterally confluent, and incline very gently forward to meet in a nearly level axial belt, where the trunk riversthe Sacramento from the north and the San Joaquin from the south-east--wander in braided courses; their tendency to aggradation having been increased in the last half century by the gravels from gold washing; their waters entering San Francisco Bay.
Almost all of the United States east of the 98th meridian is naturally a forest region, and forests cover the greater part of the Rocky Mountains, the Cascades, the Sierra Nevadas and the Coast Range, but throughout the belt of plains, basins and deserts west of the Rocky Mountains and on the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains there are few trees except along the watercourses, and the prevailing type of vegetation ranges from bunch grass to sage brush and cactuses according to the degree of aridity and the temperature.
That part of California which lies to the south and east of the southern inosculation of the Coast Range and the Sierra comprises an area of fully 50,000 sq.
Its development was hampered by the frequent changes in the governorship. Sydney Smith's jest that Sierra Leone had always two governors, one just arrived in the colony, and the other just arrived in England, is but a slight exaggeration.
The line decided upon, and accepted by Colombia, starts from the north shore of Calabozo Bay on the west side of the Gulf of Maracaibo, and runs west and south-west to and along the water-parting (Sierra de Perija) between the drainage basins of the Magdalena and Lake Maracaibo as far as the source in lat.
Alternatively, for the more adventurous, Cotopaxi, in the central sierra, is Ecuador 's most frequently climbed volcano.
Our original sierra estate was an A reg, 1983 or something like that.
Erythronium pusaterii is yet another local endemic of the subalpine zone of the southern Sierra Nevada mountains.
The Sierra Trading Post, "your in-home outlet mall", offers a massive selection of women's and men's hiking boots and shoes, including footwear designed specifically for light hiking and trail running.
Sierra Trading Post has a very good selection of many brands that you can select from.