Shales sentence example
In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
In this sea were laid down the shales of the Rolling Downs formation.
Another well-known bed, formerly known as the "Bristol" or "Lias" Bone Bed, exists in the form of several thin layers of micaceous sandstone, with the remains of fish and saurians, which occur in the Rhaetic Black Paper Shales that lie above the Keuper marls in the south-west of England.
Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock; the bleak dry uplands of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone; round the limestone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; eastward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grasscovered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks.Advertisement
A series of black shales with nodular limestones, the Pendleside series, rests upon the Mountain Limestone on the east, south and north-west; much of the upper course of the Derwent has been cut through these soft beds.
Mam Tor, or the Shivering Mountain, is made of these shales.
Next in upward sequence is a thick mass of sandstones, grits and shales - the Millstone Grit series.
Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.
We may mention also graphiticschists containing dark scaly graphite (often altered forms of carbonaceous shales), and haematite-schists which may represent beds of ironstone.Advertisement
Towards the Caspian, especially between Petrovsk and the river Sulak, the Cretaceous system is well represented, and upon its rocks rest marls, shales, and sandstones of the Eocene period.
Particulars of the shales which yield oil on destructive distillation are given in the article on paraffin.
The beds are usually thin false-bedded sandstones with an almost complete absence of shales.
The Ecca shales contain some of the best coals of South Africa, but the seams contain much unmarketable coal.
The Ecca series graduates upwards into the highly coloured sandstones and shales of the Beaufort series.Advertisement
This consists of sandstones and shales with thin seams of coal.
The lower group (Hospital Hill slates) consists of quartzites and shales, resting on the eroded surface of the older granites and schists, and estimated to be from 10,000 to 12,000 ft.
The upper group consists of conglomerates, grits and quartzites with a few bands of shales.
The Pretoria Series, formerly known as the Gatsrand series, consists of repeated alternations of flagstones and quartzites, shales and sheets of diabase.
In the Marico district the shales become highly ferruginous and resemble the Hospital Hill slates of the Witwatersrand series.Advertisement
The Ecca series, as in the Cape, consists of sandstones and shales.
The Lower Cretaceous consists chiefly of sandstones and shales and the Middle Cretaceous of very fossiliferous limestone.
Lower Cretaceous rocks, consisting of thick limestones, shales and marls, occur in Central Tunisia.
Farther north, in the department of Ancachs, the Mesozoic belt is composed chiefly of sandstones and shales, and the limestones which form so prominent a feature above Lirna seem to have disappeared.
It is formed almost entirely of a succession of sandstones and shales of Cretaceous and Tertiary age - the so-called Carpathian Sandstone - and these are thrown into a series of isoclinal folds dipping constantly to the south.Advertisement
The soft shales or clays of the hills bounding the valley render these hills especially subject to the action of denudation, and the result, in rounded slopes and easily accessible crests, determines the nature of the easy tracks and passes which intersect them.
These are also called the Upper Limestone Shale, a similar group being found in places below the limestone, and called the Lower Limestone Shale, or, in the north of England, the Tuedian group. Going northward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most productive members of the Scotch coalfields.
The Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the Carboniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sandstones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet - from 12,000 to 14,000 ft.
These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.
Cannel coals are generally variable in quality, being liable to change into shales or black-band ironstones within very short horizontal limits.Advertisement
The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
They are underlain by Jurassic rocks, from beneath which sandstones and shales yielding Glossopteris browniana var.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
In Ankole and Koki rocks consisting of granular quartzite, schistose sandstone, red and brown sandstone, and shales with cleaved killas rest on the Archean platform and possibly represent the Lower Witwatersrand beds of the Transvaal.
The Mataura beds are largely of estuarine formation; they contain oil shales and gas springs.Advertisement
In southern Otago the Oligocene beds are brown coals and lignites with oil shales, which, at Orepuki, contain 47% of oil and gas, with 8% of water.
There are large deposits of glacial and residual clays and clay shales throughout the state.
The Dwyka Conglomerate forms a narrow outcrop in the north-west, and is known from boreholes to extend over large areas beneath the Ecca Shales and to rest directly on rocks of older age.
It consists mainly of sandstones, but these are often thin-bedded and pass into shales.
The prevailing rocks are sandstones, mudstones and shales.Advertisement
They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.
Former tributaries have given place to others developed with reference to the distribution of more or less easily eroded strata, the present longitudinal valleys being determined by the out-crop of soft shales or soluble limestones, and the parallel ridges upheld by hard sandstones or schists.
Above these, marine Rhaetic beds appear at intervals, notably near Lame, where they are succeeded by Lower Lias shales and limestones.
Carboniferous and Permian strata are possibly represented by some black and grey micaceous shales with beds of coal in the Jurjura.
At Jebel-kahar and west of Traras, Pomel attributes certain conglomerates, red sandstones and purple and green shales to the Permian.Advertisement
The highest beds, consisting of quartzites, shales, marls and sandstones with the remains of fucoids, are found in the Jurjura and Shellata.
They are usually fine-textured limestones and shales, lying horizontal; the moderate or small relief that they were given by mature preglacial erosion is now buried under the drift, but is known by numerous borings for oil, gas and water.
The carbon-bearing shales, slates and schists, and the limestone, are indications that life was relatively abundant, even though but few fossils are preserved.
In the eastern half of the country the system consists of shales and sandstones chiefly, btit there is some limestone, and coal enough to be of great importance economically, though it makes but a small part of the system quantitatively.
Sweetland Creek shales 20 40Advertisement
Maquoketa shales 175 ft.
Most of the plains are underlain by Cretaceous and early Tertiary shales and sandstones lying nearly unaltered and undisturbed where they were deposited, although now raised far above sea-level, particularly along the border of the Rocky Mountains where they were thrust up into foot-hills when the range itself was raised.
In the Cumberland Plateau and Great Valley Regions are a red or brown loam, rich in decomposed limestone and calcareous shales, and sandy or gravelly loaTns.
There is some of the same formation as well as that derived from red shales on the sandstone hills in the south-east province and in many of the middle and western valleys, but often a belt of inferior slate soil adjoins a limestone belt, and many of the ridges are covered with a still more sterile soil derived from white and grey sandstones.
The Molasse, in the neighbourhood of the mountains, consists chiefly of conglomerates and sandstones, and the Flysch consists of sandstones and shales; but the Molasse is of Miocene and Oligocene age, while the Flysch is mainly Eocene.
The Flysch is an extraordinarily thick and uniform mass of sandstones and shales with scarcely any fossils excepting fucoids.
Eocene beds, indeed, penetrate farther within the chain, but these are limestones with nummulites or lignite-bearing shales and have nothing in common with the Flysch.
North of the Danube, in Germany as in England, red sandstones, shales and conglomerates predominate, together with beds of gypsum and salt.
Pyritous shales have been largely used in the manufacture of alum, and are therefore known as "alum-shales."
A similar action probably explains the origin of pyrites and marcasite in coal and lignite, in clay and shales, and in limestone like chalk.
The stratified rocks of this system include marine limestones, shales and sandstones; estuarine, lagoonal and fresh-water shales, sandstones and marls with beds of coal, oil-bearing rocks, gypsum and salt.
This comprised dark shales, with grits and thin limestones and thin, impure coals, locally called " culm " (q.v.).
The so-called " unproductive " or barren strata, that is, those without workable coals, are not always limestones; quite as often they are shales, red sandstones and red marls.
Carvill Lewis believed the blue ground to be true eruptive rock, and the carbon to have been derived from the bituminous shales of which it contains fragments.
The Kimberley shales, which are penetrated by the De Beers group of pipes, were, however, certainly not the source of the carbon at the Premier (Transvaal) mine, for at this locality the shales do not exist.
This forms part of the plain of the St Lawrence, underlain by Palaeozoic limestones and shales, with some sandstone, all furnishing useful building material and working up into a good soil.
Next follow the Bala Beds, which, with the succeeding Lower and Upper Llandovery shales, sandstones and conglomerates, form the sparsely populated sheepwalks and valleys which occupy most of the north-western part of the county.
These rocks are much folded and the shales are locally cleaved into slates, while the sandstones and conglomerates form scarps and ridges.
The Silurian greywackes and shales that underlie almost the whole of the Uplands weather generally into small angular debris, and at a tolerably uniform rate of disintegration.
The Upper Silurian shales and sandstones appear only along the northern and southern margins.
The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are not workable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth basin are largely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil.
The Lower, Middle and Upper Lias consist chiefly of shales and shelly limestones, with some sandstones, well seen along the shores of Broadford Bay in Skye and in some of the adjacent islands.
The Lower Oolites are made up of sandstones and shales with some limestones, and are overlaid by several hundred feet of an estuarine series of deposits consisting chiefly of thick white sandstones, below and above which lie shales and shelly limestones.
The oldest beds which have yet been recognized are shales and hornstones with Liassic fossils.
In structure they are monoclinical, their rocks - sandstones and shales - being laid southward and blending on that side with the Arkansas valley region.
The small development of Upper Carboniferous strata, visible on the shore south of Corrie and in Ben Lister Glen, consists of sandstones, red and mottled clays and purple shales, which yield plantremains of Upper Carboniferous facies.
The Triassic rocks are arranged in two groups, a lower, composed of conglomerates and sandstones, and an upper one consisting of red and mottled shales and marls with thin sandstones and nodular limestones.
Thus, we find them more frequently, folded, tilted and cleaved; the muds have become shales, slates, phyllites or schists, the grey and red sands and conglomerates have become quartzites and greywackes, while the limestones are very generally dolomitized.
The Cambrian rocks of Ireland, a great series of purple and green shales, slates and grits with beds of quartzite, have not yet yielded sufficient fossil evidence to permit of a correlation with the Welsh rocks, and possibly some parts of the series may be transferred in the future to the overlying Ordovician.
The Cambrian system is covered by his stages "B" and "C"; the former a barren series of conglomerates and quartzites, the latter a series of grey and green fissile shales 1200 ft.
Here the Cambrian system is only distinguished clearly on the eastern side, where the three subdivisions are found in a thin series of strata (400 ft.), in which black concretion-bearing shales play an important part.
In Russian Poland is a series of conglomerates, quartzites and shales; some of the beds yield a Paradoxides fauna.
This was soon put into operation in Scotland, first with the Boghead coal or Torbanehill mineral, and later with bituminous shales, and though he had to face much litigation Young successfully employed it in the manufacture of naphtha and lubricating oils, and subsequently of illuminating oils and paraffin wax, until in 1866, after the patent had expired, he transferred his works to a limited company.
The foundation of this plateau is a bed of sandstone and shales belonging to the Vindhyan series.
On both sides the range is flanked by sandstones and shales (the Kythraean series), supposed to be of Upper Eocene age; and similar rocks occur around the southern mountain mass.
The Silurian has in Sweden almost the same character as the Wenlock and Ludlow formation of England and consists partly of graptolite shales, partly of limestones and sandstones.
Westwards, looking towards Afghanistan, line upon line of broken jagged ridges and ranges, folds in the Cretaceous series overlaid by coarse sandstones and shales, follow each other in order, preserving their approximate parallelism until they touch the borders of Baluchistan.
From these beds up to the top of the Carboniferous there appears to be no break; but the Carboniferous beds were in some places eroded before the deposition of the Productus shales, which belong to the Permian period.
From the Permian to the Lias the sequence in the central Himalaya shows no sign of a break, nor has any unconformity been proved between the Liassic beds and the overlying Spiti shales, which contain fossils of Middle and Upper Jurassic age.
The Spiti shales are succeeded conformably by Cretaceous beds (Gieumal sandstone below and Chikkim limestone above), and these are followed without a break by Nummulitic beds of Eocene age, much disturbed and altered by intrusions of gabbro and syenite.
Thus, in the Spiti area at least, there appears to have been continuous deposition of marine beds from the Permian Productus shales to the Eocene Nummulitic formation.
Within the area of the transIndus mountains we have beds of hard limestone or sandstone alternating with soft shales, which leads to the scooping out by erosion of long narrow valleys where the tion.
Along the Colorado is the Painted Desert, remarkable for the bright colours - red, brown, blue, purple, yellow and white - of its sandstones, shales and clays.
The rocks consist of sandstones, quartzites, slates and shales, associated with lenticular masses of limestone.
The typical Silurian rocks are richly fossiliferous, the shales containing trilobites, the sandstones many brachiopods, and the limestones a rich coral and bryozoan fauna.
The lower part of this series is probably Lower Devonian; and it is covered by shales and volcanic rocks belonging to the Upper Devonian.
The Lower Carboniferous beds are represented by conglomerates and sandstones with some shales and limestones.
The Mesozoic rocks of New South Wales begin with the Narrabeen Shales; they are covered by the Hawkesbury Sandstones, which are well exposed around Sydney; and they in turn are covered by the Wianamatta Shales.
It consists of a thick series of shales containing marine fossils.
It is also found among the distillation products of bituminous coal, lignite, and various shales, and has been detected in fusel oil and crude petroleum.
They are interbedded with unfossiliferous sandstones and shales.
The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt-19,033 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908.
They are in every form from the rare to the common-glass pot clay, ball clays, kaolins, flint fireclays, plastic fireclays, stone-ware clays, paving-brick shales, building-brick and gumbo clays.
The Nieuwerust beds contain quartzite, arkose and shales.
These are overlain, perhaps unconformably, by a great thickness of lavas and volcanic breccias (Pniel volcanic series, Beer Vley and Zeekoe Baard amygdaloids), and these in turn by the quartzites, grits and shales of the Black Reef series.
Among the Griquatown series of quartzites, limestones and shales are numerous bands of jasper and large quantities of crocidolite (a fibrous amphibole); while at Blink Klip a curious breccia, over 200 ft.
The Table Mountain Sandstone passes up conformably into a sequence of sandstones and shales (Bokkeveld Beds), well exposed in the Cold and Warm Bokkevelds.
The Bokkeveld beds are conformably succeeded by the sandstones, quartzites and shales of the Witteberg series.
The upper shales contain the small reptile Mesosaurus tenuidens.
Most frequently they occur lying on the bedding planes of black shales; less commonly they are met with in many other kinds of sediment, and when in limestone they may retain much of their original relief and admit of a detailed microscopic study.
The Jurassic beds are marine and contain numerous Ammonites, but the beds which are referred to the Neocomian include a series of sandstones and shales with remains of plants.
Nickel, mercury, manganese, graphite, marble, sulphur and oil shales are found in various regions, but the mineral resources of the country, as a whole, remain almost undeveloped.
Soils.-The prevailing type of soil is a deep dark-red loam, sometimes (especially in the east central part of the state) made up of a decomposed sandstone, and again (in the north central part) made up of shales and decomposed limestone.
On either flank the Silurian shales, slates and sandstones, which are very rarely fossiliferous, rise with steep dips.
The Slieve Bloom Mountains are thus formed of a dome of Old Red Sandstone folded on a core of unconformable Silurian strata; while in several cases the domes are worn through, leaving rings of Old Red Sandstone hills, scarping inwards towards broad exposures of Silurian shales.
Its lower part represents the Lower Carboniferous Shales and Sandstones of the central and northern areas, while its upper part corresponds with a portion of the Carboniferous Limestone.
The beds above the limestone are shales and sandstones, sometimes reaching the true Coal-Measures, but rarely younger than the English Millstone Grit.
The lowest members of these rest directly upon the central mass of crystalline rocks, and consist of sandstones, conglomerates and shales, which have been supposed by some to belong to the Trias, without, however, the discovery of any fossil necessary to confirm this supposition, except some silicified trunks of trees.
The Lower Carboniferous rocks of Spain consist partly of limestones, and partly of shales, sandstones and conglomerates like the culin of Devonshire.
The Upper Carboniferous is formed to a large extent of sandstones and shales, with seams of coal; but beds of massiye limestones are often intercalated, and some of these contain Fusaljna and other fossils like those of the Russian Ftisulina limestone.
The Permian is probably represented by some of the red sandstones, conglomerates and shales in the Pyrenees, in the Serrania de Cuenca, and in Andalusia.
The first noteworthy trotting hackney stallion, of the modern type, was a horse foaled about 1755, and known as the Schales, Shields or Shales horse, and most of the recognized hackneys of to-day trace back to him.
Its groups include the Dakota formation, characterized by a very peculiar rusty sandstone, and the Benton, both of which are rather widely accessible and heavy; the Niobrara; the Pierre shales, which apparently underlie about three-quarters of the state in a deep and heavy bed; and, in the extreme west, the Laramie.
The Carboniferous system begins with a series of marine limestones, shales and grits, including a rich Lower Carboniferous fauna.
The Coal Measures are covered by marine shales with numerous bryozoa; and, on the horizon of the Greta Coal Measures of New South Wales, is a bed of Carboniferous glacial deposits.
It is usually regarded as beginning with a fresh-water series containing the remains of fish and labyrinthodonts; but as it also contains Vertebraria it is probably Palaeozoic; and this series is covered by sandstones and shales which are probably of Triassic age.
In the central parts of North America the lacustrine plant-bearing deposits are of enormous thickness, the Dakota series being followed by marine Cretaceous strata known as the Colorado and Montana groups, and these being succeeded conformably by a thousand feet or more of lacustrine shales, sandstones and coal-seams, belonging to the Laramie series.
Microscopic sections of some of the more coherent clays and shales may be prepared by saturating them with Canada balsam by long boiling, and slicing the resultant mass in the same manner as one of the harder rocks.
Laminated clays of this sort are generally known as shales; they occur in many formations but are very common in the Carboniferous.
Many shales contain great numbers of ovoid or rounded septarian nodules of clay ironstone.
Others are rich in pyrites, which, on oxidation, produces sulphuric acid; this attacks the aluminous silicates of the clay and forms aluminium sulphate (alum shales).
The lias shales of Whitby contain blocks of semi-mineralized wood, or jet, which is black with a resinous lustre, and a fibrous structure.
The laminated structure of shales, though partly due to successive very thin sheets of deposit, is certainly dependent also on the vertical pressure exerted by masses of superincumbent rock; it indicates a transition to the fissile character of clay slates.
It consists of parallel ridges and valleys developed by erosion on folded sandstones, shales and limestones, the valley quality predominating because the weak limestones were of great thickness.
There was disseminated mineralization within the bedded succession of shales, cherts and tuffs.
The shales yield crushed ammonites, but are best known for their high oil content, which gives the rock a distinct smell.
An important part of the project will be to understand how sediment diagenesis affects the anisotropy of shales.
Scragg AH, Shales SW, & Morrison J. (2003) The use of emulsion fuels containing microorganisms in a diesel engine.
The Waterloo mudstone Formation spans the Triassic Jurassic boundary, and comprises dark gray mudstones and shales, alternating with gray limestones.
These dark gray mudstones, gray to black shales and minor limestones contain ammonite and rare reptile fossils.
This image was derived from an unstained cellulose lacquer peel, from the Jurassic, Kimmeridge Clay, Maple Ledge Shales.
Peat, brown forest soil and peaty podzols derived from greywackes and shales are the major soils types in the Bladnoch catchment.
Both the shales and the quartz veins are impregnated with the common sulfide minerals pyrite and arsenopyrite.
These comprise quartzites, sandstones and shales that are exposed at the southern end of the Malvern Hills.
Here, although exposures are very poor, the Silurian rocks comprise shales, sandstones and limestones with a couple of beds of lava.
The hard ' grit ' sandstones and intervening shales of the Millstone Grit outcrop west of Bradford and to the north of Leeds.
These beds normally consist of brown bituminous paper shales with occasional beds of beef.
Look for angular black colored hard slate as these rocks can contain Trilobites from the Silurian shales.
The headland is a sill, mainly composed of dolerite which was intruded horizontally during the Tertiary into gently dipping lower carboniferous shales.
In the dark, marine shales of the Lower Lias are found well preserved examples.
But the Blythesdale Braystone is a small local formation, unable to supply all the wells that have been sunk; and many of the wells derive their water from the Jurassic shales and mudstones.
The sedimentary schists or paraschists have three great subdivisions, the mica-schists and chlorite-schists (which correspond in a general way to shales or clay rocks) the calc-schists (impure limestones) and the quartz-schists (metamorphosed sandstones).
Griesbach mentions the occurrence of some small bivalves in the shales of Greytown, but Anderson failed to find any fossils.
The other rocks include igneous breccias, shales, coarse conglomerates and grits.
In the Ardennes the system is represented by grits and sandstones, shales, slates and quartz schists, and includes also whet slates and some igneous rocks.
Tertiary limestones, sandstones and shales overlie the Deccan Trap in Cutch, but the greatest development of deposits of this age is to be met with on the western side of the Indus (see Sind).
The headland is a sill, mainly composed of dolerite which was intruded horizontally during the Tertiary into gently dipping lower Carboniferous shales.
The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.
Of these the most interesting are Ichthyornis (= Graculavus) and Hesperornis, from the Cretaceous shales of Kansas.