longitude, which culminates in the Altyn Tagh, and extends eastwards in a continuous water-divide to the Nan Shan mountains, north of the Koko Nor basin.
Hallett, A Thousand Miles on an Elephant in the Shan States (1890); A.
It bears much the same relationship to Siamese and Shan that Latin does to Italian.
It consists of a generally level strip running north and south at the foot of the Shan Hills, and of a hilly region rising up these hills to the east, and including the Yeyaman tract, which lies between 21° 30' and 21° 40' N.
The Panlaung and Zawgyi rivers from the Shan States flow through the district and are utilized for the numerous irrigation canals.
AHOM, or Aham, a tribe of Shan descent inhabiting the Assam valley, and, prior to the invasion of the Burmese at the commencement of the 19th century, the dominant race in that country.
The name is believed to be a corruption of the word "A-sam," the latter part of which is identical with "Shan" (properly "Sham") and with "Siam."
The Ahoms retained the form of government in Assam peculiar to the Shan tribes, which may be briefly described as an organized system of personal service in lieu of taxation.
It is more nearly related to modern Siamese than to modern Shan, but possesses many groups of consonants which have become simplified in both.
On the north of the Tsze-kin ch'eng, and separated from it by a moat, is an artificial mound known as the King shan, or "Prospect Hill."
From that point southwards the river becomes the boundary between the Shan States and Tongking for some 200 m., the channel of the river defining the limits of occupation (though not entirely of interest) between French and British subjects.
A system of parallel ranges of mountains, culminating in the Chinese Chang pai Shan, " the long white mountains," on the Korean frontier, runs in a north-easterly direction from the shores of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
Of these the Sungari, which is the largest, rises on the northern slopes of the Chang pai Shan range, and runs in a north-westerly direction to its junction with the Nonni, from which point it turns north-east until it empties itself into the Amur.
The Mutan-kiang takes its rise, like the Sungari, on the northern slopes of the Chang pai Shan range, and not far from the sources of that river.
Beyond these tracts there are many Kachins in Katha, Ming Mit and the northern Shan States.
Under the provisions of the Anglo-French agreement of January 1896, from the Chinese frontier southwards to the mouth of the Nam Hok the Mekong forms the frontier between the British Shan States on the west and the territories acquired from Siam by France in 1893.
Below the Siamese Shan town of Chieng Sen the river takes its first great easterly bend to Luang Prabang, being joined by some important tributaries.
LAOS, or LAOTIONs, an important division of the widespread Thai or Shan race found throughout Indo-China from 28° N.
The name Lao, which appears to mean simply "man," is the collective Siamese term for all the Thai peoples subject to Siam, while Shan, said to be of Chinese origin, is the collective Burmese term for those subject to Burma.
The province lies to the east of the Bay of Bengal, and covers a range of country extending from the Pakchan river in 9° 55' north latitude to the Naga and Chingpaw, or Kachin hills, lying roughly between the 27th and 28th degrees of north latitude; and from the Bay of Bengal on the west to the Mekong river, the boundary of the dependent Shan States on the east, that is to say, roughly, between the 92nd and tooth degrees of east longitude.
by the Chinese Shan States, portions of the province of Yunnan, the French province of Indo-China, and the Siamese Shan, or Lao States and Siam; on the S.
The province falls into three natural divisions: Arakan with the Chin hills, the Irrawaddy basin, and the old province of Tenasserim, together with the portion of the Shan and Karen-ni states in the basin of the Salween, and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the Mekong.
First, there is the highland tract including the hilly country at the sources of the Chindwin and the upper waters of the Irrawaddy, the Upper Chindwin, Katha, Bhamo, Myitkyina and Ruby Mines districts, with the Kachin hills and a great part of the Northern Shan states.
The second tract is that known as the dry zone of Burma, and includes thewhole of the lowlands lying between the Arakan Yomas and the western fringe of the Southern Shan States.
The surface of this part of the country is mountainous and much intersected with streams. Northward from this lies the major portion of the Southern Shan States and Karen-ni and a narrowing strip along the Salween of the Northern Shan States.
They then form part of a system of ranges which curve north of the sources of the Chindwin river, and with the Kumon range and the hills of the Jade and Amber mines, make up a highland tract separated from the great Northern Shan plateau by the gorges of the Irrawaddy river.
On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge, form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.
and Loi Ling in the Northern Shan States reaches woo ft.
high and at present unnavigable owing to serious rapids in Lower Burma and at one or two places in the Shan States, but quite open to traffic for considerable reaches in its middle course.
In the highlands of the Shan hills there are the Inle lakes near Yawnghwe, and in the Katha district also there is another Indaw which covers some 60 sq.
The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate.
Snow is seldom seen either in the Chin or Shan hills, but there are snow-clad ranges in the extreme north of the Kachin country.
In the narrow valleys of the Shan hills, and especially in the Salween valley, the shade maximum reaches 100° F.
Gneiss and granite occur; Ordovician fossils have been found in the Upper Shan States, and Carboniferous fossils in Tenasserim and near Moulmein.
Tin is abundant in Tenasserim, and lead and silver have been worked extensively in the Shan States.
- The total population of Burma in 1901 was 10,490,624 as against 7,722,053 in 1891; but a considerable portion of this large increase was due to the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills in the census area.
The chief races of Burma are Burmese (6,508,682), Arakanese (405,143), Karens (717,859), Shans (787,087), Chins (179,292), Kachins (64,405) and Talaings (321,898); but these totals do not include the Shan States and Chin hills.
There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service.
The Shan States were declared to be a part of British India by notification in 1886.
The Shan States Act of 1888 vests the civil, criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the The Shan state, subject to the restrictions specified in the sanad States.
Criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the complainant or the defendant is a European, or American, or a government servant, or a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn from the chiefs and vested in the superintendents and assistant superintendents.
In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class.
The chiefs of the Shan States are of three classes: - (1) sawbwas; (2) myosas; (3) ngwegunhmus.
The last are found only in the Myelat, or border country between the southern Shan States and Burma.
There are fifteen sawbwas, sixteen myosas and thirteen ngwegunhmus in the Shan States proper.
There are five states, all sawbwaships, under the supervision of the superintendent of the northern Shan States, besides an indeterminate number of Wa States and communities of other races beyond the Salween river.
The superintendent of the southern Shan States supervises thirty-nine, of which ten are sawbwaships.
The headquarters of the northern Shan States are at Lashio, of the southern Shan States at Taung-gyi.
The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern Shan States.
Beyond these tracts there are many Kachins in Katha, Mong-Mit, and the northern Shan States, but though they are often the preponderating, they are not the exclusive population.
Where the name of the chief town in a Shan State is the same as that of State, it is shown underlined.
The proportion was greatly reduced in the 1901 census by the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills, which mostly consist of illiterates.
There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States.
These regiments, consisting of Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans, are distributed throughout the Shan States and the northern part of Burma.
Coal is found in the Thayetmyo, Upper Chindwin and Shwebo districts, and in the Shan States; it also occurs in Mergui, but the deposits which have been so far discovered have been either of inferior quality or too far from their market to be worked to advantage.
Tourmaline or rubellite is found on the borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mong Long.
Salt is manufactured at various places in Upper Burma, notably in the lower Chindwin, Sagaing, Shwebo, Myingyan and Yamethin districts, as well as at Mawhkio in the Shan State of Thibaw.
A good deal is extracted and manufactured into native implements at Pang Long in the Legya (Laihka) Shan State.
Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-son) in the Myelat, southern Shan States.
In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably.
in length; and construction was contemplated of a railway from Thazi towards Taung-gyi, the headquarters of the southern Shan States.
Five of the eight commissionerships and Lashio,the capital of the northern Shan States, have communication with each other by railway, but Taung-gyi and the southern Shan States can still only be reached by a hill-road through difficult country for cart traffic, and the headquarters of three commissionerships, Moulmein, Akyab and Minbu, have no railway communication with Rangoon.
After that the empire fell to a low ebb, and Central Burma was often subject to Shan dynasties.
'TAUNG-GYI, the headquarters of the superintendent and political officer, southern Shan States, Burma.
Since 1906 the southern Shan States have been garrisoned by military police, whose headquarters are in Taunggyi.
He took the title of Gur Khan or Kor Khan, said to mean "universal" or "supreme" khan, and fixed at Balasaghurl, north of the T'ian Shan range, the capital of his empire, which became known as that of Kara-Khitai (Black Cathay).
MONG PAI (called Mobye by the Burmese), the most southwesterly of the British Shan States of Burma.
by the British Shan States and by the French Laos country, E.
Farther north the country is peopled by Laos, scattered in villages along all the river banks, and by numerous communities of Shan, Karen, Kamoo and other tribes living in the uplands and on the hilltops.
In its flora and fauna Siam combines the forms of Burma and the Shan States with those of Malaya, farther south, and of Cambodia to the south-east.
Yin, Meo and Musur have Yunnanese characteristics, are met with in the Shan States north of Siam and in Yun-nan, and are supposed to have found their way into northern Siam since the beginning of the 19th century.
The earliest authentic mention of Kashgar is during the second period of ascendancy of the Han dynasty, when the Chinese conquered the Hiungnu, Yutien (Khotan), Sulei (Kashgar), and a group of states in the Tarim basin almost up to the foot of the Tian Shan mountains.
Wuntho was classed by the Burmese as a Shan state, but was never on the same footing as the true Shan states, and only escaped becoming an integral part of the Burmese empire through Burmese want of system.
The Shan name is Wying Hsd, "the city of the high."
These five provinces, however, do not include the elevated steppes of Tsaidam (extending between the Kuen-lun and the Altyn Tagh or Nan Shan ranges), inhabited by a mixed race of marauding people, Tunguts and Mongols.
by the Shan states of M6ng Pai, Hsatung and Mawkmai; on the E.
Slaving raids far into the Shan states brought on invasions from Burma, which, however, were not very successful.
Sawla.wi was then appointed myoza, and received a sanad, or patent of appointment, on the same terms as the chiefs of the Shan states.
They are forbidden to carry out a sentence of death passed on a criminal without the sanction of the superintendent of the southern Shan states, but otherwise retain nearly all their customary law.
The sound is out of proportion to the metal used, and is inferior to that of the Shan and Burmese gongs.
LASHIO, the headquarters of the superintendent, northern Shan States, Burma, situated in 22° 56' N.
It consists of the European station, with court house and quarters for the civil officers; the military police post, the headquarters of the Lashio battalion of military police; the native station, in which the various nationalities, Shans, Burmans, Hindus and Mahommedans, are divided into separate quarters, with reserves for government servants and for the temporary residences of the five sawbwas of the northern Shan States; and a bazaar.
Under Burmese rule Lashio was also the centre of authority for the northern Shan States, but the Burmese post in the valley was close to the Nam Yao, in an old Chinese fortified camp. The Lashio valley was formerly very populous; but a rebellion, started by the sawbwa of Hsenwi, about ten years before the British occupation, ruined it, and it is only slowly approaching the prosperity it formerly enjoyed; pop. (1901) 2565.
Burma and Shan.
48) and Colonel Yule's note upon analogous customs elsewhere and on the use of salt as a medium of exchange in the Shan markets down to our own time, in his translation of Polo ii.
Potatoes thrive best on the higher elevations, such as the Khasi hills, the Nilgiris, the Mysore uplands, the Shan States, and the slopes of the Himalayas; but they are also grown even in lowland districts.
In 1900 tin of good quality was found in the Southern Shan States.
division of the southern Shan States of Burma, lying approximately between 20 0 1 s' and 21° 30' N.
Shen-si is divided into two parts by a barrier of mountains, consisting of the Fu-niu Shan and the Tsingling Shan, which attain elevations of over I i,000 ft., and run across the southern portion of the province from east to west.
The most important of these are the Ahoms or Ahams, an offshoot of the Shan race of northern Burma.
The Ahoms were Shans from the ancient Shan kingdom of Pong.
It may be described as a hilly region, forming part as it does of the Nan Shan ranges.
The average difference between high and low water level of the Salween throughout the Shan States is between 50 and 60 ft., and in some places it is as much as 90.
Except the Me Sili and Me Sala, from opposite sides, and the Nam Hang, which burrows its way through a range of hills from the E., and the Nam Pan, coming from the W., there is no considerable tributary till 19° 52' N., where the Nam Teng comes in on the right from the central Shan States.
Below this the only large affluent is the Nam Pawn, which drains all Karenni and a considerable portion of the Shan States, but is quite unnavigable.
The Salween cuts the British Shan States nearly in half, and is a very formidable natural obstacle.
The cultivation of the poppy is also carried on in Afghanistan, Kashmir, Nepal and the Shan states of Burma, but the areas and production are not known.
The central range bears the name of Li-mou shan or Wu-tchi shan (the Five-Finger Mountain), and attains a height of 6000 or 7000 ft.
Lead, silver, copper and iron occur in the Shi-lu shan or "stone-green-hill"; the silver at least was worked till 1850.
It was thus that Hai-nan-Tao, or district south of the sea or strait, came into use as the name of the island, which, however, has borne the official title of K`iungchow-fu, probably derived from the Kiung shan or Jade Mountains, ever since 1370, the date of its erection into a department of Kwang-tung.
HKAMTI LONG (called Kantigyi by the Burmese, and Bor Hkampti by the peoples on the Assam side), a collection of seven Shan states subordinate to Burma, but at present beyond the administrative border.
It was no doubt the northernmost province of the Shan kingdom, founded at Mogaung by Sam Lang-hpa, the brother of the ruler of Kambawsa, when that empire had reached its greatest extension.
KUNLONG, the name of a district and ferry on the Salween, in the northern Shan States of Burma.
Both are insignificant, but the place has gained notoriety from being the nominal terminus in British territory of the railway across the northern Shan States to the borders of Yunnan, with its present terminus at Lashio.
of high hills and table-lands, forming geographically a portion of the Shan table-land.
The last two come from the Shan States, and are navigable for between 20 and 30 m.
MYELAT, a division of the southern Shan States of Burma, including sixteen states, none of any great size, with a total area of 3723 sq.
These ibex, especially the race from the Thian Shan, are incomparably finer than the European species, their bold knotted horns sometimes attaining a length of close on 60 in.
The town was in ancient times the capital of the Shan state of Manmaw, later the seat of a Burmese governor.
On the east of the river is the Shan plateau, running almost due north and south.
MAWKMAI (Burmese Maukme), one of the largest states in the eastern division of the southern Shan States of Burma.
Eurasian nutcracker, Nucifraga caryocatactes - 2, A Li Shan.
It consists of a generally level strip running north and south at the foot of the Shan Hills, and of a hilly region rising up these hills to the east, and including the Yeyaman tract, which lies between 21Ã‚° 30' and 21Ã‚° 40' N.
It next defines the northern edge of the Shan States, and finally strikes the Mekong river in lat.
R.G.S., 1896; The Indian Borderland (London, 1901); India (Oxford, 1904); Colonel Woodthorpe, " Shan States," vol.
Another peculiarity of Malay (and likewise of Chinese, Shan, Talaing, Burmese and Siamese) is the use of certain classwords or coefficients with numerals, such as orang (man),when speaking of persons, ekor (tail) of animals, keping (piece) of flat things, biji (seed) of roundish things; e.g.
LAOS, or LAOTIONs, an important division of the widespread Thai or Shan race found throughout Indo-China from 28Ã‚° N.
The province lies to the east of the Bay of Bengal, and covers a range of country extending from the Pakchan river in 9Ã‚° 55' north latitude to the Naga and Chingpaw, or Kachin hills, lying roughly between the 27th and 28th degrees of north latitude; and from the Bay of Bengal on the west to the Mekong river, the boundary of the dependent Shan States on the east, that is to say, roughly, between the 92nd and tooth degrees of east longitude.
m., and the Shan States, which comprise the whole of the eastern portion of the province, some 59,915 sq.
In the Shan States there are a few open plateaus, fertile and well populated, and Maymyo in the Mandalay district, the hill-station to which in the hot weather the government of Burma migrates, stands in the Pyin-u-lwin plateauYsome 3500 ft.
In the narrow valleys of the Shan hills, and especially in the Salween valley, the shade maximum reaches 100Ã‚° F.
LASHIO, the headquarters of the superintendent, northern Shan States, Burma, situated in 22Ã‚° 56' N.
division of the southern Shan States of Burma, lying approximately between 20 0 1 s' and 21Ã‚° 30' N.
Except the Me Sili and Me Sala, from opposite sides, and the Nam Hang, which burrows its way through a range of hills from the E., and the Nam Pan, coming from the W., there is no considerable tributary till 19Ã‚° 52' N., where the Nam Teng comes in on the right from the central Shan States.
Han Shan Zi and Shi De are known as the gods of harmony.
The two gods of harmony, Han Shan Zi and Shi De, are the guardians of marriage and the protectors of lovers.
In Canada, Shan is more well-known for swimwear collections--in fact, they've been in the business of turning out chic suits for 20 years.
The railway runs through the centre of the rice-producing area, and feeder roads open up the country as far as the Shan foot-hills.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.