The scraping of leather against leather, the hollow clatter of stone and shale, the rustle of whatever creature settled behind her.
This time, she paid no attention to the shale or placing her feet right.
Olentangy shale 20 35
Holdenville shale 260
They were forced to slow their pace when the trail became covered with slippery shale and the path grew steeper.
They are at a depth of about 12 ft., in slaty shale containing Llandeilo fossils and contemporaneous felspathic ash and scoriae.
Eden (Utica) shale 250
The Mauch Chunk series (shale and sandstone) is now believed to be largely of terrestrial origin.
Far, far, away, beyond the stone and shale, she thought she saw a swatch of green.
The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian shale, and is bounded on the W.
Similarly it is necessary, in view of the hydrostatical relations of water and mineral oils, and the volatile character of the latter, that the porous stratum should be protected from water and air by an overlying shale or other impervious deposit.
Caney shale 1500 ft.
thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.
Voelcker yielded 34.92% tricalcium phosphate, a specimen of the shale 52.15% (Report of Brit.
C. Marsh, by finding the imperfect fossilized tibia of a bird in the middle cretaceous shale of Kansas, Marsh, began a series of wonderful discoveries of great im portance to ornithology.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below loo° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
The Allegheny ridges have only a thin stony soil; but good limestone, sandstone, shale and alluvial soils, occur in the valleys and in some of the plateaus of the extreme west.
Goethite, limonite and haematite are found in New South Wales, at the junction of the Hawkesbury sandstone formation and the Wianamatta shale, near Nattai, and are enhanced in their value by their proximity to coal-beds.
The commoner sorts of rock in the several Huronian systems are quartzite and slate (ranging from shale to schist); bi~t limestone is not wanting, and igneous rocks, both intrusive and extrtisive, some metamorphic and some not, abound.
Chicopee shale 200 ft.
Romney shale 1000f 300
Pierre shale I5003500
beds between beds of sandstone and shale, and S becomes increasingly detrital in character as it is traced northwards.
Martinsburg shale 8ooi8oo ft.
It contains much volcanic material, and great bodies of siliceous shale, locally estimated at 4000 ft.
She sprawled on its floor, listening to the sound of crunching shale.
Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.
It is limited to Disco Island, and perhaps to a small part of the Noursoak Peninsula, and the neighbouring country, and consists of numerous thin beds of sandstone, shale and coal - the sideritic shale containing immense quantities of leaves, stems, fruit, &c., as well as some insects, and the coal pieces of retinite.
From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.
If much iron should be present in the shale then it is preferable to use potassium chloride in place of potassium sulphate.
It is the centre for a farming region, in which there are deposits of coal, iron, lead and shale, and there are various manufactures in the city.
The city is in the Kansas-Oklahoma oil and gas field, and is surrounded by a fine farming and dairying region, in which special attention is given to the raising of small fruit; oil, gas, cement rock and brick shale are found in the vicinity.
The same observer considers Boghead coal, kerosene shale and similar substances used for the production of mineral oils to be mainly alteration products of gelatinous fresh water algae, which by a nearly complete elimination of oxygen have been changed to substances approximating in composition to C 2 H 3 and C 3 H 5, where C: H = 7.98 and C: O ±N = 46.3.
These are also called the Upper Limestone Shale, a similar group being found in places below the limestone, and called the Lower Limestone Shale, or, in the north of England, the Tuedian group. Going northward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most productive members of the Scotch coalfields.
These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.
The nature and extent of these operations vary with the character of the coal, which if hard and free from shale partings may be finished by simple screening into large and nut sizes and smaller slack or duff, with a final hand-picking to remove shale and dust from the larger sizes.
But when there is much small duff, with intermixed shale, more elaborate sizing and washing plant becomes necessary.
The district is rich in limestone, coal, ironstone, shale and fireclay, all of which are worked.
half of the state, is mainly a clay which was formed by the glacial pulverizing of limestone and shale and is still forming from the decomposition of fragments of these substances.
Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.
Middle Silurian) Rochester shale.
-~ Genesee shale.
I Marcellus shale.
The formations most widely recognized are the Helderberg limestone, the Onondaga limestone and the Hamilton shale.
These sediments are now mostly in the form of red sandstone and shale, with conglomerate, black shale and coal in some places.
Cuyahoga shale 250 300
Sunbury shale 5 30,,
Bedford shale 50 150, ,
Ohio shale 3002600 ft.
Wetumka shale 120
Stuart shale 90 280
Boggy shale 2000-2600
McAlester shale 1150-1500
Sylvan shale (upper part) 50 100
Sylvan shale (lower part) 250 ft.
Dc Smet formation (shale and sandstone) 4000 ft.
Piney formation (shale and sandstone) - 2500,,
Roslyn formation (sandstone and shale; coal) C. 3000 ft.
There is an extensive area in the south-east part of the state containing shale clay of a superior quality for making common brick.
In Pennsylvania the sandstone and shale, at its maximum, reaches 4400 ft., but even within the limits of the state this formation has thinned out to no more than 300 ft.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
- Foremost among the useful products of the Carboniferous rocks is the coal (q.v.) itself; but associated with the coal seams in Great Britain, North America and elsewhere, are very important beds of ironstone, fire-clay, terra-cotta clay, and occasionally oil shale and alum shale.
13, Plate I I., the sequence of the basalt, shale and melaphyre is clearly visible on the sides of the pit; and fig.
Figure 9, Plate I., shows the top of the De Beers' crater with basalt overlying the shale.
The commonest of such substances in England are chalk and clay, but where local conditions demand it, limestone, marl, shale, slag or any similar material may be used, provided that the correct proportions of lime, silica and alumina are maintained.
On the, other hand, there occur bands of conglomerate, pebbly grit, quartzite, graphitic shale and limestone in a certain ordered sequence and over a wide area.
Traces of annelids and probably other organisms have been found in the bands of shale occurring in the south-west of the shire of Ross and Cromarty, in the isle of Raasay, and at Cailleach Head, and are the oldest relics of animal life yet found in Great Britain.
In that belt they consist mostly of greywacke, grit, shale and other sedimentary rocks, but in the southwest of Ayrshire they include some thick lenticular bands of limestone.
The Middle Oolite consists mostly of sandstones with bands of shale and limestones, and includes fossils which indicate the English horizons from the Kellaways Rock up to the Coral Rag.
Occasional beds of tuff are intercalated among these lavas, and likewise seams of fine clay or shale which have preserved the remains of numerous land-plants.
The imports of ore in that year amounted to 1,862,444 tons of the value of £1,420,379 The oil shale industry is wholly modern and has attained to considerable magnitude since it was established (in 1851 and following years).
The Vindhyans are well-stratified beds of sandstone and shale, with some limestones.
of Dictyonema shale.
Among the manufactures are zinc spelter-there are large smelters here-clay products (chiefly vitrified brick, sewer pipe and tile; the clay being obtained from a great underlying bed of shale), blasting powder, packinghouse products and planing-mill products.
The surrounding country is a magnificent livestock and farming region, and in the immediate vicinity are valuable deposits of coal, of limestone, of shale suitable for sewer pipe and of fire clays.
Kerosene shale occurs in the Blue Mountains to the west of Sydney, in the Upper Carboniferous rocks.
Kerosene shale (torbanite) is abundant and is systematically worked.
The chief minerals raised in England, as stated in the annual home office report on mines and quarries, appear in order of value, thus: coal, iron ore, clay and shale, sandstone, limestone, igneous rocks, salt, tin ore.
There are unlimited supplies of clay, shale and limestone, the three essential constituents of Portland cement, and the manufacture of this, begun in 1902, at once assumed important proportions.
The lowest member (Table Mountain Sandstone) consists of sandstones with subordinate bands of shale.
In mountain valleys, rock or shale, commonly the most impermeable materials met with in such positions, are sometimes not reached till considerable depths are attained.
Wherever the base of a puddle wall cannot be worked into a continuous bed of clay or shale, or tied into a groove cut in sound rock free from water-hearing fissures, the safest course is to base it on an artificial material at once impermeable and incapable of erosion, interposed between the rock and the puddled clay.
It is clear that the material upon which any high masonry dam is founded must also have a large factor of safety against crushing under the greatest load that the dam can impose upon it, and this consideration unfits any site for the construction of a masonry dam where sound rock, or at least a material equal in strength to the strongest shale, cannot be had; even in the case of such a material as shale the foundation must be well below the ground.
Laterite, shale and sandstone occur all over the district.
thick; the lower part of this is mainly fireclay and sandstone, the upper part is weathered clay with thin layers of brown coal and shale.
In various parts of the west are small tracts of so-called gumbo " soil; they are due to the Pierre shale, are poorly drained and characteristically alkaline.
Where surface water is adequate the regions of the Pierre shale make splendid grazing lands; but in general they are not very useful for agriculture.
Many species of Scalpellum from the Wenlock shale of Gotland were described in 1892 by C. W.
The Upper Carboniferous includes beds of shale and coal; but though the coal is good, the seams are thin and have not been much worked.
2315) for obtaining oil from crushed seeds, or from refuse cake, by the solvent action of volatile hydrocarbons from "petroleum, earth oils, asphaltum oil, coal oil or shale oil, such hydrocarbons being required to be volatile under 212° F."
In the case of incrustation the whole substance of the fossilized specimen - e.g., a stem of Sigillaria - may be replaced by mineral matter, such as sandstone or shale, giving a cast of the whole, on the outer surface of which the external markings, such as the bases of leaves and the scars left by their fall, are visible in their natural form.
mudstone, shale, slate: these exhibit in greater or less perfection the properties above described according to their freedom from impurities.
These may form more than one-third of an ordinary shale; the greater part, however, consists of still smaller scales of other minerals (o oi mm.
A few of the most important clay rocks, such as china-clay, brick-clay, red-clay and shale, may be briefly described here.
In England, Kimmeridge Clay, Lias clays, London Clay and pulverized shale and slate are all employed for this purpose.
Cliffs stretched as far as she could see in either direction with uneven stone and shale between her and the rest of the island.
She walked through shallow stone valleys and hopped across boulders and shale toward the sun, casting frequent looks over her shoulder to make sure she wasn't being stalked by a shape-changing demon with an attitude.
alum shale helps to scotch the suspicion that they are merely late deposits on it.
About 2m higher up is relieving arch of shale blocks on edge.
colliery shale was obtained.
conformable contact between Mullaghmore Sandstone Formation and the succeeding Benbulben Shale Formation.
Fabrics: ' A ' is of small to medium blocks of gray and brown shale, irregularly shaped, and with random coursing.
An oil exploration geologist thinks he will find oil below the shale layer shown below.
Tall conical pinnacles arose across the valley, their shale strewn haunches plunging down into the depths of the ravine.
South of the Clougher Valley the carboniferous limestones have sandstone deposited on top with beds of shale contained in the sandstones.
Situated on a steep south-facing slope of warm Devon shale, above the meandering River Yeo, the vineyard enjoys a benign microclimate.
obverse side showed a delicate trace of leaves; shiny black against the gray shale.
Also, in areas where the lightweight properties of the fill do not offer advantages, the PFA was replaced by spent oil shale.
Calf Close Wood that overlies the shale is a total contrast to the rest of the reserve.
The sub-horizontal fissures in the breccia are infilled with laminated shale of identical lithology to the overlying basal bed of the Blue Lias Formation.
Fabrics: ' A ' of small to medium tabular shale, gray in color, reasonably well coursed.
Turning the stone over, the obverse side showed a delicate trace of leaves; shiny black against the gray shale.
shale bings of West Lothian have also accrued considerable heritage value.
The shale mining communities of West Lothian will continue to he heard through shale mining communities of West Lothian will continue to he heard through Shale Voices.
shale oil industry.
shale beds along the access of folds within the Dent Fault disturbance zone.
A sample of about 30kg of the colliery shale was obtained.
To date no company has been able to get oil out of oil shale at a profit.
Basically it involves soil amelioration for slag waste sites, coal shale waste, builders rubble and pulverized fuel ash.
Finding plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs through working alum shale helps to scotch the suspicion that they are merely late deposits on it.
slabs of shale.
spoil tips were left behind by the shale oil industry.
sunbathefrom sunbathing on the shale beach, you are able to sail, water ski, surf, scuba dive or fish.
tabular shale, gray in color, reasonably well coursed.
They had moved onto high loose shale but their position seemed untenable.
of gas, with an illuminating power of 35 to 40 sperm candles, when gas only is extracted from the shale.
In an experiment on 3500 grams of paraffin produced from shale (melting point 44'5Ã‚° C.) they obtained nearly 4 litres of liquid hydrocarbons, which they subjected to fractional distillation, and on examining the fraction distilling below looÃ‚° C., they found it to consist mainly of olefines.
thick, with a seam of fire-clay and a roof of black shale; about 6 in.
With the exception of Prospect and Pennant Hills, where there is an outburst of trap rock, the surface soil is the disintegration of the Wainamatta shale, which is well suited for orangeries and orchards.
- Obtained by distillation from the oil produced by the destructive distillation of bituminous shale (see Paraffin).
2315) for obtaining oil from crushed seeds, or from refuse cake, by the solvent action of volatile hydrocarbons from "petroleum, earth oils, asphaltum oil, coal oil or shale oil, such hydrocarbons being required to be volatile under 212Ã‚° F."
The oil shale bings of West Lothian have also accrued considerable heritage value.
Hear you can either look for fragments in the scree or try to obtain freshly cut shale slabs.
The shale mining communities of West Lothian will continue to he heard through Shale Voices.
Some routes may have a bolt in situ below the shale band.
The red spoil tips were left behind by the shale oil industry.
They largely follow shale beds along the access of folds within the Dent Fault disturbance zone.
Fabrics: ' A, ' is of roughly coursed slabs of shale.
Apart from sunbathing on the shale beach, you are able to sail, water ski, surf, scuba dive or fish.
There are several sources for oil including shale, tar sands and the liquid petroleum that is refined into several types of fuel.
Also called black drawing salve, ichthammol salve contains derivatives of sulfur-rich shale, mixed into a paraffin or beeswax base, to create a skin preparation.
Its primary ingredient is ichthammol, which is derived from the distillation of oil shale.
A dark, rich navy blue called Midnight Haze is accented with an earthy Alfalfa green, a metallic Shale Blue and steely Iron Gate.
It roots firmly, by means of strong woody fibres, and prefers peaty soil mingled with shale or rough gravel, and shady humid positions, such as are afforded by a high rock garden with a north aspect, or by the shelter of a north wall.
Ceramic tile is a combination of clay and shale that is kiln fired.
Slate is a metamorphic rock made of sandstone and shale.
Long Tall Sally offers a multitude of fashion choices for tall women, including a great looking slouchy shale boyfriend blazer in sizes to 20.
While they don't have a classic white, they offer an off-white/yellow called "shale" that is in a soft and sumptuous 100% silk charmeuse that can be machine washed.
The night was quiet aside from her foot falls and the sliding shale.
Kerosene shale (torbanite) is found in several parts of New South Wales.
Successive flexures or ridges are ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale have been washed out, to he carried through the enclosing ridges by rifts which break across their axes.
Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.