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shell

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shell

shell Sentence Examples

  • Shell conical without spire.

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  • "Nothing... only a shell..." he answered.

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  • grisea is greyish in tint and produces a spherical egg with a spiky shell, which also is dropped into the mud.

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  • This was Darian, not the shell of a man whose mind was stuck somewhere else.

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  • Cade was slowly emerging from his shell, but the cat was still as wild as ever.

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  • Darian had been a shell of a man when Sofi found him several months ago.

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  • Later, Dean heard the movement of the mortuary men coming for Edith—the hushed conversation and the bumping and thumping as the lifeless shell of this troubled woman was bagged and forever removed from Bird Song.

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  • Damian's brother was somewhere inside the scarred shell of a man before him.

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  • I let her hold a shell in her hand, and feel the chicken "chip, chip."

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  • Trochus, shell umbilicated, spire pointed and prominent, British.

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  • - Colony of Hydractinia echinata, growthemselves; or, ing on the Shell of a Whelk.

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  • The upper, wide opening of the duct is attached by elastic, peritoneal lamellae to the hinder margin of the left lung; the middle portion of the duct is glandular and thick-walled, for the deposition of the albumen; it is connected by a short, constricted " isthmus " (where the shell-membrane is formed) with a dilated " uterus " in which the egg receives its calcareous shell and eventual pigmentation.

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  • Or, papa got an answer to his newspaper ad and saved a shotgun shell by doing the bashing himself.

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  • Fascinated by the cool, smooth texture of its shell, she bumped into the counter.

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  • Not far from the scene of this conflict stands Balquhain Castle, a seat of the Leslies, now a mere shell, which was occupied by Queen Mary in September 1562 before the fight at Corrichie between her forces, led by the earl of Moray, and those of the earl of Huntly.

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  • The shell heaps found on the coasts and elsewhere dispose of the theory that New Zealand was uninhabited or practically so six centuries back.

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  • movement flexure is also produced by the coiling of the visceral sac and shell; primitively the latter was bowl-shaped; but the ventral flexure, which brings together the two extremities of the digestive tube, gives the visceral sac the outline of a more or less acute cone.

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  • In reality the head and foot are fixed and the shell rotates from right to left.

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  • In a dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median plane of the animal.

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  • Lankester in the ninth edition of this work attributed it to the pressure of the shell and visceral hump towards the right side.

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  • De- nt generation of the shell occurs in some members of the order.

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  • In John Houghton's Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681, there is one of the earliest notices of turnips being eaten by sheep:" Some in Essex have their fallow after turnips, which feed their sheep in winter, by which means the turnips are scooped, and so made capable to hold dews and rain water, which, by corrupting,; _ mbibes the nitre of the air, and when the shell breaks it runs about and fertilizes.

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  • The shell is represented as fixed, while the head and foot rotate from left to right.

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  • Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.

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  • Spire of shell much reduced; two bipectinate ctenidia, the right being the smaller; no operculum.

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  • But a man has no more to do with the style of architecture of his house than a tortoise with that of its shell: nor need the soldier be so idle as to try to paint the precise color of his virtue on his standard.

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  • CALIPASH and Calipee (possibly connected with carapace, the upper shell of a turtle), the gelatinous substances in the upper and lower shells, respectively, of the turtle, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow colour.

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  • What reasonable man ever supposed that ornaments were something outward and in the skin merely--that the tortoise got his spotted shell, or the shell-fish its mother-o'-pearl tints, by such a contract as the inhabitants of Broadway their Trinity Church?

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  • It took them another thirty minutes or so to find the burned out shell of the car.

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  • The tower of Notre Dame, dating from 1180, is a landmark across the dunes, and the church behind it, although a shell, merits inspection.

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  • In Hydra viridis the polyp is of a green colour and produces a spherical egg with a smooth shell which is dropped into the mud.

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  • Shell internal.

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  • In some forms the coiling disappears in the adult, leaving the shell simply conical as in Patellidae, Fissurellidae, &c., and in some cases the shell is coiled in one plane, e.g.

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  • - The Common Limpet (Patella vulgata) in its shell, seen from the pedal surface.

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  • The menu features hanger steak and frites, coq au vin, surf-and-turf parpardelle, grilled shell steak and pan-roasted salmon.

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  • Visceral mass and shell conical; head flattened; pallial cavity aquatic, but without a branchia; genital apertures separated.

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  • Their drinking cups are made of half a coco-nut shell.

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  • It has a royal shell factory, calico-printing mills, lignite mines, stone quarries and pottery and tobacco factories.

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  • D, Embryo with lateral torsion and an endogastric shell.

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  • burr.- p T 9 pl.y ped.g: reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface necessarily fell over to one side.

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  • It is not certain that the projection of the spire to the originally left side of the shell has anything to do with the falling over of the shell to that side.

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  • When the shell is taken away (best effected by immersion in hot water) the surface of the visceral dome is found to be covered by a black-coloured epithelium, which may be removed, enabling the observer to note the posi.

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  • "A live one!" shouted a man as a whistling shell approached.

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  • c, Free edge of the shell.

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  • To the infantry! added another with loud laughter, seeing the shell fly past and fall into the ranks of the supports.

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  • The best soils are in the west section, where limestone clays or shell marls are common.

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  • He referred also to the nautiloid shell of the larva falling to one side.

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  • Puncturella, mantle and shell with a foramen in front of the apex, British.

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  • Shell conical, symmetrical, without slit or perforation.

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  • It would help to think of him as Alex, instead of an empty shell.

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  • 2, C): the larva therefore resembles Nautilus in the relations of body and shell.

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  • C, Embryo with ventral flexure and exogastric shell.

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  • (Lankester.) c, Muscular bundles forming the root of the foot, and adherent to the shell.

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  • e, em, k, lx, n, int, ecr, to the edge of the free mantle-skirt, is the conical shell.

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  • Shell conical; slit or hole in anterior part of mantle; two symmetrical ctenidia; no operculum.

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  • Emarginula, mantle and shell with a slit, British.

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  • Scutum, mantle split anteriorly and reflected over shell, which has no slit.

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  • Fissurella, mantle and shell perforated at apex, British.

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  • Spire of shell much reduced; a single ctenidium.

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  • Shell flattened, umbilicated; foot anteriorly truncated with angles produced into lobes.

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  • Shell spirally coiled; epipodial tentacles present; operculum thick and calcareous.

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  • Shell not nacreous, without umbilicus, with prominent spire and polished surface.

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  • Shell semi-globular, with short spire; operculum calcareous, not spiral.

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  • Septaria, shell boat-shaped.

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  • Without shell and operculum, but with pallial cavity and ctenidium.

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  • 17.-Dorsal aspect of a specimen of Fissurella from which the shell has been removed, whilst the anterior area of the mantle-skirt has been longitudinally slit and its sides reflected.

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  • of the shell.

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  • - Animal and shell of Pyrula laevigata.

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  • - Male of Littorinaz littoralis, Lin., removed from its shell; the mantle-skirt cut along its right line of attachment and thrown over to the left side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.

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  • mc, Columella muscle (muscular process grasping the shell).

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  • into a small hole bored in the shell of another mollusc.

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  • This columella muscle is the same thing as the muscles adhering to the shell in Patella, and the posterior adductor of Lamellibranchs.

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  • - Female of Purpura lapillus removed from its shell; the mantleskirt cut along its left line of attachment and thrown over to the right side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.

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  • a, Siphonal notch of the shell e, Everted buccal introvert (prooccupied by the siphonal boscis).

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  • ing on the shell.

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  • - Animal and shell of Phorus exutus.

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  • Similar rhythmically contractile shell of Rostellaria rectirostris.

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  • h', Prolonged siphonal notch of the shell occupied by the siphon, or trough-like process of the mantle-skirt.

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  • It is surrounded by a ridge of cells which gradually extends over the visceral sac and secretes the shell.

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  • In forms which are naked in the adult state, the shell falls off soon after the reduction of the velum, but in Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula the shell-gland and shell are not developed, and the young animal when hatched has already the naked form of the adult.

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  • In development they pass through the typical trochosphere and veliger stages provided with boat-like shell.

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  • Pomatias, shell turriculated.

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  • Cyclosurus, shell uncoiled.

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  • Ampullaria, shell dextral, coiled.

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  • Lanistes, shell sinistral, spire short or obsolete.

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  • Spire of shell somewhat elongated; mantle-border fringed; viviparous; fluviatile.

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  • shell turriculated, with carinated br, Ctenidium (branchial whorls, the carinae tuberculated or plume).

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  • Shell with short spire; no siphon.

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  • B, The shell removed.

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  • C, D, Two views of the shell of Cardiopoda.

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  • Animal fixed by the shell, the last whorls of which are not in contact with each other; foot small; two anterior pedal tentacles.

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  • Shell almost completely uncoiled, in one plane, with internal septa.

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  • Shell very long; head large; foot broad.

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  • Shell conical, not FIG.

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  • Shell conical; foot secreting a ventral calcareous plate; animal fixed.

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  • Foot divided into two, posterior half bearing the operculum; a wide epipodial velum; shell turbinated.

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  • Shell thin, more or less covered by the mantle; no operculum.

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  • Shell with short spire, carinate and pointed.

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  • Shell thin; operculum absent; tentacles bifid; foot secretes a float; pelagic. Janthina.

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  • Shell turriculated and siphonated, thick, each whorl with varices; foot broad and truncated anteriorly; pallial siphon well developed; proboscis present.

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  • Shell turriculated, with elongated spire; proboscis short; siphon rudimentary.

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  • Visceral mass still coiled spirally; shell thin and shining.

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  • Visceral sac and shell coiled in one plane; foot divided transversely into two parts, posterior part bearing an operculum, anterior part forming a fin provided with a sucker.

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  • Visceral sac and shell small in proportion to the rest of the body, which cannot be withdrawn into the shell; foot elongated, fin-shaped, with sucker, but without operculum.

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  • Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate.

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  • Shell elongated, with long siphon; lateral teeth of radula multicuspidate.

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  • 32.-Animal and shell of Ovula.

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  • h, Mantle-skirt, which is naturally carried in a reflected condition so as to cover the sides of the shell.

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  • ac, Siphonal notch of the mouth of the shell.

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  • ac to pc, Mouth of the shell.

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  • w, w, Whorls of the shell.

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  • Shell with moderately long spire and canal, ornamented with ribs, often spiny; foot truncated anteriorly.

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  • Shell ovoid, with short spire and folded columella; foot small, no operculum; siphon short.

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  • Foot very large; mantle reflected over shell.

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  • Foot very large; without operculum; shell with short spire and longitudinal ribs; siphon long.

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  • Shell fusiform, with elongated spire; margin of shell and mantle notched.

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  • These facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass in Gastropods.

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  • But this hypothesis leaves the elevation of the visceral mass and the exogastric coiling of the shell in the ancestral form unexplained.

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  • In those Euthyneura in which the shell is entirely absent in the adult, it is, except in the three genera Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula, developed in the larva and then falls off.

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  • In other cases (Tectibranchs) the reduced shell is enclosed by upgrowths of the edge of the mantle and becomes internal, as in many Cephalopods.

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  • A few Euthyneura in which the shell is not much reduced retain an operculum in the adult state, e.g.

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  • As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.

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  • thin oval shell.

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  • shell to show.

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  • The relation of the delicate shell to the mantle is peculiar, since it occupies an oval area upon the visceral hump, the extent of which is indicated in fig.

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  • 40), in which the margin of the mantle-skirt coincides, just as it does in the limpet, with the margin of the shell.

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  • But in Aplysia the mantle is reflected over the edge of the shell, and grows over its upper surface so as to completely enclose it, excepting at the small central area s where the naked shell is exposed.

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  • 18 and 32), where the border of the mantle can be, and usually is, drawn over the shell, though it is withdrawn (as it cannot be in Aplysia) when they are irritated.

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  • From the fact that Aplysia commences its life as a free-swimming veliger with a nautiloid shell not enclosed in any way by the border of the mantle, it is clear that the enclosure of the shell in the adult is a secondary process.

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  • This forms the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt.

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  • When the shell of an A plysia enclosed in its mantle is pushed well to the left, the sub-pallial space is fully exposed as in fig.

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  • The free edge of the mantle is seen just below the margin of the shell (compare with Aplysia, fig.

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  • On examination this is found to be the under surface of the posterior limb of the gland, the upper surface of which has just been described as lying beneath the shell.

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  • 36, shgr), which is succeeded by a nautiloid shell.

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  • The whole surface of the body becomes greatly modified in those Nudibranchiate forms which have lost, not only the shell, but also the ctenidium.

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  • Opisthobranchs provided in the adult state with a shell and a mantle, except Runcina, Pleuro.

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  • The shell is usually well developed, except in Runcina and Cymbuliidae, and may be external or internal.

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  • h, shell; b, oral hood; d, foot; the exception of the Aplustridae, Lophocercidae and Thecosomata, the head is devoid of tentacles, and its dorsal surface forms a digging FIG.

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  • Cephalic disk enlarged anteriorly, forming an open tube posteriorly; shell external, thick, with p:ominent spire; no operculum.

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  • Margins of foot not prominent; no radula; shell external, with inconspicuous spire.

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  • Cephalic shield short, truncated posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.

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  • Cephalic shield continuous with neck; twelve to fourteen stomachal plates; a posterior pallial filament passing through a notch in shell.

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  • Foot very broad; cephalic shield with four tentacles; shell external, thin, without prominent spire.

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  • Cephalic shield ending posteriorly in a median point; shell internal, largely membranous; no radula or stomachal plates.

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  • Cephalic shield pointed behind; shell internal, chiefly membranous, with calcified nucleus, nautiloid; parapodia forming fins.

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  • Cephalic shield continuous with dorsal integument; no shell; ctenidium projecting from mantle cavity.

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  • animals, with shell coiled h, Median dorsal spine.

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  • pseudo-sinistrally; operculum i, Mouth of the shell.

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  • Adult without shell; a sub-epithelial pseudoconch formed by connective tissue; pallial cavity ventral.

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  • Shell not coiled, symmetrical; pallial cavity ventral.

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  • Shell more or less internal, much reduced or absent.

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  • e, e, Processes of the mantle-skirt reflected over the surface of the shell.

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  • The shell enclosing the visceral hump.

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  • h, The median spine of the shell.

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  • - Shell of Cavolinia tridentata, seen from the side.

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  • Shell partly or wholly internal, or absent; foot long, with well-developed ventral surface.

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  • The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body.

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  • h, Pointed extremity of the shell.

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  • [shell.

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  • Shell external and conical; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; ctenidium extending only over right side; a distinct osphradium.

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  • Shell external, conical, much flattened; anterior tentacles very small, and situated with the mouth in a notch of the foot below the head; ctenidium very large.

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  • Shell covered by mantle, or absent; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; mantle contains spicules.

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  • Shell absent in the adult; no ctenidium or osphradium.

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  • q, Shell.

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  • In some Pulmonata (snails) the foot is extended at right angles to the visceral hump, which rises from it in the form of a coil as in Streptoneura; in others the visceral hump is not elevated, but is extended with the foot, and the shell is small or absent (slugs).

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  • (From Keferstein.) a, Shell in A, B, C, shell-sac (closed) in D; b, orifice leading into the subpallial chamber (lung).

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  • In Clausilia a peculiar modification of this lid exists permanently in the adult, attached by an elastic stalk to the mouth of the shell, and known as the " clausilium."

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  • As in other Gastropoda Anisopleura, this shell-sac may abnormally develop a plug of chitinous matter, but normally it flattens out and disappears, whilst the cap-like rudiment of the permanent shell is shed out from the dome-like surface of the visceral hump, in the centre of which the shell-sac existed for a brief period.

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  • In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.

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  • Whether the closed primitive shell-sac of the slugs (and with it the transient embryonic shell-gland of all other Mollusca) is precisely the same thing as the closed sac in which the calcareous pen or shell of the Cephalopod Sepia and its allies is formed, is a further question which we shall consider when dealing with the Cephalopoda.

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  • It is important here to note that Clausilia furnishes us with an exceptional instance of the continuity of the shell or secreted product of the primitive shell - sac with the adult shell.

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  • In most other Mollusca (Anisopleurous Gastropods, Pteropods and Conchifera) there is a want of such continuity; the primitive shell-sac contributes no factor to the permanent shell, or only a very minute FIG.

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  • the permanent shell pe, Pedal ganglion.

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  • the nautiloid shell In Planorbis and in Auricula (Pulmonata, formed on the larva allied to Limnaeus) the olfactory organ is being cast, and a new on the left side and receives its nerve from shell of a different form the left visceral:ganglion.

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  • Pulmonata with an external shell.

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  • Shell spirally coiled; head broad, without prominent tentacles; foot short, operculated; marine.

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  • Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae.

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  • Shell dextral, hyperstrophic, animal sinistral.

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  • Shell conical, not spiral; inferior pallial lobe transformed into a branchia.

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  • Shell external, smooth, heliciform or flattened; radula with pointed marginal teeth.

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  • No shell; mantle covers the whole surface of the body; radula with squarish teeth.

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  • Shell largely chitinous, not spiral, its calcareous apex projecting through a small hole in the mantle.

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  • Shell internal, or absent; mantle restricted to the anterior and middle part of the body; radula with squarish teeth.

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  • Shell external, ovoid, the last whorl.

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  • Shell turriculated, with numerous.

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  • Shell elongated, with a more or less.

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  • Shell bulimoid, dextral or sinistral; radular teeth, expanded at their extremities and multicuspidate.

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  • Shell globular or auriform, external or partly covered by the mantle.

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  • Anterior tentacles much reduced; male and female apertures contiguous but distinct; shell thin,.

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  • Limaciform, with internal rounded shell; mantle very small and triangular; pulmonary chamber with tracheae; no anterior tentacles.

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  • The males are usually more brilliantly coloured than the females, and guard the eggs, which are often placed in a sort of nest made of the shell of some bivalve or of the carapace of a crab, with the convexity turned upwards and FIG.

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  • This removal of the shell makes a great difference in the oilcake, as the decorticated cake is more nutritious than the undecorticated.

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  • ABALONE, the Spanish name used in California for various species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl.

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  • The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and other places on the southern Californian coast, and when polished makes a beautiful ornament.

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  • The bit or cutter consists of a cylindrical The Calyx metallic shell, the lower end of which is made, by a Drill.

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  • The sarong is of Celebes manufacture and made of cotton, to the surface of which a high polish is imparted by friction with a shell.

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  • In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."

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  • The shell of Clausilia is sinistral and its aperture is provided with a hinged plate.

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  • truncatulus harbours the Cercaria of Fasciola hepatica, the liver-fluke, which causes rot in sheep. Ancylus, which occurs in rivers, has a minute limpet-like shell.

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  • Planorbis has the spire of the shell in one plane.

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  • Bithynia is smaller and the shell smoother.

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  • Neritina has a very small spire, the terminal portion of the shell containing nearly the whole animal.

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  • The eyes in both cases were inlaid, those of the lions with red jasper, white shell and blue schist: this imitation of the eyes in stone as well as metal figures was a feature common to both arts, which were at this time assuredly not without direct or indirect connexion.

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  • The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and entered a metal meridian circle.

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  • (3-57 metres) and is hollow, the inner surface of the shell being covered with a star map, and the outer surface with a map of the world.

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  • In the grounds of the residence called the Friars stands the shell of the apsidal choir of a Decorated chapel which belonged to a Franciscan house.

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  • Any roughness was levelled by polishing with ivory or a smooth shell.

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  • Of the fortress built by William the Conqueror in 1068 some portions were probably incorporated in Clifford's tower, the shell of which, showing an unusual ground plan of four intersecting circles, rises from an artificial mound.

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  • tower, reducing it to a mere shell.

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  • Shell fish are unimportant.

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  • In 1813, when he was before San Sebastian, the ammunition ran short; a battering train, long demanded, reached him not only some time after it was needed, but even then with only one day's provision of shot and shell.

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    0
  • The soft body of the Brachiopod is in all cases protected by a shell composed of two distinct valves; these valves are always, except in cases of malformation, equal-sided, but not equivalved.

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  • The shell is likewise most beautiful in its endless shapes and variations.

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  • Generally the shell is from a quarter of an inch to about 4 in.

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  • The interior of the shell varies very much according to families and genera.

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  • In Magellania [Waldheimia] it is elongated and reflected; the hinge-plate large, with four depressions, under which originates a median septum, which extends more or less into the interior of the shell (figs.

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  • Each valve of the shell is lined by a mantle which contains prolongations of the body cavity.

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  • The outer surfaces of the mantle secrete' the shell, which is of the nature of a cuticle impregnated by calcareous salts.

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  • These often have the form of prisms of calcite surrounded by a cuti cular meshwork; the whole is nourished and kept alive by processes, which in Crania are branched; these perforate the shell and permit the access of the coelomic fluid throughout its substance.

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  • In Lingula the shell is composed of alternate layers of chitin and of phosphate of lime.

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  • The free edges of the mantle often bear chitinous bristles or setae which project beyond the shell.

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  • As in the case of the Lamellibranchiata, the shell of the adult is not a direct derivative of the youngest shell of the larva.

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  • The young Brachiopod in all its species is protected by an embryonic shell called the " protegulum," which sometimes persists in the umbones of the adult shells but is more usually worn off.

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  • The body of the Brachiopod v usually occupies about the posterior half of the space within the shell.

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  • In Terebratulina, Rhyn- chonella, Lingula, and possibly other genera, the arms can be unrolled and protruded from the opened shell; in this case the tentacles also FIG.

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  • The function of these muscles, according to the same authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it upon the peduncle.

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  • Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.

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  • Of the shell or valvular muscles W.

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  • King makes out five pairs and an odd one, and individualizes their respective functions as follows: - Three pairs are lateral, having their members limited to the sides of the shell; one pair are transmedians, each member passing across the middle of the reverse side of the shell, while the odd muscle occupies the umbonal cavity.

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  • The central and umbonal muscles effect the direct opening and closing of the shell, the laterals enable the valves to move forward and backward on each other, and the transmedians allow the similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated, that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve.

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  • It was long a matter in discussion whether the animal could displace its valves sideways when about to open its shell, but this has been actually observed by Professors K.

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  • Naturg., 1861-1862), have their mantle turned over their head and the larval shell well developed.

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  • It can retract the tentacles, shut its shell, and sink to the bottom.

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  • Either before or just after turning, the mantle develops a larval shell termed the protegulum, and when this is completed the larva is termed the Phylembryo.

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  • The protegulum has been found in members of almost all the families of Brachiopod, and it is thought to occur throughout the group. It resembles the shell of the Cambrian .4 genus Iphidea [Paterina], and the Phylembryo is frequently referred to as the Paterina stage.

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  • Beecher's division of the Brachiopoda into four orders is based largely on the character of the aperture through which the stalk or pedicle leaves the shell.

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  • - Shell of larval Brachiopod.

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  • (From Simroth.) not develop into a pseudoI, Protegulum; 2, permanent shell.

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  • The pedicle passes out at right angles to the plane of junction of the valves of the shell; the opening is confined to the ventral valve, and may take the form of a slit, or may be closed by the development of a special plate called the listrium, or by a pseudo-deltidium.

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  • A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.

    0
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  • The potential at any point due to a magnetic shell is the product of its strength into the solid angle w subtended by its edge at the given point, or V = Fu.

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  • For a given strength, therefore, the potential depends solely upon the boundary of the shell, and the potential outside a closed shell is everywhere zero.

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  • The action of a hollow magnetized shell on a point inside it is always opposed to that of the external magnetizing force, 6 the resultant interior field being therefore weaker than the field outside.

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  • The coxal glands of the Arachnida are structures of the same nature as the green glands of the higher Crustacea and the so-called " shell glands " of the Entomostraca.

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  • The genital ducts of Arthropoda are, like the green glands, shell glands and coxal glands, to be regarded as coelomoducts (gonocoels).

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  • Besides the ordinary shell money, there is a sort of stone coinage, consisting of huge calcite or limestone discs or wheels from 6 in.

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  • One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.

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  • rifled guns with shrapnel shell were considered more than sufficient to make good the slight advantage then conceded to the breech-loader.

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  • shelheleth), the celebrated odoriferous shell of the ancients, the operculum or "nail" of a species of Strombus or "wing shell," formerly well known in Europe under the name of Blatta byzantina; it is still imported into Bombay to burn with frankincense and other incense to bring out their odours more strongly; saffron (Heb.

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  • Within the enclosure of the Khalifa's house is the tomb of Hubert Howard, son of the 9th earl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the capture of the city by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mandi's tomb.

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  • An experiment was devised by Lord Kelvin for demonstrating this, in which the difference of steadiness was shown of a copper shell filled with liquid and spun gyroscopically, according as the shell was slightly oblate or prolate.

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  • (9) c 2 Ci If the shot is moving as if fired from a gun of calibre d inches, in which the rifling makes one turn in a pitch of n calibres or nd inches, so that the angle S of the rifling is given by tan S = ird/nd = 2 d p/u, (10) '°If a denotes the density of the metal, and if the shell has a cavity homothetic with the external ellipsoidal shape, a fraction f of the linear scale; then the volume of a round shot being sird 3, and sird 3 x of a shot x calibres long W =*ird 3 x(I -f 3)v, (20) 2 Wki 2= 61rd 3 xo(I-f 5)Q, (21) Wk22=67rd3x 2 2+0 2(I - f5)Q.

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  • ov., ovaries; sh.g., shell gland; y.g., yolk gland; r.s., receptaculum seminis; ut., uterus; X 7.

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  • The uterus (X in figure C) begins in all cases at the shell gland (c, d) and may exhibit a swelling (R S) for the retention of the spermatozoa..

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  • The shell is thick, and operculate in some forms; thin, and provided with filaments, in others; in the latter cases it may contain only a few yolk-granules suspended in an albumen-like substance.

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  • There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.

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  • Dobbo, on a small western island, is the chief place; its resident population is reinforced annually, at the time of the west monsoon, by traders from that quarter, who deal in the tripang, pearl shell, tortoise-shell, and other produce of the islands.

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  • Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).

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  • Here the two elements, ovum and yolk-cells, are surrounded by a shell of operculate or of spindle-capped types.

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  • The fertilized ova, provided with yolk and a shell, are next transferred to the "uterus" along which they travel to the exterior.

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  • The eggs are stalked and provided with chitinoid often operculate shell.

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  • Each shell contains a single ovum and a mass of yolk-cells.

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  • Two eggs are produced at a time, each measuring about three-fourths of an inch in its long and half an inch in its short axis, and enclosed in a strong, flexible, white shell.

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  • Both are highly valued for the sake of the shell, which has always been a favorite material for ladies combs and hairpins.

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  • In ordinary circumstances, a casting thus obtained took the form of a shell wrthout any break of continuity.

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  • at a time, until the head and neck were reached, which, of course, had to be cast in one shell, 12 ft.

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  • The plumage of gorgeously-hued birds, the blossoms of flowers (especially the hydrangea), the folds of thick brocade, microscopic diapers and arabesques, are built up with tiny fragments of iridescent shell, in combination with silver-foil, goldlacquer and colored bone, the whole producing a rich and sparkling effect.

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  • In fine specimens the workmanship is extraordinarily minute, and every fragment of metal, shell, ivory or bone, used to construct the decorative scheme, is imbedded firmly in its place.

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  • i Obtained from the shell of the Halictis.

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  • Ehrenberg), a genus of lobose Rhizopoda, characterized by a chitinous plano-convex shell, the circular aperture central on the fiat ventral face, and more than one nucleus and contractile vacuole.

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  • Sometimes he is said to live in a shell, by throwing off which from time to time he increases the world; or in an egg, which at last he breaks in pieces; the pieces are the islands.

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  • Snakes are oviparous; they deposit from ten to eighty eggs of an ellipsoid shape, covered with a soft leathery shell, in places where they are exposed to and hatched by moist heat.

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  • As the egg passes at last through the alarmingly distended neck, the snake makes some slight contortions and the swelling collapses, the shell having been filed through by the saw-like apparatus.

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  • The thinnest possible spherical shell of metal, such as a sphere of insulator coated with gold-leaf, behaves as a conductor for static charge just as if it were a sphere of solid metal.

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  • The fact that there is no electric force in the interior of such a closed electrified shell is one of the most certainly ascertained facts in the science of electrostatics, and it enables us to demonstrate at once that particles of electricity attract and repel each other with a force which is inversely as the square of their distance.

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  • Let us then suppose a spherical shell 0 to be electrified.

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  • ii.) gave the first direct demonstration that no function of the distance except the inverse square can satisfy the condition that a uniform spherical shell exerts no force on a particle within it.

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  • It is a fundamental theorem in attractions that a thin spherical shell of matter which attracts according to the potential law of the inverse square acts on all external points as of a if it were concentrated at its centre.

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  • well-known theorem in attractions that if a shell is made of gravitative matter whose inner and outer surfaces are similar ellipsoids, it exercises no attraction on a particle of matter in its interior.

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  • 2 Consider then an ellipsoidal shell the axes of whose bounding surfaces are (a, b, c) and (a+da), (b+db), (c+dc), where da/a =db b =dc/c =,u.

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  • The potential of such a shell at any internal point is constant, and the equi-potential surfaces for external space are ellipsoids confocal with the ellipsoidal shell.

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  • Let R 1 be the radius of the inner sphere, R2 the inside radius of the outer sphere, and R2 the outside radius of the outer spherical shell.

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  • Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.

    0
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  • Then this produces a charge - Q on the inside of the enclosing spherical shell, and a concentric charge +Q on the outside of the shell.

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  • If the outer shell is connected to the earth, the charge +Q on it disappears, and we have the capacity C of the inner sphere given by C= I /R 1 - I /R2=(R2 - R1) R1R2 (II).

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  • The French meanwhile had occupied Vionville and Flavigny, and other troops were moving down the slopes from Rezonville to their support, but the united onset of this whole German division overbore all resistance, and the French began to retire eastward, suffering terribly from the shell fire of the Prussian batteries.

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  • in advance, so as to receive the detritus, which is removed by a shell pump of large size.

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  • The pearling grounds were practically unknown in 1890, but in the following decade they produced pearls and mother-ofpeal shell of considerable value.

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  • But the Torres Straits islanders are employed by Europeans in the pearl shell fishery, and are good labourers; and in some of the Kei and Aru Islands the Papuan inhabitants form orderly Christian communities.

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  • So strong was the feeling against him that on one occasion a would-be assassin threw at him a dynamite shell, which blew off one of his legs.

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  • The shell fisheries are less important than those of Maine.

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  • pieces of bone, stone, shell, &c., were worn as ornaments in the lip (Latin, labrum) or cheek by Eskimo, Tlinkit, Nahuatlas and tribes on the Brazilian coast.

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  • The addition of brilliant ornamentation in shell, teeth, feathers, wings of insects and dyed fibres completed the round of the textile art.

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  • The relics of bone, antler, stone, shell and copper are of yesterday.

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  • The automatic sight has, however, distinct limitations; it depends for its accuracy on height of site, and at long ranges even from a high site it cannot compare for accuracy with independent range-finding and careful laying or accurately applied quadrant elevation; it is also useless when the water line of the target is obscured, as may often be the case from the splashes caused by bursting shell.

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  • owing to the great distance from the sea; but during the Crimean War the iron-works of Lugan again produced shot, shell and guncarriages.

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  • Those of the redshank, of the golden plover (to a small extent), and enormous numbers of those of the black-headed gull, and in certain places of some of the terns, are, however, sold as lapwings', having a certain similarity of shell to the latter, and a difference of flavour only to be detected by a fine palate.

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  • The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.

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  • They fired a shell weighing 485 lb, with a bursting charge of 17 lb.

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  • The Japanese hand grenades consisted of about 1 lb of high explosive in a tin case; the Russian cases were of all sorts, including old Chinese shell.

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  • The piles of the third settlement do not reach down to the shell marl, but are fixed in the layers representing the first and second settlements.

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  • Concrete in a shell is a name which might be applied to all the methods of founding a pier which depend on the very valuable property which strong hydraulic concrete possesses of setting into a solid mass under water.

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  • The required space is enclosed by a wooden or iron shell; the soil inside the shell is removed into the soil instead of being driven in.

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  • Twenty tanan, originally a half coco-nut shell, equal one tang, and twenty-five of the same measure equal one sat.

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  • South and west of the temple are many other remains of the Roman city, including a fairly perfect theatre excavated by Hiller von Gartringen, and the shell of a large gymnasium.

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  • Sars (1887) having had the opportunity of raising it from dried Australian mud, found that, unlike other phyllopods, but like the Cladocera, the parent keeps its brood within the shell until their full development.

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  • The latter in the Daphniidae are enclosed in a modified part of the mother's shell, called the ephippium from its resemblance to a saddle in shape and position.

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  • - The body, seldom in any way segmented,, is wholly encased in a bivalved shell, the caudal part strongly inflexed, and almost always ending in a furca.

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  • The young usually pass through several stages of development after leaving the egg, and this commonly after, even long after, the egg has left the maternal shell.

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  • Almost always the shell has a rostral sinus.

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  • In these the furcal branches are linear or rudimentary, the shell is without rostral sinus, and, besides distinguishing characters of the second 2ntennae, they have always a branchial plate well developed on the first maxillae, which is inconstant in the other tribe.

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  • - The body is not encased in a bivalved shell; its articulated segments are at most eleven, those behind the genital segment being without trace of limbs, but the last almost always carrying a furca.

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  • in diameter, and distinguished by the presence of spines along the ribs of the shell.

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  • The two valves of the shell of the common cockle are similar to each other, and somewhat circular in outline.

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  • The beak or umbo of each valve is prominent and rounded, and a number of sharp ridges and furrows radiate from the apex to the free edge of the shell, which is crenated.

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  • The interior of the shell is remarkable for the absence of pearly lustre on its interior surface.

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  • The pallial line, which is the line of attachment of the mantle parallel to the edge of the shell, is not indented by a sinus at the posterior end.

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  • The shell is developed on the dorsal surface behind the velum, the foot on the opposite or ventral surface behind the mouth.

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  • After a few days, when the mantle bearing the shell valves has developed so much as to enclose the whole body, the young cockle sinks to the bottom and commences to follow the habits of the adult..

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  • The usual size of the cockle in its shell is from I to 2 in.

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  • The eggs are elliptical in shape, both poles being equal, and are covered with a shell which may be thin and leathery or hard and calcareous.

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  • It was formerly known as Levant nut and Levant shell, owing to the fact that it was brought to Europe by way of the Levant.

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  • When chewed a small piece is wrapped up in a leaf of the betel vine or pan, with a pellet of shell lime or chunam; and in some cases a little cardamom, turmeric or other aromatic is added.

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  • Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.

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  • Alpheus Hyatt (1838-1902) was the first to discover (1866) that these changes in the form of the ammonite shell agreed closely with those which had been passed through in the ancestral history of the ammonites.

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  • He showed that from each individual shell of an ammonite the entire ancestral series may be reconstructed, and that, while the earlier shell-whorls retain the characters of the adults of preceding members of the series, a shell in its own adult stage adds a new character, which in turn becomes the pre-adult character of the types which will succeed it; finally, that this comparison between the revolutions of the life of an individual and the life of the entire order of ammonites is wonderfully harmonious and precise.

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  • Independent evolution of parts is well shown among invertebrates, where the shell of an ammonite, for example, may change markedly in form without a corresponding change in suture, or vice versa.

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  • Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.

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  • Whereas among many ammonites and gastropods smooth ness of the shell, following upon an ornamental youthful Condition, is generally a symptom of decline, among many other invertebrates and vertebrates, as C. E.

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  • Fishing for the tortoiseshell turtle gives employment to a large number of natives in the season, and considerable quantities of the shell are exported.

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  • Gods are represented with their appropriate attributes - the fire-god hurling his spear, the moon-goddess with a shell, &c.; the scenes of human life are pictures of warriors fighting with club and spear, men paddling in canoes, women spinning and weaving, &c. An important step towards phonetic writing appears in the picture-names of places and persons.

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  • The impregnated eggs undergo a very partial development in the mother, and these pass into a state of rest, for which they are furnished with a dense shell.

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  • Such hallucinations are commonly provoked by crystal-gazing, but auditory hallucinations may be caused by the use of a shell (shell-hearing), and the other senses are occasionally affected.

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  • inland (W.S.W.) from it, on the slope of Monte Caputo, overlooking the beautiful and very fertile valley called "La Conca d'oro" (the Golden Shell), famed for its orange, olive and almond trees, the produce of which is exported in large quantities.

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  • The Lamellibranchia are mainly characterized by the rudimentary condition of the head, and the retention of the primitive bilateral symmetry, the latter feature being accentuated by the lateral compression of the body and the development of the shell as two bilaterally symmetrical plates or valves covering each one side of the animal.

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  • The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).

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  • The mantle-skirt is always long, and hides the rest of the animal from view, its dependent margins meeting in the middle line below the ventral surface when the animal is retracted; it is, as it were, slit in the median line before and behind so as to form two flaps, a right and a left; on these the right and the left calcareous valves of the shell are borne respectively, connected by an uncalcified part of the shell called the ligament.

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  • A very few have the power of swimming by opening and shutting the valves of the shell (Pecten, Lima); most can crawl slowly or burrow rapidly; others are, when adult, permanently fixed to stones or rocks either by the shell or the byssus.

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  • (I) Animal removed from its shell, a probe g passed into the sub-pallial chamber through the excurrent siphonal notch.

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  • u, The thickened muscular pallial margin which adheres to the shell and forms the pallial line of the left side.

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    0
  • The left side of the animal is seen as when removed from its shell in fig.

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    0
  • The valves of the shell have been removed by severing their adhesions to the muscular areae h, i, k, 1, m, u.

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  • Further than this, the part of the mantle-skirt bounding the two holes is frequently drawn out so as to form a pair of tubes which project from the shell (figs.

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  • Left shell valve.

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  • One of these portions is more liga mentous and serves to keep the two shells con stantly attached to one another, _.....Zunule whilst the more fleshy portion serves to close the shell rapidly when it has been gaping.

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    0
  • In removing the valves of the shell from an Anodonta, it is necessary not only to cut through the muscular attachment of the body-wall 4 ?"

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  • 'crin e' L ore to the shell but to sever also a strong elastic ligament, or spring resem bling india-rubber, joining the two shells about the umbonal area.

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    0
  • The shell of Anodonta does not present these parts in the most strongly marked condition, and accordingly our figures (figs.

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    0
  • Whilst the valves of the shell are equal in Anodonta we find in many Lamellibranchs (Ostraea, Chama, Corbula, &c.) one valve larger, and the other smaller and sometimes flat, whilst the larger shell may be fixed to rock or to stones (Ostraea, &c.).

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  • It is to be remembered that the whole of the cuticular hard product produced on the dorsal surface and on the mantle-flaps is to be regarded as the " shell," of which a median band-like area, the ligament, usually remains uncalcified, so as to result in the production of two valves united by the elastic ligament.

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  • 7) set in the firm substance of the adult tubular shell, which has even replaced the ligament, so that the tube is complete.

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  • In the shell of Lamellibranchs three distinct layers can be distinguished: an external chitinous, non-calcified layer, the periostracum; a middle layer composed of calcareous prisms perpendicular to the surface, the prismatic layer; and an internal layer composed of laminae parallel to the surface, the nacreous layer.

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  • - Left Valve of the same Shell from the Inner Face.

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  • a, b, right and left valves of the shell; c, d, the umbones or short arms of the lever; e, f, the long arms of the lever; g, the hinge; h, the ligament; i, the adductor muscle.

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  • i [I] [2]) so as to issue from the shell, and by its action the Anodonta can slowly crawl or burrow in soft mud or sand.

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  • - Shell of Aspergillum vaginiferum to show the original valves a, now embedded in a continuous calcification of tubular form.

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  • - Shell of Aspergillum vaginiferum.

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  • A 4pex the left valve of the shell and the left half of the mantle-skirt are removed.

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  • sh, Shell.

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  • s, Teeth of the shell.

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  • The glochidium quits the gillpouch of its parent and swims by alternate opening and shutting of the valves of its shell, as do adult Pecten and Lima, trailing at the same time a long byssus thread.

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  • The glochidium is formed by the precocious development of the anterior adductor and the retardation of all the other organs except the shell.

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  • When the larval development is completed the test is cast off, its cells breaking apart and falling to pieces leaving the young animal with a well-developed shell exposed and the internal organs in an advanced state.

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  • In Yoldia and Nucula proxima the ova are set free in the water and the test-larvae are free-swimming, but in Nucula delphinodonta the female forms a thin-walled egg-case of mucus attached to the posterior end of the shell and in communication with the pallial chamber; in this case the eggs develop and the test-larva is enclosed.

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  • - One row of branchial filaments is directed dorsally, the other ventrally; the mantle has a long posteroventral suture and a single posterior aperture; the labial palps of each side are fused together; shell elongate; hinge without teeth; periostracum thick.

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  • - Labial palps free, very broad, and provided with a posterior appendage; branchial filaments transverse; shell has an angular dorsal border; mantle open along its whole border.

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  • Shell thin; animal fixed.

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  • Cyrtodontidae.-Extinct; shell equivalve and inequilateral, short, convex.

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  • Trigonia; shell sub-triangular, umbones directed backwards.

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  • Lyrodesmidae.-Extinct; shell inequilateral, posterior side shorter; hinge short, teeth in form of a fan.

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  • Spondylus; shell with spiny ribs, adherent by the spines.

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  • Pecten; shell orbicular, with equal auriculae; without a byssal sinus; British.

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  • Dimyarian, with orbicular and almost equilateral shell; adherent; hinge without teeth Sand ligament internal.

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  • Mantle open; foot rather small; branchiae folded; shell inequivalve.

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  • Lima; members of this genus form a nest by means of the byssus, or swim by clapping the valves of the shell together.

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  • Shell irregul s ar, fixed in the young by the left and larger valve.

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  • Shell equivalve, with an external ligament.

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  • Isocardiidae.-Mantle largely closed, pedal orifice small; gill-plates of equal size; shell globular, with prominent and coiled umbones.

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  • Galeommidae.-Mantle reflected over shell; shell thin, gaping; adductors much reduced.

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  • The three following genera with an internal shell probably belong to this family :-Chlamydoconcha.

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  • Rangiidae.-Two short siphons; shell with prominent FIG.

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  • shell and right mantle-flap Fam.

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  • Petricolidae.-Boring forms with a reduced foot; shell elongated, with deep pallial sinus.

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  • Glaucomyidae.-Siphons very long and united; foot small; shell thin, with deep pallial sinus; fresh or brackish water.

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  • Shell equivalve, with radiating costae and external ligament.

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  • Limnocardiidae.-Siphons very long, united throughout; shell gaping; two adductors; brackish waters.

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  • Tridacnidae.-Mantle closed to a considerable extent; apertures distant from each other; no siphons; a single adductor; shell thick.

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  • Shell thick, without pallial sinus.

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  • - Shell conical or biconvex, without canals in the external layer.

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  • Shell gaping, with a pallial sinus.

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  • - Siphons very long and quite separate; foot large; shell oval, elongated, ligament external.

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  • - Siphons united for the greater part of their length, and with a circlet of tentacles near their extremities; foot reduced; shell gaping; ligament internal.

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  • - Shell sub-trigonal, inequivalve; pallial sinus shallow; siphons short, united, completely retractile; foot large, pointed, often byssiferous.

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  • - Mantle extensively closed