Shell sentence example

shell
  • "Nothing... only a shell..." he answered.
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  • Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate.
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  • Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).
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  • Shell fusiform, with elongated spire; margin of shell and mantle notched.
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  • These facts afford strong support to the hypothesis that the weight of the shell is the original cause of the torsion of the dorsal visceral mass in Gastropods.
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  • But this hypothesis leaves the elevation of the visceral mass and the exogastric coiling of the shell in the ancestral form unexplained.
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  • In those Euthyneura in which the shell is entirely absent in the adult, it is, except in the three genera Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula, developed in the larva and then falls off.
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  • In other cases (Tectibranchs) the reduced shell is enclosed by upgrowths of the edge of the mantle and becomes internal, as in many Cephalopods.
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  • A few Euthyneura in which the shell is not much reduced retain an operculum in the adult state, e.g.
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  • As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.
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  • The relation of the delicate shell to the mantle is peculiar, since it occupies an oval area upon the visceral hump, the extent of which is indicated in fig.
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  • But in Aplysia the mantle is reflected over the edge of the shell, and grows over its upper surface so as to completely enclose it, excepting at the small central area s where the naked shell is exposed.
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  • From the fact that Aplysia commences its life as a free-swimming veliger with a nautiloid shell not enclosed in any way by the border of the mantle, it is clear that the enclosure of the shell in the adult is a secondary process.
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  • This forms the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt.
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  • When the shell of an A plysia enclosed in its mantle is pushed well to the left, the sub-pallial space is fully exposed as in fig.
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  • On examination this is found to be the under surface of the posterior limb of the gland, the upper surface of which has just been described as lying beneath the shell.
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  • The whole surface of the body becomes greatly modified in those Nudibranchiate forms which have lost, not only the shell, but also the ctenidium.
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  • Opisthobranchs provided in the adult state with a shell and a mantle, except Runcina, Pleuro.
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  • The shell is usually well developed, except in Runcina and Cymbuliidae, and may be external or internal.
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  • Cephalic disk enlarged anteriorly, forming an open tube posteriorly; shell external, thick, with p:ominent spire; no operculum.
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  • Cephalic shield short, truncated posteriorly; eyes deeply embedded; three calcareous stomachal plates; shell external, with reduced spire.
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  • Cephalic shield continuous with neck; twelve to fourteen stomachal plates; a posterior pallial filament passing through a notch in shell.
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  • Cephalic shield ending posteriorly in a median point; shell internal, largely membranous; no radula or stomachal plates.
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  • Cephalic shield pointed behind; shell internal, chiefly membranous, with calcified nucleus, nautiloid; parapodia forming fins.
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  • Cephalic shield continuous with dorsal integument; no shell; ctenidium projecting from mantle cavity.
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  • Adult without shell; a sub-epithelial pseudoconch formed by connective tissue; pallial cavity ventral.
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  • The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body.
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  • Shell external and conical; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; ctenidium extending only over right side; a distinct osphradium.
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  • Shell external, conical, much flattened; anterior tentacles very small, and situated with the mouth in a notch of the foot below the head; ctenidium very large.
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  • Shell covered by mantle, or absent; anterior tentacles form a frontal veil; mantle contains spicules.
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  • In some Pulmonata (snails) the foot is extended at right angles to the visceral hump, which rises from it in the form of a coil as in Streptoneura; in others the visceral hump is not elevated, but is extended with the foot, and the shell is small or absent (slugs).
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  • (From Keferstein.) a, Shell in A, B, C, shell-sac (closed) in D; b, orifice leading into the subpallial chamber (lung).
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  • In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.
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  • Whether the closed primitive shell-sac of the slugs (and with it the transient embryonic shell-gland of all other Mollusca) is precisely the same thing as the closed sac in which the calcareous pen or shell of the Cephalopod Sepia and its allies is formed, is a further question which we shall consider when dealing with the Cephalopoda.
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  • It is important here to note that Clausilia furnishes us with an exceptional instance of the continuity of the shell or secreted product of the primitive shell - sac with the adult shell.
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  • In most other Mollusca (Anisopleurous Gastropods, Pteropods and Conchifera) there is a want of such continuity; the primitive shell-sac contributes no factor to the permanent shell, or only a very minute FIG.
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  • Shell spirally coiled; head broad, without prominent tentacles; foot short, operculated; marine.
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  • Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae.
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  • Shell conical, not spiral; inferior pallial lobe transformed into a branchia.
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  • Shell external, smooth, heliciform or flattened; radula with pointed marginal teeth.
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  • No shell; mantle covers the whole surface of the body; radula with squarish teeth.
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  • Shell largely chitinous, not spiral, its calcareous apex projecting through a small hole in the mantle.
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  • Shell internal, or absent; mantle restricted to the anterior and middle part of the body; radula with squarish teeth.
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  • Shell turriculated, with numerous.
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  • Shell elongated, with a more or less.
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  • Shell bulimoid, dextral or sinistral; radular teeth, expanded at their extremities and multicuspidate.
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  • Shell globular or auriform, external or partly covered by the mantle.
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  • Anterior tentacles much reduced; male and female apertures contiguous but distinct; shell thin,.
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  • The males are usually more brilliantly coloured than the females, and guard the eggs, which are often placed in a sort of nest made of the shell of some bivalve or of the carapace of a crab, with the convexity turned upwards and FIG.
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  • This removal of the shell makes a great difference in the oilcake, as the decorticated cake is more nutritious than the undecorticated.
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  • The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and other places on the southern Californian coast, and when polished makes a beautiful ornament.
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  • The bit or cutter consists of a cylindrical The Calyx metallic shell, the lower end of which is made, by a Drill.
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  • The sarong is of Celebes manufacture and made of cotton, to the surface of which a high polish is imparted by friction with a shell.
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  • In England the word "snail" in popular language is associated with Gasteropods which inhabit land or fresh water, and which possess large conspicuous spiral shells; terrestrial Gasteropods, in which the shell is rudimentary and concealed, are distinguished as "slugs."
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  • The shell of Clausilia is sinistral and its aperture is provided with a hinged plate.
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  • Planorbis has the spire of the shell in one plane.
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  • Bithynia is smaller and the shell smoother.
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  • Neritina has a very small spire, the terminal portion of the shell containing nearly the whole animal.
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  • The eyes in both cases were inlaid, those of the lions with red jasper, white shell and blue schist: this imitation of the eyes in stone as well as metal figures was a feature common to both arts, which were at this time assuredly not without direct or indirect connexion.
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  • The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and entered a metal meridian circle.
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  • (3-57 metres) and is hollow, the inner surface of the shell being covered with a star map, and the outer surface with a map of the world.
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  • In the grounds of the residence called the Friars stands the shell of the apsidal choir of a Decorated chapel which belonged to a Franciscan house.
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  • Any roughness was levelled by polishing with ivory or a smooth shell.
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  • Of the fortress built by William the Conqueror in 1068 some portions were probably incorporated in Clifford's tower, the shell of which, showing an unusual ground plan of four intersecting circles, rises from an artificial mound.
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  • Shell fish are unimportant.
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  • In 1813, when he was before San Sebastian, the ammunition ran short; a battering train, long demanded, reached him not only some time after it was needed, but even then with only one day's provision of shot and shell.
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  • The soft body of the Brachiopod is in all cases protected by a shell composed of two distinct valves; these valves are always, except in cases of malformation, equal-sided, but not equivalved.
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  • The shell is likewise most beautiful in its endless shapes and variations.
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  • Generally the shell is from a quarter of an inch to about 4 in.
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  • The interior of the shell varies very much according to families and genera.
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  • Each valve of the shell is lined by a mantle which contains prolongations of the body cavity.
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  • The outer surfaces of the mantle secrete' the shell, which is of the nature of a cuticle impregnated by calcareous salts.
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  • These often have the form of prisms of calcite surrounded by a cuti cular meshwork; the whole is nourished and kept alive by processes, which in Crania are branched; these perforate the shell and permit the access of the coelomic fluid throughout its substance.
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  • In Lingula the shell is composed of alternate layers of chitin and of phosphate of lime.
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  • The free edges of the mantle often bear chitinous bristles or setae which project beyond the shell.
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  • As in the case of the Lamellibranchiata, the shell of the adult is not a direct derivative of the youngest shell of the larva.
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  • The young Brachiopod in all its species is protected by an embryonic shell called the " protegulum," which sometimes persists in the umbones of the adult shells but is more usually worn off.
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  • The body of the Brachiopod v usually occupies about the posterior half of the space within the shell.
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  • In Terebratulina, Rhyn- chonella, Lingula, and possibly other genera, the arms can be unrolled and protruded from the opened shell; in this case the tentacles also FIG.
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  • The function of these muscles, according to the same authority, is not only that of erecting the shell; they serve also to attach the peduncle to the shell, and thus effect the steadying of it upon the peduncle.
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  • Such is the general arrangement of the shell muscles in the division composing the articulated Brachiopoda, making allowance for certain unimportant modifications observable in the animals composing the different families and genera thereof.
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  • King makes out five pairs and an odd one, and individualizes their respective functions as follows: - Three pairs are lateral, having their members limited to the sides of the shell; one pair are transmedians, each member passing across the middle of the reverse side of the shell, while the odd muscle occupies the umbonal cavity.
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  • The central and umbonal muscles effect the direct opening and closing of the shell, the laterals enable the valves to move forward and backward on each other, and the transmedians allow the similar extremities (the rostral) of the valves to turn from each other to the right or the left on an axis subcentrically situated, that is, the medio-transverse region of the dorsal valve.
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  • It can retract the tentacles, shut its shell, and sink to the bottom.
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  • Either before or just after turning, the mantle develops a larval shell termed the protegulum, and when this is completed the larva is termed the Phylembryo.
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  • The protegulum has been found in members of almost all the families of Brachiopod, and it is thought to occur throughout the group. It resembles the shell of the Cambrian .4 genus Iphidea [Paterina], and the Phylembryo is frequently referred to as the Paterina stage.
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  • Beecher's division of the Brachiopoda into four orders is based largely on the character of the aperture through which the stalk or pedicle leaves the shell.
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  • (From Simroth.) not develop into a pseudoI, Protegulum; 2, permanent shell.
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  • The pedicle passes out at right angles to the plane of junction of the valves of the shell; the opening is confined to the ventral valve, and may take the form of a slit, or may be closed by the development of a special plate called the listrium, or by a pseudo-deltidium.
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  • A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.
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  • The potential at any point due to a magnetic shell is the product of its strength into the solid angle w subtended by its edge at the given point, or V = Fu.
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  • For a given strength, therefore, the potential depends solely upon the boundary of the shell, and the potential outside a closed shell is everywhere zero.
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  • The action of a hollow magnetized shell on a point inside it is always opposed to that of the external magnetizing force, 6 the resultant interior field being therefore weaker than the field outside.
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  • The coxal glands of the Arachnida are structures of the same nature as the green glands of the higher Crustacea and the so-called " shell glands " of the Entomostraca.
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  • The genital ducts of Arthropoda are, like the green glands, shell glands and coxal glands, to be regarded as coelomoducts (gonocoels).
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  • Besides the ordinary shell money, there is a sort of stone coinage, consisting of huge calcite or limestone discs or wheels from 6 in.
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  • One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.
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  • Within the enclosure of the Khalifa's house is the tomb of Hubert Howard, son of the 9th earl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the capture of the city by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mandi's tomb.
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  • An experiment was devised by Lord Kelvin for demonstrating this, in which the difference of steadiness was shown of a copper shell filled with liquid and spun gyroscopically, according as the shell was slightly oblate or prolate.
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  • (9) c 2 Ci If the shot is moving as if fired from a gun of calibre d inches, in which the rifling makes one turn in a pitch of n calibres or nd inches, so that the angle S of the rifling is given by tan S = ird/nd = 2 d p/u, (10) '°If a denotes the density of the metal, and if the shell has a cavity homothetic with the external ellipsoidal shape, a fraction f of the linear scale; then the volume of a round shot being sird 3, and sird 3 x of a shot x calibres long W =*ird 3 x(I -f 3)v, (20) 2 Wki 2= 61rd 3 xo(I-f 5)Q, (21) Wk22=67rd3x 2 2+0 2(I - f5)Q.
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  • The uterus (X in figure C) begins in all cases at the shell gland (c, d) and may exhibit a swelling (R S) for the retention of the spermatozoa..
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  • The shell is thick, and operculate in some forms; thin, and provided with filaments, in others; in the latter cases it may contain only a few yolk-granules suspended in an albumen-like substance.
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  • There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.
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  • Dobbo, on a small western island, is the chief place; its resident population is reinforced annually, at the time of the west monsoon, by traders from that quarter, who deal in the tripang, pearl shell, tortoise-shell, and other produce of the islands.
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  • Here the two elements, ovum and yolk-cells, are surrounded by a shell of operculate or of spindle-capped types.
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  • The fertilized ova, provided with yolk and a shell, are next transferred to the "uterus" along which they travel to the exterior.
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  • The eggs are stalked and provided with chitinoid often operculate shell.
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  • Each shell contains a single ovum and a mass of yolk-cells.
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  • Two eggs are produced at a time, each measuring about three-fourths of an inch in its long and half an inch in its short axis, and enclosed in a strong, flexible, white shell.
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  • Both are highly valued for the sake of the shell, which has always been a favorite material for ladies combs and hairpins.
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  • In ordinary circumstances, a casting thus obtained took the form of a shell wrthout any break of continuity.
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  • The plumage of gorgeously-hued birds, the blossoms of flowers (especially the hydrangea), the folds of thick brocade, microscopic diapers and arabesques, are built up with tiny fragments of iridescent shell, in combination with silver-foil, goldlacquer and colored bone, the whole producing a rich and sparkling effect.
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  • In fine specimens the workmanship is extraordinarily minute, and every fragment of metal, shell, ivory or bone, used to construct the decorative scheme, is imbedded firmly in its place.
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  • Sometimes he is said to live in a shell, by throwing off which from time to time he increases the world; or in an egg, which at last he breaks in pieces; the pieces are the islands.
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  • Snakes are oviparous; they deposit from ten to eighty eggs of an ellipsoid shape, covered with a soft leathery shell, in places where they are exposed to and hatched by moist heat.
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  • As the egg passes at last through the alarmingly distended neck, the snake makes some slight contortions and the swelling collapses, the shell having been filed through by the saw-like apparatus.
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  • The thinnest possible spherical shell of metal, such as a sphere of insulator coated with gold-leaf, behaves as a conductor for static charge just as if it were a sphere of solid metal.
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  • The fact that there is no electric force in the interior of such a closed electrified shell is one of the most certainly ascertained facts in the science of electrostatics, and it enables us to demonstrate at once that particles of electricity attract and repel each other with a force which is inversely as the square of their distance.
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  • Let us then suppose a spherical shell 0 to be electrified.
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  • It is a fundamental theorem in attractions that a thin spherical shell of matter which attracts according to the potential law of the inverse square acts on all external points as of a if it were concentrated at its centre.
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  • 2 Consider then an ellipsoidal shell the axes of whose bounding surfaces are (a, b, c) and (a+da), (b+db), (c+dc), where da/a =db b =dc/c =,u.
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  • The potential of such a shell at any internal point is constant, and the equi-potential surfaces for external space are ellipsoids confocal with the ellipsoidal shell.
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  • Let R 1 be the radius of the inner sphere, R2 the inside radius of the outer sphere, and R2 the outside radius of the outer spherical shell.
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  • Thus if Q is the surface density, S the thickness of the shell at any point, and p the assumed volume density of the matter of the shell, we have v =Abp. Then the quantity of electricity on any element of surface dS is A times the mass of the corresponding element of the shell; and if Q is the whole quantity of electricity on the ellipsoid, Q =A times the whole mass of the shell.
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  • Then this produces a charge - Q on the inside of the enclosing spherical shell, and a concentric charge +Q on the outside of the shell.
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  • If the outer shell is connected to the earth, the charge +Q on it disappears, and we have the capacity C of the inner sphere given by C= I /R 1 - I /R2=(R2 - R1) R1R2 (II).
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  • The French meanwhile had occupied Vionville and Flavigny, and other troops were moving down the slopes from Rezonville to their support, but the united onset of this whole German division overbore all resistance, and the French began to retire eastward, suffering terribly from the shell fire of the Prussian batteries.
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  • The pearling grounds were practically unknown in 1890, but in the following decade they produced pearls and mother-ofpeal shell of considerable value.
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  • But the Torres Straits islanders are employed by Europeans in the pearl shell fishery, and are good labourers; and in some of the Kei and Aru Islands the Papuan inhabitants form orderly Christian communities.
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  • So strong was the feeling against him that on one occasion a would-be assassin threw at him a dynamite shell, which blew off one of his legs.
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  • The shell fisheries are less important than those of Maine.
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  • The addition of brilliant ornamentation in shell, teeth, feathers, wings of insects and dyed fibres completed the round of the textile art.
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  • The relics of bone, antler, stone, shell and copper are of yesterday.
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  • The automatic sight has, however, distinct limitations; it depends for its accuracy on height of site, and at long ranges even from a high site it cannot compare for accuracy with independent range-finding and careful laying or accurately applied quadrant elevation; it is also useless when the water line of the target is obscured, as may often be the case from the splashes caused by bursting shell.
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  • Those of the redshank, of the golden plover (to a small extent), and enormous numbers of those of the black-headed gull, and in certain places of some of the terns, are, however, sold as lapwings', having a certain similarity of shell to the latter, and a difference of flavour only to be detected by a fine palate.
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  • The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.
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  • They fired a shell weighing 485 lb, with a bursting charge of 17 lb.
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  • The Japanese hand grenades consisted of about 1 lb of high explosive in a tin case; the Russian cases were of all sorts, including old Chinese shell.
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  • The piles of the third settlement do not reach down to the shell marl, but are fixed in the layers representing the first and second settlements.
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  • Concrete in a shell is a name which might be applied to all the methods of founding a pier which depend on the very valuable property which strong hydraulic concrete possesses of setting into a solid mass under water.
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  • The required space is enclosed by a wooden or iron shell; the soil inside the shell is removed into the soil instead of being driven in.
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  • South and west of the temple are many other remains of the Roman city, including a fairly perfect theatre excavated by Hiller von Gartringen, and the shell of a large gymnasium.
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  • Sars (1887) having had the opportunity of raising it from dried Australian mud, found that, unlike other phyllopods, but like the Cladocera, the parent keeps its brood within the shell until their full development.
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  • The latter in the Daphniidae are enclosed in a modified part of the mother's shell, called the ephippium from its resemblance to a saddle in shape and position.
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  • - The body, seldom in any way segmented,, is wholly encased in a bivalved shell, the caudal part strongly inflexed, and almost always ending in a furca.
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  • The young usually pass through several stages of development after leaving the egg, and this commonly after, even long after, the egg has left the maternal shell.
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  • Almost always the shell has a rostral sinus.
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  • In these the furcal branches are linear or rudimentary, the shell is without rostral sinus, and, besides distinguishing characters of the second 2ntennae, they have always a branchial plate well developed on the first maxillae, which is inconstant in the other tribe.
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  • - The body is not encased in a bivalved shell; its articulated segments are at most eleven, those behind the genital segment being without trace of limbs, but the last almost always carrying a furca.
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  • The two valves of the shell of the common cockle are similar to each other, and somewhat circular in outline.
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  • The beak or umbo of each valve is prominent and rounded, and a number of sharp ridges and furrows radiate from the apex to the free edge of the shell, which is crenated.
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  • The interior of the shell is remarkable for the absence of pearly lustre on its interior surface.
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  • The pallial line, which is the line of attachment of the mantle parallel to the edge of the shell, is not indented by a sinus at the posterior end.
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  • The shell is developed on the dorsal surface behind the velum, the foot on the opposite or ventral surface behind the mouth.
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  • After a few days, when the mantle bearing the shell valves has developed so much as to enclose the whole body, the young cockle sinks to the bottom and commences to follow the habits of the adult..
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  • The usual size of the cockle in its shell is from I to 2 in.
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  • The eggs are elliptical in shape, both poles being equal, and are covered with a shell which may be thin and leathery or hard and calcareous.
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  • It was formerly known as Levant nut and Levant shell, owing to the fact that it was brought to Europe by way of the Levant.
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  • When chewed a small piece is wrapped up in a leaf of the betel vine or pan, with a pellet of shell lime or chunam; and in some cases a little cardamom, turmeric or other aromatic is added.
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  • Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
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  • Alpheus Hyatt (1838-1902) was the first to discover (1866) that these changes in the form of the ammonite shell agreed closely with those which had been passed through in the ancestral history of the ammonites.
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  • He showed that from each individual shell of an ammonite the entire ancestral series may be reconstructed, and that, while the earlier shell-whorls retain the characters of the adults of preceding members of the series, a shell in its own adult stage adds a new character, which in turn becomes the pre-adult character of the types which will succeed it; finally, that this comparison between the revolutions of the life of an individual and the life of the entire order of ammonites is wonderfully harmonious and precise.
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  • Independent evolution of parts is well shown among invertebrates, where the shell of an ammonite, for example, may change markedly in form without a corresponding change in suture, or vice versa.
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  • Among the ammonites the loss of power to coil the shell is one feature of racial old age, and in others old age is accompanied by closer coiling and loss of surface ornamentation, such as spines, ribs, spirals; while in other forms an arresting of variability precedes extinction.
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  • Fishing for the tortoiseshell turtle gives employment to a large number of natives in the season, and considerable quantities of the shell are exported.
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  • Gods are represented with their appropriate attributes - the fire-god hurling his spear, the moon-goddess with a shell, &c.; the scenes of human life are pictures of warriors fighting with club and spear, men paddling in canoes, women spinning and weaving, &c. An important step towards phonetic writing appears in the picture-names of places and persons.
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  • The impregnated eggs undergo a very partial development in the mother, and these pass into a state of rest, for which they are furnished with a dense shell.
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  • Such hallucinations are commonly provoked by crystal-gazing, but auditory hallucinations may be caused by the use of a shell (shell-hearing), and the other senses are occasionally affected.
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  • The Lamellibranchia are mainly characterized by the rudimentary condition of the head, and the retention of the primitive bilateral symmetry, the latter feature being accentuated by the lateral compression of the body and the development of the shell as two bilaterally symmetrical plates or valves covering each one side of the animal.
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  • The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).
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  • The mantle-skirt is always long, and hides the rest of the animal from view, its dependent margins meeting in the middle line below the ventral surface when the animal is retracted; it is, as it were, slit in the median line before and behind so as to form two flaps, a right and a left; on these the right and the left calcareous valves of the shell are borne respectively, connected by an uncalcified part of the shell called the ligament.
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  • A very few have the power of swimming by opening and shutting the valves of the shell (Pecten, Lima); most can crawl slowly or burrow rapidly; others are, when adult, permanently fixed to stones or rocks either by the shell or the byssus.
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  • (I) Animal removed from its shell, a probe g passed into the sub-pallial chamber through the excurrent siphonal notch.
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  • The left side of the animal is seen as when removed from its shell in fig.
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  • The valves of the shell have been removed by severing their adhesions to the muscular areae h, i, k, 1, m, u.
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  • One of these portions is more liga mentous and serves to keep the two shells con stantly attached to one another, _.....Zunule whilst the more fleshy portion serves to close the shell rapidly when it has been gaping.
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  • In removing the valves of the shell from an Anodonta, it is necessary not only to cut through the muscular attachment of the body-wall 4 ?"
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  • 'crin e' L ore to the shell but to sever also a strong elastic ligament, or spring resem bling india-rubber, joining the two shells about the umbonal area.
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  • Whilst the valves of the shell are equal in Anodonta we find in many Lamellibranchs (Ostraea, Chama, Corbula, &c.) one valve larger, and the other smaller and sometimes flat, whilst the larger shell may be fixed to rock or to stones (Ostraea, &c.).
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  • It is to be remembered that the whole of the cuticular hard product produced on the dorsal surface and on the mantle-flaps is to be regarded as the " shell," of which a median band-like area, the ligament, usually remains uncalcified, so as to result in the production of two valves united by the elastic ligament.
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  • In the shell of Lamellibranchs three distinct layers can be distinguished: an external chitinous, non-calcified layer, the periostracum; a middle layer composed of calcareous prisms perpendicular to the surface, the prismatic layer; and an internal layer composed of laminae parallel to the surface, the nacreous layer.
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  • - Left Valve of the same Shell from the Inner Face.
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  • - Shell of Aspergillum vaginiferum to show the original valves a, now embedded in a continuous calcification of tubular form.
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  • A 4pex the left valve of the shell and the left half of the mantle-skirt are removed.
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  • The glochidium quits the gillpouch of its parent and swims by alternate opening and shutting of the valves of its shell, as do adult Pecten and Lima, trailing at the same time a long byssus thread.
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  • The glochidium is formed by the precocious development of the anterior adductor and the retardation of all the other organs except the shell.
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  • When the larval development is completed the test is cast off, its cells breaking apart and falling to pieces leaving the young animal with a well-developed shell exposed and the internal organs in an advanced state.
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  • In Yoldia and Nucula proxima the ova are set free in the water and the test-larvae are free-swimming, but in Nucula delphinodonta the female forms a thin-walled egg-case of mucus attached to the posterior end of the shell and in communication with the pallial chamber; in this case the eggs develop and the test-larva is enclosed.
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  • - One row of branchial filaments is directed dorsally, the other ventrally; the mantle has a long posteroventral suture and a single posterior aperture; the labial palps of each side are fused together; shell elongate; hinge without teeth; periostracum thick.
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  • - Labial palps free, very broad, and provided with a posterior appendage; branchial filaments transverse; shell has an angular dorsal border; mantle open along its whole border.
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  • Shell thin; animal fixed.
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  • Trigonia; shell sub-triangular, umbones directed backwards.
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  • Lyrodesmidae.-Extinct; shell inequilateral, posterior side shorter; hinge short, teeth in form of a fan.
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  • Mantle open; foot rather small; branchiae folded; shell inequivalve.
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  • Lima; members of this genus form a nest by means of the byssus, or swim by clapping the valves of the shell together.
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  • Shell irregul s ar, fixed in the young by the left and larger valve.
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  • Isocardiidae.-Mantle largely closed, pedal orifice small; gill-plates of equal size; shell globular, with prominent and coiled umbones.
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  • Galeommidae.-Mantle reflected over shell; shell thin, gaping; adductors much reduced.
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  • The three following genera with an internal shell probably belong to this family :-Chlamydoconcha.
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  • Petricolidae.-Boring forms with a reduced foot; shell elongated, with deep pallial sinus.
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  • Shell equivalve, with radiating costae and external ligament.
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  • Limnocardiidae.-Siphons very long, united throughout; shell gaping; two adductors; brackish waters.
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  • - Siphons very long and quite separate; foot large; shell oval, elongated, ligament external.
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  • - Siphons united for the greater part of their length, and with a circlet of tentacles near their extremities; foot reduced; shell gaping; ligament internal.
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  • - Shell sub-trigonal, inequivalve; pallial sinus shallow; siphons short, united, completely retractile; foot large, pointed, often byssiferous.
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  • - Mantle extensively closed; a fourth pallial aperture behind the foot; siphons long and united; shell elongated, a spoon-shaped projection for the ligament on each valve.
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  • - Elongated burrowing forms; foot cylindrical, powerful, without byssus; shell long, truncated and gaping at each end.
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  • - Mantle extensively closed, with a small pedal orifice; siphons long, united, covered by a chitinous sheath; gills prolonged into the branchial siphon; foot small; shell gaping.
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  • - Shell thin, gaping widely at the posterior end; anterior adductor much reduced; mantle extensively closed; siphons long, united.
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  • - Shell containing all the organs; heart traversed by the rectum; two aortae.
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  • Shell with a pallial sinus; dorsal region protected by accessory plates.
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  • - Shell globular, covering only a small portion of the vermiform body; heart on ventral side of rectum; a single aorta; siphons long, united and furnished with two posterior calcareous " pallets."
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  • - Shell thin, inequivalve, free; ligament internal; siphons very short.
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  • - Shell very inequivalve, solid, with a pallial sinus; siphons short; foot small.
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  • - A fourth pallial aperture present; pedal aperture small; siphons very short and separate; shell fixed by the right valve, irregular.
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  • - Siphons short, gills papillose; foot small; shell globular.
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  • A valuable product is a species of clam, the shell of which furnishes a specially iridescent mothero'-pearl, which the natives barter with the Japanese for inlaying lacquer.
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  • The characteristic organs of Mollusca are the mantle and shell, the foot, the ctenidia and the radula, of which all but the last are external.
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  • The external epithelium of the dorsal region secretes the shell.
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  • Between the edge of the shell and the foot there is a groove or cavity, chiefly developed laterally and posteriorly.
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  • The shell extends to the edge of the mantle-fold, and the cavity between the mantle and the side of the body is the pallial chamber.
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  • This chamber serves two purposes: it is primarily 18 the respiratory cavity containing the gills, but it also serves to enclose the body so that the latter is surrounded by the shell, from which the head and foot can be protruded at the will of the animal.
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  • The shell consists of an organic basis the substance of which is called conchiolin, impregnated with carbonate of lime, with a small proportion, I-2%, of phosphate of lime.
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  • On the outside of the shell is a non-calcified layer of conchiolin called the periostracum, secreted by the thickened edge of the mantle.
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  • The zone of the external surface of the mantle within the edge secretes a layer formed of prisms of calcite; the rest of the epithelium from this zone to the apex secretes the inner layer of the shell, composed of successive laminae; this is the nacreous layer, and in certain species has a commercial value as nacre or mother-of-pearl.
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  • Thus the growth of the shell in extent is due to additions to the prismatic layer at the edge, its growth in thickness to new layers of nacre deposited on its inner surface.
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  • In many cases in various classes the mantle is reflected over the edges of the shell, so as to cover more or less completely its outer surface.
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  • When this covering is complete the shell is contained in a closed sac and is said to be " internal," but the sac is lined by ectoderm and the shell is always morphologically external.
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  • In one or two cases the epithelium of the foot secretes a calcified shell, which is either free as in Argonauta or adherent as in Hipponyx.
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  • This ridge forms the edge of the shell-secreting epithelium, and therefore of the mantle, since the shell extends to the edge of the mantle.
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  • The veliger, as soon as its shell has attained some extent and begins to assume definite shape, is no longer of a form common to Mollusca generally, but acquires characters peculiar to the partiY cular class to which its parents belong.
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  • The metameric repetition of the shellplates and of the ctenidia are probably special modifications, but it is difficult to explain the spicules of the dorsal integument except as a condition more primitive than the shell itself.
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  • This has led to the loss of the radula, and is accompanied by the division of the shell into two valves.
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  • The peculiarities of the Gastropoda are all due to the torsion of the shell and body.
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  • Pieces of paper punctured with small holes are placed over the trays in which the hatching goes on; and the worms, immediately they burst their shell, creep through these openings to the light, and thereby scrape off any fragments of shell which, adhering to the skin, would kill them by constriction.
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  • The insects complete their cocoons in from three to four days, and in two or three days thereafter the cocoons are collected, and the pupa killed to prevent its further progress and the bursting of the shell by the fully developed moth.
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  • The British islands are under a resident commissioner, and have some trade in copra, ivory, nuts, pearl shell and other produce.
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  • A magnetic observatory was equipped at Bogen Atlas range the food of this bird is said to consist chiefly of the Testudo mauritanica, which "it carries to some height in the air, and lets fall on a stone to break the shell" (Ibis, 18 59, p. 1 77).
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  • On the Tower of the Winds at Athens he is figured holding a shell, such as is blown by Tritons.
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  • With regard to natural products the country has few worth mentioning; minerals are found in the Lebanon, but not in any quantity; traces of amber-digging have been discovered on the coast; and the purple shell (murex trunculus and brandaris) is still plentiful.
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  • The modern submarine periscope consists essentially of a long tube, the top of which is just above the water when diving, while the lower end passes through a stuffing box on the shell of the boat into the control-room.
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  • If the shell bursts and the soul flies away, the man must die.
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  • Bertram Elliot, waiting to lead the Royals just abaft the bridge, was struck down by a shell which did fearful execution forward.
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  • Norman Finch, who though severely wounded continued to fight his gun singlehanded till the top was wrecked by another shell.
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  • A big shell went through the upper deck and burst just where 56 marines were waiting to charge up the gangways, killing 49 and wounding seven.
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  • Another shell in the wardroom killed 4 officers and 26 men.
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  • A large shell carried away the port side of the bridge, mortally wounding Comm.
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  • With the "Thetis" leading they had rounded the lighthouse in a storm of shot and shell.
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  • She came under shrapnel fire off the mole, and as she rounded it a star shell showed up the "Intrepid" heading for the canal and the "Thetis" aground.
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  • The after control was demolished by a shell which killed everyone in it.
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  • She was close to the eastern pier when a heavy shell burst close to the conning tower, which must have killed the commander for he was never seen again.
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  • The dorsal integument or mantle bears, not a simple shell, but eight calcareous plates in longitudinal series articulating with each other.
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  • - Polyplacophora Each of the eight valves of the shell is made up of two distinct calcareous layers: (a) an outer or upper called the tegmentum, which is visible externally; (b) a deeper layer called articula FIG.
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  • It is the first part of the shell formed in development.
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  • This appears to indicate that the Neomeniomorpha are descended from Chiton-like ancestors, and that they have lost their shell valves.
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  • According to Paul Pelseneer the Polyplacophora are the most archaic, the Aplacophora being specialized in (1) the great reduction of the foot, (2) the disappearance of the shell (Cryptoplax among the Polyplacophora showing both reductions in progress), (3) the disappearance of the radula.
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  • And although embryology seems to prove that the Neomeniomorphs are derived from forms with a series of shell-valves, nevertheless it seems probable that the calcareous spicules which alone are present in adult Aplacophora preceded the solid shell in evolution.
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  • The process therefore is so managed that only the outer shell of the casting is chilled, and that the interior remains graphitic, i.e.
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  • These are collected in water, scraped over the edge of a shell to free them from adhering cellular tissue and epidermis, and more than once washed in a running stream, followed by renewed scraping till the desired purity of fibre is attained.
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  • The eggs are very remarkable objects, curiously unlike those of other birds; and their shell looks as if it were of highly-burnished metal or glazed porcelain, presenting also various colours, which seem to be constant in the particular species, from pale primrose to sage-green or light indigo, or from chocolate brown to pinkish orange.
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  • The seed is rather larger than a hazel nut, with a thicker and darker shell and per- Planting fectly spherical shape.
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  • This instrument was made with a pendulum weight of I loo kilos or over a ton; and with a modified construction the weight was increased to 17,000 kilos or nearly 19 tons, portability being obtained by replacing the solid pendulum of the smaller instrument by a shell which can be filled with barytes, a heavy mineral readily obtainable in most places.
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  • Propagation takes place by eggs, which are oval, quite white, with a very hard and strong shell.
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  • A favorite way of indicating the eyes was by drilling two holes and inserting a white shell bead n each.
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  • The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place; and Mehemet Au, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt.
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  • Oysters are found in some places, but have disappeared from many localities, where their abundance in ancient times is proved by their shell moulds on the coast.
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  • In the manufacture of these things they employed adzes made of stone, shell or hard wood, and a wooden drill pointed with stone, shell or bone.
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  • For water-vessels, &c., they employ gourds and large coco-nut shells, in preparing which they pour in water and allow the pulp or the kernel to decay, so that it may be removed without breaking the rind or shell.
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  • Their musical instruments are few and rude - consisting of the drums and flutes already mentioned, and shell trumpets.
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  • The gods were supposed to dwell in various animals, in trees, or even in inanimate objects, as a stone, a shell, &c. In some islands idols bearing more or less resemblance to the human shape were made.
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  • On the top is a shallow cup for the reception of the one or two eggs, which have a bluish-white shell with chalky incrustation.
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  • Shell Hill, guarded only by a picquet, was seized at once.
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  • The first attack made by Pavlov's advanced guard, aided by parts of Soimonov's corps, was relatively slight, but General Dannenberg now arrived on the field, and arranged for an assault on the British centre and right, to be delivered by ro,000 men (half his intact forces) chiefly by way of the Quarry Ravine, the attack to be prepared by the guns on Shell Hill.
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  • As it was, supported by the heavy guns on Shell Hill, the assailants, though no longer more than slightly superior in numbers, carried not only the sangar, but part of the crest line of the allied position.
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  • Last of all, the dominant guns on Shell Hill thus silenced, the resolute advance of a handful of British infantry decided the day, and the Russians retreated.
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  • The turtle is also found, the carapace being exported as tortoiseshell, the animal being gently roasted or boiled alive over a slow fire to facilitate the separation of the shell from the flesh.
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  • The seed consists of a thin, hard testa or shell, enclosing a wrinkled kernel, which, when dried, is the nutmeg.
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    0
  • It consisted of beads made from shells, and, unlike the cowry-money of India and Africa (which was the shell in its natural state), required a considerable measure of skill in its manufacture.
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  • Dark wampum, which was made from a "hard shell" clam (Venus mercenaria), popularly called quahang or quahog, a corruption of the Indian name, was the most valuable.
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  • White wampum was made from the shell of whelks, either from the common whelk (Buccinum undatum), or from that of Pyrula canaliculata and Pyrula carica.
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  • By the Dutch settlers of New York it was called seawan or zeewand, and roenoke in Virginia, and perhaps farther south, for shell-money was also known in the Carolinas, but whether the roenoke of the Virginian Indians was made from the same species of shell as wampum is not clear.
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  • These furnaces possess a large cylindrical shell (e), lined with fire-bricks, and made to revolve round its horizontal axis by means of a toothed wheel fixed on its exterior; (if) are tire-seats holding tires (gg), which work in friction rollers (h).
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  • The inhabitants, who number one to two hundred, speak Sokotri and Arabic and are chiefly engaged in diving for pearl shell on the Bacchus Bank N.E.
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  • The mulundo bears a fruit about the size of a cricket ball covered with a hard green shell and containing scarlet pips like a pomegranate.
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  • With a kind of trumpet formed out of a shell he terrified the Titans in their fight with the Olympian gods.
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  • But even such an attempt to systematically plumb the universe can only make us acquainted with the merest inside shell.
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  • The Italian word is generally taken to be from porcella, diminutive of porco, pig, from a supposed resemblance of the shell to a pig's back.
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  • The waste of heat in the chimney gases is accordingly greater; and further, the metallic shell is liable to be quickly burned away as a result of its contact at a high temperature with free oxygen.
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  • The temperature of the shell is much higher than that of a steam boiler, for in order to secure that the working air will take up a fair amount of heat, the upper limit to which its temperature is raised greatly exceeds that of even high-pressure steam.
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  • It is to internal combustion that they owe their success, for it enables them to get all the heat of combustion into the working substance, to use a relatively very high temperature at the top of the range, and at the same time to escape entirely the drawbacks that arise in the air-engine proper through the need of conveying heat to the air through a metallic shell.
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  • The female lays an egg in the unripe nut, on the kernel of which the larva subsists till September, when it bores its way through the shell, and enters the earth, to undergo transformation into a chrysalis in the ensuing spring.
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    0
  • As a result, cult and organization and code hardened, forming a shell which proved strong enough to resist all disintegrating tendencies.
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  • Considerable progress has been made in the development of the oil-fields in Dutch Borneo, and the Nederlandsch Indische Industrie en Handel Maatschappij, the Dutch business of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, increased its output from 123,50 tons in 1901 to 285,720 tons in 1 9 04, and showed further satisfactory increase thereafter.
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  • A two-edged weapon, of which the blade is of sharks' teeth, and a defensive armour of braided sennit, are also peculiar to the islands; a large adze, made of the shell of the Tridacna gigas (the largest bivalve known), was formerly used in the Carolines, probably by the old builder race.
    0
    0
  • For a homogeneous sphe:e this ratio is ~, for a uniform circular cylinder or disk ~, for a circular hoop or a thin cylindrical shell 4.
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    0
  • That pagurids must have the usually soft pleon or abdomen protected by the shell of a mollusc is now known to be subject to a multitude of exceptions.
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  • These sometimes completely absorb the shell on which they are settled, but then act as a substitute for it, and in any case by their outgrowth they extend the limits of the dwelling, so that the inmate can grow in comfort without having to hunt or fight for a larger abode.
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  • Cranberries are raised in large quantities, and there are oyster and other shell fisheries.
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    0
  • The first water-jacketed cupola which came into general use was a circular inverted cone, with a slight taper, of 36 inches diameter at the tuyeres, and composed of an outer and an inner metal shell, between which water circulated.
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  • A single section can be removed and replaced without entirely emptying the stack, as a shell of congealed slag always coats the inner surface of the jacket.
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    0
  • The fibre, which should be arranged on the sheet as evenly as possible, is carried up by the feed cloth and passes between the feed roller and the shell on to the small knobs.
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    0
  • The valves of the shell are closed by a single large adductor muscle, the anterior adductor being absent.
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    0
  • The two valves of the shell are unequal in size, and of different shape; the left valve is larger, thicker and more convex, and on it the animal rests in its natural state.
    0
    0
  • Starfishes devour large numbers; they are able to pull the valves of the shell apart and then to digest the body of the oyster by their everted stomach.
    0
    0
  • Cliona, the boring sponge, destroys the shells and so injures the oyster; the boring annelid Leucodore also excavates the shell.
    0
    0
  • Hence if V is the volume of a mass M of liquid bounded by a surface whose area is S, the integral M = f f f pdx dydz, (I) where the integration is to be extended throughout the volume V, may be divided into two parts by considering separately the thin shell or skin extending from the outer surface to a depth within which the density and other properties of the liquid vary with the depth, and the interior portion of the liquid within which its properties are constant.
    0
    0
  • Since e is a line of insensible magnitude compared with the dimensions of the mass of liquid and the principal radii of curvature of its surface, the volume of the shell whose surface is S and thickness will be and that of the interior space will be V - SE.
    0
    0
  • If we suppose a normal v less than E to be drawn from the surface S into the liquid, we may divide the shell into elementary shells whose thickness is dv, in each of which the density and other properties of the liquid will be constant.
    0
    0
  • The mass of the whole shell will therefore be S f E pdv, and that of the interior part of the liquid (V - SE)po.
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  • The remains of the abbey chiefly consist of the shell of the beautiful Cruciform church, with a central saddleback tower rising from the transepts to a height of over 90 ft., and a graceful rose window at the west end of the nave.
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  • The chests need to be kept in a dry warehouse for a length of time, but ultimately the opium ceases to lose moisture to the shell, and the latter becomes extremely solid.
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    0
  • The shell fisheries (oysters particularly) are centred in Delaware Bay and at Maurice River Cove, in Cumberland county, but are important also in Cape May, Atlantic, Ocean and Monmouth 1 The following statistics of the products for 1900 and for 1905 are for factory products, those for 1900 differing, therefore, from the statistics which appear in the reports of the census of 1900.
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  • In 1909 the State Bureau of Shell Fisheries estimated the annual value of shell fisheries in the state at nearly $6,000,000, of which $500,000 was the value of clams. Monmouth, Ocean and Cape May counties furnish large quantities of menhaden, which are utilized for oil and fertilizer.
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  • It may assume the form of a bivalve shell entirely enclosing the body and limbs, as in many 6, maxilla (second maxilla).
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  • B an enlarged portion of the edge of the shell along the back, showing the overlap of each growth.
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  • (Morse.) of the shell these " cirri " are spread out to form a casting-net for the capture of minute floating prey.
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  • The eggs are retained between the valves of the shell in some Phyllopoda and in the Cladocera and Ostracoda, and they lie in the mantle cavity in the Cirripedia.
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  • This is partly due to the fact that many important forms must have escaped fossilization altogether owing to their small size and delicate structure, while very many of those actually preserved are known only from the carapace or shell, the limbs being absent or represented only by indecipherable fragments.
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  • The structure is bilaterally symmetrical, the body and shell elongated along the antero-posterior axis and nearly cylindrical.
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  • The shell has therefore the form of a tube open at both ends.
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  • The shell is narrower at the posterior end and is slightly curved to the dorsal side.
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  • - The animal grows at the anterior end, and therefore the shell at the posterior end is older and thicker.
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  • Two retractor muscles pass back from the base of the foot to the dorsal side of the shell.
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  • - Dentalium vulgare, Da A, Ventral view of the animal removed from its shell.
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  • E, Surface view of the shell with gill-tentacles exserted as in a, Mantle.
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  • Shell curved with greatest diameter at anterior aperture and diminishing gradually to posterior.
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  • Foot expanded distally into a symmetrical disk with a crenate edge or simple and vermiform without well-developed lateral processes; shell often contracted towards the anterior aperture.
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  • The nuts which are infested by this insect are usually the first to fall to the ground; the larva then bores a round hole through the nut shell, by means of its jaws, and creeps out.
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  • The only other articles they make are a few shell ornaments.
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  • As for the reasoning powers in animals, the accounts of monkeys learning by experience to break eggs carefully, and pick off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause and effect which will henceforth guide their actions.
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  • The homologies between man and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition, - these, which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong to general biology.
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  • At the very beginning of the siege Sir Henry Lawrence was fatally wounded by a shell, and died on the 4th of July, thus depriving the defence of its guiding spirit.
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  • The new building, the shell of which was completed in 1906, faces the Rettifilo, a new wide street which leads from the Borsa in a straight line to the railway station; at the back it joins the former building, which is at a higher level.
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  • In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope, succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a thin papery membrane - the apical portion of the nucellus - which is easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the endosperm.
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  • The ripe seed, which grows as large as a rather small plum, is enclosed by a thick, fleshy envelope covering a hard woody shell with two or rarely three longitudinal keels.
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  • A papery remnant of nucellus lines the inner face of the woody shell, and, as in cycadean seeds, the apical portion is readily separated as a cap covering the summit of the endosperm.
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  • After fertilization, some of the uppermost bracts below each flower become red and fleshy; the perianth develops into a woody shell, while the integument remains membranous.
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  • The fleshy outer portion of the seed is formed from the outer perianth, the woody shell being derived from the inner perianth.
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  • Several of the islands contain valuable deposits of guano and phosphate of lime, and their waters are frequented by edible and shell turtle.
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  • Within, there is a ruinous walled village, and the shell of an old Venetian fortress, surrounded by mosques and bazaars; for Antivari is rather Turkish than Montenegrin.
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  • Towards the close of the 18th century the 3rd earl of Marchmont had the walls rebuilt out of the old stones, and the castle, though a mere shell of the original structure, is now a picturesque ruin.
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  • In some variants of the story this shell is said to grow as a kind of mushroom on rotting timber in the sea, and is obviously one of the barnacles of the genus Lepas.
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  • There are marbles in Osage and other counties, shell marble in Montgomery county, white limestone in Chase county, a valuable bandera flagstone and hydraulic cement rock near Fort Scott, &c. The limestones produced in 1908 were valued at $403,176 and the sandstones at $67,950.
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  • The button which distinguishes the first grade is a transparent red stone; the second grade, a red coral button; the third, a sapphire; the fourth, a blue opaque stone; the fifth, a crystal button; the sixth, an opaque white shell button; the seventh, a plain gold button; the eighth, a worked gold button; and the ninth, a worked silver button.
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  • This is expressed on the Horologium of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, called the Temple or Tower of the Winds, at Athens, where Boreas is represented as a bearded man of stern aspect, thickly clad, and wearing strong buskins; he blows into a conch shell, which he holds in his hand as a sign of his tempestuous character.
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  • Harting informed the present writer that the bird seems to lay its head sideways on the ground, and then, grasping the limpet's shell close to the rock between the mandibles, use them as scissor-blades to cut off the mollusc from its sticking-place.
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  • The kima, a great mussel weighing (without shell) 20 to 30 Ib, and other shellfish, are eaten, as are also dogs, flying foxes, lizards, beetles and all kinds of insects.
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  • With his head encircled by a coronet of dogs teeth, and covered with a network cap or piece of bark-cloth, the septum of the nose transfixed by a pencil of bone or shell, and perhaps a shell or fibre armlet or two, the Papuan is in complete everyday attire.
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  • The Papuans are mostly ignorant of iron, but work skilfully with axes of stone or tridacna shell and bone chisels, cutting down trees 20 in.
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  • Shells may become completely silicified, or may have their cavities occupied by flint with every detail of the interior of the shell preserved in the outer surface of the cast.
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  • He is represented with four arms, and black in colour; in one hand he holds a club and in the others a shell, a discus and a lotus respectively.
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  • The exports, sent chiefly to Great Britain, are cocoa, spices, wool, cotton, coffee, live stock, hides, turtles, turtle shell, kola nuts, vanilla and timber.
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  • The place where the acropolis was entered was believed to have been overlooked by the mythical Meles when he carried the lion round his fortress to make it invulnerable; it was really a path opened by one of the landslips, which have reduced the sandstone cliff of the acropolis to a mere shell, and threaten to carry it altogether into the plain below.
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  • Among Batavia's manufactures are harvesters, ploughs, threshers and other agricultural implements, firearms, rubber tires, shoes, shell goods, paper-boxes and inside woodwork.
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  • The Australasian species come nearest to laying eggs, inasmuch as the eggs are large, full of yolk, and enclosed in a shell; but development normally takes place in the uterus, though abnormally, incompletely developed eggs are extruded.
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  • Ova large and heavily charged with yolk, and provided with a stoutish shell.
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  • Prorocentraceae (Schutt) (=the Adinida of Bergh); body surrounded by a firm shell of two valves without a girdle band; transverse groove absent; transverse flagellum coiled round base of longitudinal.
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  • (Schutt); body with a shell of plates, a girdle band along the transverse groove, in which the transverse flagellum lies.
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  • This was found in a Turbo shell, occupied also by a Pagurid, and coated with Actinians.
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  • Yet the fact that the long, soft Conchoderma auritum stands exposed on the Coronula, sometimes ten on one, indicates that the whale can have little chance of evicting its tenants, even at the expense of rubbing off the eighteen flattened horns of its own skin embedded in cavities round the domed base of the Coronula shell.
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  • This method has received considerable extension, notably in furnace-smelting of iron ores containing manganese, where the entire hearth is often completely water-cased, and in some lead furnaces where no firebrick lining is used, the lower part of the furnace stack being a mere double iron box cooled by water sufficiently to keep a coating of slag adhering to the inner shell which prevents the metal from being acted upon.
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  • Sigismondo entrusted the execution of his plans to Leo Battista Alberti, who had to encase in a shell of classic architecture a 13th-century Franciscan church.
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  • The shell of a man before him was too weak to ever measure up to Damian's noble brother.
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  • One minute she's babbling like a spring brook; the next second it's back in the shell.
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  • Your shell has to shed wind, water and snow to maintain a warm and dry climate inside.
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  • Later, Dean heard the movement of the mortuary men coming for Edith—the hushed conversation and the bumping and thumping as the lifeless shell of this troubled woman was bagged and forever removed from Bird Song.
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  • But all indications are that the effects of the nervous trauma of battle vis à vis shell shock was equally prevalent in all ranks.
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  • When the shells are thus exposed and slightly agape, the stabbing method of opening the shell is more successful.
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  • It is a fossil ammonite - an extinct mollusk that floated through the seas in its coiled shell.
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  • The first shell fell on one of the limbers, exploded the ammunition and caused several casualties.
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  • In the shell, we place an ampersand in front of a file descriptor number when doing redirections.
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