Sicilian Sentence Examples
The condition of Sicilian laborers is also miserable.
Most of the fishing boats, properly so called, start from the Adriatic coast, the coral boats from the western Mediterranean coast, and the sponge boats from the western Mediterranean and Sicilian coasts.
On the 6th of March 1885 parliament finally sanctioned the conventions by which state railways were farmed out to three private companiesthe Mediterranean, Adriatic and Sicilian.
The Normans in Sicily could hardly be said to become Sicilians, for there assuredly was no Sicilian nation for them to be absorbed into.
As far then as concerned the lands in which the settlements were made, the difference lay in this, that, as has been already said, while there was an English nation, there was no Sicilian nation.Advertisement
He steered a middle course between the factions at Rome, and sought a settlement of the Sicilian question.
On the outbreak of the Sicilian revolution at Palermo (January 12, 1848) he hastened to the island and took an active part in guiding the insurrection.
Twice in that year he went the round of the Sicilian cities in disguise, and prepared the insurrectionary movement of 1860.
After the fall of Palermo, Crispi was appointed minister of the interior and of finance in the Sicilian provisional government, but was shortly afterwards obliged to resign on account of the struggle between Garibaldi and the emissaries of Cavour with regard to the question of immediate annexation.
There is, on the other hand, no conclusive evidence for the previous existence of a ' Strabo goes on to say that Archias fell in with certain men who had come from the Sicilian Megara, and took them with him to share in his enterprise.Advertisement
In its external development Syracuse differed somewhat from other Sicilian cities.
The part of Syracuse in general Sicilian affairs has been traced in the article Sicily; but one striking scene is wholly local, when the defeated Ducetius took refuge in the hostile city (451), and the common voice of the people bade "spare the suppliant."
To him Syracuse owed her deliverance from the younger Dionysius and from Hicetas, who held the rest of Syracuse, and to him both Syracuse and the Sicilian Greeks owed a decisive triumph over Carthage and the safe possession of Sicily west of the river Halycus, the largest portion of the island.
The Sicilian Vespers by weakening Charles strengthened the commune, which aimed at complete independence of emperors, kings and popes.
They were always ready to come to blows, and gave still more signal proofs of their enmity during the Sicilian War in behalf of the emperor Henry VI.Advertisement
At the time of the Sicilian Vespers (1282), which drove the French out of Sicily, Messina bravely defended itself against Charles of Anjou, and repulsed his attack.
Louis despatched a fleet into Sicilian waters, and the French occupied the city.
The colonies of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara, and the Sicilian offshoots of the Asiatic Dorians, belong to historic times (8th-6th centuries).
Its first note is struck by Ennius in his translation of the Sceptl- Sicilian rationalist Euhemerus, who explained the genesis m, of the gods as apotheosized mortals.
The dome is an unsuitable addition of 1731 by the Sicilian architect Filippo Juvara (1685-1735), and its baroque decorations spoil the effect of the fine Gothic interior.Advertisement
Under the will of Corradino a representative of the blood of Roger the Norman, Peter of Aragon claimed the succession, and it came to him by the revolution known as " the Sicilian Vespers " when 28,000 French were exterminated in Sicily.
To commemorate his Sicilian victory, he caused it to be pictorially represented on the wall of the Curia Hostilia, the first example of an historical fresco at Rome.
Durazzo was captured (11th June 1185) and in August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The interior is richly decorated with marbles, almost all of which, except the white Carrara marble, are Neapolitan or Sicilian.
The campanile, Sicilian in style, was completed in 1234, while the dome, which betrays similar motives, is even later.Advertisement
Similarly the latter supported Duke Roger, his nephew, against Bohemund, Capua and his rebels, and the real leadership of the Hautevilles passed to the Sicilian count.
In a Sicilian story an innkeeper corks up Death in a bottle; so nobody dies for years, and the long white beards are a sight to see.
The Sicilian modius here is 16/31, or slightly under 1/3 of the bath, and so probably a Punic variant of the 1/3 bath or saton of Phoenicia.
This unit passed also into Italy, the libra of Picenum and the double of the Etrurian and Sicilian libra (17); it was there divided in unciae and scripulae (44), the mean of 6 from Italy and Sicily being 6600; one weight (bought in Smyrna) has the name "Leitra" on it.
But although, like his fellow-brigands under Ruffo, he styled himself "the faithful servant and subject of His Sicilian Majesty," wore a military uniform and held militaryrank, and was even created duke of Cassano, his atrocities were worthy of a bandit chief.
They established the trade in the thriving towns of Asia Minor, and they planted it as far west as Sicily, as Sicilian silks of the 12th century with Saracenic patterns still testify.
The policy of the minister led to a general conspiracy, and in November 1160 he was murdered in Palermo by Matthew Bonello, leader of the Sicilian nobles.
For a while the king was in the hands of the conspirators, who purposed murdering or deposing him, but the people and the army rallied round him; he recovered power, crushed the Sicilian rebels, had Bonello blinded, and in a short campaign reduced the rest of the Regno.
During the Sicilian campaigns of Athens Corcyra served as a base for supplies; after a third abortive rising of the oligarchs in 410 it practically withdrew from the war.
But he was prevented from carrying out this policy by an unforeseen blow, the Sicilian Vespers (March 1282), an event important both in itself and in its results.
In this case, too, the Sicilian Vespers was the rock on which the hopes and pretensions of the sovereign of Naples suffered shipwreck.
The invasion, however, failed, and Michael so far had his revenge in the "Sicilian Vespers," which he helped to bring about.
Litt., gives the date of birth as about 4501 the Sicilian family were well known to Plato, and that their houses must often have been hospitable to such gatherings..
There, too, Lysias is said to have commenced his studies in rhetoric - doubtless under a master of the Sicilian school - possibly, as tradition said, under Tisias, the pupil of Corax, whose name is associated with the first attempt to formulate rhetoric as; an art.
The taste of the day -not yet emancipated from the influence of the Sicilian rhetoric -probably demanded a large use of antithesis.
Not to mention the olive, which must have been introduced at a remote period, all the members of the orange tribe, the agave and the prickly pear, as well as other plants highly characteristic of Sicilian scenery, have been introduced since the beginning of the Christian era.
The falling-off in the exportation of cereals is not a consequence of any decadence in Sicilian agriculture, but rather of the increase of population, which nearly doubled within the 19th century.
Originally the Sicilian system was perhaps due to climatic difficulties, but now it is recognized in most cases to be more rational than combined culture.
Yet the wool harvest is scarce, and the production of butter a negligible quantity, though there is abundance of the principal product of Sicilian pasture lands, cheese of various kinds, for which there is a lively local demand.
The Sicilian race of horses would be good but that it is not prolific, and has degenerated in consequence of insufficient nourishment and overwork.
The absence of forests, which cover hardly 3% of the total area of the island, constitutes a serious obstacle to the prosperity of Sicilian pastoral and agrarian undertakings.
The most important Sicilian mineral is undoubtedly sulphur, which is mined principally in the provinces of Caltanissetta and Girgenti, and in minor quantities in those of Palermo and Catania.
Nineteen-twentieths of the sulphur consumed in the world was formerly drawn from Sicilian mines, while some 50,000 persons were employed in the extraction, manufacture, transport and trade in the mineral.
Another Sicilian mineral industry is that of common salt and rocksalt.
The majority of the scanty Sicilian industries are directly connected with various branches of agriculture.
Another flourishing Sicilian industry carried on by a large number of small houses is that of preserving vegetables in tins.
The total length of Sicilian railways is now 890 m., all single lines.
The poverty of the Sicilian population is accentuated by the unequal distribution of wealth among the different classes of society.
The origin of most of the abuses which vitiate Sicilian political life, and of the frequent scandals in the representative local administrations, is to be found in the straitened condition of the Sicilian middle classes.
The moral and intellectual defects of Sicilian society are in part results of the economic difficulties, and in part the effect of bad customs introduced or maintained during the long period of Sicilian isolation from the rest of Europe.
Thus, even now, 60% of the Sicilian conscripts come up for military service unable either to read or to write.
On the other hand, Sicily has been more than once made the road to African conquest and settlement, bath by Sicilian princes and by the Roman masters of Sicily.
And the influence of Greece on Sicily has been repaid in more than one shape by Sicilian rulers who have at various times held influence and dominion in Greece and elsewhere beyond the Adriatic. The connexion between Sicily and Italy begins with the primitive kindred between some of the oldest elements in each.
That the Sicels spoke a tongue closely akin to Latin is plain from several Sicel words which crept into Sicilian Greek, and from the Siceliot system of weights and measures - utterly unlike anything in old Greece.
Both Ionian and Dorian colonies were planted, both from the older Greek lands and from the older Sicilian settlements.
This first period of Sicilian history lasts as long as Sicily remains untouched from any non-Hellenic quarter outside, and as long as the Greek cities in Sicily remain as a rule independent of one another.
To these was added the special growth of freedom - the art of public speaking, in which the Sicilian Greeks became especially proficient, Corax being the founder of the rhetorical school of Sicily.
Epicharmus (540-450), carried as a babe to Sicily, is a link between native Siceliots and the strangers invited by Hiero; as the founder of the local Sicilian comedy, he ranks among Siceliots.
After him Sophron of Syracuse gave the Sicilian mimes a place among the forms of Greek poetry.
Presently this state of Sicilian isolation was broken in upon by the great Peloponnesian War.
The far more memorable interference of Athens in Sicilian affairs in the year 415 was partly in answer to the cry of the exiles of Leontini, partly to a quite distinct appeal from the Elymian Segesta.
But its results make it a marked epoch in Sicilian history, and the Athenian plans, if successful, would have changed the whole face of the West.
We are struck also by the low military level of the Sicilian Greeks.
Carthage, after a long period of abstention from intervention in Sicilian affairs, and the observance of a wise neutrality during the war between Athens and Syracuse, stepped in as the ally of Segesta, the enemy of her old ally Selinus.
His dominion is Italian as well as Sicilian; his influence, as an ally of Sparta, is important in old Greece; while, as a hirer of mercenaries everywhere, he had wider relations than any earlier Greek with the nations of western Europe.
Meanwhile Acragas, deeming Agathocles and the barbarians alike weakened, proclaimed freedom for the Sicilian cities under her own headship. Many towns, both Greek and Sicel, joined the confederacy.
A new scheme of Sicilian union was taken up by Deinocrates, which cut short his dominion.
Agathocles in his old age took a wife of the house of Ptolemy; he gave his daughter Lanassa to Pyrrhus, and established his power east of Hadria, as the first Sicilian ruler of Corcyra.
His Sicilian war (278-276)1 was a mere interlude between the two acts of his war with Rome.
As son-in-law of Agathocles, he claimed to be specially king of Sicily, and he held the Sicilian conquest of Corcyra as the dowry of Lanassa.
Messana alone remained an Italian ally of Rome on Sicilian soil.
His time marks the growth of a new form of local Sicilian genius.
The poet, himself of Syracuse, went to and fro between the courts of Hiero and Ptolemy Philadelphus; but his poetry is essentially Sicilian.
With the incorporation of the kingdom of Hiero into the Roman province independent Sicilian history comes to an end for many ages.
Sicilian history began again when the wandering of the nations planted new powers, not on the frontier of the empire, but at its heart.
Alaric thought of a Sicilian expedition, but a storm hindered him.
Gregory's Letters are largely occupied with the affairs of the great Sicilian estates held by the Roman church, as by the churches of Milan and Ravenna.
But the great conqueror had left behind him men trained in his school, and eleven years later the eagles of the new Rome again marched to Sicilian victories.
The ravages of the Sicilian Saracens in the Greek islands were more frightful than ever, and George Maniaces, the first captain of his time, was sent to win back the lost land.
The Sicilian Saracens were hindered by their internal feuds from ever becoming a great power; but they stood high among Mahommedan nations.
In Sicily there were many nations all protected by the Sicilian king; but there was no Sicilian nation.
The Eastern warfare of the Good is stained by the frightful sack of Thessalonica; it is marked also by the formation of an Eastern state under Sicilian supremacy (1186).
Corfu and Durazzo were to be more closely connected with the Sicilian crown.
First of four Western emperors who wore the Sicilian crown, Henry died in 1197, leaving the kingdom to his young son Frederick, heir of the Norman kings through his mother.
And the close connexion between Sicily and England leads to many occasional references to Sicilian matters in English writers.
The Germans who helped Henry to win the Sicilian crown did not become a new element in the island, but only a source of confusion during the minority of his son.
Two emperors had now held the Sicilian crown.
Edmund of England bore the Sicilian title for a moment.
The whole Sicilian kingdom became the spoil of a stranger who was no deliverer to any class of its people.
Sicilian feeling was first shown in the support given to the luckless expedition of Conradin in 1268.
Peter and Michael were doubtless watching the turn of things in Sicily; but the tale of a long-hidden conspiracy between them and the whole Sicilian people has been set aside by Amari.
The actual outbreak of 1282, the famous Sicilian Vespers, was stirred up by the wrongs of the moment.
A gross case of insult offered by a Frenchman to a Sicilian woman led to the massacre at Palermo, and the like scenes followed elsewhere.
There was at last a Sicilian nation, a nation for a while capable of great deeds.
Frederick was the real restorer of Sicilian independence.
There were thus two Sicilian kingdoms and two kings of Sicily.
In 1530 the Sicilian island of Malta became the shelter of the Knights of Saint John driven by the Turk from Rhodes, and Sicily has received several colonies of Christian Albanians, who have replaced Greek and Arabic by yet another tongue.
The unsatisfactory character of the Athenian Peloponnesian coalition was one of the negative causes which led up to the Sicilian Expedition of 415.
After the news of the Sicilian disaster Athens was compelled at last to draw on the reserve of 1000 talents which had lain untouched in the treasury.'
It may be noticed that all these writers whose works were thus introduced to the Romans were Sicilian Greeks.
The Fatimite general Jauhar (variously represented as of Greek, Slav and Sicilian origin), who enjoyed the complete confidence of the Fatimite sovereign, was placed at the head of an army of 100,000 menif Oriental numbers are to be trustedand started from Rakkada at the beginning of March 969 with the view of seizing Egypt.
Among Sicilian discoveries must be counted a remarkable archaic statue of a seated goddess which was in Paris at the outbreak of war, and was soon afterwards acquired by the Berlin Museum.
The inhabitants take part in the coral and sponge fishing off the African and Sicilian coasts, and coral is worked in the town.
In favour of the authorship of Lucilius are the facts that he was a friend of Seneca and acquainted with his writings; that he had for some time held the office of imperial procurator of Sicily, and was thus familiar with the locality; that he was the author of a poem on Sicilian subjects.
He quelled a rising of Sicilian barons and Saracens, and confined 60,000 of the latter at Lucera in Capitanata, where they ended by becoming a most loyal colony.
In 1231 he issued the celebrated Constitutions of the Sicilian kingdom at the parliament of Melfi.
He opened schools and universities, and he himself wrote poetry in Sicilian dialect.
He had induced Peter to make good his somewhat shadowy claims to the crown of Sicily, but while preparations were being made for the expedition, the popular rising known as the Sicilian Vespers, which resulted in the massacre of nearly all the French in the island, broke out at Palermo on Easter Day 1282.
The Sicilian fleet under Ruggiero di Lauria defeated that of the Angevins at Malta in 1283, and 1284 in the Bay of Naples, where the king's son, Charles the Lame, was captured.
Ferdinand to some extent maintained French legislation, but otherwise reorganized the state with Metternich's approval on Bourbon lines; he proclaimed himself king of the Two Sicilies at the congress of Vienna, incorporating Naples and Sicily into one state, and abolished the Sicilian constitution (December 1816).
The Sicilian assembly met in March 1848, and Settimo in his inaugural speech declared that the Bourbon dynasty had ceased to reign, that the throne was vacant and that Sicily united her destinies to those of Italy.
Sicilian troops were now levied throughout the island and the chief command given to the Pole Mieroslawski, but it was too late.
For a few months after the dissolution of the Neapolitan parliament the government abstained from persecution, but with the crushing of the Sicilian revolution its hands The were free; and when the commission on the affair of Neapolitan prisons, t h e 15th of May had completed its labours the state trials and arrests began.
Garibaldi's forces were now raised to 12,000 men, besides the Sicilian squadre.
He does not appear to have attained high official rank; the statement that he was imperial procurator and legate of the Sicilian provinces rests upon conjecture only.
When the adventures of Odysseus were localized on the Italian and Sicilian coasts, the Sirens were transferred to the neighbourhood of Neapolis and Surrentum, the promontory of Pelorum at the entrance to the Straits of Messina, or elsewhere.
Upon the arrival of Garibaldi at Naples, Bertani was appointed secretary-general of the dictator, in which capacity he reorganized the police, abolished the secret service fund, founded twelve infant asylums, suppressed the duties upon Sicilian products, prepared for the suppression of the religious orders, and planned the sanitary reconstruction of the city.
But in neither form is it free from later interpolation; and its untrustworthiness is shown by its conflicting with data 1 I is now generally recognized, thanks to Volquardsen and others, that Ephorus is the principal authority followed by Diodorus, except in the chapters relating to Sicilian history.
The "dolce libriccino," the famous Trattato utilissimo del beneficio di Gesu Christo crocifisso verso i christiani, which was the composition of a Sicilian Benedictine and had been touched up by the great latinist Flaminio, just appeared at Mantua in 1542 under the auspices of Morone, and had a wide circulation (over 40,000 copies of the second edition, Venice 1543, were sold).
Epicharmus was the chief representative of the Sicilian or Dorian comedy.
In 1860 he went to Sicily on a mission to reconcile the policy of Cavour (who desired the immediate incorporation of the island in the kingdom of Italy) with that of Garibaldi, who wished to postpone the Sicilian plebiscite until after the liberation of Naples and Rome.
Gregory interfered to prevent a national conspiracy against the Langobards, like that of St Brice's day in England against the Danes, or that later uprising against the French, the Sicilian Vespers.
In his history of the Punic wars Caelius Antipater (c. 130 B.C.) added fresh material, drawn probably from the works of the Sicilian Greek Silenus, while Licinius Macer (70 B.C.) distinguished himself by the use he made of the ancient "linen books."
The game appears to have been of Sicilian origin, but it spread through Greece from Thessaly to Rhodes, and was especially fashionable at Athens.
From the sublimity of Thucydides, and Xenophon's straightforward story, history passed with Theopompus and Ephorus into the field of rhetoric. A revival of the scientific instinct of investigation is discernable in Timaeus the Sicilian, at the end of the 4th century, but his attack upon his predecessors was the text of a more crushing attack upon himself by Polybius, who declares him lacking in critical insight and biased by passion.
The Platonic dialogue, however, was founded on the mime, which had been cultivated half a century earlier by the Sicilian poets, Sophron and Epicharmus.
In our own day, the French have returned to the original application of dialogue, and the inventions of "Gyp," of Henri Lavedan and of others, in which a mundane anecdote is wittily and maliciously told in conversation, would probably present a close analogy to the lost mimes of the early Sicilian poets, if we could meet with them.
Son of a Sicilian nobleman who was a worshipper of idols, Vitus was converted to the Christian faith without the knowledge of his father, was denounced by him and scourged, but resisted all attacks on his profession.
By a secret treaty he had bound himself not to advance further in a constitutional direction than Austria should at any time approve; but, though on the whole he acted in accordance with Metternich's policy of preserving the status quo, and maintained with but slight change Murat's laws and administrative system, he took advantage of the situation to abolish the Sicilian constitution, in violation of his oath, and to proclaim the union of the two states into the kingdom of the Two Sicilies (December 12th, 1816).
Formerly this was employed exclusively in the free state as brimstone, and this is still the case to a considerable extent in some countries, notably in the United States, but the great bulk of sulphuric acid is now made from metallic sulphides, especially those of iron and zinc. Most of the brimstone of trade comes from Sicily, but in the United States Louisiana sulphur is playing an important part, and seems likely to oust the Sicilian sulphur.
In the United Kingdom much gas sulphur is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, together with a limited quantity of Sicilian sulphur for the production of sulphuric acid free from arsenic.
As such it became the centre of that strife between Europe and Africa, between Aryan and Semitic man, in its later stages between Christendom and Islam, which forms the great interest of Sicilian history.
During the Norman reigns Palermo was the main centre of Sicilian history, especially during the disturbances in the reign of William the Bad (1154-1166).
From that time Palermo shared in the many changes of the Sicilian kingdom.
The loss of Naples by the Bourbons in 1798, and again in 1806, made Palermo once more the seat of a separate Sicilian kingdom.
All these buildings are the genuine work of Sicilian art, the art which had grown up in the island through the presence of the two most civilized races of the age, the Greek and the Saracen.
Of greater local interest are the medieval and Renaissance sculptures from Palermo itself, a large picture gallery, and an extensive collection of Sicilian majolica, &c.
It was over this Sicilian scheme, the crowning folly of the king, that public opinion at last grew so hot that the intermittent criticism and grumbling of the baronage and the nation passed into vigorous and masterful action.
This Spaniard of waning charms, who had been neglected by her husband and insulted by Richelieu, now gave her indolent and full-blown person, together with absolute power, into the hands of the Sicilian.
Another marriage, that of Peter, the son and successor of James the Conqueror, with Costanza, the daughter of Manfred of Beneventum, gave him claims on the Neapolitan and Sicilian inheritance of the Hohenstaufen.
From the date of the Sicilian Vespers (1283) Aragon is found mixed in the politics of Italy.
The first reforms undertaken had provoked a disturbance in Madrid directed against the kings favorite minister, the Sicilian marquis of Squillacci.
In spite of the reluctance of his wife, and the opposition of the Sicilian nobles, he accepted the invitation; and having recognized the papal supremacy over Sicily, and procured the coronation of his son Henry as its king, reached Germany after an adventurous journey in the autumn of 1212.
The result was the treaty of San Germano, arranged in July 1230, by which the emperor, loosed from the ban, promised to respect the papal territory, and to allow freedom of election and other privileges to the Sicilian clergy.
His Sicilian court was a centre of intellectual activity.
It is the centre of the Sicilian sulphur industry and the seat of a royal school of mines.
As a result of the events of 1859-60, those provinces were all annexed to Piedmont, and when Garibaldi decided on the Sicilian expedition Victor Emmanuel assisted him in various ways.
Unfortunately for Frederick, a part of the Aragonese nobles of Sicily favoured King James, and both John of Procida and Ruggiero di Lauria, the heroes of the war of the Vespers, went over to the Angevins, and the latter completely defeated the Sicilian fleet off Cape Orlando.
Meanwhile Durazzo, with Berat and Central Albania, had passed into the hands of the Sicilian kings of the house of Anjou, who ruled these regions, which they styled the "Kingdom of Albania," from 1271 to 1368, maintaining a constant warfare with the Byzantine emperors.
Cicero (l.c.) speaks of the senate in the Sicilian towns as appointed by a vote of the township. But in most towns it was the duty of the chief magistrate to draw up a list (album) of the senators every five years.
Sardinian coral commands from 3 to 4 per kilogramme (2.204 Ib), and is much more valuable than the Sicilian coral.
Even had this circumstance been known at the time, it could scarcely have mitigated the intense resentment of the whole Italian nation at an event which was considered tantamount not only to the destruction of Italian aspirations to Tunisia, but to the ruin of the interests of the numerous Italian colony and to a constant menace against the security of the Sicilian and south Italian coasts.
This last fact was significant, as the new foreign secretary, a Sicilian deputy and a specialist on international politics, had hitherto been one of Signor Sonninos staunchest adherents; his defection, which was but one of many, showed that the more prominent members of the Sonnino party were tired of waiting in vain for their chiefs access to power.
But the cruelty of the French rulers of Sicily drove the people of the island to despair, and a Neapolitan nobleman, Giovanni da Procida, organized the rebellion known as the Sicilian Vespers (see Vespers, Sicilian), in which the French in Sicily were all massacred or expelled (1282).
The Norman line of Sicilian kings might be extinct; their policy lived after them in their Hohenstaufen successors, and that policy, as it had helped to divert the Fourth Crusade to the old Norman objective of Constantinople, helped still more to give the Sixth Crusade its secular, diplomatic, non-religious aspect.
Many ideas and expressions of the Sicilian have been reproduced by the Roman poet; and the same tone of impassioned solemnity and melancholy seems to have pervaded both works.
The Italian colonies were planted among friendly, almost kindred, races, and grew much more rapidly than the Sicilian Greek states, which had to contend against the power of Carthage.
Obtaining, as a young man, in 1048, the see of Coutances, by his brother's influence (see Mowbray), he raised from his fellow nobles and from their Sicilian spoils funds for completing his cathedral, which was consecrated in 1056.
Regardless of this warning, he was induced in 1284 to take up the quarrel of his uncle Charles in Sicily, after the Sicilian Vespers in 1282.
Two magnificent marble ambones, the larger dating from 1175, a large 11th-century altar frontal in the south aisle, having scenes from the Bible carved on thirty ivory tablets, with 13th-century mosaics in the apse, given by Giovanni da Procida, the promotor of the Sicilian Vespers, and the tomb of Pope Gregory VII., and that of Queen Margaret of Durazzo, mother of King Ladislaus, erected in 1412, deserve to be mentioned.
The war for Sicily was fought in and round Sicily, and the Sicilian cities were taken and retaken by the contending powers (see Punic Wars).
If raspberry is too pedestrian, bilberry, plum or Sicilian orange organic spreads may tempt you.
This traditional Sicilian recipe uses hard-boiled eggs to make a tasty rolled beef dinner.
Of these, Thetis and Amphitrite rule the sea according to the legend of different localities; Galatea is a Sicilian figure, who plays with and deludes her rustic lover of the shore, Polyphemus.
In 1880 he went to Milan for the inauguration of the Mentana monument, and in 1882 visited Naples and Palermo, but was prevented by illness from being present at the 600th anniversary of the Sicilian Vespers.
He reformed the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates and the representatives of the towns.
The Italian and Sicilian Albanians are of Tosk descent, and many of them still speak a variation of the Tosk dialect.
The Sicilian and Neapolitan contingents were commanded by the marquess of Santa Cruz, and Cardona, Spanish officers.
The woods consist chiefly of pine and hazel upon theApennines, and upon the Calabrian, Sicilian and Sardinian mountains of oak, ilex, hornbeam and similar trees.
In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by the state; their length amounted in 1901 to 6147 m., and in f 907 to 8422 m.
The size of parishes varies from province to province, Sicily having larger parishes in virtue of the old Sicilian church laws, and Naples, and some parts of central Italy, having the smallest.
The contest between the royal power and that of the Sicilian estates threatened to bring matters to a deadlock, until in 1812, under the impulse of Lord William Bentinck, a constitution modelled largely on that of England was passed by the estates.
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
Simetite, or Sicilian amber, takes its name from the river Simeto or Giaretta.
The Burmese amber is yellow or reddish, some being of ruby tint, and like the Sicilian amber it is fluorescent.
The English and the Sicilian settlements form the main Norman history of the II th century.
The circumstances of their Apulian and Sicilian conquests certainly did not tend to bring out this feature of their character so strongly as it was brought out by the circumstances of their English conquest.
The Sicilian enterprise had in some respects another character.
But the growth of a united Sicilian nation was impossible; the usual style to express the inhabitants of the island is "omnes" or "u n iversi Siciliae populi."
In the end something like a Sicilian nation did arise; but it arose rather by the dying out of several of the elements in the country, the Norman element among them, than by any such fusion as took place in England.
The Normans in Sicily, so far as they did not die out, were merged, not in a Sicilian nation, for that did not exist, but in the common mass of settlers of Latin speech and rite, as distinguished from the older inhabitants, Greek and Saracen.
So far as there ever was a Sicilian nation at all, it might be said to be called into being by the emperor-king Frederick II.
A Sicilian church has nothing in common with a French or an English church; it is sometimes purely Oriental, sometimes a basilica with pointed arches.
Such pyrites sulphur is usually contaminated with arsenic, and conse- quently is of less value than Sicilian sulphur, which is characteristically free from this impurity.
Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
After long negotiations he accepted the Sicilian and Neapolitan crowns, and in 1264 he sent a first expedition of Provencals to Italy; he also collected a large army and navy in Provence and France with the help of King Louis, and by an alliance with the cities of Lombardy was able to send part of his force overland.
On his own initiative he conducted exhaustive inquiries into the conditions of the Sicilian peasants and of the Tuscan metayers, and in 1877 published in co-operation with Signor Leopoldo Franchetti a masterly work on Sicily (La Sicilia, Florence, 1877).
Here, as in Crete, Daedalus executed great works like the temple of Eryx, and it was on Sicilian soil that Minos, engaged in a western campaign, was said to have met with a violent death at the hands of the native king Kokalos (Cocalus) and his daughters.
His name is preserved in the Sicilian Minoa, and his tomb was pointed out in the neighbourhood of Agrigentum, with a shrine above dedicated to his native Aphrodite, the lady of the dove; and in this connexion it must be observed that the cult of Eryx perpetuates to much later times the characteristic features of the worship of the Cretan Nature goddess, as now revealed to us in the palace of Cnossus and elsewhere.
To recover her position Venice went to war again, and in 1264 destroyed the Genoese fleet off Trepani, in Sicilian waters.
Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman commander during the First Punic War, consul 242 B.C. He was sent with a fleet of zoo ships to Sicilian waters, and almost without opposition occupied the harbours of Lilybaeum and Drepanum.
If there was thus only a customary and unwritten law (and William of Tyre definitely speaks of a jus consuetudinarium under Baldwin III., quo regnum regebatur), then the "Letters of the Sepulchre" are a myth - or rather, if they ever existed, they existed not as a code of written law, but, perhaps, as a register of fiefs, like the Sicilian Defetarii.
Unhappily Frederick preferred to put his Sicilian house in order, and the legate preferred to listen to the Italians, who had their own 3 A canon of the third Lateran council (1179) forbade traffic with the Saracens in munitions of war; and this canon had been renewed by Innocent in the beginning of his pontificate.
It was from his Sicilian predecessors, who had made trade treaties with Egypt, that he had learned to make even the Crusade a matter of treaty.
Negotiating in the spirit of a Frederick II., and acting not as a Crusader but as a king of Sicily, he not only wrested a large indemnity from the bey for himself and the new king of France, but also secured a large annual tribute for his Sicilian exchequer.
During the Sicilian war against Sextus Pompeius in 36, Maecenas was sent back to Rome, and was entrusted with supreme administrative control in the city and in Italy.
The Sicilian kings ruled Athens by viceroys till 1385, when the Florentine Nerio Acciajuoli, lord of Corinth, defeated the Catalonians and seized the city.
Partial revolts in Italy succeeded; and then came the second Sicilian insurrection under Trypho and Athenio, followed by the Servile War in Italy under Spartacus.
These mines divide with the Sicilian mines the control of the sulphur market of the world.
He was in truth the Sicilian bee, and, plucking the flowers of the prophetic and apostolic meadow, he produced a wonderfully pure knowledge in the souls of the listeners."
The story that at Bactra in 327 B.C. in a public speech he advised all to worship Alexander as a god even during his lifetime, is with greater probability attributed to the Sicilian Cleon.