Shafts Sentence Examples
At mines with vertical shafts this is a simple operation.
This and the third are much longer and fuse together at their upper and distal ends, leaving as a rule a space between the shafts.
It is noticed that labourers employed in deep mines worked by shafts suffer less from fever than do those who are engaged in stripping the alluvial deposits.
Each coil is attached to a shaft by a bell crank arrangement, and to these shafts there is secured a system of levers similar to that at the transmitter carrying the receiving pencil at the junction.
The shafts are turned by the pull of the magnet upon the coils, and the motions of the transmitting pencil are thus reproduced.Advertisement
According to some, Niobe is the goddess of snow and winter, whose children, slain by Apollo and Artemis, symbolize the ice and snow melted by the sun in spring; according to others, she is an earth-goddess, whose progeny - vegetation and the fruits of the soil - is dried up and slain every summer by the shafts of the sun-god.
The shafts reached deposits of salt at a depth of 850 ft., but the finer and purer layers lie more than 1 roo ft.
As the sinking of shafts or the driving of narrow entries or drifts is expensive, and as the mineral extracted rarely pays more than a small fraction of the cost, it is usual to plan this exploratory work so that the openings made shall serve some useful purpose later.
They consist of seven different levels, one above the other, and have eleven shafts, two of which are in the town.
Except at the shafts, which were sunk on proposed station sites, there was no interference with the surface of the streets or with street traffic during construction.Advertisement
By way of reprisals for the Hussite outrages in Prague, the miners of Kuttenberg seized on any Hussites they could find, and burned, beheaded or threw them alive into the shafts of disused mines.
The piers carrying the arches have shafts at their angles, the earliest examples known, and the decoration of the walls consists of friezes, borders, and impost-bands, all enriched with conventional patterns interwoven with cufic characters and modelled in stucco.
Light and air are introduced by means of vertical shafts (luminaria) running up to the outer air, and often serving for several storeys.
No shafts or tunnels are necessary except for exploration; the mining consists entirely in open-cut and terrace work.
In working downwards in open quarries and in tortuous shafts and passages much of the mica is damaged, and a large amount of labour is expended in hauling waste material to the surface.Advertisement
The mistake is often made of sinking large and expensive shafts, or driving costly tunnels, before it is fully proved that the deposit can be worked on a scale to warrant such developments, and, indeed, too often before it is known that the deposit can be worked at all; and in too many cases large amounts of money are thus unnecessarily lost by over-sanguine mine managers.
They are to be preferred also for very deep shafts, or for sinking in difficult ground.
Drifts and inclined shafts following the deposit may prove difficult of maintenance when the workings become large and settlement of the overlying strata begins.
Large pillars of mineral should be left for the protection of the main openings, whether these be shafts or adits.
In metalmines the main passages are known as levels, and these are connected at intervals by winzes or small shafts.Advertisement
As already noted large pillars must always be left to protect shafts, adits and the more important mine-passages necessary for drainage, ventilation and the haulage of mineral.
Before the bottom of these pits reaches the level of the haulage roads below, a new set of roads will have been driven at a lower level and connected with the excavations above by the shafts.
The size, shape and design of the cars depend on the size of the mine passage and of the hoisting compartments of the shafts; on whether the cars are to be trammed by hand or hauled in trains; whether they are loaded by shovel or by gravity from a chute; and whether they are to be hoisted to the surface or used only for underground transport.
Near the top and bottom of hoisting shafts the tracks are usually graded to permit the cars to be run to and from the shaft by gravity.
When the mine is worked through shafts, hoisting plant must be installed for raising the ore and handling men and supplies.Advertisement
On a smaller scale hoisting is also necessary for sinking shafts and winzes and for various underground services.
In deep shafts hoisting speeds of 3000 or 3500 ft.
A frame of wood or steel, erected at the shaft mouth, and rarely employed except for deep shafts of small cross-section or when the mine cars (tubs) are small, as in many parts of Europe.
Skips are sometimes of very large capacity, holding 5, 7, and even 10 tons of ore; such are used, for example, in several shafts at Butte, Montana, in the Lake Superior copper district, and in South Africa.
These are common in Europe, and are sometimes employed in the United States and elsewhere in mines where the output is large and the shafts deep and of small cross section.
At a few mines special man-cages are operated in separate compartments by their own engines for handling part of the men, and for tools, supplies, &c. For inclined shafts, where the mineral is hoisted in skips, the operation of raising and lowering men may not be so simple.
When the shafts are deep and the number of miners large man-cars are sometimes employed.
Such cars are in use at a number of deep inclined shafts in the Lake Superior copper district, where the depths range from 3000 to 5000 ft.
Wooden or steel buckets, holding from 35 to 200 gallons, are employed only for temporary or auxiliary service or for small quantities of water in shallow shafts.
Sinking pumps, designed for use in shafts in process of sinking, are suspended by wire ropes so as to be raised before blasting and promptly lowered again to resume pumping.
In a mine with shafts opening at the same level, natural ventilation once established will be effective during cold weather, as the downcast will have the temperature of the outside air, while the upcast will be filled with the warm air of the mine.
In a mine with two shafts a ventilating current may result from other conditions creating a difference in the temperature of the air in either shaft - for example, the cooling effect of dropping water or the heating effect of steam pipes.
Natural ventilation is impracticable in flat deposits worked by drifts and without shafts.
Three other shafts of the Tamarack Company, and three of the neighbouring Calumet and Hecla mine, have depths of between 4000 and 5000 ft.
At Bendigo in Australia are several shafts between 3000 and 4000, and one, the Victoria Quartz mine, 43 00 ft.
It lies in a valley between the hills of Birkenberg and Heiliger Berg, and in its neighbourhood are the lead and silver mines which belong to the Austrian government and are worked in nine shafts, two of which, the Adalbert shaft (3637 ft.) and the Maria shaft, (3575 ft.) are the deepest in the world.
In alluvial deposits the richest ground is usually found in contact with the "bed rock"; and, when the overlying cover of gravel is very thick, or, as sometimes happens, when the older gravel is covered with a flow of basalt, regular mining by shafts and levels, as in what are known as tunnel-claims, may be required to reach the auriferous ground.
The mode of winning by level is of less general application than that by shafts, as the capacity for production is less, owing to the smaller size of roadways by which the coal must be brought to the surface, levels of large section being expensive and difficult to keep open when the mine has been for some time at work.
Shafts, on the other hand, may be made of almost any capacity, owing to the high speed in drawing which is attainable with proper mechanism, and allow of the use of more perfect arrangements at the surface than can usually be adopted at the mouth of a level on a hill-side.
The sinking of colliery shafts, however, differs considerably from that of other mines, owing to their generally large size, and the difficulties nkingof g g y g ?
The size and form of colliery shafts vary in different districts.
Poetsch in 1883, and originally applied to shafts passing through quicksands above brown coal seams, has been applied with advantage in opening new pits through the secondary and tertiary strata above the coal measures in the north of France and Belgium, some of the most successful examples being those at Lens, Anzin and Vicq, in the north of France basin.
The principal road extends from the shafts southward; and on both sides of it the coal has been removed from the light-shaded area by cutting it back perpendicularly towards the boundaries, along faces about 50 yds.
Another method consists in driving towards the boundary, and taking the coal backward towards the shafts, or working homeward, allowing the waste to close up without roads having to be kept open through it.
In a large colliery where the shafts are situated near the centre of the field, and the workings extend on all sides, both to the dip and rise, the drawing roads for the coal may be of three different kinds - (r) levels driven at right angles to the dip, suitable for horse roads, (2) rise ways, known as jinny roads, jig-brows, or up-brows, which, when of sufficient slope, may be used as self-acting planes, i.e.
The increased resistance, due to the large extension of workings from single pairs of shafts, the ventilating currents having often to travel several miles to the upcast, has led to great increase in the size and power of ventilating fans, and engines from 250 to Soo H.P. are not uncommonly used for such purposes.
Methods for enabling miners to penetrate into workings where the atmosphere is totally irrespirable have come into use for saving life after explosions and for repairing shafts and pit-work under water.
In the large shafts of the Northern and Wigan districts the cages are made about 8 ft.
It is said that the output of single shafts has been raised by this method to 3500 and 4500 tons in the double shift of sixteen hours.
Belgium 950 3117 The greatest depth attained in the Westphalian coal is at East Recklinghausen, where there are two shafts 841 metres (2759 ft.) deep.
Coal lying under the sea below low-water mark belongs to the crown, and can only be worked upon payment of royalties, even when it is approached from shafts sunk upon land in private ownership. In the Forest of Dean, which is the property of the crown as a royal forest,there are certain curious rights held by a portion of the inhabitants known as the Free Miners of the Forest, who are entitled to mine for coal and iron ore, under leases, known as gales, granted by the principal agent or gaveller representing the crown, in tracts not otherwise occupied.
The two shafts, though in a line, are independent.
For example, a tribe that would jump at iron arrow-heads stoutly declined to modify the shafts.
Their bases and shafts are not finished, though the capitals and rich entablature seem completely worked.
The graves themselves were mere shafts sunk in the rock.
Or it may be necessary to sink shafts as in coal-pits before the rock is arrived at, but the cost of doing so forms a serious drawback.
The present entrance is by a gateway buttressed by alabaster shafts, one of which, 7 5 ft.
The route beyond is between rows of stately shafts, and ends in a copious chalybeate spring.
On the east are remains of a race-course, the corners marked by granite shafts with Greek inscriptions on them.
The species are all characterized by short rudimentary wings, bearing four or five barbless shafts, a few inches long, and apparently useless for purposes of flight, of running, or of defence; and by loosely webbed feathers, short on the neck, but of great length on the rump and back, whence they descend over the body forming a thick hair-like covering.
Each upright bearing carrying the shafts of the revolving disks also carries a neutralizing conductor or wire ending in a little brush of gilt thread.
The number of great shafts for marine engines, reaching a diameter of 22k in.
Moreover, a single pair of rolls suffices for armour plates of any width or thickness, whereas if shafts of different diameters were to be rolled, a special final groove would be needed for each different diameter, and, as there is room for only a few large grooves in a single set of rolls, this would imply not only providing but installing a separate .set of rolls for almost every diameter of shaft.
Turbines of this type may also be used on horizontal shafts, and are very useful in the case of low falls where there is a large amount of water and the head is fairly constant.
They are narrow shafts going down usually 30 to 50 ft., but some are over 200 ft.
The water is not brought to the surface, but is carried over long distances by an underground channel or drain, which is constructed by sinking shafts at intervals along the required course and connecting the shafts by tunnelling.
In this system the well-fitting earthenware drain-pipes are furnished at intervals with vertical shafts terminating at the surface of the ground in movable caps.
There are also stage kilns of the Dietzsch type, which consist of two vertical shafts, one above the other, but not in the same vertical line, connected by a horizontal channel.
At the west end, to which the two standing columns belong, some of the other shafts are still preserved to the height of 30 feet.
The English owed the victory to their archers, whose shafts rolled up a courageous charge by the Scots.
The ancient workings, consisting of shafts and galleries for excavating the ore, and pans and other arrangements for extracting the metal, may still be seen.
Coupling of Parallel AxesOldhams CouplingA coupling is a mode of connecting a pair of shafts so that they shall rotate in the same direction with the same mean angular velocity.
Ci, C1 are the axes of the two parallel shafts; Di, D2 two disks facing each other, fixed on the ends of the two shafts FIG.
Oldhams coupling may be used with advantage where the axes of the shafts are intended to be as nearly in the same straight line as is possible, but where there is some doubt as to the practibility I or nermanency of their exact continuity.
Coupling of Parallel Axes.Two or more parallel shafts (such as those of a locomotive engine, with two or more pairs of driving wheels) are made to rotate with constantly equal angular velocities by having equal cranks, which are maintained parallel by a coupling-rod of such a length that the line of c000exion is equal to the distance between the axes.
To obviate the unsteadiness of motion which this tends to cause, the shafts are provided with a second set of cranks at right angles to the first, connected by means of a similar coupling-rod, so that one set of cranks pass their dead points at the instant when the other set are farthest from theirs.
The pair of shafts Ci, C2 terminate in a pair Ci of forks F,, F2 in bearings at the extremities of which turn the gudgeons at the ends of the 0o arms of a rectangular cross, F3 having its centre at 0.
Double Hookes Coupling.It has been shown in 66 that the velocity ratio of a pair of shafts coupled by a universal joint fluctuates between the limits cos 0 and 1/cos 0.
Hence one or both of the shafts must have a vibratory and unsteady motion, injurious to the mechanism and framework.
Then, from the principles of 60 it is evident that at each instant ai/ai = ai/aa, and consequently that ai; so that the fluctuations of angular velocity ratio caused by the first coupling are exactly neutralized by the second, and the first and last shafts have equal angular velocities at each instant.
Hence, unless there be some reason to the contrary, each piece of a machine should be balanced on its axis of rotation; otherwise the centrifugal force will cause strains, vibration and increased friction, and a tendency of the shafts to jump out of their bearings.
The general problem is to find the value of a corresponding to all kinds of loadings on shafts supported in any manner.
The interesting and important part of the investigation is that a number of experiments were made on small shafts arranged in different ways and loaded in different ways, and the speed at which whirling actually occurred was compared with the speed calculated from formulae of the general type indicated above.
From the light and slender stalks shafts for arrows are obtained; and in the south-west of Asia there is a certain species of equally slender growth, from which writing pens or reeds are made.
Lucy's Dome, one of the group of Jessup Domes, is supposed to be the loftiest of all these vertical shafts.
Among the most surprising features of cave scenery are the vertical shafts that pierce through all levels, from the uppermost galleries, or even from the sink-holes, down to the lowest floor.
His experiments proved that two elastic aeroplanes united by a central shaft or shafts, and separated by a wide FIG.
Smaller patches of the Coal Measures appear near Tamworth and Burton, while deep shafts have been sunk in many places through the overlying Triassic strata to the coal below, thus extending the mining and manufacturing area beyond the actual outcrop of the Coal Measures.
In the Pillared Palace a number of large alabaster shafts had been thrown down and fragments carried away.
They are generally decorated with a series of niches with figures in them, divided by small attached shafts with semicircular or sloping covers carved with religious emblems, one of the best examples being the sarcophagus of Sta Barbara, dating from the beginning of the 6th century, at Ravenna, where there are many others.
The Biggleswade well was sunk by processes better known in connexion with the sinking of mine shafts and foundations of bridges across the deep sands or gravels of bays, estuaries and great rivers.
Its site had been determined by about 190 borings, probings and shafts, which, following upon the indications afforded by the rocks above ground, proved that the rock bed crossing the valley was higher at this point than elsewhere.
Parallel shafts may be driven by flexible bands or connectors passing over pulleys, the central planes of which coincide, without any guiding arrangements for the belting.
The shafts revolve in the same or opposite directions, according as the belt is open or crossed.
When pulleys are mounted on shafts which are parallel to one another, the band will retain its position, provided that its central line advances towards each pulley in the diametral plane of this latter.
C. Bischof at Magdesprung (both in Germany), consisted of simple perpendicular shafts of masonry contracted at the top and the bottom, with or without a grate for the coal.
Near the latter is one of the deepest mining shafts in Europe, namely the Samson, which goes down 2790 ft.
The cistern of Bin Bir Derek (cistern of Illus) with its 22 4 columns, each built up with three shafts, and the cistern Yeri Batan Serai (Cisterna Basilica) with its 420 columns show what covered cisterns were, on a grand scale.
In the ancient workings, many of which are in the same condition as they were left 1800 years ago, there are in all 2000 shafts and galleries.
Her close relations (un-Homeric) with the bear and bear-worship have suggested a derivation from " In Homer her " gentle shafts " deal sudden and painless death; she is a beautiful Azrael.
A brood mare requires plenty of exercise at a slow pace and may work, except between shafts or on a road, till the day of foaling.
The roller chain is used to transmit motion between rotating shafts via sprockets mounted on the shafts.
The nave arcades are of four bays, with octagonal shafts, molded capitals and bases, and pointed arches.
He worked on propeller shafts.
All opening door locks, cardan shafts and wheel sets are certified to group standards.
Figure 4. Calibrated radiocarbon chronology obtained from wood charcoal recovered in two different shafts.
Brunel was not deterred by such fears and in 1836 work began with the sinking of shafts to deterred by such fears and in 1836 work began with the sinking of shafts to determine the course of the tunnel.
Meanwhile the Australian Tunneling Party - led by Captain Alex Sanderson - located and destroyed two dugouts and three mine shafts.
Japanese fletchers produced many types of arrows with shafts of varying lengths and colors and a numerous selection of arrowheads.
Cobra woods - flex Cobra woods with regular flex shafts are suitable for most golfers.
All gears were machined from drop forgings and their shafts hardened and ground.
Fitted with exclusive 100% low torque graphite shafts generating high club head speed.
Introduction The roller chain is used to transmit motion between rotating shafts via sprockets mounted on the shafts.
They lay eggs, called nits, which they stick to the shafts of your hair with a very strong glue.
Once the horizontal shafts were established, they were worked 24 hours a day with three, eight-hour shifts.
They are designed to clasp hair shafts and can move at lightning speeds when crawling through the hair.
The smooth round shafts, slightly thicker in the middle, appear to be productions of the lathe, rather than vegetable stems.
He had to find enough white feathers, arrow shafts, and points, bowstrings, wood and glue to sink a battleship.
There should be very little wobble where the brass throttle shafts go through the aluminum carb bodies.
In production of gold in 1907 Esmeralda county ranked first with $8,533,617 (nearly 70% of the total); Nye county's output was $1,547,408, Lincoln county's $929,775, ' Apart from their commercial uses, the Sutro Tunnel and the shafts of the Comstock Lode have been employed for scientific investigations, with the object of classifying igneous rocks, determining the variations of temperature, and the character of electrical manifestations beneath the earth's surface, and the relation between the structure of rocks and their rate of cooling.
The mosque of Khaseki, supposed to have been an old Christian church, is chiefly distinguished for its prayer niche, which, instead of being a simple recess, is crowned by a Roman arch, with square pedestals, spirally fluted shafts and a rich capital of flowers, with a fine fan or shell-top in the Roman style.
In mines operated through shafts the animals are stabled underground, and when well fed and cared for, thrive notwithstanding their rather abnormal conditions of life.
Wooden guides being of considerable size, block up a certain portion of the area of the pit, and thus offer an impediment to the ventilation, especially in upcast shafts, where the high temperature, when furnace ventilation is used, is also against their use.
Frahm,' during an important investigation on the torsional vibration of propeller shafts, measured the relative angular displacement of two flanges on a propeller shaft, selected as far apart as possible, by means of an electrical device (Engineering, 6th of February 1903).
In private character he was amiable and affectionate; his generosity in recognizing the merits of others secured him against the worst shafts of envy; and a life marked by numerous disquietudes was cheered and ennobled by sentiments of sincere piety.
When they are used for the propulsion of ships recourse is had to "torsion meters" which measure the amount of twist undergone by the propeller shafts while transmitting power.
The side horses, pressing against the shafts of the middle horse, sank in the snow, which was dry and glittered like sugar, and threw it up.
The plugs on the right-hand end of the rocker shafts are a sod for weeping.
January 20 th 1866 Thomas Chatteris of Pentelow was fined 5s for riding on the shafts of a wagon at Stansfield.
Consequently little remains to identify the sites of the three shafts sunk during working of the mine.
The nave arcades are of four bays, with octagonal shafts, molded capitals and bases, and pointed arches of two chamfered orders.
Here he worked on the stress on propeller shafts.
All opening door locks, cardan shafts and wheel sets etc. are certified to Railtrack Group standards.
By comparison, modern humans made lighter stone points that could be fitted on to lighter spear shafts.
The frame is linked in front to a telescopic hydraulic fork with 35 mm shafts.
Shafts were dug at the higher level down to the terminus of the branch which was situated inside a short tunnel.
Have a salesperson help you determine what the length of the shafts on your clubs should be.
All shafts bend, it's just a matter of how much.
Steel shafts are heavier than graphite, but are more sturdy and you can worry less about cosmetic damage.
Overall, shafts with the most flexibility give the most height, shortest distance, and tend to go toward the left.
Stiffer shafts will launch a ball further, but not as high, and tend to send the ball curving slightly right.
Most golf club shafts are made from either graphite or steel.
Graphite shafts offer better vibration absorption and they're easier to swing, so they're usually preferred by the average golfer whereas steel shafted clubs are typically the club of choice for the pros.
Keep all dangling objects, like hair, sleeves and jewelry, away from spinning shafts.
Shafts of wheat also give a Mediterranean feel to a room.
Accents and accessories include wheat shafts, lavender wreaths and sprigs, roosters and wrought-iron railings and lamps.
The down plumage is very soft because ,unlike feather quill shafts, it contains what's called filaments that flow out in every direction.
The filler between the two layers of material will either be soft and smooth (down filled) or have definite feather quill shafts or sharp points poking through the material (feather filled).
If you notice a discrepancy, fan shafts can usually be adjusted by just bending them a little to bring them into line.
Female lice lay their eggs in sacs called nits that are about 0.04 in (1 mm) long and are glued to shafts of hair close to the scalp.
In Africa head lice have adapted their claws to the curly, elliptical hair shafts of blacks.
Their white nits can be seen on hair shafts close to the skin.
Nits-The eggs produced by head or pubic lice, usually grayish white in color and visible at the base of hair shafts.
Since straightening your hair removes elasticity from the hair shafts, the straighter your hair is, the more fragile it will become.
Combing wet hair prevents damage to the hair shafts, while brushing with a bristle brush stimulates the scalp and encourages the production of natural oils to keep the hair gleaming and healthy.
There are those, but there are also cuffed styles, styles with heels, fold down shafts with buttons, and more.
Ten shafts lined with slabs of tufa which were there found may have been the approaches to tombs or may have served as wells.
The shafts are placed so close together that in many instances they are divided by only a couple of feet of solid ground, but at their bases a considerable amount of gallery work has been excavated, though it is possible that this was done by miners who came after the people who originally sank the shafts.
In cases where the direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these anemometers, known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most satisfactory results.
Large beds of rock-salt also occur in the neighbourhood, in which shafts have been sunk to a depth of more than 1200 ft.
The bases of the columns are either reeded or decorated with a plait-pattern; the capital has the broad channel between the volutes subdivided by a carefully-profiled incision; and the top of the shafts is ornamented by a broad band of palmette or honeysuckle pattern.
Vertical shafts are better adapted to rapid hoisting, and have therefore somewhat greater capacity, than inclined shafts.
They rotate on steel shafts 21 in.
They were carefully stayed by steel wires to their shafts, or the first revolution would have snapped them off short.
As soon as it appears reasonably certain that the property is workable the mine will be opened by one or more shafts, drifts or tunnels, and the underground passages for active mining operations will be started.