The scraping of leather against leather, the hollow clatter of stone and shale, the rustle of whatever creature settled behind her.
They are at a depth of about 12 ft., in slaty shale containing Llandeilo fossils and contemporaneous felspathic ash and scoriae.
Far, far, away, beyond the stone and shale, she thought she saw a swatch of green.
They were forced to slow their pace when the trail became covered with slippery shale and the path grew steeper.
This time, she paid no attention to the shale or placing her feet right.
The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian shale, and is bounded on the W.
Similarly it is necessary, in view of the hydrostatical relations of water and mineral oils, and the volatile character of the latter, that the porous stratum should be protected from water and air by an overlying shale or other impervious deposit.
The Allegheny ridges have only a thin stony soil; but good limestone, sandstone, shale and alluvial soils, occur in the valleys and in some of the plateaus of the extreme west.
Caney shale 1500 ft.
Goethite, limonite and haematite are found in New South Wales, at the junction of the Hawkesbury sandstone formation and the Wianamatta shale, near Nattai, and are enhanced in their value by their proximity to coal-beds.
Thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.
Voelcker yielded 34.92% tricalcium phosphate, a specimen of the shale 52.15% (Report of Brit.
C. Marsh, by finding the imperfect fossilized tibia of a bird in the middle cretaceous shale of Kansas, Marsh, began a series of wonderful discoveries of great im portance to ornithology.
At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below loo° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
It is limited to Disco Island, and perhaps to a small part of the Noursoak Peninsula, and the neighbouring country, and consists of numerous thin beds of sandstone, shale and coal - the sideritic shale containing immense quantities of leaves, stems, fruit, &c., as well as some insects, and the coal pieces of retinite.
From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
If much iron should be present in the shale then it is preferable to use potassium chloride in place of potassium sulphate.
It is the centre for a farming region, in which there are deposits of coal, iron, lead and shale, and there are various manufactures in the city.
The city is in the Kansas-Oklahoma oil and gas field, and is surrounded by a fine farming and dairying region, in which special attention is given to the raising of small fruit; oil, gas, cement rock and brick shale are found in the vicinity.
The same observer considers Boghead coal, kerosene shale and similar substances used for the production of mineral oils to be mainly alteration products of gelatinous fresh water algae, which by a nearly complete elimination of oxygen have been changed to substances approximating in composition to C 2 H 3 and C 3 H 5, where C: H = 7.98 and C: O ±N = 46.3.
These are also called the Upper Limestone Shale, a similar group being found in places below the limestone, and called the Lower Limestone Shale, or, in the north of England, the Tuedian group. Going northward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most productive members of the Scotch coalfields.
These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.
The nature and extent of these operations vary with the character of the coal, which if hard and free from shale partings may be finished by simple screening into large and nut sizes and smaller slack or duff, with a final hand-picking to remove shale and dust from the larger sizes.
But when there is much small duff, with intermixed shale, more elaborate sizing and washing plant becomes necessary.
The district is rich in limestone, coal, ironstone, shale and fireclay, all of which are worked.
Half of the state, is mainly a clay which was formed by the glacial pulverizing of limestone and shale and is still forming from the decomposition of fragments of these substances.
Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.
The commoner sorts of rock in the several Huronian systems are quartzite and slate (ranging from shale to schist); bi~t limestone is not wanting, and igneous rocks, both intrusive and extrtisive, some metamorphic and some not, abound.
These sediments are now mostly in the form of red sandstone and shale, with conglomerate, black shale and coal in some places.
Chicopee shale 200 ft.
Romney shale 1000f 300
Cuyahoga shale 250 300
Sunbury shale 5 30,,
Bedford shale 50 150, ,
Ohio shale 3002600 ft.
Eden (Utica) shale 250
Wetumka shale 120
Stuart shale 90 280
Boggy shale 2000-2600
McAlester shale 1150-1500
Sylvan shale (upper part) 50 100
Sylvan shale (lower part) 250 ft.
Dc Smet formation (shale and sandstone) 4000 ft.
Piney formation (shale and sandstone) - 2500,,
Pierre shale I5003500
Roslyn formation (sandstone and shale; coal) C. 3000 ft.
There is an extensive area in the south-east part of the state containing shale clay of a superior quality for making common brick.
Aluminium sulphate Al(S04)3, occurs in the mineral kingdom as keramohalite, Al 2 (SO 4) 3.1811 2 0, found near volcanoes and in alum-shale; aluminite or websterite is a basic salt, Al 2 (SO 4) (OH)4.71120.
Kerosene shale (torbanite) is found in several parts of New South Wales.
Successive flexures or ridges are ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale have been washed out, to he carried through the enclosing ridges by rifts which break across their axes.
The Mauch Chunk series (shale and sandstone) is now believed to be largely of terrestrial origin.
Olentangy shale 20 35
Holdenville shale 260
Beds between beds of sandstone and shale, and S becomes increasingly detrital in character as it is traced northwards.
Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.
Martinsburg shale 8ooi8oo ft.
It contains much volcanic material, and great bodies of siliceous shale, locally estimated at 4000 ft.