How to use Shaft in a sentence
The main pit was a vertical shaft.
The fire was discovered by smoke in the upper shaft.
The shaft is of red granite and is beautifully polished.
This is the long splined shaft with a sixteen inch gear at one end.
A shaft of brilliant sunlight fell through the dusty layers of a horse chestnut tree, landing on the velvet vows of her shoes.Advertisement
Although redundant, the wallower was left on the upright shaft.
Opposite Victoria dock is another ventilation shaft for the tunnels under the river.
A central shaft descended 35 ft.
All tin, except a small quantity produced by the shaft furnace process from exceptionally pure stream tin ore, requires refining by liquation and "boiling" before it is ready for the market.
The campanile is usually a plain brick shaft with shallow pilasters running up the faces.Advertisement
There were many men ready on the last call for volunteers to descend the shaft.
When the deposit lying below the surface is horizontal, or nearly so, or when the outcrop of an inclined deposit is not accessible, a vertical shaft will be necessary.
A frame of wood or steel, erected at the shaft mouth, and rarely employed except for deep shafts of small cross-section or when the mine cars (tubs) are small, as in many parts of Europe.
From the prop shaft we ascended up the line to meet with Bob's boat.
Thomas, and a monolithic shaft to the memory of General John Ellis Wool (1784-1869), who served with distinction in the War of 1812 and in the Mexican War, and in the Civil War commanded for a time the Department of Virginia.Advertisement
The main shaft bearings are in two sets and composed of steel balls running in steel cones and cups; the governor is an iron rod about 16 in.
From the girdle hung the single-edged missile axe or francisca, the scramasax or short knife, a poniard and such articles of toilet as scissors, a comb (of wood or bone), &c. The Franks also used a weapon called the framea (an iron lance set firmly in a wooden shaft), and bows and arrows.
The shaft, resting upon arches supported by four cast iron columns about 9 ft.
To the west of the main shaft were three square pits with horses and their harness, and by them two pits with men's skeletons.
Shaft furnace smelting is confined to those parts of the world where charcoal can still be obtained in large quantities at moderate prices.Advertisement
The furnace consists of a shaft, circular (or more rarely rectangular) in plan, into which alternate layers of fuel and ore are charged, an air blast being generally injected near to the bottom of the furnace through one or more tuyeres.
If the outcrop of the vein or bed is accessible the shaft may be inclined and sunk to follow the deposit.
This is in general a cheaper and quicker method of development for inclined deposits than by a vertical shaft, and it has the added advantage that much information as to the character of the deposit is obtained as the shaft is sunk.
If, for a twocompartment shaft, a pair of drums (or a single wide drum) be keyed to the engine shaft, with the ropes wound in opposite directions, the hoisting is " in balance," that is, the cages and cars counterbalance each other, so that the engine has to raise only the useful load of mineral, plus the rope.
Independent drums, on the contrary, are loose upon their shaft, and are thrown on or off by tooth or friction clutches.Advertisement
It was fitted with a high quality graphite shaft for extra distance.
Two of the troykas were the usual household sleighs, the third was the old count's with a trotter from the Orlov stud as shaft horse, the fourth was Nicholas' own with a short shaggy black shaft horse.
With screams squeals, and waving of whips that caused even the shaft horses to gallop--the other sleighs followed.
She finally gripped what was left of the arrow shaft with the pliers.
The shaft of the pubis runs parallel with that of the ischium, with which it is connected by a short ligamentous or bony bridge; this cuts off from the long incisura pubo-ischiadica a proximal portion, the foramen obturatum, for the passage of the obturator nerve.Advertisement
The term is thus applied to a metal bar, slender in proportion to its length, used as a tie, brace or connecting shaft between different parts, of a machine.
Above the shaft comes the arcaded bell-chamber, frequently built of Istrian stone; and above that again the attic, either round or square or octagonal, carrying either a cone or a pyramid or a cupola, sometimes surmounted by a cross or a gilded angel which serves as a weathercock.
At some distance from the shaft a square water-tight wall was built, and the space between it and the shaft was filled in with sand, which was purified of all saline matter by repeated washings; on the ground-level perforated stones set at the four corners of the basin admitted the rain-water, which was discharged from the roofs by lead pipes; this water filtered through the sand and percolated into the shaft of the well, whence it was drawn in copper buckets.
It is the centre of an important gold-field, the reefs of which improve at the lower depths, the deepest shaft on the field being 2558 ft.
Since the 13th century the snake, under Gothic influence, developed into a boldly designed tendril set with leaves, which usually encircled a figure or group of figures, and the knob dividing shaft and crook into an elegant chapel (6 and 7).Advertisement
In the Public Square is a soldiers' and sailors' monument consisting of a granite shaft rising from a memorial room to a height of 125 ft., and surmounted with a figure of Liberty; in the same park, also, is a bronze statue of Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city.
If the workable areas are poor, and appear only at long intervals along the outcrop, the chances of discovering richer areas by a shaft are very small.
In the case of very thick beds and mass deposits the main shaft or tunnel will preferably be located in the foot-wall.
Near the top and bottom of hoisting shafts the tracks are usually graded to permit the cars to be run to and from the shaft by gravity.
This is similar to shaft hoisting, except that the grades are often quite flat.Advertisement
In geared hoists the drums. are on a separate shaft, driven from the crank-shaft by tooth or friction gearing, and make one revolution for, say, 4 or 5 double strokes.
The engine works a massive counter-balanced walking-beam from which is suspended in the shaft a long wooden (or steel) rod, made in sections and spliced together.
Their first cost, however, is high and the cumbersome parts occupy much space in the shaft.
Two compartments of a shaft may be utilized for this purpose, but greater safety is ensured by two separate openings, as required by law in most mining countries.
In a mine with two shafts a ventilating current may result from other conditions creating a difference in the temperature of the air in either shaft - for example, the cooling effect of dropping water or the heating effect of steam pipes.Advertisement
In 1905 the main shaft had been sunk to a depth of 2600 ft.
A round shaft is fixed in the cork a, which ends in a sharp point.
The magnetic system is inside the walls of the elevator shaft, there are no normal electrical controls.
The femur often possesses a well visible pneumatic foramen on the median side of the proximal end of its shaft.
The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built.Advertisement
When, however, the deposit lies below the surface the mine must be opened by a shaft.
For deep workings the milling method is usually employed, in which the ore is excavated in funnel-shaped pits, each of which connects with underground haulage roads by a shaft.
The ore is mined in the ordinary way, by pick and shovel if soft, or by the aid of powder if necessary, and the funnel-shaped bottom of the pit is maintained at such an angle that little or no shovelling is required to bring the excavated material to the shaft.
The excavated material is brought to the hoisting shaft, or sometimes directly to the surface, in small mine cars, moved by men or by animals, or by locomotives or wire-rope haulage.
To replace the ore-skip expeditiously by the man-car when the shifts are to be changed a crane is often erected over the shaft mouth.
At the end of a shift the ore-skip is lifted from the shaft track - the hoisting rope being uncoupled - and the man-car put in its place and attached to the rope.
The sloping sides of the conical bottom can be freed from the coating of scum which forms upon them every two or three hours by two rotatory scrapers, formed of L-irons, which can be slowly turned by an attendant by means of a central shaft provided with a suitable handle.
The crystallizers are long, horizontal, cylindrical or semi-cylindrical vessels, fitted with a strong horizontal shaft running from end to end, which is kept slowly revolving.
They are weighed and then dumped into a washing machine, consisting of a large horizontal cage, submerged in water, in which revolves a horizontal shaft carrying arms. The arms are set in a spiral form, so that in revolving they not only stir the roots, causing them to rub against each other, but also force them forward from the receiving end,of the cage to the other end.
For the desulphurization of zinc blende where it is not intended to collect and save the sulphur there are many mechanical kilns, generally classified as straight-line, horse-shoe, turret and shaft kilns; all of these may be made to do good work on moderately clean ores which do not melt at the temperature of desulphurization.
It lies in a valley between the hills of Birkenberg and Heiliger Berg, and in its neighbourhood are the lead and silver mines which belong to the Austrian government and are worked in nine shafts, two of which, the Adalbert shaft (3637 ft.) and the Maria shaft, (3575 ft.) are the deepest in the world.
The mines have been worked for several centuries, but their actual prosperity dates from 1770, when the sinking of the Adalbert shaft began.
The height of the tower is 179 ft., but the ascent is easy by a stair in the wall, and the visitor hardly perceives the inclination till he reaches the top and from the lower edge of the gallery looks "down" along the shaft receding to its base.
Orifice concealed at the bottom of a vestibular shaft, surrounded by a solid or vesicular calcareous deposit.
The oldest are tombe a pozzo, or shaft graves, containing the ashes of the dead in an urn, of the Villanova period, the oldest of them probably pre-Etruscan; in some of these tombs hut urns, like those of Latium, are found.
The fusion process is preferably carried out in crucible furnaces; shaft furnaces are unsatisfactory on account of the disintegrating action of the molten bismuth on the furnace linings.
In architecture, the term is used to express the measure of the lower part of the shaft of a column.
The earliest tombs (tombe a pozzo, shaft tombs) are previous to the beginning of Greek importation.
The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
The shaft is lined with a cylinder of wrought iron, within which a tubular chamber, provided with doors above and below, known as an P g air-lock, is fitted by a telescopic joint, which is tightly sinkin packed so as to close the top of the shaft air-tight.
Air is then forced into the inclosed space by means of a compressing engine, until the pressure is sufficient to oppose the flow of water into the excavation, and to drive out any that may collect in the bottom of the shaft through a pipe which is carried through the air-sluice to the surface.
For this purpose a horizontal bar Shaft armed with vertical cutting chisels is used, which cuts boring.
It has therefore been proposed, for greater depths, to put four columns of tubbings of smaller diameters, 82 and 52 ft., in the shaft, and fill up the remainder of the boring with concrete, so that with thinner and lighter castings a greater depth may be reached.
In this system the soft ground or fissured water-bearing rock is rendered temporarily solid by freezing the contained water within a surface a few feet larger in diameter than the size of the finished shaft, so that the ground may be broken either by hand tools or blasting in the same manner as hard rock.
Since the accident at Hartley colliery in 1862, caused by the breaking of the pumping-engine beam, which fell into the shaft and blocked it up, whereby the whole of the men then at work in the mine were starved to death, it has been made compulsory upon mine-owners in the United Kingdom to have two pits for each working, in place of the single one divided by walls or brattices which was formerly thought sufficient.
The pumps, placed close to the point where the water accumulates, may be worked by an engine on the surface by means of heavy reciprocating rods which pass down the shaft, or by underground motors driven by steam, compressed air or electricity.
To secure the perpendicularity of the shaft, it is necessary to leave a large mass or pillar of the seam untouched around the pit bottom.
The roads for drawing the coal from the working faces to the shaft are kept open by walling through the waste or goaf produced by the fall of the unsupported roof.
The straight roads are the air-ways for carrying pure air from the down-cast shaft to the working faces, while the return air passes along the faces and back to the up-cast by the curved road.
The air from the down-cast shaft enters from the gate road, and passes to the up-cast through the air heading above.
It has, therefore, been to some extent superseded by the long-wall method, the upper half being taken at the first working, and removed as completely as possible, working backwards from the boundaries to the shaft.
For shaft linings steel rings of H or channel section supported by intermediate struts are also used, and cross-bearers or buntons of steel joists and rail guides are now generally substituted for wood.
The crank shaft carries a pinion which gears into a toothed wheel of a coarse pitch, carrying cutters at the ends of the teeth.
The capacity of the trams varies with the size of the workings and the shaft.
On the tail rope plan the engine has two drums worked by spur gearing, which can be connected with, or cast loose from, the driving shaft at pleasure.
The usual form of ventilating furnace is a plain fire grate placed under an arch, and communicating with the upcast shaft by an inclined drift.
Danger arising from coal dust is best guarded against by systematically sprinkling or watering the main roads leading from the working faces to the shaft, where the dust falling from the trams in transit is liable to accumulate.
The different elements making up the drawing arrangements of a colliery are - (r) the cage, (2) the shaft or pit fittings, (3) the drawing-rope, (4) the engine and (5) the surface arrangements.
The engines used for winding or hoisting in collieries are usually direct-acting with a pair of horizontal cylinders coupled directly to the drum shaft.
One drum is usually fixed to the shaft, while the other is loose, with a screw link or other means of coupling, in order to be able to adjust the two ropes to exactly the same length, so that one cage may be at the surface when the other is at the bottom, without having to pay out or take up any slack rope by the engine.
For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.
In Koepe's method the drum is replaced by a disk with a grooved rim for the rope, which passes from the top of one cage over the guide pulley, round the disk, and back over the second guide to the second cage, and a tail rope, passing round a pulley at the bottom of the shaft, connects the bottoms of the cages, so that the dead weight of cage, tubs and rope is completely counterbalanced at all positions of the cages, and the work of the engine is confined to the useful weight of coal raised.
In one of the best-known examples, the Zollern colliery in Westphalia, the Koepe system is used, the winding disk being driven by two motors of 1200 H.P. each on the same shaft.
To prevent accidents from the breaking of the rope while the cage is travelling in the shaft, or from over-winding when in consequence of the engine not being stopped in time the cage may be drawn up to the head-gear pulleys (both of which are unhappily not uncommon), various forms of safety catches and disconnecting hooks have been adopted.
In the deeper German pits, where great thicknesses of water-bearing strata have to be traversed, the first establishment expenses are so great that in order to increase output the shaft is sometimes provided with a complete double equipment of cages and engines.
When these are held from turning, their frictional resistance may be adjusted by means of nuts on the screwed bolts which hold them together until the shaft revolves at a given speed.
The moments of the components of these actions and reactions in a plane to which the axis of rotation is at right angles are the two aspects of the torque acting, and therefore the torque acting on B through the shaft is measured by the torque required to hold A still.
The torque required to hold the casing still against the action of the disk measures the torque exerted by the shaft to which the disk is keyed.
The shaft carrying the roller is connected to a counter so that 4 may be observed.
The angular velocity of the shaft is proportional to the rate of working.
Two equal sprocket wheels Q 1, Q 2, are fastened, the one to the spring pulley, the other to the shaft.
The change in the distance d is proportional to the change in the torque transmitted from the shaft to the pulley.
These measurements were utilized in combination with appropriate elastic coefficients of the material to find the horse-power transmitted from the engines along the shaft to the propeller.
When a shaft is driven by means of gearing the driving torque is measured by the product of the resultant pressure P acting between the wheel teeth and the radius of the pitch circle of the wheel fixed to the shaft.
A torque applied to the shaft A can be transmitted to D, neglecting friction, without change only if the central pulley K is held from turning; the torque required to do this is twice the torque transmitted.
They had striking, slashing and piercing weapons held in the hand, fastened to a shaft or thong, hurled from the hand, from a sling, from an atlatl or throwing-stick, or shot from a bow.
It was in 1882 while Marcus Daly was sinking a shaft at Anaconda in preparation for milling gold and silver ores that he discovered the first rich copper ledge.
The main girders are hung at each side on a horizontal shaft 8a in.
These have a speed reduction from armature shaft to bridge column of 1500 to I, through four intermediate spur gears and a worm gear.
At their end is fixed a blade of cast iron from two to eight times the diameter of the shaft of the pile; the pitch of the screw varies from one-half to one-fourth of the external diameter of the blade.
After the cessation in 1882 of works in connexion with the Channel tunnel, to connect England and France, coal-boring was attempted in the disused shaft, west of the Shakespeare Cliff railway tunnel near Dover.
The rotation of the mercury is detected and measured by means of a small vane of platinum wire immersed in it, the shaft of this vane being connected by an endless screw with a counting mechanism.
The current to be measured passes transversely across the disk and causes it to revolve in the magnetic field; at the same time the copper brake, geared on the same shaft, revolves in the field and has local or eddy currents produced in it which retard its action.
The armature carries on its shaft a commutator made of silver slips, and the current is fed into the armature by means of brushes of silver wire.
The driving force is balanced against a retarding force produced by the rotation of a copper disk fixed on the armature shaft, which rotates between the poles of a permanent magnet.
This last is geared to the shaft of the armature by an endless screw, and the number of revolutions of the armature is reckoned by the counting-dials, which are ' See Electrician, 41, 112, and Journ.
In State Street is the Dauphin County Soldiers' monument, a shaft io ft.
The mound of Nebi-Yunus is crowned by the " Tomb of Jonah," a sacred shrine to the modern inhabitants, and could not be explored; but by sinking a shaft within the walls of a private house, some sculptured slabs were recovered, and the Turkish government later opened out part of a palace of Esarhaddon.
They were fitted on to the shaft by a socket which was open on one side.
The site of the fort is marked by a granite shaft erected in 1905 by the Daughters of the Revolution.
While in early times a mere perpendicular shaft led to these excavations, at a later date stairs were constructed down to the chambers.
The mirror can be elevated and depressed by means of a flexible shaft which passes up the centre of the mast and actuates gear attached to the mirror frame.
In this the feathers of the top of the head are very singular, looking like glossy curled shavings of black horn or whalebone, the effect being due to the dilatation of the shaft and its coalescence with the consolidated barbs.
Draught is regulated in the ashpit by opening or closing the bottom door of the furnace and by the damper on the smoke shaft.
A glass plate fixed to a wooden or metal shaft is rotated by a winch.
In 1900 the association for the preservation of Virginia antiquities, to which the site was deeded in 1893, induced the United States government to build a wall to prevent the further encroachment of the river; the foundations of several of the old buildings have since been uncovered, many interesting relics have been found, and in 1907 there were erected a brick church (which is as far as possible a reproduction of the fourth one built in 1639-1647), a marble shaft marking the site of the first settlement, another shaft commemorating the first house of burgesses, a bronze monument to the memory of Captain John Smith, and another monument to the memory of Pocahontas.
In a direct competitive test the presence of 3.25% of nickel increased nearly sixfold the number of rotations which a steel shaft would endure before breaking.
Grey iron castings are made by remelting the pig iron either in a small shaft of " cupola " furnace, or in a reverberatory or " air " furnace, with very little change of chemical composition, and then casting it directly into suitable moulds, usually of either " baked," i.e.
The iron blast furnace, a crude but very efficient piece of apparatus, is an enormous shaft usually about 80 ft.
Moreover, a single pair of rolls suffices for armour plates of any width or thickness, whereas if shafts of different diameters were to be rolled, a special final groove would be needed for each different diameter, and, as there is room for only a few large grooves in a single set of rolls, this would imply not only providing but installing a separate .set of rolls for almost every diameter of shaft.
Each generator can develop 5000 H.P. at a potential of 2200 volts, and is driven by three horizontal double turbines on the same shaft; when working under a minimum head of 32 ft.
The original turbines were of the " Fourneyron type, and a pair were mounted on each vertical shaft, the two being capable of giving out 5000 H.P. with a fall of 136 ft.
This cavity was filled with rubbish, sherds, &c., the latest of which was found to date as far back as the beginning of the Middle Minoan age, and the later work of 1908 only proved (by means of a small shaft sunk through the debris) that the rock floor was 52 ft.
Figure 8 also explains the modern system of mining introduced by Gardner Williams. A vertical shaft is sunk in the vicinity of the mine, and from this horizontal tunnels are driven into the pipe at different levels separated by intervals of 40 ft.
The ground is transferred in trucks to the shaft where it is automatically tipped into skips holding 96 cubic ft.
Beneath each cap, and near the upper end of the shaft, are a number of vertical slits through which the drainage water which rises passes out into the conduit or trench from which the irrigating streams originate.
In the vertical shaft there is first of all a grating which intercepts solid matters, and then, lower down, a central valve which can be opened and closed at pleasure from the top of the shaft.
From the finds in Bavarian graves it appears that the chief weapons were the dagger and the long pointed Paistab (palstave), while a short dagger fixed like an axe on a long shaft is characteristic of the North.
The rest of the head, the neck, throat and lower parts generally are clothed with lanceolate feathers of a pale tawny colour - sometimes so pale as to be nearly white beneath; while the scapulars, back and wing-coverts generally, are of a glossy greyish-black, most of the feathers having a white shaft and a median tawny line.
The construction of the Via Venti Settembre gave occasion for the discovery of a number of tombs, 85 in all, the bulk of which dated from the end of the 5th and the 4th centuries B.C. The bodies had in all cases been cremated, and were buried in small shaft graves, the interment itself being covered by a slab of limestone.
Tangs show that the shaft was a reed, sockets show that it was of wood.
The mummies from the despoiled tombs of the kings were the object of much anxious care to the kings of this dynasty; after being removed from one tomb to another, they were finally deposited in a shaft near the temple of Deir el Bahri, where they remained for nearly three thousand years, until the demand for antiquities at last brought the plunderer once more to their hiding-place; eventually they were all secured for the Cairo museum, where they may now be seen.
The farther ends of the flues of several such kilns are connected with a chimney shaft.
At this middle portion and in the upper part of the lower shaft the burning proper proceeds; the upper shaft is full of unburnt raw material which is heated by the hot gases coming from the burning zone, and the lower shaft contains clinker already burned and hot enough to heat the incoming air which supplies that necessary for combustion at the clinkering zone.
There are other forms of shaft kiln, such as the Schneider, in which there is a burning zone, a heating and cooling zone as in the Dietzsch, but no horizontal stage, the whole shaft being in the same vertical plane.
This regenerative heating is similar in principle and effect to that obtained by means of the shaft and ring kilns described above.
Bruce evaded his spear and slew him with an axe stroke; the axe shaft broke in his hand.
According to a revised mining law of 1899 (subsequently amended), all mines are required to be in charge of certified mine managers, mine examiners, and hoisting engineers, when the services of the engineers are necessary; and every mine must have an escapement shaft distinct from the hoisting shaft.
The number of men permitted to work in any mine not having an escapement shaft cannot, in any circumstances, exceed ten during.
The remiges and rectrices indicate perfect feathers, with shaft and complete vanes which were so neatly finished that they must have possessed typical radii and hooklets.
The coal deposits, which are of somewhat indifferent quality, have been worked with varying degrees of failure by a succession of companies, one of which, the Labuan & Borneo Ltd., liquidated in 1902 after the collapse of a shaft upon which large sums had been expended.
These cisterns are bell-shaped or bottle-shaped excavations, with a narrow circular shaft in the top, hollowed in the rock and lined with cement.
A military shaft, locally known as the Corkscrew Staircase, affords communication between the barracks and the town.
In consequence the fire-gases, when arriving there by the chimney shaft (a), have already a good upward draught, and when circulatung round the muffle are at a lower pressure than the gases within the muffle, so that in case of any cracks being formed, no hydrochloric acid escapes into the fire-flues, but vice versa.
Many, therefore, prefer mechanical stirring by means of paddles, fixed either to a vertical or to a horizontal shaft, and inject only sufficient steam to keep the mass at the proper temperature.
A.horizontal shaft runs length-ways through the trough, and is provided with stirring blades, arranged in such a manner that they constantly scrape the bottom, so that the salts cannot burn fast upon it, and are at the same time moved forward towards one of the ends of the trough where they are automatically removed by means of a chain of buckets.
The Power Of The Brake May Be Estimated By Comparison With The Size Of The Rope Pulley Seen Behind It On The Same Shaft.
These Losses Were As Far As Possible Eliminated By Combining The Trials In Pairs, With Differ Ent Loads On The Brake, Assuming That The Heat Loss Would Be The Same In The Heavy And Light Trials, Provided That The External Temperature And The Gradient In The Shaft, As Estimated From The Temperature Of The Bearings, Were The Same.
South Bethlehem is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The Bethlehem Steel Company manufactures here iron and steel, including Bessemer steels, armour plate, steel rails, government ordnance, drop forgings, iron and steel castings, stationary engines, gas engines, hydraulic pumps, projectiles, steel shaft and pig iron; zinc is smelted and refined; and there are large hosiery and knitting mills, and silk mills and cigar factories.
On the slope of Lookout Hill (185 ft.) within the park is a shaft erected in 1895 to the memory of the Maryland soldiers who valiantly defended the rear of the American army at the battle of Long Island.
In mechanism it is usually the central line either of a rotating shaft or axle having journals, gudgeons, or pivots turning in fixed bearings, or of a fixed spindle or dead centre round which a rotating bush turns; but it may sometimes be entirely beyond the limits of the turning body.
Eccentric.An eccentric circular disk fixed on a shaft, and used to give a reciprocating motion to a rod, is in effect a crank-pin of sufficiently large diameter to surround the shaft, and so to avoid the weakening of the shaft which would arise from bending it so as to form an ordinary crank.
The centre of the eccentric is its connected point; and its eccentricity, or the distance from that centre to the axis of the shaft, is its crank-arm.
To obviate this evil a short intermediate shaft is introduced, making equal angles with the first and last shaft, coupled with each of them by a Hookes joint, and having its own two forks in the same plane.
Let ai, a2, af be the angular velocities of the first, intermediate, and last shaft in this train of two Hookes couplings.
One train of mechanism may diverge into two or moreas when a single shaft, driven by a prime mover, carries several pulleys, each of which drives a different machine.
Friction of Pivots and Collars.When a shaft is acted upon b a force tending toshift it lengthways, that force must be balanced by the reaction of a bearing against a pivot at the end of the shaft; or, if that be impossible, against one or more collars, or rings projecting from the body of the shaft.
In the cup and ball pivot the end of the shaft HJJ and the step present two recesses facing each other, into which are fitted two shallow cups of steel or hard bronze.
A rotating shaft carries upon a cylindrical portion of its figure a wheel or pulley turning loosely on it, and consequently capable of remaining at rest when the shaft is in motion.
At a small distance from the pulley the shaft carries a short frustum of a solid cone accurately turned to fit the hollow cone.
This frustum is made always to turn along with the shaft by being fitted on a square portion of it, or by means of a rib and groove, or otherwise, but is capable of a slight longitudinal motion, so as to be pressed into, or withdrawn from, the hollow cone by means of a lever.
When the cones are pressed together or engaged, their friction causes the pulley to rotate along with the shaft; when they are disengaged, the pulley is free to stand still.
In the friction-clutch, a pulley loose on a shaft has a hoop or gland made to embrace it more or less tightly by means of a screw; this hoop has short projecting arms or ears.
A fork or clutch rotates along with the shaft, and is capable of being moved longitudinally by a handle.
It is essential to the steady motion of every rapidly rotating piece in a machine that its axis of rotation should not merely traverse its centre of gravity, but should be a permanent axis; for otherwise the centrifugal couples will increass friction, produce oscillation of the shaft and tend to make it leave its bearings.
In order that OX may be a permanent axis it is necessary that there should ne a suffIcient number of weights attached to the shaft and so distributed that when each is referred to the point 0
The plane through 0 to which the shaft is perpendicular is called the reference plane, because all the transferred forces act in that plane at the point 0.
In drawing these polygons the magnitude of the vector of the type Wr is the product Wr, and the direction of the vector is from the shaft outwards towards the weight W, parallel to the radius r.
The general problem in practice is, given a system of weights attached to a shaft, to find the respective weights and positions of two balance weights or counterpoises which must hi added to the system in order to make the shaft a permanent axis, the planes in which the balance weights are to revolve also beinf given.
These conditions may be exactly realized by a system of weights reciprocated by slotted bars, the crank shaft driving the slotted bars rotating uniformly.
The moving parts of the engine are then divided into two complete and independent systems, namely, one system of revolving weights consisting of crank pins, crank arms, &c., attached to and revolving with the crank shaft, and a second system of reciprocating weights consisting of the pistons, cross-heads, &c., supposed to be moving each in its line of stroke with simple harmonic motion.
The balance weights are to be separately calculated for each system, the one set being added to the crank shaft as revolving weights, and the second set being included with the reciprocating weights and operated by a properly placed crank on the crank shaft.
In the case of locomotives the balance weights required to balance the pistons are added as revolving weights to the crank shaft system, and in fact are generally combined with the weights required to balance the revolving system so as to form one weight, the counterpoise referred to in the preceding section, which is seen between the spokes of the wheels of a locomotive.
If there is the slightest displacement of the centre o gravity of the system from the axis of revolution a force acts on th shaft tending to deflect it, and varies as the deflexion and as th square of the speed.
If the shaft is therefore to revolve stably this force must be balanced at any instant by the elastic resistanc of the shaft to deflexion.
To take a simple case, suppose a shaft supported on two bearings to carry a disk of weight W at its centre, I and let the centre of gravity of the disk be at a distance e from the axis of rotation, this small distance being due to imperfections of material or faulty construction.
Neglecting the mass of the shaft itself, when the shaft rotates with an angular velocity a, the centrifugal force Wae/g will act upon the shaft and cause its axis to deflect from the axis of rotation a distance, y say.
C. Greenhill treated the problem of the centrifugal whirling of an unloaded shaft with different supporting conditions in a paper On the Strength of Shafting exposed both to torsion and to end thrust, Proc. Inst.
This platen had a perpendicular motion, being guided in grooves and worked by a connecting rod fixed to a cross beam and crank, which acquired its motion from the main shaft.
In design these platen presses usually consist of a square frame with a driving shaft fixed horizontally across the centre of it.
This shaft is attached to a large fly-wheel which gives impetus to the press when started and assists in carrying over the impression when the platen is in contact with the printing surface.
The " AngloGerman Process " is a combination of the two preceding, and consists in smelting the calcined ores in shaft furnaces, concentrating the matte in reverberatory furnaces, and smelting to coarse-metal in either.
The process is effected either in heaps, stalls, shaft furnaces, reverberatory furnaces or muffle furnaces.
Shaft furnaces are in use for ores rich in sulphur, and where it is desirable to convert the waste gases into sulphuric acid.
Shaft calcining furnaces are available for fine ores and permit the recovery of the sulphur.
It has been modified by Herreshoff, who uses a large hollow revolving central shaft cooled by a current of air.
The shaft is provided with sockets, into which movable arms with their rakes are readily dropped.
Shaft calcining furnaces like the Gerstenhoffer, Hasenclever, and others designed for burning pyrites fines have not found favour in modern copper works.
Heap, stall or shaft furnace roasting is not very satisfactory, as it is very difficult to transform all the sulphide into oxide.
Let R = the revolutions per second of the flyer; r = the revolutions per second of the bobbin; d = the diameter of bobbin shaft plus the material; L = the length of sliver delivered per second; then (R - r) d.
Two points are selected on the surface of the shaft at different positions along it, and the relative displacement which occurs between them round the shaft when power is being transmitted is determined either by electrical means, as in the Denny-Johnson torsion-meter, or optically, as in the Hopkinson-Thring and Bevis-Gibson instruments.
The twist or surface-shear being proportional to the torque, the horse-power can be calculated if the modulus of rigidity of the steel employed is known or if the amount of twist corresponding to a given power has previously been ascertained by direct experiment on the shaft before it has been put in place.
Long before the shaft had been cut as deep as now the water flowed away by a channel gradually contracting to a serpentine way, so extremely narrow as to be called the Fat Man's Misery.
Then rises a plain storey, and above it soars a partially fluted storey, the shaft of which is adorned with bands of marble and red sandstone.
It consists of a solid shaft of wrought iron some 16 in.
In the centre is a hollow cone, through which passes the driving shaft, geared from below.
At the upper part of the cork b is fixed a whalebone bow, having a small pivot hole in its centre to receive the point of the shaft.
The bow is then to be strung equally on each side to the upper portion of the shaft, and the little machine is completed.
His experiments proved that two elastic aeroplanes united by a central shaft or shafts, and separated by a wide FIG.
The main shaft is termed the beam; the first or lowest tine the brow-tine; the second the bez-tine; the third the trez-tine, or royal; and the branched portion forming the summit the crown, or surroyals.
Ibn Jubair mentions a curious superstition of the Meccans, who believed that the water rose in the shaft at the full moon of the month Shaban.
The tea is fed into a hopper, which has a large opening at the bottom, and this opening is entirely closed by two cylindrical brushes, which are mounted end to end on a horizontal shaft.
And when the short brush is stopped a rod from the shaft frees a spring detent which keeps the drum in position and tips it over.
The power is applied by a belt round a pulley, which is mounted on the end of the horizontal shaft which carries the brushes.
The brushes are carried by sleeves which run loosely on the shaft, and to each sleeve is rigidly fixed a ratchet wheel.
Next the ratchet wheel is a disk which is keyed on to the shaft.
Behind the pulley at the top of the machine and on the same shaft is a spur wheel, which drives both of the spur wheels shown in the diagram.
On the same axle as the drum and behind it is a small pulley which is keyed upon the axle and is connected with the small pulley (which runs idle on its shaft) at the left-hand side of the machine by a crossed belt.
The drum-shaft is connected by a friction clutch with a shaft in the same line, on which are keyed a sprocket wheel and a ratchet wheel.
The sprocket wheel is connected by a chain with a similar sprocket wheel which is keyed on the same shaft as that of the left-hand pulley.
When the poise is at the zero end, and there is no load on the platform, the end of the steelyard is down, and has locked the ratchet wheel by means of the pawl; the shaft being thus locked, the sprocket wheels are stopped, the drum-shaft runs free by the friction clutch, and the two pulleys which are connected by the crossed band are running idle.
From the centre rises a shaft, 122 ft.
A pulley carried on a rotating shaft and connected to another pulley on a second shaft by an endless band consisting of a flat belt, rope, chain or similar connector serves for the transmission of power from the one shaft to the other and is known as a driving pulley; while combinations of pulleys or "sheaves," mounted in fixed or movable frames or "blocks," constitute mechanisms used to facilitate the raising of heavy weights.
Driving pulleys are usually constructed of cast iron, and are of circular form, having a central nave by which they are secured to the shaft by keys or other fastenings, and straight or curved arms connecting the nave to the rim, which latter is of a form adapted to the connector.
The dimensions of the nave depend to a large extent on the method of keying or otherwise securing the pulley to the shaft.
The two halves of the nave are secured by bolts or rivets passing through the flanges F, and the pulley is connected to the shaft by a sunk key or by conical keys driven in between the shaft and the boss, which latter is bored to suit.
A modified form of this arrangement of cone keys is shown in the figure, in which a screwed conical bush M, divided into several parts longitudinally, is clamped round the shaft, and screwed into the corresponding part of the nave until the grip is sufficient.
The parts of the bush are glued to a sheet of emery paper, so that its rough side may give a better grip on the shaft.
The pulley is secured to the shaft by conical keys, to give a frictional grip on both the shaft and the pulley; these keys may have their exterior surfaces eccentric to the shaft, with corresponding recesses in the nave, so that the pulley and keys virtually form one piece.
This can be accomplished by attaching balance-weights to the pulley until it will remain stationary in all positions, when its shaft rests on two horizontal knife-edges in the same horizontal plane, or, preferably, the pulley and shaft may be supported on bearings resting on springs, and balanced by attached masses until there is no perceptible vibration of the springs at the highest speed of rotation.
A common arrangement for driving a lathe spindle, in either direction at several definite speeds, is to provide a countershaft on which are mounted two fixed pulleys and two loose pulleys to accommodate two driving belts from the main shaft, one of which is open and the other crossed.
An alternative arrangement consists in providing two loose pulleys on the counter-shaft, driven by open and crossed belts respectively, and arranging two clutches on the shaft, so that by the movement of a sliding block, controlled by hand, one or other of the clutches can be put in gear.
Pulleys may be detachably connected to a shaft by friction clutches, so that they may be thrown in and out of engagement at will.
In practice the full advantage of this or any other similar combination is not realized, because of the friction of the sheaves against the pin or shaft, and more important still is the stiffness of the rope, which requires work to be done upon it to bend it round the sheave and straighten it again.
The worm is of great pitch, so that if the effort were removed the weight would descend, did not the axial end thrust of the worm shaft throw into action a friction brake H, the resistance of which prevents motion downwards.
The frictional grip between the two surfaces prevents return motion of the worm shaft and the load remains suspended, but it may be lowered by turning the hand-wheel so as to overcome the friction brake.
The worm-wheel shaft then sometimes carries a spur-pinion gear ing with a spur-wheel on the lifting shaft, whereby a much greater mechanical advantage is obtained with a small loss by friction of the spur gearing.
The district has given its name to a celebrated type of axe, consisting of a long shaft with a blade like a scythe and a large hook behind it, which, according to Sir Walter Scott, was introduced into the Highlands and Ireland from Scandinavia.
A large number of mammals possess a perforation, or foramen, on the inner side of the lower end of the humerus, and also a projection on the shaft of the femur known as the third trochanter.
Complete combustion takes place at this point with the production of intense heat, the gases on rising are baffled in order to circulate them in every direction round the retorts, and upon arriving at the top of the setting they are conducted down a hollow chamber communicating with the main flue and shaft.
H is the gas flue; I, the perpendicularly ascending shaft, io or 12 ft.
All these various changes in the opening of the valves and dampers are automatically performed in the proper order by means of a hand-wheel H, the shaft m resting on the standards t and shaft v.
Then, resolved to explore to the rock, he cleared away some three feet more of earth and stones, and lighted on the five shaft graves which have placed him first among fortunate excavators.
They frequently take the form of a double niche, with a shaft between the arched heads, which are often filled with elaborate tracing.
In most cases such wheels merely have earthenware pitchers attached to their circumference by means of wisps of esparto, and are turned by a horse harnessed to a long arm fitted to a revolving shaft.
The shaft gradually tapers below and is firmly welded to the radius.
Suppose B not to be fixed, but to be capable of moving against some third body C (which might, e.g., contain cylindrical bearings, if B were a drum with its shaft), itself fixed, - and further, suppose the frictional resistance between B and C to be the only resistance to B's motion.
The plumage, which clothes the whole body, generally consists of small scale-like feathers, many of them consisting only of a simple shaft without the development of barbs; but several of the species have the head decorated with long cirrhous tufts, and in some the tail-quills, which are very numerous, are also long.'
The discovery of the fossil trunks and of their rooted bases has shown that the Cordaiteae were large trees, reaching 30 metres or more in height; the lofty shaft bore a dense crown of branches, clothed with long simple leaves, spirally arranged.
The tree was blown down in August 1856; in June 1907 a marble shaft was unveiled on its site by the Society of Colonial Wars, of Connecticut.
In the point-by-point method the shaft of an alternator, or an alternating current motor driven in step with it, is furnished with an insulating disk having a metallic slip inserted in its edge.
In another form devised by Callendar," a revolving contact disk is placed on the shaft of an alternator, or of a synchronous motor driven by the alternating current under test.
In this case the large vibrating mirror must be oscillated by a current from an alternator, on the shaft of which is a disk of nonconducting material with brass slips let into it and so arranged with contact brushes that in each period of the alternator a contact is made, charging say a condenser and discharging it through the oscillograph.
Metallurgical furnaces of the first class are termed crucible, muffle or retort furnaces, and of the second shaft and reverberatory furnaces.
By continuing the walls of the hearth above the tuyere, into a shaft or stack either of the same or some other section, we obtain a furnace of increased capacity, but with no greater power of consuming fuel, in which the material to be treated can be heated up gradually by loading it into the stack, alternately with layers of fuel, the charge descending regularly to the point of combustion, and absorbing a proportion of the heat of the flame that went to waste in the open fire.
Mechanical stirrers constitute a second division of mechanical furnaces, in which the labour of rabbling or stirring the charges is performed by combinations of levers and wheel-work taking motion from a rotating shaft, and more or less perfectly imitating the action of hand labour.
The first of these resemble an ordinary reverberatory furnace by having a flat bed which, however, has the form of a circular disk mounted on a central shaft, and receives a slow movement of rotation from a water-wheel or other motor, so that every part of the surface is brought successively under the action of the fire, the charge being stirred and ultimately removed by passing under a series of fixed scraper arms placed above the surface at various points.
He experienced drive shaft failure which forced him to retire on his first lap.
The engine shaft will sink in the ground at 130 fathoms.
The Western Shaft was sunk to a depth of forty fathoms.
About 83 fathoms further west the Bog shaft is drained by the same adit " .
A small silver-lead mine comprising two adits (both open) and an associated shaft, 500 yards west of Crymych village.
He was 20 or 30 yards distant from the point where the inspectors were endeavoring to form the air shaft.
The smaller gensets use a simple shaft mounted fan to keep the windings cool, much like a car alternator does.
The armature shaft also carried the armature shaft also carried the armature of the auxiliary generator mounted at the rear end.
Now rock the engine axially and pull it backward about 5/6 inches until the input shaft clears the clutch assembly then lower away.
The female louse lays around 6 eggs a day, firmly attached to the hair shaft close to the scalp.
A common problem with endfloat is a lack of thrust bearings or washers at the ends of the slow motion shaft.
At the bottom, an incline past once loose boulders leads to a second 50 foot shaft.
In the picture to the right, at the free end, one can see the vertical shaft which drives the camshaft.
Four characters in traditional Japanese dress are depicted in large oval cartouches which wrap right round the shaft.
On later models the clutch shaft rose vertically through the headstock casting and was connected to a headstock mounted lever.
In the cockpit the now familiar click clack sound of the gear stick shaft moving through the exposed metal gate.
At the southwest corner of the shaft an arch leads from the base of the shaft into a high rift.
The few cottagers living in Wensleydale emptied their closets down a disused mine shaft.
In the right-hand corner is the shaft for a still working wooden jib crane.
They stripped it during the afternoon and found the planet wheels had seized onto the shaft, effectively locking the diff!
Totally flexible vibrating black latex dong with detachable rotating suction pad and a bendable shaft for ultimate pleasure.
The bite had left a sub-circular depressed fracture about 6mm across on the dorsal surface of the shaft, just above the distal epiphysis.
The two bones were Ovis or Capra femur and were articulated, an unfused proximal epiphysis and the shaft from the same individual.
They filled the arrow shaft 3/4 full with Black powder, dropped in the lit firecracker and ran for cover.
Broadly speaking, your swing speed determines what is the correct shaft flex.
The third column which carries a capital has no fluting in its shaft.
I also feel that in order to minimize the risk of iatrogenic femoral shaft fracture, a full trial reduction should be avoided.
This drove, through a two-speed gearbox and a large spur gearwheel, a line shaft mounted below the frame.
Overspeed governor, N2 -- gearbox mounted on engine inlet housing and driven from the power shaft.
Eyes dark hazel or black Blue Deep or medium slate blue carried well down hair shaft with slate blue undercolour.
Sinking the downcast shaft (Number 1 shaft) started early September 1924 after the colliery headgear had been constructed.
One propulsion motor, producing 2,000 shaft horsepower, driving a single propeller.
Specimen 1 is a fragment of the distal part of the shaft of a right humerus, probably of an adult individual.
It was supposedly impregnable, but Joab made a daring assault via the water shaft, and the city fell.
Most cases have a small indent to allow for the winder shaft.
The broken shaft shown on the right has intricate carved knotwork.
The shaft bearing on this metal lever supports the upper millstone.
The shaft is coupled to a top plate via a coupler which allows significant misalignment.
They are designed to accept three degrees of shaft misalignment.
The other Terminators follow nemesis, only realizing at the last second he's leading them into the main ventilation shaft.
The entrance shaft enters a complex of stopes and connecting passageways totalling almost 400m in length.
Do not make the pinhole wide or you will only have a shaft of sunlight rather than an image of the crescent sun.
We walked quickly to the place where the vertical shaft swallowed the ground, and I was relieved to see the planking still intact.
The stern section has an iron wheel shaft and a large spare propeller, which has unfortunately collapsed.
At the junction of the femoral neck and the femoral shaft is a large bony protrusion called the greater trochanter.
The scenes at the pit's mouth during the long attempt to clear the shaft were most heart rending.
There is a door with a sign saying ' Danger deep shaft ' .
The maximum flow limiter input to the ratio servo limits the engine shaft torque by limiting fuel flow.
Shaft constructed as part of the inverted siphon under the Aire and Calder Navigation.
The lift shaft is clad in timber slats to allow light through the lift shaft.
The high torque also twists the shaft and that makes the drive feel soggy.
In figure 1 the shaft of the steam engine drives a vertical spindle.
It needs to be the later single rail type, having about twenty splines on the input shaft.
Mutli tools also feature with and without flexible shaft, as do airless spray guns and electric nailer / staplers.
Typically, blades had been made symmetrical about the shaft.
The mechanical connection from the turbine shaft may be through an engine-mounted gearbox or through a power takeoff shaft to a remotely mounted gearbox.
The cams and spur wheel should be securely attached to the shaft, the grub screws being gently tightened as necessary.
The clerestory continues as in the main transepts, i.e. with shaft rings.
Letters to the Editor Mine shaft comms, flashgun slave unit, instructional graphics for radiolocation, radiolocation history, polish translator wanted.
The Hartley Bank Disaster (1862) saw miners trapped underground when their one entrance/exit shaft was blocked.
Vertical round trip possible from resurgence, including 60m shaft.
They allow the turbine shaft to spin with less friction than the fluid bearings used in most turbochargers.
The high performance Grafalloy shaft generates high club head speed, combined with the comfort of the Golf Pride tour velvet grip.
Tower surmounted by a large ball (replica) on a 15-foot shaft, topped by a weather vane.
One Sunday evening whist inspecting the lifting gear he fell down the mine shaft to his death.
In 1955 the down cast shaft was served by a steam winder.
After passing a flooded winze on the left, the adit reaches Williams Shaft which is solidly filled.
All the methods in this third category require a rotating lifting or barrel shaft, and this is the important difference between them and the hydraulic cranes mentioned above.
In free-barrel cranes the lifting barrel is connected to the revolving shaft by a powerful friction clutch; this, when interlocked with the brake and controller, renders electric cranes exceedingly rapid in working, as the barrel can be detached and lowering performed at a very high speed, without waiting for the lifting motor to come to rest in order to be reversed.
With the exception of a few special cranes in which friction wheels are employed, it is universally the practice, in steam cranes, to connect the engine shaft with the barrel shaft by spur toothed gearing, the gear being connected or disconnected by sliding pinions.
The cross-section of the cars was made to conform approximately to the section of the tunnel, the idea being that each train would act like a piston in a cylinder, expelling in front of it a column of air, to be forced up the station shaft next ahead of the train, and sucking down a similar column through the station shaft just behind.
The breaking short of the shaft of the assegai when the weapon was used at close quarters was already a common practice among the Ama-Zulu, but Chaka had the shaft of the assegais made short, and their blades longer and heavier, so that they could be used for cutting or piercing.
The men follow each other, one by one, so that in a few minutes all the rod platforms in a deep shaft may be simultaneously occupied by men stepping in unison but in opposite directions from platforms of one rod to the other.
The shaft Crystal- carries arms and blades fixed in such a manner that the mass of sugar is quietly but thoroughly moved, while at the same time a gentle but sustained evaporation is produced by the continuous exposure of successive portions of the mass to the action of the atmosphere.
Where the water does not accumulate very rapidly it is a common practice to allow it to collect in a pit or sump below the working bottom of the shaft, and to draw it off in a water tub or" hoppet "by the main engine, when the latter is not employed in raising coal.
Hirn (see Les Pandynamometres, Paris, 1876) employed this principle to measure the torque trans mitted by a shaft.
While all have a general resemblance in the serrated edges of the bill and many other characters, Momotus has the normal number of twelve rectrices, while the rest have only ten, which in Hylomanes have the ordinary configuration, but in adult examples of all the others the shaft of the median pair is devoid of barbs for the space of about an inch a little above the extremity, so as to produce a spatulate appearance, such as is afforded by certain humming-birds known as "racquet-tails" (see HUMMING-BIRD), kingfishers of the genus Tanysiptera (see KINGFISHER), and parrots of the group Prioniturus.