Shell Sentence Examples
Shell fish are unimportant.
Shell covered by mantle, or absent; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; mantle contains spicules.
Each shell contains a single ovum and a mass of yolk-cells.
The shell fisheries are less important than those of Maine.
Shell spirally coiled; head broad, without prominent tentacles; foot short, operculated; marine.Advertisement
Shell largely chitinous, not spiral, its calcareous apex projecting through a small hole in the mantle.
Shell internal, or absent; mantle restricted to the anterior and middle part of the body; radula with squarish teeth.
Shell turriculated, with numerous.
Shell elongated, with a more or less.
The outer surfaces of the mantle secrete' the shell, which is of the nature of a cuticle impregnated by calcareous salts.Advertisement
As in the case of the Lamellibranchiata, the shell of the adult is not a direct derivative of the youngest shell of the larva.
The body of the Brachiopod v usually occupies about the posterior half of the space within the shell.
Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae.
No shell; mantle covers the whole surface of the body; radula with squarish teeth.
Shell bulimoid, dextral or sinistral; radular teeth, expanded at their extremities and multicuspidate.Advertisement
In Terebratulina, Rhyn- chonella, Lingula, and possibly other genera, the arms can be unrolled and protruded from the opened shell; in this case the tentacles also FIG.
The function of these muscles, according to the same authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it upon the peduncle.
Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.
The central and umbonal muscles effect the direct opening and closing of the shell, the laterals enable the valves to move forward and backward on each other, and the transmedians allow the similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated, that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve.
It can retract the tentacles, shut its shell, and sink to the bottom.Advertisement
Either before or just after turning, the mantle develops a larval shell termed the protegulum, and when this is completed the larva is termed the Phylembryo.
The protegulum has been found in members of almost all the families of Brachiopod, and it is thought to occur throughout the group. It resembles the shell of the Cambrian .4 genus Iphidea [Paterina], and the Phylembryo is frequently referred to as the Paterina stage.
Beecher's division of the Brachiopoda into four orders is based largely on the character of the aperture through which the stalk or pedicle leaves the shell.
The pedicle passes out at right angles to the plane of junction of the valves of the shell; the opening is confined to the ventral valve, and may take the form of a slit, or may be closed by the development of a special plate called the listrium, or by a pseudo-deltidium.
A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.Advertisement
The potential at any point due to a magnetic shell is the product of its strength into the solid angle w subtended by its edge at the given point, or V = Fu.
For a given strength, therefore, the potential depends solely upon the boundary of the shell, and the potential outside a closed shell is everywhere zero.
The action of a hollow magnetized shell on a point inside it is always opposed to that of the external magnetizing force, 6 the resultant interior field being therefore weaker than the field outside.
The coxal glands of the Arachnida are structures of the same nature as the green glands of the higher Crustacea and the so-called " shell glands " of the Entomostraca.
The genital ducts of Arthropoda are, like the green glands, shell glands and coxal glands, to be regarded as coelomoducts (gonocoels).
Besides the ordinary shell money, there is a sort of stone coinage, consisting of huge calcite or limestone discs or wheels from 6 in.
One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.
Within the enclosure of the Khalifa's house is the tomb of Hubert Howard, son of the 9th earl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the capture of the city by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mandi's tomb.
An experiment was devised by Lord Kelvin for demonstrating this, in which the difference of steadiness was shown of a copper shell filled with liquid and spun gyroscopically, according as the shell was slightly oblate or prolate.
The uterus (X in figure C) begins in all cases at the shell gland (c, d) and may exhibit a swelling (R S) for the retention of the spermatozoa..
The shell is thick, and operculate in some forms; thin, and provided with filaments, in others; in the latter cases it may contain only a few yolk-granules suspended in an albumen-like substance.
There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.
Dobbo, on a small western island, is the chief place; its resident population is reinforced annually, at the time of the west monsoon, by traders from that quarter, who deal in the tripang, pearl shell, tortoise-shell, and other produce of the islands.
Here the two elements, ovum and yolk-cells, are surrounded by a shell of operculate or of spindle-capped types.
The fertilized ova, provided with yolk and a shell, are next transferred to the "uterus" along which they travel to the exterior.
The eggs are stalked and provided with chitinoid often operculate shell.
Two eggs are produced at a time, each measuring about three-fourths of an inch in its long and half an inch in its short axis, and enclosed in a strong, flexible, white shell.
Both are highly valued for the sake of the shell, which has always been a favorite material for ladies combs and hairpins.
In ordinary circumstances, a casting thus obtained took the form of a shell wrthout any break of continuity.
The plumage of gorgeously-hued birds, the blossoms of flowers (especially the hydrangea), the folds of thick brocade, microscopic diapers and arabesques, are built up with tiny fragments of iridescent shell, in combination with silver-foil, goldlacquer and colored bone, the whole producing a rich and sparkling effect.
In fine specimens the workmanship is extraordinarily minute, and every fragment of metal, shell, ivory or bone, used to construct the decorative scheme, is imbedded firmly in its place.
Sometimes he is said to live in a shell, by throwing off which from time to time he increases the world; or in an egg, which at last he breaks in pieces; the pieces are the islands.
Snakes are oviparous; they deposit from ten to eighty eggs of an ellipsoid shape, covered with a soft leathery shell, in places where they are exposed to and hatched by moist heat.
As the egg passes at last through the alarmingly distended neck, the snake makes some slight contortions and the swelling collapses, the shell having been filed through by the saw-like apparatus.
The thinnest possible spherical shell of metal, such as a sphere of insulator coated with gold-leaf, behaves as a conductor for static charge just as if it were a sphere of solid metal.
The fact that there is no electric force in the interior of such a closed electrified shell is one of the most certainly ascertained facts in the science of electrostatics, and it enables us to demonstrate at once that particles of electricity attract and repel each other with a force which is inversely as the square of their distance.
Let us then suppose a spherical shell 0 to be electrified.
It is a fundamental theorem in attractions that a thin spherical shell of matter which attracts according to the potential law of the inverse square acts on all external points as of a if it were concentrated at its centre.
The potential of such a shell at any internal point is constant, and the equi-potential surfaces for external space are ellipsoids confocal with the ellipsoidal shell.
Let R 1 be the radius of the inner sphere, R2 the inside radius of the outer sphere, and R2 the outside radius of the outer spherical shell.
Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.
Then this produces a charge - Q on the inside of the enclosing spherical shell, and a concentric charge +Q on the outside of the shell.
If the outer shell is connected to the earth, the charge +Q on it disappears, and we have the capacity C of the inner sphere given by C= I /R 1 - I /R2=(R2 - R1) R1R2 (II).
The French meanwhile had occupied Vionville and Flavigny, and other troops were moving down the slopes from Rezonville to their support, but the united onset of this whole German division overbore all resistance, and the French began to retire eastward, suffering terribly from the shell fire of the Prussian batteries.
The pearling grounds were practically unknown in 1890, but in the following decade they produced pearls and mother-ofpeal shell of considerable value.
But the Torres Straits islanders are employed by Europeans in the pearl shell fishery, and are good labourers; and in some of the Kei and Aru Islands the Papuan inhabitants form orderly Christian communities.
So strong was the feeling against him that on one occasion a would-be assassin threw at him a dynamite shell, which blew off one of his legs.
The addition of brilliant ornamentation in shell, teeth, feathers, wings of insects and dyed fibres completed the round of the textile art.
The relics of bone, antler, stone, shell and copper are of yesterday.
Those of the redshank, of the golden plover (to a small extent), and enormous numbers of those of the black-headed gull, and in certain places of some of the terns, are, however, sold as lapwings', having a certain similarity of shell to the latter, and a difference of flavour only to be detected by a fine palate.
The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.
They fired a shell weighing 485 lb, with a bursting charge of 17 lb.
The Japanese hand grenades consisted of about 1 lb of high explosive in a tin case; the Russian cases were of all sorts, including old Chinese shell.
The piles of the third settlement do not reach down to the shell marl, but are fixed in the layers representing the first and second settlements.
Concrete in a shell is a name which might be applied to all the methods of founding a pier which depend on the very valuable property which strong hydraulic concrete possesses of setting into a solid mass under water.
The required space is enclosed by a wooden or iron shell; the soil inside the shell is removed into the soil instead of being driven in.
South and west of the temple are many other remains of the Roman city, including a fairly perfect theatre excavated by Hiller von Gartringen, and the shell of a large gymnasium.
Sars (1887) having had the opportunity of raising it from dried Australian mud, found that, unlike other phyllopods, but like the Cladocera, the parent keeps its brood within the shell until their full development.
The latter in the Daphniidae are enclosed in a modified part of the mother's shell, called the ephippium from its resemblance to a saddle in shape and position.
The young usually pass through several stages of development after leaving the egg, and this commonly after, even long after, the egg has left the maternal shell.
Almost always the shell has a rostral sinus.
The two valves of the shell of the common cockle are similar to each other, and somewhat circular in outline.
The beak or umbo of each valve is prominent and rounded, and a number of sharp ridges and furrows radiate from the apex to the free edge of the shell, which is crenated.
The interior of the shell is remarkable for the absence of pearly lustre on its interior surface.
The pallial line, which is the line of attachment of the mantle parallel to the edge of the shell, is not indented by a sinus at the posterior end.
The shell is developed on the dorsal surface behind the velum, the foot on the opposite or ventral surface behind the mouth.
After a few days, when the mantle bearing the shell valves has developed so much as to enclose the whole body, the young cockle sinks to the bottom and commences to follow the habits of the adult..
The usual size of the cockle in its shell is from I to 2 in.
The eggs are elliptical in shape, both poles being equal, and are covered with a shell which may be thin and leathery or hard and calcareous.
When chewed a small piece is wrapped up in a leaf of the betel vine or pan, with a pellet of shell lime or chunam; and in some cases a little cardamom, turmeric or other aromatic is added.
Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
Alpheus Hyatt (1838-1902) was the first to discover (1866) that these changes in the form of the ammonite shell agreed closely with those which had been passed through in the ancestral history of the ammonites.
He showed that from each individual shell of an ammonite the entire ancestral series may be reconstructed, and that, while the earlier shell-whorls retain the characters of the adults of preceding members of the series, a shell in its own adult stage adds a new character, which in turn becomes the pre-adult character of the types which will succeed it; finally, that this comparison between the revolutions of the life of an individual and the life of the entire order of ammonites is wonderfully harmonious and precise.
Independent evolution of parts is well shown among invertebrates, where the shell of an ammonite, for example, may change markedly in form without a corresponding change in suture, or vice versa.
Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.
Fishing for the tortoiseshell turtle gives employment to a large number of natives in the season, and considerable quantities of the shell are exported.
Gods are represented with their appropriate attributes - the fire-god hurling his spear, the moon-goddess with a shell, &c.; the scenes of human life are pictures of warriors fighting with club and spear, men paddling in canoes, women spinning and weaving, &c. An important step towards phonetic writing appears in the picture-names of places and persons.
The impregnated eggs undergo a very partial development in the mother, and these pass into a state of rest, for which they are furnished with a dense shell.
Such hallucinations are commonly provoked by crystal-gazing, but auditory hallucinations may be caused by the use of a shell (shell-hearing), and the other senses are occasionally affected.
The Lamellibranchia are mainly characterized by the rudimentary condition of the head, and the retention of the primitive bilateral symmetry, the latter feature being accentuated by the lateral compression of the body and the development of the shell as two bilaterally symmetrical plates or valves covering each one side of the animal.
The mantle-skirt is always long, and hides the rest of the animal from view, its dependent margins meeting in the middle line below the ventral surface when the animal is retracted; it is, as it were, slit in the median line before and behind so as to form two flaps, a right and a left; on these the right and the left calcareous valves of the shell are borne respectively, connected by an uncalcified part of the shell called the ligament.
A very few have the power of swimming by opening and shutting the valves of the shell (Pecten, Lima); most can crawl slowly or burrow rapidly; others are, when adult, permanently fixed to stones or rocks either by the shell or the byssus.
The left side of the animal is seen as when removed from its shell in fig.
The valves of the shell have been removed by severing their adhesions to the muscular areae h, i, k, 1, m, u.
One of these portions is more liga mentous and serves to keep the two shells con stantly attached to one another, _.....Zunule whilst the more fleshy portion serves to close the shell rapidly when it has been gaping.
In removing the valves of the shell from an Anodonta, it is necessary not only to cut through the muscular attachment of the body-wall 4 ?"
Whilst the valves of the shell are equal in Anodonta we find in many Lamellibranchs (Ostraea, Chama, Corbula, &c.) one valve larger, and the other smaller and sometimes flat, whilst the larger shell may be fixed to rock or to stones (Ostraea, &c.).
It is to be remembered that the whole of the cuticular hard product produced on the dorsal surface and on the mantle-flaps is to be regarded as the " shell," of which a median band-like area, the ligament, usually remains uncalcified, so as to result in the production of two valves united by the elastic ligament.
A 4pex the left valve of the shell and the left half of the mantle-skirt are removed.
The glochidium quits the gillpouch of its parent and swims by alternate opening and shutting of the valves of its shell, as do adult Pecten and Lima, trailing at the same time a long byssus thread.
The glochidium is formed by the precocious development of the anterior adductor and the retardation of all the other organs except the shell.
When the larval development is completed the test is cast off, its cells breaking apart and falling to pieces leaving the young animal with a well-developed shell exposed and the internal organs in an advanced state.
In Yoldia and Nucula proxima the ova are set free in the water and the test-larvae are free-swimming, but in Nucula delphinodonta the female forms a thin-walled egg-case of mucus attached to the posterior end of the shell and in communication with the pallial chamber; in this case the eggs develop and the test-larva is enclosed.
Shell thin; animal fixed.
Trigonia; shell sub-triangular, umbones directed backwards.
Lyrodesmidae.-Extinct; shell inequilateral, posterior side shorter; hinge short, teeth in form of a fan.
Mantle open; foot rather small; branchiae folded; shell inequivalve.
Lima; members of this genus form a nest by means of the byssus, or swim by clapping the valves of the shell together.
Shell irregul s ar, fixed in the young by the left and larger valve.
Isocardiidae.-Mantle largely closed, pedal orifice small; gill-plates of equal size; shell globular, with prominent and coiled umbones.
Galeommidae.-Mantle reflected over shell; shell thin, gaping; adductors much reduced.
Petricolidae.-Boring forms with a reduced foot; shell elongated, with deep pallial sinus.
Shell equivalve, with radiating costae and external ligament.
Limnocardiidae.-Siphons very long, united throughout; shell gaping; two adductors; brackish waters.
Shell with a pallial sinus; dorsal region protected by accessory plates.
A valuable product is a species of clam, the shell of which furnishes a specially iridescent mothero'-pearl, which the natives barter with the Japanese for inlaying lacquer.
The characteristic organs of Mollusca are the mantle and shell, the foot, the ctenidia and the radula, of which all but the last are external.
The external epithelium of the dorsal region secretes the shell.
Between the edge of the shell and the foot there is a groove or cavity, chiefly developed laterally and posteriorly.
The shell extends to the edge of the mantle-fold, and the cavity between the mantle and the side of the body is the pallial chamber.
The shell consists of an organic basis the substance of which is called conchiolin, impregnated with carbonate of lime, with a small proportion, I-2%, of phosphate of lime.
On the outside of the shell is a non-calcified layer of conchiolin called the periostracum, secreted by the thickened edge of the mantle.
The zone of the external surface of the mantle within the edge secretes a layer formed of prisms of calcite; the rest of the epithelium from this zone to the apex secretes the inner layer of the shell, composed of successive laminae; this is the nacreous layer, and in certain species has a commercial value as nacre or mother-of-pearl.
Thus the growth of the shell in extent is due to additions to the prismatic layer at the edge, its growth in thickness to new layers of nacre deposited on its inner surface.
In many cases in various classes the mantle is reflected over the edges of the shell, so as to cover more or less completely its outer surface.
When this covering is complete the shell is contained in a closed sac and is said to be " internal," but the sac is lined by ectoderm and the shell is always morphologically external.
In one or two cases the epithelium of the foot secretes a calcified shell, which is either free as in Argonauta or adherent as in Hipponyx.
This ridge forms the edge of the shell-secreting epithelium, and therefore of the mantle, since the shell extends to the edge of the mantle.
The veliger, as soon as its shell has attained some extent and begins to assume definite shape, is no longer of a form common to Mollusca generally, but acquires characters peculiar to the partiY cular class to which its parents belong.
The metameric repetition of the shellplates and of the ctenidia are probably special modifications, but it is difficult to explain the spicules of the dorsal integument except as a condition more primitive than the shell itself.
This has led to the loss of the radula, and is accompanied by the division of the shell into two valves.
The peculiarities of the Gastropoda are all due to the torsion of the shell and body.
Pieces of paper punctured with small holes are placed over the trays in which the hatching goes on; and the worms, immediately they burst their shell, creep through these openings to the light, and thereby scrape off any fragments of shell which, adhering to the skin, would kill them by constriction.
The insects complete their cocoons in from three to four days, and in two or three days thereafter the cocoons are collected, and the pupa killed to prevent its further progress and the bursting of the shell by the fully developed moth.
The British islands are under a resident commissioner, and have some trade in copra, ivory, nuts, pearl shell and other produce.
A magnetic observatory was equipped at Bogen Atlas range the food of this bird is said to consist chiefly of the Testudo mauritanica, which "it carries to some height in the air, and lets fall on a stone to break the shell" (Ibis, 18 59, p. 1 77).
On the Tower of the Winds at Athens he is figured holding a shell, such as is blown by Tritons.
With regard to natural products the country has few worth mentioning; minerals are found in the Lebanon, but not in any quantity; traces of amber-digging have been discovered on the coast; and the purple shell (murex trunculus and brandaris) is still plentiful.
The modern submarine periscope consists essentially of a long tube, the top of which is just above the water when diving, while the lower end passes through a stuffing box on the shell of the boat into the control-room.
If the shell bursts and the soul flies away, the man must die.
Bertram Elliot, waiting to lead the Royals just abaft the bridge, was struck down by a shell which did fearful execution forward.
Norman Finch, who though severely wounded continued to fight his gun singlehanded till the top was wrecked by another shell.
A big shell went through the upper deck and burst just where 56 marines were waiting to charge up the gangways, killing 49 and wounding seven.
Another shell in the wardroom killed 4 officers and 26 men.
A large shell carried away the port side of the bridge, mortally wounding Comm.
With the "Thetis" leading they had rounded the lighthouse in a storm of shot and shell.
She came under shrapnel fire off the mole, and as she rounded it a star shell showed up the "Intrepid" heading for the canal and the "Thetis" aground.
The after control was demolished by a shell which killed everyone in it.
She was close to the eastern pier when a heavy shell burst close to the conning tower, which must have killed the commander for he was never seen again.
The dorsal integument or mantle bears, not a simple shell, but eight calcareous plates in longitudinal series articulating with each other.
It is the first part of the shell formed in development.
This appears to indicate that the Neomeniomorpha are descended from Chiton-like ancestors, and that they have lost their shell valves.
According to Paul Pelseneer the Polyplacophora are the most archaic, the Aplacophora being specialized in (1) the great reduction of the foot, (2) the disappearance of the shell (Cryptoplax among the Polyplacophora showing both reductions in progress), (3) the disappearance of the radula.
And although embryology seems to prove that the Neomeniomorphs are derived from forms with a series of shell-valves, nevertheless it seems probable that the calcareous spicules which alone are present in adult Aplacophora preceded the solid shell in evolution.
The process therefore is so managed that only the outer shell of the casting is chilled, and that the interior remains graphitic, i.e.
These are collected in water, scraped over the edge of a shell to free them from adhering cellular tissue and epidermis, and more than once washed in a running stream, followed by renewed scraping till the desired purity of fibre is attained.
The eggs are very remarkable objects, curiously unlike those of other birds; and their shell looks as if it were of highly-burnished metal or glazed porcelain, presenting also various colours, which seem to be constant in the particular species, from pale primrose to sage-green or light indigo, or from chocolate brown to pinkish orange.
The seed is rather larger than a hazel nut, with a thicker and darker shell and per- Planting fectly spherical shape.
This instrument was made with a pendulum weight of I loo kilos or over a ton; and with a modified construction the weight was increased to 17,000 kilos or nearly 19 tons, portability being obtained by replacing the solid pendulum of the smaller instrument by a shell which can be filled with barytes, a heavy mineral readily obtainable in most places.
Propagation takes place by eggs, which are oval, quite white, with a very hard and strong shell.
A favorite way of indicating the eyes was by drilling two holes and inserting a white shell bead n each.
The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place; and Mehemet Au, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt.
Oysters are found in some places, but have disappeared from many localities, where their abundance in ancient times is proved by their shell moulds on the coast.
In the manufacture of these things they employed adzes made of stone, shell or hard wood, and a wooden drill pointed with stone, shell or bone.
For water-vessels, &c., they employ gourds and large coco-nut shells, in preparing which they pour in water and allow the pulp or the kernel to decay, so that it may be removed without breaking the rind or shell.
Their musical instruments are few and rude - consisting of the drums and flutes already mentioned, and shell trumpets.
The gods were supposed to dwell in various animals, in trees, or even in inanimate objects, as a stone, a shell, &c. In some islands idols bearing more or less resemblance to the human shape were made.
On the top is a shallow cup for the reception of the one or two eggs, which have a bluish-white shell with chalky incrustation.
Shell Hill, guarded only by a picquet, was seized at once.
The first attack made by Pavlov's advanced guard, aided by parts of Soimonov's corps, was relatively slight, but General Dannenberg now arrived on the field, and arranged for an assault on the British centre and right, to be delivered by ro,000 men (half his intact forces) chiefly by way of the Quarry Ravine, the attack to be prepared by the guns on Shell Hill.
As it was, supported by the heavy guns on Shell Hill, the assailants, though no longer more than slightly superior in numbers, carried not only the sangar, but part of the crest line of the allied position.
Last of all, the dominant guns on Shell Hill thus silenced, the resolute advance of a handful of British infantry decided the day, and the Russians retreated.
The turtle is also found, the carapace being exported as tortoiseshell, the animal being gently roasted or boiled alive over a slow fire to facilitate the separation of the shell from the flesh.
The seed consists of a thin, hard testa or shell, enclosing a wrinkled kernel, which, when dried, is the nutmeg.
It consisted of beads made from shells, and, unlike the cowry-money of India and Africa (which was the shell in its natural state), required a considerable measure of skill in its manufacture.
Dark wampum, which was made from a "hard shell" clam (Venus mercenaria), popularly called quahang or quahog, a corruption of the Indian name, was the most valuable.
White wampum was made from the shell of whelks, either from the common whelk (Buccinum undatum), or from that of Pyrula canaliculata and Pyrula carica.
By the Dutch settlers of New York it was called seawan or zeewand, and roenoke in Virginia, and perhaps farther south, for shell-money was also known in the Carolinas, but whether the roenoke of the Virginian Indians was made from the same species of shell as wampum is not clear.
These furnaces possess a large cylindrical shell (e), lined with fire-bricks, and made to revolve round its horizontal axis by means of a toothed wheel fixed on its exterior; (if) are tire-seats holding tires (gg), which work in friction rollers (h).
The inhabitants, who number one to two hundred, speak Sokotri and Arabic and are chiefly engaged in diving for pearl shell on the Bacchus Bank N.E.
The mulundo bears a fruit about the size of a cricket ball covered with a hard green shell and containing scarlet pips like a pomegranate.
With a kind of trumpet formed out of a shell he terrified the Titans in their fight with the Olympian gods.
But even such an attempt to systematically plumb the universe can only make us acquainted with the merest inside shell.
The Italian word is generally taken to be from porcella, diminutive of porco, pig, from a supposed resemblance of the shell to a pig's back.
The waste of heat in the chimney gases is accordingly greater; and further, the metallic shell is liable to be quickly burned away as a result of its contact at a high temperature with free oxygen.
The temperature of the shell is much higher than that of a steam boiler, for in order to secure that the working air will take up a fair amount of heat, the upper limit to which its temperature is raised greatly exceeds that of even high-pressure steam.
It is to internal combustion that they owe their success, for it enables them to get all the heat of combustion into the working substance, to use a relatively very high temperature at the top of the range, and at the same time to escape entirely the drawbacks that arise in the air-engine proper through the need of conveying heat to the air through a metallic shell.
The female lays an egg in the unripe nut, on the kernel of which the larva subsists till September, when it bores its way through the shell, and enters the earth, to undergo transformation into a chrysalis in the ensuing spring.
As a result, cult and organization and code hardened, forming a shell which proved strong enough to resist all disintegrating tendencies.
Considerable progress has been made in the development of the oil-fields in Dutch Borneo, and the Nederlandsch Indische Industrie en Handel Maatschappij, the Dutch business of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, increased its output from 123,50 tons in 1901 to 285,720 tons in 1 9 04, and showed further satisfactory increase thereafter.
A two-edged weapon, of which the blade is of sharks' teeth, and a defensive armour of braided sennit, are also peculiar to the islands; a large adze, made of the shell of the Tridacna gigas (the largest bivalve known), was formerly used in the Carolines, probably by the old builder race.
That pagurids must have the usually soft pleon or abdomen protected by the shell of a mollusc is now known to be subject to a multitude of exceptions.
These sometimes completely absorb the shell on which they are settled, but then act as a substitute for it, and in any case by their outgrowth they extend the limits of the dwelling, so that the inmate can grow in comfort without having to hunt or fight for a larger abode.
Cranberries are raised in large quantities, and there are oyster and other shell fisheries.
The first water-jacketed cupola which came into general use was a circular inverted cone, with a slight taper, of 36 inches diameter at the tuyeres, and composed of an outer and an inner metal shell, between which water circulated.
A single section can be removed and replaced without entirely emptying the stack, as a shell of congealed slag always coats the inner surface of the jacket.
The fibre, which should be arranged on the sheet as evenly as possible, is carried up by the feed cloth and passes between the feed roller and the shell on to the small knobs.
The valves of the shell are closed by a single large adductor muscle, the anterior adductor being absent.
The two valves of the shell are unequal in size, and of different shape; the left valve is larger, thicker and more convex, and on it the animal rests in its natural state.
Starfishes devour large numbers; they are able to pull the valves of the shell apart and then to digest the body of the oyster by their everted stomach.
Cliona, the boring sponge, destroys the shells and so injures the oyster; the boring annelid Leucodore also excavates the shell.
Hence if V is the volume of a mass M of liquid bounded by a surface whose area is S, the integral M = f f f pdx dydz, (I) where the integration is to be extended throughout the volume V, may be divided into two parts by considering separately the thin shell or skin extending from the outer surface to a depth within which the density and other properties of the liquid vary with the depth, and the interior portion of the liquid within which its properties are constant.
Since e is a line of insensible magnitude compared with the dimensions of the mass of liquid and the principal radii of curvature of its surface, the volume of the shell whose surface is S and thickness will be and that of the interior space will be V - SE.
If we suppose a normal v less than E to be drawn from the surface S into the liquid, we may divide the shell into elementary shells whose thickness is dv, in each of which the density and other properties of the liquid will be constant.
The mass of the whole shell will therefore be S f E pdv, and that of the interior part of the liquid (V - SE)po.
The remains of the abbey chiefly consist of the shell of the beautiful Cruciform church, with a central saddleback tower rising from the transepts to a height of over 90 ft., and a graceful rose window at the west end of the nave.
The chests need to be kept in a dry warehouse for a length of time, but ultimately the opium ceases to lose moisture to the shell, and the latter becomes extremely solid.
The shell fisheries (oysters particularly) are centred in Delaware Bay and at Maurice River Cove, in Cumberland county, but are important also in Cape May, Atlantic, Ocean and Monmouth 1 The following statistics of the products for 1900 and for 1905 are for factory products, those for 1900 differing, therefore, from the statistics which appear in the reports of the census of 1900.
In 1909 the State Bureau of Shell Fisheries estimated the annual value of shell fisheries in the state at nearly $6,000,000, of which $500,000 was the value of clams. Monmouth, Ocean and Cape May counties furnish large quantities of menhaden, which are utilized for oil and fertilizer.
It may assume the form of a bivalve shell entirely enclosing the body and limbs, as in many 6, maxilla (second maxilla).
B an enlarged portion of the edge of the shell along the back, showing the overlap of each growth.
The eggs are retained between the valves of the shell in some Phyllopoda and in the Cladocera and Ostracoda, and they lie in the mantle cavity in the Cirripedia.
This is partly due to the fact that many important forms must have escaped fossilization altogether owing to their small size and delicate structure, while very many of those actually preserved are known only from the carapace or shell, the limbs being absent or represented only by indecipherable fragments.
The structure is bilaterally symmetrical, the body and shell elongated along the antero-posterior axis and nearly cylindrical.
The shell has therefore the form of a tube open at both ends.
The shell is narrower at the posterior end and is slightly curved to the dorsal side.
Two retractor muscles pass back from the base of the foot to the dorsal side of the shell.
E, Surface view of the shell with gill-tentacles exserted as in a, Mantle.
Shell curved with greatest diameter at anterior aperture and diminishing gradually to posterior.
Foot expanded distally into a symmetrical disk with a crenate edge or simple and vermiform without well-developed lateral processes; shell often contracted towards the anterior aperture.
The nuts which are infested by this insect are usually the first to fall to the ground; the larva then bores a round hole through the nut shell, by means of its jaws, and creeps out.
The only other articles they make are a few shell ornaments.
As for the reasoning powers in animals, the accounts of monkeys learning by experience to break eggs carefully, and pick off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause and effect which will henceforth guide their actions.
The homologies between man and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition, - these, which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong to general biology.
At the very beginning of the siege Sir Henry Lawrence was fatally wounded by a shell, and died on the 4th of July, thus depriving the defence of its guiding spirit.
The new building, the shell of which was completed in 1906, faces the Rettifilo, a new wide street which leads from the Borsa in a straight line to the railway station; at the back it joins the former building, which is at a higher level.
In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope, succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a thin papery membrane - the apical portion of the nucellus - which is easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the endosperm.
The ripe seed, which grows as large as a rather small plum, is enclosed by a thick, fleshy envelope covering a hard woody shell with two or rarely three longitudinal keels.
A papery remnant of nucellus lines the inner face of the woody shell, and, as in cycadean seeds, the apical portion is readily separated as a cap covering the summit of the endosperm.
After fertilization, some of the uppermost bracts below each flower become red and fleshy; the perianth develops into a woody shell, while the integument remains membranous.
The fleshy outer portion of the seed is formed from the outer perianth, the woody shell being derived from the inner perianth.
Several of the islands contain valuable deposits of guano and phosphate of lime, and their waters are frequented by edible and shell turtle.
Within, there is a ruinous walled village, and the shell of an old Venetian fortress, surrounded by mosques and bazaars; for Antivari is rather Turkish than Montenegrin.
Towards the close of the 18th century the 3rd earl of Marchmont had the walls rebuilt out of the old stones, and the castle, though a mere shell of the original structure, is now a picturesque ruin.
In some variants of the story this shell is said to grow as a kind of mushroom on rotting timber in the sea, and is obviously one of the barnacles of the genus Lepas.
There are marbles in Osage and other counties, shell marble in Montgomery county, white limestone in Chase county, a valuable bandera flagstone and hydraulic cement rock near Fort Scott, &c. The limestones produced in 1908 were valued at $403,176 and the sandstones at $67,950.
The button which distinguishes the first grade is a transparent red stone; the second grade, a red coral button; the third, a sapphire; the fourth, a blue opaque stone; the fifth, a crystal button; the sixth, an opaque white shell button; the seventh, a plain gold button; the eighth, a worked gold button; and the ninth, a worked silver button.
This is expressed on the Horologium of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, called the Temple or Tower of the Winds, at Athens, where Boreas is represented as a bearded man of stern aspect, thickly clad, and wearing strong buskins; he blows into a conch shell, which he holds in his hand as a sign of his tempestuous character.
Harting informed the present writer that the bird seems to lay its head sideways on the ground, and then, grasping the limpet's shell close to the rock between the mandibles, use them as scissor-blades to cut off the mollusc from its sticking-place.
The kima, a great mussel weighing (without shell) 20 to 30 Ib, and other shellfish, are eaten, as are also dogs, flying foxes, lizards, beetles and all kinds of insects.
With his head encircled by a coronet of dogs teeth, and covered with a network cap or piece of bark-cloth, the septum of the nose transfixed by a pencil of bone or shell, and perhaps a shell or fibre armlet or two, the Papuan is in complete everyday attire.
The Papuans are mostly ignorant of iron, but work skilfully with axes of stone or tridacna shell and bone chisels, cutting down trees 20 in.
Shells may become completely silicified, or may have their cavities occupied by flint with every detail of the interior of the shell preserved in the outer surface of the cast.
He is represented with four arms, and black in colour; in one hand he holds a club and in the others a shell, a discus and a lotus respectively.
The exports, sent chiefly to Great Britain, are cocoa, spices, wool, cotton, coffee, live stock, hides, turtles, turtle shell, kola nuts, vanilla and timber.
The place where the acropolis was entered was believed to have been overlooked by the mythical Meles when he carried the lion round his fortress to make it invulnerable; it was really a path opened by one of the landslips, which have reduced the sandstone cliff of the acropolis to a mere shell, and threaten to carry it altogether into the plain below.
Among Batavia's manufactures are harvesters, ploughs, threshers and other agricultural implements, firearms, rubber tires, shoes, shell goods, paper-boxes and inside woodwork.
The Australasian species come nearest to laying eggs, inasmuch as the eggs are large, full of yolk, and enclosed in a shell; but development normally takes place in the uterus, though abnormally, incompletely developed eggs are extruded.
Ova large and heavily charged with yolk, and provided with a stoutish shell.
Prorocentraceae (Schutt) (=the Adinida of Bergh); body surrounded by a firm shell of two valves without a girdle band; transverse groove absent; transverse flagellum coiled round base of longitudinal.
This was found in a Turbo shell, occupied also by a Pagurid, and coated with Actinians.
Yet the fact that the long, soft Conchoderma auritum stands exposed on the Coronula, sometimes ten on one, indicates that the whale can have little chance of evicting its tenants, even at the expense of rubbing off the eighteen flattened horns of its own skin embedded in cavities round the domed base of the Coronula shell.
This method has received considerable extension, notably in furnace-smelting of iron ores containing manganese, where the entire hearth is often completely water-cased, and in some lead furnaces where no firebrick lining is used, the lower part of the furnace stack being a mere double iron box cooled by water sufficiently to keep a coating of slag adhering to the inner shell which prevents the metal from being acted upon.
Sigismondo entrusted the execution of his plans to Leo Battista Alberti, who had to encase in a shell of classic architecture a 13th-century Franciscan church.
The shell of a man before him was too weak to ever measure up to Damian's noble brother.
One minute she's babbling like a spring brook; the next second it's back in the shell.
Your shell has to shed wind, water and snow to maintain a warm and dry climate inside.
Later, Dean heard the movement of the mortuary men coming for Edithâ€”the hushed conversation and the bumping and thumping as the lifeless shell of this troubled woman was bagged and forever removed from Bird Song.
But all indications are that the effects of the nervous trauma of battle vis à vis shell shock was equally prevalent in all ranks.
When the shells are thus exposed and slightly agape, the stabbing method of opening the shell is more successful.
It is a fossil ammonite - an extinct mollusk that floated through the seas in its coiled shell.
The first shell fell on one of the limbers, exploded the ammunition and caused several casualties.
In the shell, we place an ampersand in front of a file descriptor number when doing redirections.
There was practically no enemy artillery fire; only an occasional shell from a long distance.
If your father gets angry he'll make an ashtray of my shell, and will throw my flesh to the sharks.
Examples; 50 ft wide beam shell £ 21,000, full fit £ 75,000, 58 ft Dutch style barge shell £ 31,000.
Appuldurcombe House is the impressive shell of a grand 18th century baroque style stately home of the Worsley family.
Some, like Staff of Kingship are inspired by symbols of African royalty, others like New Fine Trail and Shell by Indonesian batiks.
Shot and shell and rifle caliber bullets had put the entire Gamecock Fleet out of action in a few minutes.
Severely damaged, total burnout or flood damage with no serviceable parts, or already a stripped out shell.
In some cases a brown marl is also present, coating the ferroan calcite or directly in contact with the bivalve shell.
Of cruises fell shack the shell review post-election Caribbean an early start.
All these 1960s Shell maps used cartography by Hallwag.
The evening bag body is mounted on to a faux tortoise shell celluloid plastic square base.
The car benefits from an extremely lightweight chassis, which incorporates an aluminum shell ' stretched ' over a lattice frame.
A very sweet English antique Victorian mother of pearl shell belt buckle, perfect for customizing your vintage chic or antique chic outfits.
The bag has a faux tortoise shell plastic frame and kiss clasp and is lined in navy blue cotton fabric.
The inner ear consists of an organ called the cochlea, which is shaped like a snail's shell.
Using a teaspoon, remove the cockles from the shell and set aside.
Only shell builtin commands or commands found by searching the PATH are executed.
The shell executes the second line as a normal shell command, and thus starts up the Perl interpreter.
Homes bid on bungalow site Shell Haven future remains unclear Murder inquiry under way More seats for c2c commuters Who stole my little pony?
As the newly hatched baby cuckoo pokes it way out of its shell, it pushes the other eggs out of their rightful nest.
They also have cuttlebone to help the calcium development in their shell.
In particular, do not run a telnet daemon; use the secure shell daemon instead.
Chevron and Shell were forced to evacuate the area and oil operations in the western delta were reduced by 40% .
He spent the night moving from shell hole to shell hole trying to avoid detection - by either side.
A version compiled to run under ms DOS in the user-friendly ESDUview shell which prompts on-screen for the input data is also provided.
The shell was given additional support with the use of a large stainless steel dowel held in position with brass plates.
His brain inside his skull would start bubbling like a boiled egg inside its shell.
These implants consist of a silicone elastomer shell filled with silicone gel.
Holmes later admitted that he felt little elation in beating this shell of Ali's former self.
The Imation Clip Flash Drive features the smallest of USB flash drives, safely encased in a durable, rubberized shell.
In previous years the shell scheme walls were all erected first, then the fascia board and then the additional extras including light battens.
In normal ferritin, a rigid protein shell surrounds an 8 nm diameter cavity, part-filled with non-magnetic ferrihydrite.
If it melts and bubbles then it is the inert filler which is used to make the weight of a real shell for tests.
The shell was prepared by first filling any larger depressions or rough areas with a flexible filler.
Working with our joint venture company, Autogas Ltd, we're putting autogas refueling facilities on prime retail forecourts operated by Shell Retail.
However, some types of shell make use of base fuzes, as in the case of the SAPHE shells already mentioned.
The captured vapors are burned to generate enough electrical energy for the Shell grid to compensate for the new loading gantry 's consumption.
The formation of a new generation of stars is now taking place within this compressed gas in these outer shell structures.
These truly marine gastropods usually have a reduced shell, often within the body, or have it missing completely.
One possible champion is Lord Ron Oxburgh, the distinguished geologist who also happens to be chairman of Shell.
The shell grotto at one end will provide a sheltered meeting place.
The heavy-duty, padded camera compartment inside is fully customizable while the outer shell comes complete with a technical backpack harness.
A rider whilst racing or training shall wear properly affixed protective headgear which must be of a hard/soft shell construction.
The forks are fitted with the BSA shrouds and topped off with the neat chrome headlamp shell.
The calcareous tube worm Serpula vermicularis forms twisting masses of tubes on the shell occupied by the hermit crab.
Hurricane candles / hurricane candles / Hurricane Shell Photo Album Our hurricane shell candles are each a piece of candle art.
Brown, however, is concerned above all with surface, with the containing husk or shell.
Around this is a metallic hydrogen shell some 30,000 km deep.
For commands that are not internal to the shell, the command name is substituted separately from the argument list.
Parameter $ 0 is set from argument zero at shell invocation.
The joke going around college was, " what do you call the shields lass in the white shell suit?
Between the outer shell and the insulating layers is a 100% waterproof, breathable, seamless inner protective glove.
The frost eroded limestone is littered with coral and sea shell fossils confirming this raised mountain was once below sea level.
This blow is often sufficient to dislodge the limpet, failing this the shell is gripped in the bill and prised off.
The end screws off the shell and inside you find a little silver locket.
He immediately killed a tortoise and, hollowing out its shell for a sounding board, invented the lyre.
By merging into a shell, a private company becomes public in an expeditious and cost-effective manner.
Later investigation has shown the remains of a shell midden in the entrance.
Underlying the main living area there is a large shell midden.
Then place shell in palm of hand (you may want to wear an oven mitt ).
Theoretical models of shell and tube boilers suitable for boiling two-phase mixtures are under development.
Mother-of-Pearl Iridescent, milky interior shell of the fresh water mollusk that is sliced thin and used on watch dials.
You can buy cleaned shell fish from your fish monger pr super market.
Admire this truly impressive ancient large motte surrounded by it's circular shell keep.
Thanks From Marisa, USA I use cocoa shell mulch on mine.