These and other tributary streams have been covered in and built over (in some cases serving as sewers), but it is possible to trace their valleys at various points by the fall and rise of streets crossing them, and their names survive, as will be seen, in various modern applications.
The first act providing for a commission of sewers in London dates from 1531.
The chief objects for which the city debt was created were in 1907, in millions of dollars: highways, 24.07, parks, 16.29, drainage and sewers, 15.05, rapid transit, 13.57 and water-works, 4.53.
An appointive board of public service consists of a president and four directors of divisions, public welfare, public safety, public utilities, and streets and sewers.
mitted to them - as the construction of roads, the cleansing of the sewers and the maintenance of the aqueducts.
Without resorting to this exaggeration, Mommsen can speak with perfect truth of the " enormous space occupied by the burial vaults of Christian Rome, not surpassed even by the cloacae or sewers of Republican Rome," but the data are too vague to warrant any attempt to define their dimensions.
With a further view to uniformity it has certain powers of supervision and control over local authorities, and can make by-laws respecting construction of local sewers, sanitary conveniences, offensive trades, slaughter-houses and dairies,, and prevention of nuisances outside the jurisdiction of local authorities.
A system of main drainage was inaugurated by the Commissioners of Sewers in 1849, but their work proceeded very slowly.
The length of sewers in the main system is about 288 m., and their construction has cost about eight millions.
The sanitary authorities are concerned only with the supervision of house drainage, and the construction and maintenance of local sewers discharging into the main system.
The Metropolitan Board of Works, and the commissioners of sewers in the City, began experiments with electric light.
There were two bodies having jurisdiction over the whole metropolis except the City, namely, the officers appointed under the Metropolitan Building Act of 1844, and the Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers, appointed under the Commissioners of Sewers Act 1848.
Further the area of the metropolis for local government purposes was for the first time defined, being the same as that adopted in the Commissioners of Sewers Act, which had been taken from the area of the weekly bills of mortality.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.
Again, with regard to rates, there were in all cases three different rates leviable in each parish-the poor rate, the general rate and the sewers rate-whilst in many parishes in addition there was a separate lighting rate.
From the sewers rate and lighting rate, land, as opposed to buildings, was entitled to certain exemptions.
There are some remains of the ancient city walls of rectangular blocks of tufa on the southern side of the town, and some rock-cut sewers in the cliffs below them.
In 33 he was chosen aedile and signalized his tenure of office by effecting great improvements in the city of Rome, restoring and building aqueducts, enlarging and cleansing the sewers, and constructing baths and porticos, and laying out gardens.
All this time he was in hiding in cellars and sewers, where he was attacked by a horrible skin disease, tended only by the woman Simonne Evrard, who remained true to him.
This provides for taking water from the Ohio river at a point on the Kentucky side opposite the village of California, Ohio, and several miles above the discharge of the city sewers; for the carrying of the water by a gravity tunnel under the river to the Ohio side, the water being thence elevated by four great pumping engines, each having a daily capacity of 30,000,000 gallons, to settling basins, being then passed through filters of the American or mechanical type, and flowing thence by a gravity tunnel more than 4 m.
A village district is a portion of a town, including a village, which is set apart and organized for protection from fire, for lighting or sprinkling the streets, for providing a water-supply, for the construction and maintenance of sewers, and for police protection; to serve these interests three commissioners, a moderator, a clerk, a treasurer and such other officers as the voters of the district may deem necessary are chosen, each for a term of one year.
An extensive system of sewers was constructed by the City Improvements Co., an English corporation, which initiated the work in 1853; and a separate system of rain-water drains.
The Leicester system is used because the greater part of the sewers are below sea-level, and it is necessary to use powerful pumps.
of sewers on the single channel principle, with collectors discharging into the Vettabia, a tributary of the Lambro.
The board of public works, composed of engineers, controls streets, sewers, buildings and public improvements.
He laid out the Circus Maximus, instituted the "great" games, built the great sewers (cloacae), and began the construction of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol.
But open sewers, public pumps, cobble-paved roads, open market-places and overcrowded subterranean dwellings are now abolished.
The drainage-system consists of underground sewers, which are discharged by a pumping-station into a natural depression to the eastward, called the Salt Lake.
Before that time there was practically no sanitary authority outside the urban district, for although the vestry of a parish had in some cases power to make sewers and had also some other sanitary powers, there was no authority for such a district as now corresponds to a rural district.
Thus a joint sewerage board would generally be invested by the order with all the powers of a district council relating to the provision and control of sewers and the disposal of sewage.
The district council are required to cause to be made such sewers as may be necessary for effectually draining their district.
All sewers, whether made by the council, by their predecessors, or by private persons, vest in the district council, that is to say, become their property, with some exceptions, of which the principal is sewers made by a person for his own profit.
The result has been that district councils frequently find themselves in the position of being responsible for the repair and condition of drains which, by reason of having been laid for more than one house, are sewers vested in and repairable by them.
Where the council do supply water, they have the same powers of carrying mains under streets or through private lands as they have with respect to the laying of sewers, as already mentioned.
Among the miscellaneous powers of an urban council with respect to streets may be mentioned the power to widen or improve, and certain powers incorporated from the Towns Improvement Clauses Act 1847, with respect to naming streets, numbering houses, improving the line of streets, removing obstructions, providing protection in respect of ruinous or dangerous buildings, and requiring precautions to be taken during the construction and repair of sewers, streets and houses.
Special expenses include the expenses of the construction and maintenance and cleansing of sewers, providing water-supply, and all other expenses incurred or payable in respect of a parish or contributory place within the district determined by order of the Local Government Board to be special expenses.
There are also some matters of local administration arising under what are called commissions of sewers.
The commissioners derive their authority from the Sewers Commission Acts, which date from the time of Henry VIII., from the Land Drainage Act 1861, and from various local acts.
It is unnecessary, however, to consider in any detail the powers exercised by commissioners of sewers in the few areas under their control.
The department of public safety controls the bureaus of police, detectives, fire, health, electricity and building inspection; the department of public works controls bureaus of surveys, construction, highways and sewers, city property, water, assessment of water rents, parks, deed registry, bridges and light.
The old sewers were found quite inadequate to carry off the large increase of water, and besides they all led directly into the bay, causing a terrible odour and rendering the water near the town unwholesome for bathing.
of gravitating sewers, 44 m.
beggars in the streets; some will have smelled the stench of open sewers.
Eighty thousand properties are at risk in towns and cities from flooding caused by heavy downpours that overwhelm urban sewers and drains.
During a one-hour tour visitors learn about the history of the sewers before donning plastic gloves and hard hats to explore underground.
Flooding can also be caused in other ways eg from sewers, run off or rising groundwater.
From the exit of Sewers West, go straight until you get to a T intersection.
leftover paint can pollute our landfills, sewers and streams.
At the start of the game each side may allocate one reconnaissance platoon to infiltration via the sewers.
reconnaissance platoon to infiltration via the sewers.
That's fiber optic cables, by the way: Presumably, you're talking about storm sewers, and not sanitary sewers.
The government provides the infrastructure - the drains, sewers, inoculation programs, which enable us all to take preventive medicine seriously.
In addition to reducing the incidence of flooding, there will also be fewer disruptions arising from emergency repairs to defective sewers.
London's Victorian sewers A modern sewer system has two sewer pipes.
Particular attention is given to inverted siphons in gravity sewers because they tend to present the largest range of design problems.
Various modern authors include the following in its mundane signification: Refuge and excrement, sewers.
smelled the stench of open sewers.
A completely synthetic diet might eliminate the need for sewers altogether.
Part 3 also includes powers for the Secretary of State to require sewerage undertakers to adopt private sewers.
All public sewers are the responsibility of the relevant sewerage undertaker.
As the city has always been notoriously unhealthful, the United States, on undertaking the construction of the Panama Canal, became interested in preventing its becoming a centre of infection for the Canal Zone, and by the treaty of November 1903 secured complete jurisdiction in the city and harbour over all matters relating to sanitation and quarantine, and engaged to construct a system of waterworks and sewers in the municipality, which had been practically completed in 1907.
Norfolk was founded in 1682 in pursuance of an act of the Virginia Assembly passed in 1680 to establish towns for the encouragement of trade; it was incorporated as a borough in 1736 by a royal charter, was chartered as a city in 1845, its charter being revised in 1882 and 1884, and received a new charter in 1906 (amended in 1908), under which there are a mayor (elected for four years), a common council, a board of aldermen and a board of control of three members, which has charge of public works, streets, sewers, drains and water supply, the police and fire departments, the work of the board of health, &c. Norfolk is administratively independent of Norfolk county.
The most difficult section - namely, that under Cannon Street - where the abutting buildings had to be underpinned, and a very dense traffic maintained during construction, while a network of sewers and mains was readjusted, cost at the rate of about r,000,000 a mile.
3, 7) divides these functions under three heads: - (1) Care of the city: the repair and preservation of temples, sewers and aqueducts; street cleansing and paving; regulations regarding traffic, dangerous animals and dilapidated buildings; precautions against fire; superintendence of baths and taverns; enforcement of sumptuary laws; punishment of gamblers and usurers; the care of public morals generally, including the prevention of foreign superstitions.
With a wet, undrained subsoil and a large population of Indians and half-breeds living in crowded quarters, the death-rate has been notoriously high, though the completion of the Valley drainage works in 1900, supplemented by underground sewers in the better parts of the city, and by better sanitation, have recently improved matters.
The household of the Norman and Angevin kings of England included certain persons of secondary rank, styled dapifers, seneschals or stewards (the prototypes of the lord steward), who were entrusted with domestic and state duties; the former duties were those of purveyors and sewers to the king, the latter were undefined.
This has been remedied by a system of sewers, which after passing by a tunnel through the hill of Posilipo cross the plain beyond and discharge their contents into the open sea on the deserted coast of Cumae, 17 m.
That 's fiber optic cables, by the way: Presumably, you 're talking about storm sewers, and not sanitary sewers.
London 's Victorian sewers A modern sewer system has two sewer pipes.
For sewers, making your own Benjamin Bunny or Peter Rabbit quilt can be a fun and satisfying project.
On the environmental front, bentonite litters are so good at clumping that many cities now ban them because they are clogging sewers and water treatment systems.
Instead, they end up in trees, or clogging sewers, or choking marine wildlife.
Most water waste in larger cities flows to sewers and is recycled at water sanitation plants.
Summer sundresses can be made even by amateur sewers.
For beginning sewers, choose a solid color or one with a simple print that is easier to match up at the seams.
Sewers want everyone to be perfectly dressed!
Visitors will travel from the dank sewers to the roof tops of London.
They're the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, ninja-fighting turtles who battle evil in the sewers of New York.
The last few chapters even cover topics that are confusing for beginning sewers like how to sew in a zipper or fit a sleeve.
This can be a great way for novice sewers to get started making holiday decorations.
Sewers, knitters, and those who crochet can make a variety of items.
Crafts Beautiful: More experienced sewers can put their skills to work making the "Dolly Mixture" doll.
Runo Dollmaker: Many of the patterns offered here are only suitable for advanced sewers, but a few of them work for beginners and intermediate sewers as well.
For experienced sewers, free corset patterns are available in a variety of styles to help you save some money as you build your lingerie or costume collection, or even find unique corsets to wear as tops.
For the most experienced sewers, the preferred pattern is one made by another costumer, rather than a manufactured pattern.
These are the cases that the FBI officially will not admit exists; the alien abductions, mutants in the sewers, dangerous cabals and the like.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.