How to use Siberia in a sentence
Turkestan is a good wheat-producing country, cereals were actually imported from Russia and Siberia and cotton exported in exchange.
In Siberia they lead the same animal life, and the stripes on their bodies heal, and they are happy as before.
In Asia it is found on the Caucasus, but does not pass the Ural ridge into Siberia.
The flora of Russia, which represents an intermediate link between the flora of Germany and the flora of Siberia, is strikingly uniform over a very large area.
The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.Advertisement
Altogether some 800,000 peasants are estimated to have settled in Siberia during the period 1886-96, but during the years1893-1905no less than four millions in all.
In 1894 municipal institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to several towns in Siberia, and in 1895 to some in Caucasia.
The White Sea has also been brought into connexion with the central Volga basin while the sister-river of the Volga - the Kama - became the main artery of communication with Siberia.
Asia, the same fauna extending in Siberia as far as the Yenisei and the Lena.
One section of them crossed the Urals and occupied the steppes between the Urals and the Volga; the remainder belong to Turkestan and Siberia.Advertisement
The production of pig-iron nearly doubled between 1890 and 1900, increasing from 446,800 tons in the former year to 801,600 in the latter; but since 1900 the output has declined, the total for 1904 (inclusive of Siberia) being 644,000 tons.
Mining in Poland and Siberia are more fully discussed under those headings.'
Those of Nizhniy-Novgorod, with a return of 20 millions sterling, of Irbit and Kharkov, of Menzelinsk in Ufa, and Omsk and Ishim in Siberia, have considerable importance both for trade and for home manufactures.
In order to reply to accusations brought against them, or in order to be confirmed in their functions, they had to travel to the Golden Horde on the Volga or even to the camp of the grand khan in some distant part of Siberia, and the journey was considered so perilous that many of them, before setting out, made their last will and testament and wrote a parental admonition for the guidance of their children.
At first he was under the tutelage of Menshikov, who wished him to marry his daughter, but he soon contrived, with the aid of the Dolgorukis and other old families, to get his imperious tutor arrested and exiled to Siberia.Advertisement
For this unfriendly act he was deposed and replaced by Biren, who had previously been duke of Courland (1737-40) and had since been an exile in Siberia and Yarosla y.
The non-Russian frontier provinces (okrainas) had even before been under-represented (one member for every 350,000 inhabitants, as against one for every 250,000 in the central provinces); the members returned by Poland, the Caucasus and Siberia were now reduced from 89 to 39, those from the Central Asian steppes (23) were swept away altogether; the total number of deputies was reduced from 524 to 442.
The Trans-Siberian railway was a military necessity if Russia was to exercise dominion throughout Siberia and maintain a port on the Yellow Sea or the Sea of Japan.
He rode alone on horseback through Mongolia to western Siberia, and narrowly escaped being slaughtered by a mob.
Shelving gradually upward from the low flats of Siberia the general continental level rises to a great central waterparting, or divide, which stretches from the Black Sea through the Elburz and the Hindu Kush to the Tian-shan mountains in the Pamir region, and hence to Bering Strait on the extreme north-east.Advertisement
The area between the northern border of the Persian high lands and the Caspian and Aral Seas is a nearly desert low-lying plain, extending to the foot of the north - western extremity of the great Tibeto-Himalayan mountains, and prolonged east- Trans- ward up the valleys of the Oxus (Amu-Darya) and Caspian Jaxartes (Syr-Darya), and northward across the country re ior, and of the Kirghiz to the south-western border of Siberia.
Here the Tibetan mountains unite with the line of elevation which stretches across the continent from the Pacific, and which separates Siberia from the region commonly spoken of under the name of central Asia.
Last is the Altai, near the 50th parallel, rising to 10,000 or 12,000 ft., which separates the waters of the great rivers of western Siberia from those that collect into the lakes of northwest Mongolia, Dzungaria and Kalka.
A line of elevation is continued west of the Altai to the Ural Mountains, not rising to considerable altitudes; this divides the drainage of south-west Siberia from the great plains lying north-east of the Aral Sea.
The portion of Asia which lies between the Arctic Ocean and the mountainous belt bounding Manchuria, Mongolia and Turkestan Siberia.Advertisement
The Ob,Yenisei and Lena,which traverse Siberia, are among the largest rivers in the world.
Asiatic Russia, especially eastern Siberia and Mongolia, have been brought within the sphere of Russian exploration, with results so surprising as to form an epoch in the history of Asia.
North of the folded belt, and including Emery the greater part of Siberia, Mongolia and northern China, lies another area which is, in general, free from any important folding of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
Over a large part of Siberia and in the north of China, even the Cambrian beds still lie as horizontally as they were first laid down.
Excepting in the extreme north, where marine Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils have been found, there is no evidence that this part of Siberia has been beneath the sea since the early part of the Palaeozoic era.Advertisement
From the Upper Carboniferous onward, however, no marine deposits are known; and, as in Siberia, plant-bearing beds are met with.
In the northern unfolded region great flows of basic lava lie directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician beds of Siberia, but are certainly in part of Tertiary age.
In eastern Siberia it is about 15 to 20 in.
Siberia, north of the 50th parallel, has a climate not much differing from a similarly situated portion of Europe, though the winters are more severe and the summers hotter.
The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.Advertisement
Nearly three-fourths of the well-known species of Europe extend through Siberia into the islands of the Japanese empire.
Of Coleopterous insects known to inhabit east Siberia, nearly one-third are found in western Europe.
The reindeer of northern Siberia call also for special notice; they are used for the saddle as well as for draught.
The least advanced of these, but far the most peaceful, are those that occupy Siberia.
The Kalmucks are a Buddhist and Mongolian people who originated in a confederacy of tribes dwelling in Dzungaria, migrated to Siberia, and settled on the Lower Volga.Advertisement
Most of these were simple records of patient and laborious analytical operations, and it is perhaps surprising that among all the substances he analysed he only detected two new elements - beryllium (1798) in beryl and chromium (1797) in a red lead ore from Siberia.
It had long the reputation of being almost constantly ice-bound, but after the Norwegian captain Johannesen had demonstrated its accessibility in 1869, and Nordenskield had crossed it to the mouth of the Yenisei in 1875, it was considered by many to offer a possible trade route between European Russia and the north of Siberia.
The proprietors could transport without trial their unruly serfs to Siberia or send them to the mines for life, and those who presented complaints against their masters were punished with the knout and condemned to the mines.
As proved by the discovery of fossil remains, musk-oxen ranged during the Pleistocene period over northern Siberia and the plains of Germany and France, their bones occurring in river-deposits along with those of the reindeer, mammoth, and woolly rhinoceros.
The interior of Greenland contains both summer and winter a pole of cold, situated in the opposite longitude to that of Siberia, with which it is well able to compete in extreme severity.Advertisement
Siberia, on the Altai, and on the Yenisei in the Minusinsk region, are relics of Ugro-Samoyedes.
Siberia, which took place in the 5th century, drove them farther N., and probably reduced most of them to slavery.
They have long been known to geologists and are found at Okhotsk, Siberia, in association with a large mass of perlitic obsidian.
While still in her teens, she made a lover of Alexius Shubin, a sergeant in the Semenovsky Guards, and after his banishment to Siberia, minus his tongue, by order of the empress Anne, consoled herself with a handsome young Cossack, Alexius Razumovski, who, there is good reason to believe, subsequently became her husband.
This wide area is naturally subdivided into West Siberia (basins of the Ob and the Irtysh) and East Siberia (the remainder of the region).Advertisement
The Tarbagatai Mountains, on the borders of Siberia, as well as several chains in Turkestan, are instances.
About Kansk in East Siberia they penetrate in the form of a broad gulf south-eastwards as far as Irkutsk.
In West Siberia these high plains seem to form a narrower belt towards Barnaul and Semipalatinsk, and are bordered by the Aral-Caspian depression.
The south-eastern slope of the great plateau of Asia cannot properly be reckoned to Siberia, although parts of the province of Amur and the Maritime Province are situated on it; - they have quite a different character, climate and vege- eastern, tation, and ought properly to be reckoned to the Manslope of, churian region.
The mineral wealth of Siberia is considerable.
In East Siberia gold is obtained almost exclusively from gravel-washings, quartz mining being confined to three localities, one near Vladivostok and two in Transbaikalia.
On the other hand gravel-washing gives a declining yield in West Siberia, for while in 1900 the output from this source was approximately 172,000 oz., in 1904 it was only 81,000 oz.
The gold-bearing gravels of East Siberia, especially those of the Lena and the Amur, are relatively more prolific than those of West Siberia.
The orography sketched above explains the great development of the river-systems of Siberia and the uniformity of their course.
Owing to this twinning and the general direction of their courses, the rivers of Siberia offer immense advantages for inland navigation, not only 'from north to south but also from west to east.
It is this Wale ' circumstance that facilitated the rapid invasion of Siberia Wal er l by the Russian Cossacks and hunters; they followed the omm courses of the twin rivers in their advance towards the east, and discovered short portages which permitted them to transfer their boats from the system of the Ob to that of the Yenisei, and from the latter to that of the Lena, a tributary of which - the Aldan - brought them close to the Sea of Okhotsk.
At the present day steamers ply from Tyumen, at the foot of the Urals, to Semipalatinsk on the border of the Kirghiz steppe and to Tomsk in the very heart of West Siberia.
Numberless lakes occur in both East and West Siberia.
There are wide areas on the plains of West Siberia and on the high plateau of East Siberia, which, virtually, are still passing through the Lacustrine period; but the total area now under water bears but a trifling proportion to the vast surface .which the lakes covered even at a very recent period, when Neolithic man inhabited Siberia.
The coast-line of Siberia is very extensive both on the Arctic Ocean and on the Pacific. The former ocean is ice-bound for at least ten months out of twelve; and, though Nordenskjold and Captain Wiggins demonstrated (1874-1900) the possibility of navigation along its shores, it is exceedingly is s.
The bay of the Yana, east of the delta of the Lena, is a wide indentation sheltered on the north by the islands of New Siberia.
The New Siberia islands are occasionally visited by hunters, as is also the small group of the Bear Islands opposite the mouth of the Kolyma.
The northern part of the Sea of Japan, which washes the Usuri region, has, besides the smaller bays of Olga and Vladimir, the beautiful Gulf of Peter the Great, on which stands Vladivostok, the Russian naval station on the Pacific. Okhotsk and Ayan on the Sea of Okhotsk, Petropavlovsk on the east shore of Kamchatka, Nikolayevsk, and Vladivostok on the Sea of Japan, and Dui on Sakhalin are the only ports of Siberia.
Although attaining altitudes of 6000 to 10,000 ft., the mountain peaks of East Siberia do not reach the snow-line, which is found only on the Munku-Sardyk in East Sayan, above 10,000 ft.
Patches of perpetual snow occur in East Siberia only on the mountains of the far north.
The soil freezes many feet deep over immense areas even in southern Siberia.
Nevertheless September is much warmer than May, and October than April, even in the most continental parts of Siberia.
Siberia is situated for the most part in what Grisebach describes as the " forest region of the Eastern continent."
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
But even in these districts the botanist and the geographer can easily distinguish between the chern or thick forest of the Altai and the taiga of East Siberia.
As in European Russia, so in Siberia, three principal zones - the arctic, the boreal and the middle - may be distinguished, and these may be subdivided into several sub-regions.
On the whole, we may say that the arctic and boreal faunas of Europe extend over Siberia, with a few additional species in the Ural and Baraba region - a number of new species also appearing in East Siberia, some spreading along the high plateau and others along the lower plateau from the steppes of the Gobi.
In addition to the above we find in East Siberia.
Of birds no less than 285 species have been observed in Siberia, but of these forty-five only are absent from Europe.
The rivers and lakes of Siberia abound in fish; but little is known of their relations with the species of neighbouring regions.'
The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.
On the other hand, several American genera (Cephalaon, Ophryastes) extend into the north-eastern parts of Siberia.'
As in all uncultivated countries, the forests and prairies of Siberia become almost uninhabitable in summer because of the mosquitoes.
East Siberia suffers less from this plague than the marshy Baraba steppe; but on the Amur and the Sungari large gnats are an intolerable plague.
The land Molluscs; notwithstanding the unfavourable conditions of climate, number about seventy species - Siberia in this respect being not far behind north Europe.
Finally, the laws of distribution of animals over Siberia cannot be made out until the changes undergone by its surface during the Glacial and Lacustrine periods are well established and the Post-Tertiary fauna is better known The remarkable finds of Quaternary mammals about Omsk and their importance for the history of the Equidae are merely a slight indication of what may be expected in this field.
Geographically, though not administratively, the steppe provinces of Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk belong to Siberia.
Between 1870 and 1890 over half a million free immigrants entered Siberia from Russia, and of these 80% settled in the government of Tobolsk; and between 1890 and 1905 it is estimated that something like a million and a half free immigrants entered the country.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Siberia has been colonized in two different ways.
Soon after the first appearance (1580) of the Cossacks of Yermak in Siberia thousands of hunters, attracted by the furs, immigrated from north Russia, explored the country, traced the first footpaths and erected the first houses in the wilderness.
Later on serfdom, religious persecutions and conscription were the chief causes which led the peasants to make their escape to Siberia and build their villages in the most inaccessible forests, on the prairies and even on Chinese territory.
But the severe measures adopted by the government against such " runaways " were powerless to prevent their immigration into Siberia.
While governmental colonization studded Siberia with forts, free colonization filled up the intermediate spaces.
Siberia was for many years a penal colony.
Exile to Siberia began in the first years of its discovery, and as early as 1658 we read of the Exiles.
Raskolniks or Nonconformists in the second half of the 17th century, rebel stryeltsy under Peter the Great, courtiers of rank during the reigns of the empresses, Polish confederates under Catherine II., the " Decembrists " under Nicholas I., nearly 50,000 Poles after the insurrection of 1863, and later on whole generations of socialists were sent to Siberia; while the number of common-law convicts and exiles transported thither increased steadily from the end of the 18th century.
But it is known that in the first years of the 19th century nearly 2000 persons were transported every year to Siberia.
This figure reached an average of 18,250 in 1873-1877, and from about 1880 until the discontinuance of the system in 1900 an average of 20,000 persons were annually exiled to Siberia.
Nearly 20,000 men (40,000 according to other estimates) are living in Siberia the life of brodyagi (runaways or outlaws), trying to make their way through the forests to their native provinces in Russia.
The Samoyedes, who are confined to the province of Tobolsk, Tomsk ' See Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony (in Russian, 2nd ed., St Petersburg, 1892).
Survivals of Turkish blood, once much more numerous, are scattered all over south Siberia as far as Lake Baikal.
The Mongols (less than 300,000) extend into West Siberia from the high plateau - nearly 20,000 Kalmucks living in the eastern Altai.
In East Siberia the Buriats occupy the Selenga and the Uda, parts of Nerchinsk, and the steppes between Irkutsk and the upper Lena, as also the Baikal Mountains and the island of Orkhon; they support themselves chiefly by live-stock breeding, but some, especially in Irkutsk, are agriculturists.
Jews number 32,650 and some 5000 gipsies wander about Siberia.
The Cossacks of West Siberia have the features and customs and many of the manners of life of the Kalmucks and Kirghiz.
In different parts of Siberia, on the borders of the hilly tracts, intermarriage of Russians with Tatars was quite common.
Of course it is now rapidly growing less, and the settlers who entered Siberia in the 19th century married Russian wives and remained thoroughly Russian.
There are accordingly parts of Siberia, especially among the Raskolniks or Nonconformists, where the north Russian, the Great Russian and the Ukrainian (or southern) types have maintained themselves in their full purity, and only some differences in domestic architecture, in the disposition of their villages and in the language and character of the population remind the traveller that he is in Siberia.
The climate of Siberia, however, cannot be called unhealthy, except in certain localities where goitre is common, as it is on the Lena, in several valleys of Nerchinsk and in the Altai Mountains.
There are seventeen towns with a population of 10,000 or more, namely, Tomsk (63,533 in 1900) and Irkutsk (49,106) - the capitals of West and East Siberia respectively; Blagovyeshchensk (37,368), Vladivostok (38,0co).
Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.
There are nevertheless eighteen scientific societies in Siberia, which issue publications of great value.
South Siberia has a very fertile soil and yields heavy crops, but immense tracts of the country are utterly unfit for tillage.
The chief grain-producing regions of Siberia are - the Tobol and Ishim region, the Baraba, the region about Tomsk and the outskirts of the Altai.
The Minusinsk district, one of the richest in Siberia (45,000 inhabitants, of whom 24,000 are nomadic), has more than 45,000 acres under crops.
Out of the total area of over 3,000,000,000 acres of land in Siberia, close upon 96% belong to the state, while the cabinet of the reigning emperor owns 114,700,000 acres (112,300,000 in the Altai and 2,400,000 in Nerchinsk) or nearly 4%.
There is considerable movement of grain in Siberia itself, the populations of vast portions of the territory, especially of the mining regions, having to rely upon imported corn.
The sable, however, which formerly constituted the wealth of Siberia, is now exceedingly scarce.
Though Siberia has within itself all the raw produce necessary for prosperous industries, it continues to import from Russia all the manufactured articles it uses.
The manufactories of Siberia employ less than 25,000 workmen, and of these some 46% are employed in West Siberia.
There are no figures from which even an approximate idea can be gained as to the value of the internal trade of Siberia, but it is certainly considerable.
In 1902 some 1800 dairies were at work, the greater number in West Siberia, and 40,000 tons of butter were exported.
As nearly as can be estimated, the total imports into Siberia amount approximately to £5,000,000, the amount having practically doubled between 1890 and 1902; the total exports average about £9,000,000.
The first railway to reach Siberia was built in 1878, when a line was constructed between Perm, at which point travellers for Siberia Railways.
During the great migrations in Asia from east to west many populations were probably driven to the northern borders of the great plateau and thence compelled to descend into Siberia; succeeding waves of immigration forced them still farther towards the barren grounds of the north, where they melted away.
According to Radlov, the earliest inhabitants of Siberia were the Yeniseians, who spoke a language different from the Ural-Altaic; some few traces of them (Yeniseians, Sayan-Ostiaks, and Kottes) exist among the Sayan Mountains.
To them must be assigned the very numerous remains dating from the Bronze period which are scattered all over southern Siberia.
As early as the nth century the Novgorodians had occasionally penetrated into Siberia; but the fall of the republic and the loss of its north-eastern dependencies checked the advance of the Russians across the Urals.
On the defeat of the adventurer Stenka Razin (1667-1671) many who were unwilling to submit to the iron rule of Moscow made their way to the settlements of Stroganov in Perm, and tradition has it that, in order to get rid of his guests, Stroganov suggested to their chief, Yermak, that he should cross the Urals into Siberia, promising to help him with supplies of food and arms. Yermak entered Siberia in 1580 with a band of 1636 men, following the Tagil and Tura rivers.
Kuchum fled to the steppes, abandoning his domains to Yermak, who, according to tradition, purchased by the present of Siberia to Ivan IV.
Yermak was drowned in the Irtysh in 1584 and the Cossacks abandoned Siberia.
The scientific exploration of Siberia, begun in the period 1733 to 5742 by Messerschmidt, Gmelin, and De Lisle de la Croyere, was followed up by Muller, Fischer and Georgi.
Middendorff's journey (1844-1845) to north-eastern Siberia - contemporaneous with Castren's journeys for the special study of the Ural-Altaian languages - directed attention to the far north and awakened interest in the Amur, the basin of which soon became the scene of the expeditions of Akhte and Schwarz (1852), and later on (1854-1857) of the Siberian expedition to which we owe so marked an advance in our knowledge of East Siberia.
The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
Consult further Materials for the Study of the Economic Conditions of West Siberia (22 vols., St Petersburg, 1889-1898), condensed in Peasant Land-Tenure and Husbandry in Tobolsk and Tomsk (St Petersburg, 1894), both in Russian.
Geographically, Mongolia may thus be said to occupy both terraces of the great plateau of east Asia, which stretches in the south of Siberia, between the Sailughem range of the Great Altai and the Great Khingan - with the exception of the Dzungarian depression.
It is calculated that ioo,000 camels are used for the transport of tea only from Kalgan to Siberia, and that no less than 1,200,000 camels and 300,000 ox-carts are employed in the internal caravan trade.
Besides 12 species peculiar to the former grand-principality, 14 occur only there and in Siberia.
The commission appointed to try his case condemned him (iith of April 1741) to death by quartering, but this sentence was commuted by the clemency of the new regent, Anna Leopoldovna, the mother of Ivan VI., to banishment for life at Pelin in Siberia.
Farther to the north and east the series seems to extend into Siberia, but in this region excavations have been few.
The newcomers adopted the language of the conquered, but brought with them new customs and a new artistic taste probably largely borrowed from the metal-working tribes of Siberia.
Grains of metallic tin occur intermingled with the gold ores of Siberia, Guiana and Bolivia, and in a few other localities.
Subsequently he was deprived of his enormous wealth, and he and his whole family were banished to Berezov in Siberia, where he died on the 12th of November 1729.
This was found breeding in the extreme north of Siberia by Dr von Middendorff, and ranges to Australia, whence it was, like the last, first described by Gould.
These differences are due to the action of the north-westerly wind that blows over Japan from Siberia.
Petersburg; Catholic and Uniate Church property sequestrated from 1836 onwards; the Lithuanian Statute, which had remained the law of the land through four centuries of union with Poland, replaced by the Russian code in 1840, while prominent natives, debarred from public service in their own country, were forced to emigrate or exiled to Siberia.
Enormous numbers of animals are caught, chiefly in traps, to supply the demand of the fur trade, Siberia and North America being the principal localities from which they are obtained.
In1890-1891he made a tour in Greece, Egypt, India, Ceylon and Japan, where he narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of a Japanese fanatic. On the return journey by Siberia, at Vladivostok, he turned the first sod of the eastern section of the Siberian railway, and two years afterwards (1893) he was appointed president of the imperial committee for that great undertaking.
The gold production of Russia has been remarkably constant, averaging £4,899,262 per annum; the gold is derived chiefly from placer workings in Siberia.
Probably no extinct animal has left such abundant evidence of its former existence; immense numbers of bones, teeth, and more or less entire carcases, or " mummies," as they may be called, having been discovered, with the flesh, skin and hair in situ, in the frozen soil of the tundra of northern Siberia.
It is in northern Siberia that its remains have erect position, with the soft parts and hairy covering entire, have been brought to light.
The former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate and hydrate.
The fair is one of the most important in Siberia, its returns being estimated at £500,000 annually.
Similarly in Siberia and Japan there are extensive supplies unworked or only partially exploited.
Thus, while the squirrels of north and west Europe are of the bright red colour of the British animal, those of the mountainous regions of southern Europe are of a deep blackish grey; while those from Siberia are a clear pale grey colour, with scarcely a tinge of rufous.
Reinstated in the public service in 1816, he was appointed governor-general of Siberia, for which he drew up a new scheme of government, and in 1821 entered the council of state.
Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial deposits of England and the continent of Europe; while in the Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant extinct beaver, Trogontherium cuvieri, representing a genus by itself.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Siberia and Central Asia.
The Trans-Siberian railway was the only line of communication with Europe and western Siberia, and its calculated output of men was 40,000 a month in the summer.
It is mildest in the valleys of the Elbe, Mulde and Pleisse and severest in the Erzgebirge, where the district near Johanngeorgenstadt is known as Saxon Siberia.
The name is loosely applied, covering either the northern group only of these islands, for which the name of New Siberia Archipelago, or of Anjou Islands, ought properly to be reserved, or the southern group as well, which ought to maintain its name of Lyakhov Islands.
The first of these three belongs geographically, and probably geologically, to New Siberia Archipelago, from which it is only 97 m.
New Siberia Island attains altitudes of 200 to 300 ft.
A Yakutsk Cossack, named Vaghin, wintered on Bolshoy in 1712, but it was a merchant, Lyakhov, who first described the two greater islands of this group in 1770, and three years later reached on sledges the largest island of the New Siberia group, which he named Kotelnyi.
Sannikov, with a party of hunters, discovered in1805-1808Stolbovyi, Thaddeus and New Siberia Islands, and a merchant, Byelkov, the Byelkovskyi Islands.
He sighted the land to the north of Kotelnyi and the land to the north of New Siberia (now Bennett Island).
In 1864, having reached the rank of major-general, he made his famous march with 1000 men across the steppes of Turkestan to Chimkent in Khokand, to meet another Russian column from Semipalatinsk, in Siberia, in conjunction with which he successfully stormed Chimkent, and then unsuccessfully attacked Tashkent, 80 miles farther south.
The capital sentence was commuted on the scaffold to banishment, first to Siberia and then to Novgorod.
It is now found in greatest abundance in Norway, Russia and Siberia, where hunting the bear is a favourite sport, and where, when dead, its remains are highly valued.
It occupies a strategical position at the west end of the valley between the Alexander range and the Ala-tau (or Talas-tau), at the meeting of commercial routes from (1) Vyernyi and Siberia beyond, from the north-east, (2) the Aral Sea and Orenburg (connected with it by rail since 1905) to the north-west, and (3) Ferghana and Bokhara to the south.
That it also possessed adherents in southern Siberia we gather from the inscriptions of Semiryetchensk, and in the beginning of the 11th century it found its way even into Mongolia.
The Czechoslovaks have constituted a considerable army, fighting on three different battle-fields and attempting, in Russia and Siberia, to arrest the Germanic invasion.
Other localities which have yielded the mineral in large amount are the Alibert mine in Irkutsk, Siberia and the Borrowdale mine in Cumberland.
Hence the Pacific basin may be regarded as a stable and homogeneous geographical unit, clearly marked off round nearly all its margin by steep sharp slopes, extending in places through the whole known range of elevation above sea-level and of depression below it - from the Cordilleras of South America to the island chains of Siberia and Australia.
He also re-colonized Siberia, which had been slipping from the grasp of Muscovy, and formed scores of new settlements, including Tobolsk and other large centres.
Pallas (1741-1811) in his great journey (1768-1 77 4) through Siberia discovered the vast deposits of extinct mammoths and rhinoceroses.
This is considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, and is remarkable for certain tumuli (of the Li Kitai) and statues of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics.
Land is being extensively put under wheat in the pampas of South America and in the prairies of Siberia.
The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in the form of brick tea.
Yet the forests of larch in Siberia often suffer from conflagration.
When these fires occur while the trees are full of sap, a curious mucilaginous matter is exuded from the half-burnt stems; when dry it is of pale reddish colour, like some of the coarser kinds of gum-arabic, and is soluble in water, the solution resembling gumwater, in place of which it is sometimes used; considerable quantities are collected and sold as " Orenburg gum "; in Siberia and Russia it is occasionally employed as a semi-medicinal food, being esteemed an antiscorbutic. For burning in close stoves and furnaces, larch makes tolerably good fuel, its value being estimated by Hartig as only one-fifth less than that of beech; the charcoal is compact, and is in demand for iron-smelting and other metallurgic uses in some parts of Europe.
The soft inner bark is occasionally used in Siberia as a ferment, by hunters and others, being boiled and mixed with rye-meal, and buried in the snow for a short time, when it is employed as a substitute for other leaven, and in making the sour liquor called " quass."
Of three named species, one extends from South Russia to Siberia, while two others are respectively from Kurdistan and Afghanistan.
The Welsh Onion or Ciboule, Allium fistulosum, is a hardy perennial, native of Siberia.
The title of My Exile in Siberia is misleading; he was never in that country.
Chappe d'Auteroche had discovered that Siberia was not a paradise, and had observed that the Russians were dirty in their habits, and that masters whipped their servants, male and female.
He founded missions in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, Kamtchatka and throughout Eastern Siberia, and established the Orthodox Missionary Society at Moscow.
In Altai (Central Siberia) the Archimandrite Macarius, and among the Tatars in south-east Russia with headquarters at Kazan the great linguist Ilminski, did similar work.
For it is a remarkable fact that, of the 230 northern species which are most typical of the far north, 182 are found also in the Altai (taking this as a collective name for the mountains that form the southern boundary of Siberia).
This, in brief, has been the history of its use in China, Tatary, Russia, Siberia and North America, and at present the employment of fancy furs among civilized nations has grown to be more extensive than at any former period.
The history of furs can be read in Marco Polo, as he grows eloquent with the description of the rich skins of the khan of Tatary; in the early fathers of the church, who lament their introduction into Rome and Byzantium as an evidence of barbaric and debasing luxury; in the political history of Russia, stretching out a powerful arm over Siberia to secure her rich treasures; in the story of the French occupation of Canada, and the ascent of the St Lawrence to Lake Superior, and the subsequent contest to retain possession against England; in the history of early settlements of New England, New York and Virginia; in Irving's Astoria; in the records of the Hudson's Bay Company; and in the annals of the fairs held at Nizhniy Novgorod and Leipzig.
In addition to the fur skins coming from North America vast numbers from Russia, Siberia, China, Japan, Australia and South America are offered during the same periods at public auction.
Coarse hair, heavy pelt, mostly dark yellowish and brown colours, only found in western parts of United States, Russia and Siberia.
Supplies are obtained from Siberia and America.
Best are from Ishim in Siberia.
Animals of this species are generally small in size and inhabit the extreme northern sections of Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, Greenland, Labrador and Siberia.
The white hares, however, of Russia, Siberia and other regions in the Arctic circle are very largely used in the cheaper trade of Europe, America and the British colonies.
They are found in Siberia, Amoor, China and Japan, but the best are from Siberia.
The most valuable are the darkest from Yakutsk in Siberia, particularly those that have silvery hairs evenly distributed over the skin.
The paler skins from all districts in Siberia are now cleverly coloured or "topped," that is, just the tips of the hair are stained dark, and it is only an expert who can detect them from perfectly natural shades.
Good supplies are available from North America and Siberia and a very few from China.
Is native to America, Siberia, Russia and Scandinavia and generally partakes of the nature of a bear.
Siberia has yielded isolated diamonds from the gold washings of Yenisei.
It is a native of Siberia and famous for its fur.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Russia (including Finland, but excluding Siberia).
A small proportion of the whole is imported chiefly from Russia (also Siberia) and Sweden and re-exported as of foreign origin.
In northern Russia and in Siberia sea water is concentrated by freezing, the ice which separates containing little salt; the brine is then boiled down when an impure sea salt is deposited.
Flint implements, exactly like those of Siberia and Russia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like the European ones, primitive pottery with decorations like those of Olonets and stone weights for nets.
In the north of Russia and Siberia its introduction was even as late as A.D.
In approaching the East from the north of Siberia or from the south of Greece and the Troad, the history of iron in each country eastward is relatively later; while a review of European countries from the north towards the south shows the latter becoming acquainted with the metal earlier than the former.
Its vegetation is in point of fact of a composite character, and is constituted by the meeting and more or less blending of adjoining floras, - those of Persia and the south-eastern Mediterranean area to the north-west, of Siberia to the north, of China to the east, and of Malaya to the south-east.
Valuable cargoes of tea are landed here for carriage overland, via Kalgan and Kiakhta, to Siberia.
The influences and motives and processes which led to the result were many and varied, but ultimately in one way or another it became the religion of Europe and of the nations founded by the European races beyond the seas and in the northern part of Asia called Siberia.
Prof. Kayser suggests that there was also a Pacific basin more extensive than at present; this is borne out by the similarity between the Cambrian faunas of China, Siberia and Argentina.
From there two men were sent home with dispatches via Siberia, but have not been heard of again.
It occupies an advantageous position on the great artery of Russian trade, at a place where the manufactured and agricultural products of the basin of the Oka meet the metal wares from that of the Kama, the corn and salt brought from the south-eastern governments, the produce of the Caspian fisheries, and the various wares imported from Siberia, Central Asia, Caucasia and Persia.
It is a native of the south of Europe, being found in Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary and the south of Russia, and it is also obtained in Siberia.
From Russia, too, there is a stream of colonization across the Urals into western Siberia, and amongst the western Mediterranean populations there is constant migration to North Africa The greatest drain from Europe, however, has been across the sea to the United States, Canada and Australasia, especially to the first-named.
The plant has a wide distribution, growing in wet situations in the Himalayas, North America, Siberia and various parts of Europe, including England, and has been naturalized in Scotland and Ireland., Though regarded as a native in most counties of England at the present day, where it is now found thoroughly wild on sides of ditches, ponds and rivers, and very abundantly in some districts, it is probably not indigenous.
The term Finn has a wider application than Finland, being, with its adjective Finnic or Finno-Ugric (q.v.) or Ugro-Finnic, the collective name of the westernmost branch of the Ural-Altaic family, dispersed throughout Finland, Lapland, the Baltic provinces (Esthonia, Livonia, Curland), parts of Russia proper (south of Lake Onega), both banks of middle Volga, Perm, Vologda, West Siberia (between the Ural Mountains and the Yenissei) and Hungary.
In order to study the different eastern kinsfolk of the Finns, Sjogren (1792-1855) extended his journeys to North Russia, and Castren to West and East Siberia (Nordische Reisen and Forschungen), and collected the materials which permitted himself and Schiefner to publish grammatical works relative to the Finnish, Lappish, Zyrian, Tcheremiss, Ostiak, Samoyede, Tungus, Buryat, Karagas, Yenisei-Ostiak and Kott languages.
The gradual elevation of the whole of northern Russia and Siberia, and the consequent draining of the marshes, is one of these deeper-seated, ampler causes; another is the desiccation of the lakes all over the northern hemisphere.
Malachite is a valuable ore containing about 56% of the metal; it is obtained in very large quantities from South Australia, Siberia and other localities.
The tigers which inhabit hotter regions, as Bengal and the south Asiatic islands, have shorter and smoother hair, and are more richly coloured and distinctly striped than those of northern China and Siberia, in which the fur is longer, softer and lighter-coloured.
He was condemned first to be broken on the wheel and then beheaded; but, reprieved on the scaffold, his sentence was commuted to lifelong banishment, with his whole family, to Berezov in Siberia, where he died six years later.
In Asia it abounds in Siberia and on the mountains of the Amur region; on the European Alps it occurs at a height of 5600 ft., and on the Pyrenees it is found at still higher elevations; on the northern side of Etna it is said to grow at above 7000 ft.
P. Cembra is the stone pine of Siberia and central Europe.
It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.
Tusks are found along the whole shore-line between the mouth of the Obi and Bering Strait, and the farther north the more numerous they become, the islands of New Siberia -being one of the favourite collecting localities.
The alpine flora is slower in changing its character as we pass from east to west, but in Kashmir the vegetation of the higher mountains hardly differs from that of the mountains of Afghanistan, Persia and Siberia, even in species.
Novaya Zemlya is colder than Spitsbergen (which lies more to the N.) as in some degree it shares in the continental conditions of northern Russia and Siberia.
Mongolia, and separate that region from Siberia.
From the Mongolian plateau the ascent is on the whole gentle, but from the plains of Siberia it is much steeper, despite the fact that the range is masked by a broad belt of subsidiary ranges of an Alpine character, e.g.
Siberia, stretching from the land of the Chukchis S.S.W.
The Altai region, in West Siberia and Mongolia, is similar in character to Switzerland, but covers a very much greater area.
Atkinson, Oriental and Western Siberia (1858); and Cotta, Der Altai (1871), are still worth consulting.
The name of Tatars, or Tartars, given to the invaders, was afterwards extended so as to include different stems of the same Turkish branch in Siberia, and even the bulk of the inhabitants of the high plateau of Asia and its N.W.
Although Turkestan and Central Asia were formerly known as Independent Tartary, it is not now usual to call the Sarts, Kirghiz and other inhabitants of those countries Tatars, nor is the name usually given to the Yakuts of Eastern Siberia.
It is evident from the above that the name Tatars was originally applied to both the Turkish and Mongol stems which invaded Europe six centuries ago, and gradually extended to the Turkish stems mixed with Mongol or Finnish blood in Siberia.
The destruction of the wild caribou has threatened to expose the Indians to wholesale starvation, hence the effort which the United States government has made to stock the country with domestic reindeer from Siberia.
In 1864 authority was granted to an American company to make explorations for a proposed Russo-American company's telegraph line overland from the Amur river in Siberia to Bering Strait, and through Alaska to British Columbia.
In northern Europe this belt is characterized by such species as Picea excelsa (spruce), which extends south to the mountains of the Mediterranean region; Pinus sylvestris (Scottish fir), reaching from the far north to western Spain, Persia and Asia Minor; Juniperus communis, &c. In north Siberia Pinus Cembra (Cembra or Arolla Pine) has a wide range; also Abies sibirica (Siberian silver fir), Larix sibirica and Juniperus Sabina (savin).
Siberia and in Kamchatka occur two sheep which have been respectively named 0.
In Siberia and northern Europe species of an African type survived till a comparatively late epoch, so that the present relegation of the group to tropical Asia and Africa may be regarded as a modern feature in distribution.
Like the highlands of Siberia, those of Turkestan are fringed by a girdle of plains, having an altitude of 1000 to 1500 ft., and these again are skirted by an immense lowland area reaching only 400, 300 and 150 ft.
It has its own habitus, notwithstanding the number of species it has in common with Siberia and south-east Russia on the one hand and with the Himalayas on the other, and this habitus is due to the dryness of the climate and the consequent changes undergone by the soil.
Halley in 1716; they were later insisted upon by Lalande; an enthusiasm for co-operation was evoked, and the globe, from Siberia to Otaheite, was studded with observing parties.
It occurs also in central and southern Europe and in western Asia extending to India and Siberia, and has long been naturalized in the United States.
The death sentence, however, was commuted to imprisonment for life, and he was eventually handed over to the Russian authorities, by whom he was imprisoned and finally sent to eastern Siberia in 1855.
We may regard the local beastand plant-gods of Egypt as survivals of totems and totem-gods like those of Australia, India, America, Africa, Siberia and other countries.
For example, a deposit of snow in Siberia would bring the equator of figure of the earth a little nearer to Siberia and throw the pole a little way from it, while a deposit on the American continent would have the opposite effect.
This food-stuff reaches Great Britain not only from all butter-exporting countries of the continent of Europe, but in increasing quantities also from Australia, Canada, Argentine, Siberia and the United States of America.
The latter genus ranges from Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic rocks; it occurs in India, Australia, and elsewhere in the " Gondwana Land " vegetation, as well as in Palaeozoic rocks of Asia Minor, in Permian rocks of Siberia, and in Jurassic plant-beds of Italy.
Of the latter many were accompanied by their wives, though the Russian law allows divorce in the case of such sentences; the emperor unwillingly allowed the devoted women to go, but decreed that any children born to them in Siberia would be illegitimate.
If anyone, it was Tamer, whose isolation in Siberia and ability to outsmart Andre's spies gave him the ability to hide his actions.
Siberia, like Patagonia, appears to have been recently elevated above the waters of the sea.
Thus, a few days ago, a german geometrician proposed to send a scientific expedition to the steppes of Siberia.
The speckled footman moth is scattered throughout Europe south to the Mediterranean and North Africa, and east to Siberia.
Oddly enough both French and Russian tarragon are said to have originated in Siberia reaching Europe in the Middle Ages.
Norway defies the ban while some indigenous peoples in Greenland, Siberia and the US state of Alaska are allowed traditional subsistence whaling.
While at the close of the 19th century western Asia (exclusive of Arabia) may be said to have been freed from all geographical perplexity, China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia still include enormous areas of which geographical knowledge is in a primitive stage of nebulous uncertainty.
The vast steppes and forest-clad mountain regions of Siberia have assumed a new geo graphical aspect in the light of these revelations, and Asia promise a new world of economic resources to Russian enterprise in the near future.
In south-western Siberia it is 12 or 14 in., diminishing as we proceed eastward to 6 or 7 in.
Peculiar forms of Leguminosae also prevail, and these, with many of the other plants of the southern and drier regions of Siberia, or of the colder regions of the desert tracts of Persia and Afghanistan, extend into Tibet, where the extreme drought and the hot (nearly vertical) sun combine to produce a summer climate not greatly differing from that of the plains of central Asia.
They are described under different names in Siberia - the Altai Mountains in West Siberia, the Kuznetskiy Ala-tau and the Us and Oya Mountains in West Sayan, the Nizhne-Udinsk taiga or gold-mine district, several chains pierced by the Oka river, the Kitoi Alps in East Sayan, the mountains of the upper Lena and Kirenga, the Olekminsk gold-mine district, and the unnamed mountains which project north-east between the Lena and the Aldan.
In the deeper valleys and on the lowlands of West Siberia the larches, pines and silver firs, intermingled with birches and aspens, attain a great size, and the streams are fringed with thickets of poplar and willow.
Farther north we come to the urmans of West Siberia, dense thickets of trees often rising from a treacherous carpet of thickly interlaced grasses, which conceals deep marshes, where even the bear has learnt to tread circumspectly.
The fauna of Siberia is closely akin to that of central Europe; and the Ural Mountains, although the habitat of a few species which warrant the naturalist in regarding the southern Urals as a separate region,, are not so important a boundary zoologically as they are botanically.
At the present time the land allotments per male head vary greatly, even in the relatively populous region of southern Siberia.
The Yeniseians were followed by the UgroSamoyedes, who also came originally from the high plateau and were compelled, probably during the great migration of the Huns in the 3rd century B.C., to cross the Altai and Sayan ranges and to enter Siberia.
Humboldt, Ehrenberg and Gustav Rose also paid in the course of these years short visits to Siberia, and gave a new impulse to the accumulation of scientific knowledge; while Ritter elaborated in his Asien (1832-1859) the foundations of a sound knowledge of the structure of Siberia.
As for the land and fresh-water molluscs, some 200 of which are known, they are mainly kindred with those of China and Siberia, tropical and Indian forms being exceptional.
By way of reprisal land was taken from Polish owners and given to Russians, and settlements were established for colonization purposes - a measure of this kind taking place as late as 1913 - so that proportionately more convicts and political exiles were sent into Lithuania than even into Siberia.
The majority - in European Russia - are remnants of the Mongol invasion of the 13th century (see Mongols), while those who inhabit Siberia are survivals of the once much more numerous Turkish population of the Ural-Altaic region, mixed to some extent with Finnish and Samoyedic stems, as also with Mongols.
More than once they had beaten him, and more than once they had made him drunk on champagne and Madeira, which he loved; and he knew more than one thing about each of them which would long ago have sent an ordinary man to Siberia.
Winter barley Most forward crops on lighter land are ripening very quickly; Siberia may be ready for combining in 2 weeks.
Europe is the home of the Silene, though a few extend west to America, or east to Siberia, and a sprinkling is found on the southern shores of the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor.
Siberia. Aureole, Citrina, Baroni, and Sovereign are modern hybrid sorts of much value.
Siberia, it is hardy in the open air, requires no protection during winter, and we have never known it fail to bear freely its charming and fragrant flowers.
They are mostly from Siberia and Dahuria, with flowers generally blue in color.
Europe and Siberia (in some varieties spreading, and in others about 18 inches high), with racemes of purplish-crimson flowers in June.
It is a native of Siberia, as hardy as any kind known, but as yet uncommon in gardens.
E. vulgaris is a smaller plant, and one that will resist more cold, as it is a native of Siberia, also some of the more southern districts of Asia.
S. baicalensis, from Siberia, is the finest of all the species.
The whiite water lily (Nymphaea Alba) is found in many parts of England and throughout Europe to Siberia.
S. grandiflora, from Asia Minor and Siberia, is a neat downy plant with showy spikes of reddish-purple or rosy flowers from May onwards, sometimes used in the rougher parts of the rock garden.
Pockets of high trachoma infection also exist in southern Mexico, eastern Brazil, Ecuador, North Africa, India, China, Siberia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Borneo, and in Aboriginal communities in central Australia.
When you're a model, you're willing to go where the jobs are, and sometimes that means being willing to model bikinis in Siberia or fur coats in the Sahara.
Mirny Diamond Mine, aka Mir Diamond Mine, is located in Mirny, Eastern Siberia.
In the early 1930s, Soviet geologists reported that certain parts of Siberia had the right conditions to produce kimberlite.
In 1953, Popugaieva found garnet in stone samples from Yakutia, Siberia.
Yet the presence of the diamond deposits in Yakutia proved that diamonds could be found in the Siberia.
Towards the end of his life Ivan was partially consoled for his failure in the west by the unexpected acquisition of the kingdom of Siberia in the east, which was first subdued by the Cossack hetman Ermak or Yermak in 1581.
The association first employed John Ledyard (who had previously made an extraordinary journey into Siberia) to cross Africa from east to west on the parallel of the Niger, and William Lucas to cross the Sahara to Fezzan.
In 1839 he was made governor of Eastern Siberia, and in 1851 retired into private life.
Russia; the Valdai tablelands, where all the great rivers of Russia take their rise; the broad and gently sloping meridional belt of the Ural Mountains; and lastly the Taimyr, Tunguzka and Verkhoyansk ranges in Siberia, which, notwithstanding their sub-Arctic position, do not reach the snow-line.
The deposits of the Post-Glacial period are represented throughout Russia, Poland and Finland, as also throughout Siberia and Central Asia, by very thick lacustrine deposits, which show that, after the melting of the ice-sheet, the country was covered with immense lakes, connected by broad channels (the fjarden of the Swedes), which later on gave rise to the actual rivers.
The average number of women to every 100 men in the Russian governments proper was 102.9; in Poland, 98.6; in Finland, 102.2; in Caucasia, 88.9; in Siberia, 93'7; and in Turkestan and Transcaspia, 83 o.
In illustration of the very slow diffusion of heat in the solid crust of the earth, and as affording a further indication of the climate of northern Asia, reference may here be made to the frozen soil of Siberia, in the vicinity of Yakutsk.
If they are beaten, flogged, or sent to Siberia, I don't suppose they are any the worse off.
Many of them were punished, some sent to Siberia, many died of cold and hunger on the road, many returned of their own accord, and the movement died down of itself just as it had sprung up, without apparent reason.
Is the movement of the Russian people eastward to Kazan and Siberia expressed by details of the morbid character of Ivan the Terrible and by his correspondence with Kurbski?