On such matters I am only severe with myself.
A small, older woman in severe grey opened the door.
I have heard of such cases and know that His Majesty is very severe in such affairs.
In 1887 a severe banking crisis occurred in Sardinia.
As we transition from one set of economic realities to another, there will be severe disruptions along the way.
He looked at the countess, and seeing her severe face said: "Well, good-by, Countess," and kissing her hand, he left the room with quick resolute strides, without looking at Natasha.
It is unusually hard, owing to the recent severe but transient cold, and all watered or waved like a palace floor.
But this advantage involves a corresponding disadvantage, the danger of unduly severe mental application.
In 1794 Mannheim fell into the hands of the French, and in the following year it was retaken by the Austrians after a severe bombardment, which left scarcely a single building uninjured.
I was never cast away nor distressed in any weather, though I encountered some severe storms.
In spite of the severe frost some hundred generals and staff officers in full parade uniform stood in front of the castle, as well as a guard of honor of the Semenov regiment.
The severe west front is relieved by three rows of semicircular arches, and has a central porch (there were at one time three) supported by huge red marble lions, sculptured no doubt with the rest of the façade by Giovanni Bono da Bissone in 1281.
Proposing to seek his fortune abroad, he went on foot to Nantes, but was there prostrated by an illness so severe that all thoughts of emigration were perforce abandoned.
led to the repulse of the Turks with severe losses; after a second investment, during which Sultan Suleiman I.
Natasha was calm, though a severe and grave expression had again settled on her face.
Avicenna himself was at this season stricken down by a severe illness.
The serfs, whose wrongs seldom attracted notice in an age indifferent to the claims of common humanity, found a friend in this severe monarch, and he protected even the despised and persecuted Jews.
It was not, however, till 1682 that they again lost the privilege of public ministry, and suffered severe oppression.
After a severe struggle the Persians were defeated by the emperor Heraclius, who entered Jerusalem in triumph in 62 9 bringing with him the holy cross, which had been carried off by Chosroes.
In many gardens open-air tanks have been fitted up with hot-water pipes running through them to keep the water sufficiently warm in severe weather.
Dusty glanced at his long-time Miami Station Chief, the handsome Hispanic man who looked as severe as he was lighthearted.
Landon's response was chipper despite his severe features.
I never knew it to open in the course of a winter, not excepting that of '52-3, which gave the ponds so severe a trial.
She recalled his long sad and severe look at those words and understood the meaning of the rebuke and despair in that protracted gaze.
It seems, however, that, while she was still suffering from severe pain, she noticed the movements of her mother's lips.
His face and neck suffered severe burns while his right side looked as though a Brillo brush had been taken to it.
Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.
By all accounts his injuries were far too severe to have been logically self-inflicted.
At his severe tone, she took another step back, ready to exit as fast as she could in the snug dress and high heels.
Not as severe as traveling through the shadow world, but close.
Slight shocks are very frequent, some of them severe enough to cause considerable damage to the buildings.
Bordeaux, the French envoy in England, wrote that, in spite of the severe laws, the Romanists received better treatment under the Protectorate than under any other government.
For a long moment, she thought he was there to kill her, with his severe look and the ready stance.
Peter Bayle is severe on certain historical inaccuracies of Davila, and it is true that Davila must be read with due remembrance of the fact that he was not only a Catholic but the especial protege of Catherine de' Medici, but it is not to be forgotten that Bayle was as strongly Protestant.
In toxic doses podophyllin causes intense enteritis, with all its characteristic symptoms, and severe depression, which may end in death.
Not, Dean surmised, out of a sense of charity as much as a severe case of nosiness.
But the little girl gave the angry kitten such a severe cuff that it jumped down again without daring to scratch.
"Vasili Dmitrich, I thank you for the honor," she said, with an embarrassed voice, though it sounded severe to Denisov--"but my daughter is so young, and I thought that, as my son's friend, you would have addressed yourself first to me.
While the Ouray winters were far less severe that one might think, they did have a way of wearing out their welcome, like company that won't go home.
From 59-62 he commanded in Britain, and, after a severe defeat, finally crushed the Iceni under Boadicea (Boudicca).
In 1724 Louis XV., again assuming that there were no Protestants in France, prohibited the most secret exercise of the Reformed religion, and imposed severe penalties.
21); indeed, so long as the Hebrews were an agricultural people, in a land often ravaged by severe famines, the law of the Sabbatical year could not have been observed.
A severe cold of a few days' duration in March may very much retard the opening of the former ponds, while the temperature of Walden increases almost uninterruptedly.
In July 1807 another British force of eight thousand men under General Whitelock endeavoured to regain possession of Buenos Aires, but strenuous preparations had been made for resistance, and after fierce street fighting the invading army, after suffering severe losses, was compelled to capitulate.
On the 14th of February 1540 he entered Ghent at the head of a large army and visited the city with severe punishment.
He was continually traveling through the three provinces entrusted to him, was pedantic in the fulfillment of his duties, severe to cruel with his subordinates, and went into everything down to the minutest details himself.
Innocent, like his predecessor, hated heresy, and in the bull Summis desiderantes (5th of December 1484) he instigated very severe measures against magicians and witches in Germany; he prohibited (1486) on pain of excommunication the reading of the propositions of Pico della Mirandola; he appointed (1487) T.
Well, and what harm is there in that? and she rose (everybody else got up too) and with a severe expression sailed back to her table in the sitting room.
Unusual bodily vigour enabled him to combine severe devotion to work with facile indulgence in sensual pleasures.
A partisan of French methods, Moratin published in 1762 his Desengano al teatro espanol, a severe criticism of the national drama, particularly of the auto sacramental; and his protests were partly responsible for the prohibition of autos three years afterwards (June 1765).
His bouts of pleasure gradually weakened his constitution; a severe colic, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Avicenna could scarcely stand.
In the matter of the rhythms, caesuras and elisions which it allows, the metrical treatment is much more severe than that of Catullus, whose elegiacs are comparatively rude and barbarous; but it is not bound hand and foot, like the Ovidian distich, in a formal and conventional system.
After a severe struggle this proposal was accepted; but the academic discussion on the constitution continued for weary months, and on the 20th of May, realizing the hopelessness of coming to terms with the ultra-democrats, Gagern and his friends resigned.
A zealot for monastic and clerical reform, he introduced a more severe discipline, including the practice of flagellation, into the house, which, under his rule, quickly attained celebrity, and became a model for other foundations.
After a severe struggle, the revolt was suppressed by the Roman general, Julius Severus, and Jerusalem was recaptured and again destroyed.
Prince Bagration, apparently not wishing to be severe, found nothing to say; the others did not venture to intervene.
The stranger's face was not genial, it was even cold and severe, but in spite of this, both the face and words of his new acquaintance were irresistibly attractive to Pierre.
A severe blow was struck against the city in 43 by C. Cassius, who besieged and ruthlessly plundered the people for refusing to submit to his exactions.
The struggle, however, with the Protestant princes of Germany not only led to continual demands of Charles for men and money from his Netherland dominions, but to his determination to prevent the spread of Protestant opinions; and a series of edicts was passed, the most severe of which (that of 1550) was carried out with extreme rigour.
The state usually has long and severe winters and cool summers, but sudden changes of temperature are common at all seasons.
Escaping from her father she ran to hide her flushed face in the lace of her mother's mantilla--not paying the least attention to her severe remark--and began to laugh.
"I thought perhaps something had happened," she said with her unchanging stonily severe expression; and, sitting down opposite the prince, she prepared to listen.
Julius Caesar, after a severe struggle with - the Nervii and their confederates, was successful in bringing the Belgic tribes into Their subjection to Rome.
Dale remarks, in a note on Reuss's too severe words (Eng.
Earthquakes are not uncommon and sometimes severe.
In the time of Irenaeus the fast before Easter was very short, but very severe; thus some ate nothing for forty hours between the afternoon of Good Friday and the morning of Easter.
When severe frost prevails the lights or cloches are rarely taken off except to gather mature specimens; and no water is given directly overhead to the plants for fear of chilling them and checking growth.
The oppression of Antiochus led to a revolt of the Jews under the leadership of the Maccabees, and Judas Maccabaeus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem after severe fighting, but could not get The sites shown on the plan are tentative, and cannot be regarded as certain; see Nehemiah ii.
deep, which baffled every effort to reach the interior until in 1813, when a summer of severe drought had made it of vital importance to find new pastures, three of the colonists, Messrs Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth, more fortunate than their predecessors in exploration, after crossing the Nepean river at Emu Plains and ascending the Dividing Range, were able to reach a position enabling them to obtain a view of the grassy valley of the Fish river, which lies on the farther side of the Dividing Range.
But the storm overwhelmed him: sober Catholics felt that his vulgar extravagances had prejudiced Catholic doctrine, and Miltitz, who was sent from Rome to deal with the situation, administered to him a severe castigation.
On the whole the history of the colony has been one of peaceful progress, interrupted now and again, as in 1903, by severe droughts.
As a literary critic Pollio was very severe.
Throughout the region north of the Apennines no plants will thrive which cannot stand occasional severe frosts in winter, so that not only oranges and lemons but even the olive tree cannot be grown, except in specially favoured situations.
and his minister Cardinal Consalvi oppression had not been very severe, and Metternichs proposal to establish a central inquisitorial tribunal for political offences throughout Italy had been rejected by the papal government.
Taxation was somewhat reduced, the censorship was made less severe, political amnesties were granted, humaner officials were appointed and the Congregations (a sort of shadowy consultative assembly) were revived.
At the same time the cabinet, as a whole, brought in a Clerical Abuses Bill, threatening with severe punishment priests guilty of disturbing the peace of families, of opposing the laws of the state, or of fomenting disorder.
Crispis methods aroused great outcry in the Radical press, but the severe sentences of the military courts were in time tempered by the Royal prerogative of amnesty.
As in 1894, excessively severe sentences were passed by the military tribunals upon revolutionary leaders and other persons considered to have been implicated in the outbreak, but successive royal amnesties obliterated these condemnations within three years.
He received his early education, according to Morice his secretary, from " a marvellous severe and cruel schoolmaster," whose discipline must have been severe indeed to deserve this special mention in an age when no schoolmaster bore the rod in vain.
In August 1529 the plague known as the sweating sickness, which prevailed throughout the country, was specially severe at Cambridge, and all who had it in their power forsook the town for the country.
Paetus, a weak and incapable man, suffered a severe defeat at Rhandea (62), where he was surrounded and forced to capitulate and to evacuate Armenia.
Odo was also obliged to fight the Saracens who invaded the southern part of his kingdom, and inflicted a severe defeat upon them at Toulouse in 721.
The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.
The establishments for dispensing medicines at Cordova, Toledo and other large towns under Arab rule, were placed under severe legal restrictions.
This is especially the case in the lichens (symbiotic organisms composed of a fungal mycelium in association with algal cells), which are usually exposed to very severe fluctuations in external conditions.
In the Old World the boreal zone is almost sharply cut off and afforded no means of escape for the Miocene vegetation when the climate became more severe.
Glacial elimination has been less severe, or rather there has been, at any rate on the Atlantic side, an unimpeded return of Miocene types.
But this was not enough for the inquisitor-general, who in the following month (April) issued orders to forbid Christians, under severe penalties, having any communication with the Jews or, -after the period of grace, to supply them even with the necessaries of life.
On the 7th of October he was dangerously wounded, and the queen showed her anxiety for his safety by riding 40 miles to visit him, incurring a severe illness.
After a long and severe struggle, he regained Meshed, defeated them in a great battle near Herat in 1597, and drove them out of his dominions.
He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, at the age of sixteen, but took no degree, his course being interrupted by severe pulmonary attacks which compelled a long residence abroad.
But when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought), Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated with her.
Methode der Hegelschen Philosophie, a severe criticism of the Hegelian system.
Climate.-Uruguay enjoys the reputation of possessing one of the most healthy climates in the world The geographical position ensures uniformity of temperature throughout the year, the summer heat being tempered by the Atlantic breezes, and severe cold in the winter season being unknown.
For this purpose they instituted a severe system of discipline, divided their members into three classes - the Perfect, the Proficient, and the Beginners, and appointed over each congregation a body of lay elders.
In 1417, however, the Spanish Dominican St Vincent Ferrer pleaded the cause of the flagellants with great warmth at the council of Constance, and elicited a severe reply from John Gerson 29 ` ' '?
of this zone, that is in the Baltic provinces, the climate is less severe as well as moister.
The winters are less severe, and modern agricultural machinery is generally employed, at all events on the larger estates.
Though severely tried by disappointments and defeats he never lost hope, and when he died in 1584 he was preparing to renew the struggle and endeavouring to form for that purpose an alliance with England; his great idea, however, was not to be realized till more than a century later, and meanwhile the tsardom of Muscovy had to pass through a severe internal crisis in which its existence was seriously endangered.
Before reaching the new order of things, the country had to pass through an internal crisis similar to that which followed the death of Ivan the Terrible, but not nearly so severe.
For this purpose he created a very severe press-censorship and an expensive system of passports, which made it more difficult for Russians to visit foreign countries.
When the results proved unsatisfactory, remedies were sought in increased administrative supervision, draconian legislation and severe punishment, and no attempt was made to get out of the vicious circle.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
The high and heavy cars, the high speeds, the severe weather in the northern states in winter, the fluctuating nature of the business, resulting often in the employment of poorly qualified men and in other irregularities, are among the causes of this state of things.
After five months' voyage the ship reached Mozambique, where the captain resolved to winter, and Xavier was prostrated with a severe attack of fever.
As it was, although Parker said that Grindal "was not resolute and severe enough for the government of London," his attempts to enforce the use of the surplice evoked angry protests, especially in 1565, when considerable numbers of the nonconformists were suspended; and Grindal of his own motion denounced Cartwright to the Council in 1570.
These views of Duhm, in which a severe distinction is thus drawn between the representation of Yahweh's servant in the servant-passages, and that which meets us in the rest of the Deutero-Isaiah, have been challenged by a succession of critics.'
It has been introduced into England, but does not thrive where the winter is severe.
The melting of the mountain snow-caps in the spring causes severe freshets, which in turn are followed by long seasons of drought at a time when water is most needed for agricultural purposes.
The Ostrogoth collected a fleet and established a severe blockade, which at length caused Odoacer to surrender the city.
He gives an account of the barons' war from a royalist standpoint, and is a severe critic of Montfort's policy.
The severe forms of intermittent are most apt to occur in the very young, or in the aged, or in debilitated persons generally.
But reverses followed quickly, and in the ensuing campaigns the British troops suffered the most severe disasters.
In 1646 he was made a majorgeneral of the forces commanded by Owen Roe; and after the death of the latter he successfully defended Clonmel in 1650 against Cromwell, on whom he inflicted the latter's most severe defeat in Ireland.
In view of the severe monetary crisis of 1893 he was entrusted by Crispi with the portfolio of finance (December 1893), and in spite of determined opposition dealt energetically and successfully with the deficit of more than £6,000,000 then existing in the exchequer.
The climate is rather severe, and the southern part is exposed to the cold north-eastern wind, known as the Bora.
State prohibition had been defeated in 1881 by a vote of 100,000; in 1902 the Anti-Saloon League organized in the state; in 1903 the Watts Law enacted rural prohibition, giving towns local option, under which many of the towns voted " no licence "; and in 1905 severe police regulations were provided for towns in which saloons were licensed.
Further conflagrations in 1728 and 1780 gave a severe blow to its prosperity.
He was severe, but just and impartial, and strove to effect necessary reforms by reducing the numbers of the Janissaries, improving the coinage, and checking the state expenditure.
It is well watered, populous, and, as a rule, highly cultivated, fertile, and well wooded; the climate is analogous to that of southern Europe, with hot summers, and winters everywhere cold and in the north decidedly severe.
The climate is generally such as to secure the population the necessaries of life without severe labour; the extremes of heat and drought are such as to render the land unsuitable for pasture, and the people everywhere subsist by cultivation of the soil or commerce, and live in settled villages or towns.
The climate is very severe in the winter and extremely hot in summer.
The climate is very severe, with great extremes of heat and cold.
The drought is severe; rain falls rarely and in small quantities.
Siberia, north of the 50th parallel, has a climate not much differing from a similarly situated portion of Europe, though the winters are more severe and the summers hotter.
This belt, which embraces Asia Minor, northern Persia, Afghanistan, and the southern slopes of the Himalaya, from its elevation has a temperate climate, and throughout it the rainfall is sufficient to maintain a vigorous vegetation, while the summers, though hot, and the winters, though severe, are not extreme.
3), but to severe menial labour (xii.
The severe impartiality of the sacred historian has concealed no feature in this dark picture, - the brutal passion of Amnon, the shameless counsel of the wily Jonadab, the " black scowl " 1 that rested on the face of Absalom through two long years of meditated revenge, the panic of the court when the blow was struck and Amnon was assassinated in the midst of his brethren.
His colonizing system was exposed to very severe criticism, yet it is impossible not to admire the results of his stupendous activity.
As to the style and literary character of Jordanes, every author who has used him speaks in terms of severe censure.
The earlier battles of the campaign were fought there; Strassburg and other of its fortified towns were besieged and taken; and its people were compelled to submit to very severe exactions.
But his powers of patient research and of quick and exact observation were about to be put to a severe test.
During the RussoTurkish War of 1877-78 the self-exiled Circassians and other Caucasian mountaineers, supported by a force of 14,000 Turks, made a determined attempt to wrest their native glens from the power of Russia; but, after suffering a severe defeat at the hands of General Alkhazov, the Turks withdrew, and were accompanied by some 30,000 Abkhasians, who settled in Asia Minor.
The winters in the uplands are generally severe, and the rainfall heavy.
He defeated the Chatti, annexed the district of the Taunus, and established the Limes as a line of defence; but he suffered defeats at the hands of the Quadi, Sarmatae and ' Marcomanni; in Dacia he received a severe check, and was obliged to purchase peace (90) from Decebalus by the payment of a large sum of money and by guaranteeing a yearly tribute - the first instance in Roman history.
As in .` the case of the apple disease it forms large irregular blackish blotches on the fruit and leaves, the injury being often very severe especially in a cool, damp season.
The sudden return to peace- 1815 to prices was followed by a time of severe depression, low 1875.
Mill complains that his father often required more than could be expected of him, but his tasks were not so severe as to prevent him from growing up a healthy and high-spirited boy, though he was not constitutionally robust, and his pursuits were so different from those of other boys of the same age.
A parliament in London in September 1305 to which Scottish representatives were summoned, agreed to an ordinance for the government of Scotland, which, though on the model of those for Wales and Ireland, treating Scotland as a third subject province under an English lieutenant, was in other respects not severe.
In the more southern parts of the island it often reaches a height of 90 ft., and specimens exist considerably above that size; but the young shoots are apt to be injured in severe winters, and the tree on light soils is also hurt by long droughts, so that it usually presents a ragged appearance; though, in the distance, the lofty top and horizontal boughs sometimes stand out in most picturesque relief above the rounded summits of the neighbouring trees.
The beginnings of this rupture, as well as a sharp affray between his volunteers and the townsfolk of Ajaccio, may have quickened Bonaparte's resolve to return to France in May 1792, but there were also personal and family reasons for this step. Having again exceeded his time of furlough, he was liable to the severe penalties attaching to a deserter and an émigré but he saw that the circumstances of the time would help to enforce the appeal for reinstatement which he resolved to make at Paris.
Told off to serve in the army of Nice, he was detained by a special order of the commissioners of the Convention, Saliceti and Gasparin, who, hearing of the severe wound sustained by Dommartin, the commander of the artillery of the republican forces before Toulon, ordered Bonaparte to take his place.
Moreau's trial for treason promised to end with an acquittal; but the emperor brought severe pressure to bear on the judges (one of whom he dismissed), with the result that the general was declared guilty of participating in the royalist plot.
sent an army to besiege it in 1282, which was driven out after severe fighting in the streets;.
Its line to some extent may be partly made out - very clearly, for the matter of that, so far as its details have been published in the series of papers to which reference has been given - and some traces of its features are probably preserved in his Catalogue of the specimens of birds in the museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which, after several years of severe labour, made its appearance at Calcutta in 1849; but, from the time of his arrival in India, the onerous duties imposed upon Blyth, together with the want of sufficient books of reference, seem to have hindered him from seriously continuing his former researches, which, interrupted as they were, and born out of due time, had no appreciable effect on the views of systematisers generally.
The climate is severe on the plateaus, hot towards the Caspian, and dry everywhere.
The Procuratie Vecchie is perhaps the longest arcaded façade in the world and certainly shows the least amount of wall space; the whole design is simple, the .moulding and ornamentation severe.
120-129 (a severe criticism of Bacon's logical doctrines); Held, Roger Bacon's praktische Philosophie (Jena, 1881); Karl Pohl, Das Verheiltniss d.
The climate is severe in the north and north-west parts, but the south and south-east districts are milder, while the most favoured part is the Lavant valley.
On those who refused to submit to their decisions they had the power of inflicting severe penalties, of which excommunication from society was the most dreaded.
Stimulated by this, he brought out his Neun Bucher preussischer Geschichte (1847-48), a work which, chiefly owing to the nature of the subject, makes severe demands on the attention of the reader - he is the "Dryasdust" of Carlyle's Frederick; but in it he laid the foundation for the modern appreciation of the founders of the Prussian state.
The trees and plants are much the same as those common in England, and severe as the weather is in winter the less elevated mountains are covered to their summits with trees.
The Seleucidae had severe struggles with the Ptolemies for the possession of the southern part of Syria.
An expedition was despatched from Cape Colony and severe fighting followed.
Honorius was equally severe on heretics, such as the Donatists and Manichaeans.
When Trajan, owing to a severe illness, decided to return home from the East, he left Hadrian in command of the army and governor of Syria.
The young Genevans failed in business, passed a severe winter in the wilds of Maine, and returned to Boston penniless.
During his stay at Manresa, he lived for the most part in a cell at the Dominican convent; and here, evidently, he had severe illnesses.
or more, while other districts are semi-arid or subject to severe droughts.
The coffee plantations were greatly injured by a severe hurricane which visited the island on the 8th of August 1899, but the yield for export increased from 12,157,240 lb in 1901 to 38,756,750 lh, valued at $4,693,004, in 1907.
Here a remnant of the Borinquenos, assisted by the Caribs, maintained a severe struggle with the conquerors, but in the end their Indian allies were subdued by English and French corsairs, and the unfortunate natives of Porto Rico were left alone to experience the full effect of forced labour, disastrous hurricanes, natural plagues and new diseases introduced by the conquerors.
The troops of the Army of the Tennessee were swiftly driven back, and their commander, McPherson, killed; but presently the Federals re-formed and a severe struggle ensued, in which most of Hood's army joined.
The climate of Berar differs very little from that of the Deccan generally, except that in the Payanghat valley the hot weather may be exceptionally severe.
In the autumn months malarial fever is prevalent in all thickly forested tracts and also in the rice country; but on the whole the province is considered to be healthy, and as the rains break fairly regularly in June and produce an immediate fall in the temperature, severe heat is only experienced for a period of from two to three months.
The Central Provinces were stricken by another famine, yet more severe and widespread, caused by the complete failure of the rains in 1899.
It was a severe trial to Wagner not to hear his own work, but he knew that it was in good hands, and he responded to Liszt's appeal for a new creation by studying the Nibelungenlied and gradually shaping it into a gigantic tetralogy.
The elaborate choral writing sometimes rises to almost Hellenic regions of dramatic art; and there is no crudeness in the passages that carry on the story quietly in reaction from the climaxes - a test far too severe for Tannhauser and rather severe for even the mature works of Gluck and Weber.
The community is in the main composed of simple working people, who, apart from their peculiarity, have a good reputation; but their avoidance of professional medical attendance has led to severe criticism at inquests on children who have died for want of it.
It was feared that the heresy, if suffered to make headway, would spread like wildfire among the ignorant Russian peasantry, and Archbishop Nikon was sent to Athos to threaten the recalcitrant brethren with severe temporal and eternal penalties should they remain obstinate.
The prince of Conde sustained a severe repulse under its walls in 1638, and it was on this occasion that the town received from Philip IV.
After a severe siege, Fuenterrabia surrendered to the duke of Berwick and his French troops in 1719; and in 1794 it again fell into the hands of the French, who so dismantled it that it has never since been reckoned by the Spaniards among their fortified places.
Severe fighting also took place here during the Carlist War in 1837.
Although ecclesiastical corruption was then at its height, his riotous mode of life called down upon him a very severe reprimand from Pope Pius II., who succeeded Calixtus III.
The Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Acts of 1664 and 1670, designed to enforce attendance at church, and inflicting severe penalties on those attending other religious gatherings, were responsible for the most severe persecution of all.
c. 1., enacting even more severe penalties, had never been repealed, and was sometimes put in force against Friends.
In many places Friends have felt the need of bringing spiritual help to those who are unable to profit by the somewhat severe discipline of their ordinary manner of worship. To meet this need they hold (chiefly on Sunday evenings) meetings which are not professedly " Friends' meetings for worship," but which are services conducted on lines similar to those of other religious bodies, with, in some cases, a portion of time set apart for silent worship, and freedom for any one of the congregation to utter words of exhortation or prayer.
For a severe criticism of Brown's philosophy, see Sir W.
The penalties of the law for crime were specially severe on slaves.
The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.
Wesley put down many severe things against himself on the return voyage, and he saw afterwards that even then he had the faith of a servant though not.
In a second attack the enemy's cavalry inflicted severe losses on the 42nd.
This severe provision was, however, repealed after the fall of Robespierre.
A maximum price was fixed, above which no one was to buy or sell under severe penalties.
Regarded without republican sympathies, and in the light of 18th-century doctrines of allegiance, his acts, however severe, in no way deserve the stigma of cruelty ordinarily put upon them.
As for diseases, some common to Cuba and Europe are more frequent or severe in the island, others rarer or milder.
Her lessened prestige had already received a severe blow from the bom bardment and capture of Algiers by the French in 1830, and her position was further embarrassed by revolts in Bosnia and Albania, when news reached Constantinople that Mehemet Ali had invaded Syria (Nov.
The severe crisis through which the Ottoman Empire had passed accentuated the need for strengthening it by a drastic reform of its system.
Part of the garrison remained loyal to the sultan, but after five hours of severe fighting Shevket Pasha was able to occupy the capital (April 25).
The severe actions of Diirrenstein (near Krems) ors the iith, and of Hollabriinn on the 26th of November, in which Napoleon's marshals learned the tenacity of their new opponents, and the surprise of the Vienna bridge (November 14) by the French, were the chief incidents of this period in the campaign.
Thus, when late on the 7th of February 1807 Murat and Soult overtook the enemy near Eylau (q.v.) the fighting was severe but not prolonged.
Now the Russians uncovered their entrenchments, and in the absence of artillery preparation Soult's leading troops received most severe punishment.
and the retreat of the Russians, after severe losses, over the Alle.
Having despatched this severe reprimand he hastened on to Donauworth, where he arrived at 4 A.M.
The latter was not so shaken as Napoleon believed, and turning to bay inflicted a severe check on its pursuers, who at Ebelsberg lost 4000 men in three xix.
Actually the frost came later than usual that year, the 27th of October, and the weather was dry and bracing; not till the 8th of November did the cold at night become sharp. Even when the Beresina was reached on the 26th November, the cold was far from severe, for the slow and sluggish stream was not frozen over, as is proved by the fact that Eble's pioneers worked in the water all through that terrible day.
There are no navigable streams. The climate and productions are not unlike those of Java, though the rains are heavier, the drought more severe, and the fertility less.
The climate of Thrace was regarded by the Greeks as very severe, and that country was spoken of as the home of the north wind, Boreas.
(Similar effects can be seen on a small scale, even in our own times, as the result of exceptionally big tides.) Severe winters were experienced and the Baltic was frequently frozen over so that there was solid ice communication between Sweden and Denmark across the Belts and Sound: this happened in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries but not in the 16th.
Henry's English government was severe and grasping; but he "kept good peace" and honourably distinguished himself among contemporary statesmen in an age when administrative reform was in the air.
On the i i th and 12th of Battles December there were engagements of a less severe before character, and finally on the 13th of December Soult B, or Battles ayonne of with 35,000 men made a vehement attack up the the Nive, right bank of the Nive against Hill, who with about Dec. 10-13, 14,000 men occupied some heights from Villefranque 1813.
Driven by Hill from Aire on the 2nd of March 1814, Soult retired by Vic Bigorre, where there was a combat (March 19), and Tarbes, where there was a severe action (March 20), to Toulouse behind the Garonne.
The wars which ensued, the closing of continental ports against English trade, the occupation of the city after the disastrous battle of Jena, and pestilence within its walls brought about a severe commercial crisis and caused a serious decline in its prosperity.
He sustained severe injuries in a fall from horseback which permanently affected his brain, and was persuaded by his friends to retire.
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
The climate of Upper Austria, which varies according to the altitude, is on the whole moderate; it is somewhat severe in the north, but is mild in Salzkammergut.
The climate is extremely severe, even in the southern parts.
But the severe measures adopted by the government against such " runaways " were powerless to prevent their immigration into Siberia.
On the other hand the severe measures taken by the government prevented the growth of anything like legalized slavery on Siberian soil; but the people, ruined as they were both by the intrusion of agricultural colonists and by the exactions of government officials, fell into what was practically a kind of slavery to the merchants.
Having crossed the Po to punish the Insubrians, he at first met with a severe check and was forced to capitulate.
After about an hour there is severe vomiting.
With this pantheistic Gnosticism is associated a severe asceticism.
Owing to the uncertainty of the periodical rains in Cutch, the country is liable to severe famines, and it has suffered greatly from plague.
The time requisite for the several degrees is unknown, and may have been determined by the Patres, who conferred them in a solemn ceremony called Sacramentum, in which the initial step was an oath never to divulge what should be revealed, and for which the mystic had been specially prepared by lustral purification, prolonged abstinence, and severe deprivations.
The cold south-westerly winds are felt when the sun is north of the equator, and are most severe, for a few days, in the month of May, when a tempo da friagem (cold period) causes much discomfort throughout the upper Amazon region.
Coffee naturally occupies first place, and is grown wherever frosts are not severe from the Amazon south to Parana.
Public opinion declared against the traffic; severe laws were passed against it, and were so firmly enforced that in 1853 not a single disembarkation took place.
His most severe measures were taken in cold blood, as part of his general policy; but his natural disposition was averse to unnecessary bloodshed or cruelty.
In 1199 the institution of a foreign podestd (a form of government which became permanent in 1212) gave a severe blow to the consular magistracy, which was soon extinguished; and in 1233 the people again rose against the nobles in the hope of ousting them entirely from office.
Thunderstorms, averaging nearly one hundred in the year, and violent hailstorms, occur in summer, being most severe in the interior.
As might be expected in a country possessing the physical features of Natal, the gradients and curves are exceptionally severe.
After a severe struggle for academical recognition they were finally admitted to all the privileges of the university by a bull of Alexander IV.
If Transylvania be excepted, three separate zones are roughly 'distinguishable: the " highland," comprising the counties in the vicinity of the Northern and Eastern Carpathians, where the winters are very severe and continue for half the year; the " intermediate " zone, embracing the country stretching northwards from the Drave and Mur, with the Little Hungarian Plain, and the region of the Upper Alfold, extending from Budapest to Nyiregyhaza and Sarospatak; and the " great lowland " zone, including the main portion of the Great Hungarian Plain, and the region of the lower Danube, where the heat during the summer months is almost tropical.
The nobles andrelates who detested the severe and strenuous [/.
Immediately after this proclamation Gdrgei disappeared with his army among the hills of Upper Hungary, and, despite the difficulties of a phenomenally severe winter and the constant pursuit of vastly superior forces, fought his way down to the valley of Hernad - and safety.
A people with an intense national sentiment, such as the Hungarians, do not as a rule incline towards permanent admiration of foreign-born or imported literary styles; and accordingly the work of this class of novelists has frequently met with very severe criticism on the part of various Magyar critics.
Thurii had a democratic constitution and good laws, and, though we hear little of its history till in 390 it received a severe defeat from the rising power of the Lucanians, many beautiful coins testify to the wealth and splendour of its days of prosperity.
It was perhaps natural that repression should be specially severe in Bosnia.
On July 25 at the London Mansion House Mr. Balfour publicly indorsed the full Yugoslav programme, as formulated by the Serbian minister, Mr. Jovanovic: but the latter's full report to his home Government was answered by a severe snub, and during the winter he too was dismissed for his Yugoslav sentiments.
The stock may be destroyed, killed out by adverse conditions, but its quality is not directly affected, and if removed to more favourable conditions it will show no hereditary results of the previous adversity; indeed it will probably have been strengthened in some ways by the destruction in severe conditions of its weaker members and the survival of the stronger individuals.
Their horses had severe bits, and were adorned with nose pieces, cheek pieces and saddle cloths.
The heaviest rain is experienced between January and April and is usually accompanied by severe thunderstorms. On the eastern escarpment of the Drakensberg the rainfall is heavy, 50 or 60 in.
The garrison, though already weakened by privation and sickness, made a stubborn resistance, and after one of the fiercest engagements of the war, repulsed the attack at Caesar's Camp and Wagon Hill with severe loss to the enemy, itself having 500 casualties.
The efforts made by the administration to restore the Boers to the land, to develop the material resources of the country, and to remove all barriers to the intellectual and moral development of the people, were soon, however, hampered by severe Economic commercial depression.
Our oldest native historical document in Syriac - the account of a severe flood which visited Edessa in Nov.
The other, which has been often edited,' is an account of a severe persecution which the Himyarite Christians of Najran in south-west Arabia underwent in 523, at the hands of the king of Yemen.
As a matter of fact, the discipline of the Eastern churches with regard to the relics was, from the very beginning, much less severe than that of Rome and a great number of the Western churches.
It is simple and severe, classic yet instinct with life and noble in form; and in it he touched the high-water mark of his career.
He was lord high commissioner of Scotland (1680-1682), where he occupied himself in a severe persecution of the Covenanters.
This revolt, which was accompanied by severe fighting, ended in 1892 in the triumph of the insurgents, Palacios and his followers being forced to leave the country to save their lives.
Such a charge as prelude to the advance of a great infantry bayonet attack must have swept the exhausted Prussians down the hill like sheep, but the opportunity passed, and the gunners finding their position untenable, limbered up, not without severe losses, and retired to a second position in rear.
If there be a loss of tissue brought about by severe in j ury to the skin and the deeper tissues, there is usually an extravasation of blood from the severed vessels.
At Agordat on the 21st of December 1893 the Italian troops under Colonel Arimondi inflicted a severe defeat on the followers of the khalifa.
Gold-mining was forbidden within its limits and diamond-washing was placed under severe restrictions.
The laws of Zaleucus, which he declared had been communicated to him in a dream by Athena, the patron goddess of the city, were few and simple, but so severe that, like those of Draco, they became proverbial.
With their advantages of greater speed and carrying capacity over the horsed vehicles, their introduction was a most important development, though their working at first imposed a severe financial strain on many companies.
But this control does not meet the problem of actually lessening the number of vehicles in the main arteries of traffic. At such crossings as that of the Strand and Wellington Street, Ludgate Circus and south of the Thames, the Elephant and Castle, as also in the narrow streets of the City, congestion is often exceedingly severe, and is aggravated when any main street is under repair, and diversion of traffic through narrow side streets becomes necessary.
The position of the city grew in importance, but the citizens suffered from severe laws and from serious restrictions upon their liberties.
instituted in 1350 after a severe scourge of plague (the so-called Black Death).
The preparations for the coronation of King James were interrupted by a severe visitation of the plague, which killed off as many as 30,578 persons, and it was not till March 25, 1604, that the king, the queen and Prince Henry passed triumphantly from the Tower to Westminster.
A frost almost as severe as the memorable one of1683-1684occurred in the winter of 1 7391740, and the Thames was again the scene of a busy fair.
After it had lasted for a month, a thaw of four days, from the 26th to the 29th of January, took place, but this thaw was succeeded by a renewal of the frost, so severe that the river soon became one immovable sheet of ice.
His closing years were weakened by a severe fall he met with in 1657.
At Anzac similar work was done but the only tactical incident of much importance in that quarter was that Liman von Sanders personally directed a formidable attack upon Birdwood on the night of the 18thr9th, the assailants being defeated with severe loss.
The 52nd Division was, however, under orders to proceed from England to th 2 Aegean; it arrived at Helles early in June, where there was some severe fighting during that month by which the Allies somewhat improved their position.
The constable himself headed the leading line of dismounted men-at-arms; weighted with their armour, and sinking deep into the mud with every step, they yet reached and engaged the English men-at-arms; for a time the fighting was severe.
The abandonment of the trading monopolies of the old Congo Free State, and the taking over of its loans put a severe strain on the resources of the colony.
- The climate of Florence is very variable, ranging from severe cold accompanied by high winds from the north in winter to great heat in the summer, while in spring-time sudden and rapid changes of temperature are frequent.
Diphtheria first appeared in 1868 and continued as a severe epidemic until 1872, since when it has only occurred at rare intervals and in isolated cases.
But as the laws were not always enforced new and severe ones were enacted.
A severe persecution was initiated against the Alberti and other families, who were disfranchised and exiled.
Labruscae, which, when the attac k is severe, cause the destruction of the leaves, the only part they assail.
He supported the Restoration in this parliament, and in the Convention Parliament, which met on the 25th of April 1660, and in which he sat for Bath, he urged severe measures against the regicides, and the exclusion of several individuals from the Act of Indemnity.
The occurrence of the broad tapeworm in man is often associated with anaemia of a most severe type.
In a number of cases there are colicky pains in the abdomen, with diarrhoea or constipation and more or less anaemia, while the Dibothriocephalus latus is capable of producing a profound and severe anaemia closely resembling pernicious anaemia.
During the 17th century the indulgence in tobacco spread with marvellous rapidity throughout all nations, and that in the face of the most resolute opposition of statesmen and priests, the " counterblaste " of a great monarch, penal enactments of the most severe description, the knout, excommunication and capital punishment.
In this form a large number, after being cooked or stoved in moist heat for about twenty-four hours, are piled between plates in an hydraulic press, and subjected to great pressure for a month or six weeks, during which time a slow fermentation takes place, and a considerable exudation of juice results from the severe pressure.
These salts have been extensively employed internally, and indeed they are still largely employed in the treatment of the more severe and difficult cases of nervous disease.
He lived in a period of severe systematizing.
He served in the Seven Days, receiving a severe wound at the action of Frazier's Farm.
On the 3rd of September he landed near Messina, and after very severe fighting captured the city.
His conduct in Sicily was severe and harsh, but he was not without feelings of humanity, and he was an honest man and a good administrator.
The persecution of the Christians was very severe (see E.
The islands are treeless, and the climate is severe, but there is a population of about 650.
The Western Cordillera, overhanging the Peruvian coast, contains a long line of volcanic mountains, most of them inactive, but their presence is probably connected with the frequent and severe earthquakes, especially in the southern section of the coast.
The scandals that resulted led to investigations and severe restrictions, and their employment now has become a matter of voluntary contract, usually for two years, in which fair dealing and good treatment are the rule.
Early in March 1895 the insurgents encamped near the outskirts of Lima, and on the 17th, 18th and 19th of March severe fighting took place, ending in the defeat of the troops under General Caceres.
The French did not win the plateau without a severe struggle.
The death of Mirabeau in April 1791 was a severe blow to Montmorin, the difficulty of whose position was enormously increased after the flight of the royal family to Varennes, to which he was not privy.
This severe blow left General Grant penniless, just at the time when he was beginning to suffer acutely from the disease which finally caused his death.
In astigmatism, owing to differences in the refractive power of the various meridians of the eye, great defect of sight, frequently accompanied by severe headache, occurs.
Unhappily, after the third lecture of the course, Comte had a severe attack of cerebral derangement, brought on by intense and prolonged meditation, acting on a system that was already irritated by the chagrin of domestic discomfort.
The Athenians under Chares suffered a severe defeat from Amyntas, the Macedonian admiral, but in the following year gained a decisive victory under Phocion and compelled Philip to raise the siege.
For two days the hostile fleets manoeuvred for positions, and then they were dispersed by a severe storm.
The British pursued, and the next day there was a severe engagement in which the Americans were driven from Turkey and Quaker Hills.
The pressure to be effectual need not be severe, but must be accurately applied.
In severe haemorrhage, as from the division of a large artery, the patient may collapse and death ensue from syncope.
During his reign the royal authority became more severe and more absolute than ever.
In the capital (Tokyo) the average yearly number of shocks throughout the 26 years ending in 1906 was 96, exclusive of minor vibrations, hut during the 50 years then ending there were only two severe shocks (i8S4 and 1894), and they were not directly responsible for any damage to life or limb.
In the northern half of the main island, in Yezo and in the Kuriles, the cold is severe during the winter, which lasts for at least four months, and snow falls sometimes to great depths.
Indeed, of this porcelain it may be said that, from the monster pieces of blue-and-white manufactured at Setovases six feet high and garden pillar-lamps half as tall again do not dismay the BishU ceramistto tiny coffee-cups decorated in Tokyo, with theil delicate miniatures of birds, flowers, insects, fishes and so forth, everything indicates the death of the old severe aestheticism.
The reaction that followed was as severe in Baden as elsewhere in Germany, and culminated in.
The emperor's most important act was a severe reprimand addressed to Herr von Puttkamer, the reactionary minister of the interior, which caused his resignation; in the distribution of honours he chose many who belonged to classes and parties hitherto excluded from court favour.
The jinrikisha, drawn by one man or sometimes two men, which were formerly the chief means of passenger conveyance, have notably decreased in number since the introduction of the trams. Tokyo has often experienced earthquakes, and more than once has suffered from severe shocks, which have hitherto prevented the erection of very large buildings.
Situated at an altitude of 1375 ft., it has a severe climate, the average temperatures being - year, 56°; January, 22°; July, 65°.
In May 1643 he won the brilliant victory of Stratton, in June he overran Devonshire, and on the 5th of July he inflicted a severe defeat on Sir William Waller at Lansdown.
In severe cases the pulse may become imperceptible, the extremities may become cold, and the patient may pass into coma.
In from twelve to twenty-four hours these severe constitutional symptoms usually pass off, but in the meantime the swelling and discoloration have spread enormously.
Within a few days recovery usually occurs somewhat suddenly, but death may occur from the severe depression, or from the secondary effects of suppuration.
Fortunately the majority are of small size, and their bites are not followed by more severe effects than those from the sting of a hornet.
Equally triumphant was Frederick in his war with Sweden, though here the contest was much more severe, lasting as it did for seven years; whence it is generally described in northern history as the Scandinavian Seven Years' War.
Notwithstanding the increased production of gold, Johannesburg during1905-1907passed through a period of severe commercial depression, the result in part of the unsettled political situation.
This at least is the excuse for the entire exclusion of Chinese labourers from the United States since 1882 (provisions made more severe in 1888 and 1892) (see also the article Co01.IE).
At this date he was ambitious of a political career, but his father had sustained severe losses in business, and in these circumstances Manning, having graduated with first-class honours in 1830, obtained the year following, through Viscount Goderich, a post as supernumerary clerk in the colonial office.
The victory of the Venetians off Chios (May 2, 1657) was a severe blow to the Turkish seapower, which Kuprili set himself energetically to repair.
Towards everything like disorder, tyranny, or aristocratic oppression, Casimir was always inexorably severe; all disturbers of the peace were remorselessly put to death as the worst enemies of their country and he enjoyed in consequence the honourable title of "the Peasants' King."
To remedy the evil, Casimir drew up and promulgated the severe statute of Great Poland, which went to the very root of the matter and greatly strengthened the hands of the king's justices.
Under these circumstances a constitution of a more severe type was recommended by those responsible for the government of Malta and was about to be adopted, as the only alternative to a deadlock, by the imperial authorities.
The war dragged on with varying success, until the severe defeat of the allies at Marsiglia and their selfish neglect of Victor's interests induced him to open negotiations with France once more.
The right division, the 52nd, successfully carried out this operation with a portion of its forces, while other units crossed the canal on the right in conjunction with the 63rd Div., and met with severe resistance.
A severe battle was fought at Pichincha, where, by the prowess of his colleague Sucre, the Spaniards were routed, and Quito was entered by the republicans in June 1822.
The cold during the night of the 29th of January was most severe; and early in the morning of the 30th the Swedish king gave the order to start, the horsemen dismounting where the ice was weakest, and cautiously leading their horses as far apart as possible, when they swung into their saddles again, closed their ranks and made a dash for the shore.
During the last months of the war Sir John Harman had fought a successful campaign in the West Indies against the French on whom he inflicted a severe defeat at Martinique on the 24th of June.
The troops of Cologne and Munster formed part of his army, other friends of Louis were preparing to take the field, and after a severe winter campaign, the elector, defeated in combat and manoeuvre, was forced back to the Weser, and being but weakly supported by the Imperialists, found himself compelled to make a separate peace (June 6th, 1673).
After a severe march through hilly country and in the midst of snowstorms, the French reunited near Belfort, and without a moment's delay poured into Alsace from the south.
The wound proved a severe one, so that some six months passed before he resumed command.
The publication in 1889 of Lux Mundi, a series of essays attempting to harmonize Anglican Catholic doctrine with modern thought, was a severe blow to him, for it showed that even at the Pusey House, established as the citadel of Puseyism at Oxford, the principles of Pusey were being departed from.
Thus it was that a great South Land appeared on the maps, the belief in the prodigious extension of which certainly received a severe shock by Abel Tasman's voyage of circumnavigation, but was only overthrown after Cook's great voyages had proved that any southern land which existed could not extend appreciably beyond the polar circle.
These machines, which are driven by compressed air, are very handy in use, as the height and direction of the cut may be readily varied; but the work is rather severe to the driver on account of the recoil shock of the piston, and an assistant is necessary to clear out the small coal from the cut, which limits the rate of cutting.
took place on the 10th of March, an event which furnished a pretext for the removal of Huss from the Dominican convent to a more secure and more severe place of confinement under the charge of the bishop of Constance at Gottlieben on the Rhine.
Travellers and strangers who venture into these jungles run the risk of fever of a severe type at almost all seasons of the year.
tall, with a well-rounded, powerful figure; he inherited an excellent constitution from his parents - " I never knew," says he, " either my father or mother to have any sickness but that of which they dy'd, he at 89, and she at 85 years of age " - but injured it somewhat by excesses; in early life he had severe attacks of pleurisy, from one of which, in 1727, it was not expected that he would recover, and in his later years he was the victim of stone and gout.
In 1907 during a period of severe and prolonged trade depression the imports had fallen to £5,263,930, but the exports owing entirely to the increased output of gold from the Rand mines had increased to £37,994,658; gold and diamonds represented over £37,000,000 of this total.
On the fall of the Orlando Cabinet in June 1919, the new Premier Nitti chose Tittoni as Foreign Minister and first delegate at the Peace Conference, but the severe strain of the work told on his health and he was forced to resign in November.
Before suffering a severe reverse, brought about by his interference in the internal affairs of Bohemia, Lothair requested Frederick of Hohenstaufen to restore to the crown the estates bequeathed to him by the emperor Henry V.
In the elevated region in the west the winters are decidedly severe, and the springs and summers often late and cold.
They seldom begin to repair the houses till the frost sets in, and never finish the outer coating till the cold becomes severe.
He showed great zeal in enforcing the Hildebrandine policy as to clerical celibacy, and was planning the expulsion of the Normans from Italy and the elevation of his brother to the imperial throne when he was seized by a severe illness.
They are inspired also by a fervid and steadfast glow of spirit and reveal a gentleness and humanity of sentiment blended with the severe gravity of the original Roman character.
In 1866 the Prussians inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians in the neighbourhood.
The winter of1793-1794was spent in new preparations, in instituting a severe discipline in the new and ill-trained troops of the republic, and in improvising means and material of war.
The Manichaean system of dualism, with its severe asceticism, and its individualism, which early passed into antinomianism, was attractive to many minds in the awakening of the 11th century.
The earliest known document proceeding from the Waldensians is an account of a conference held at Bergamo in 1218 between the Ultramontane and the Lombard divisions, in which the Lombards showed a greater opposition to the recognized priesthood than did their northern brethren.2 As these opinions became more pronounced persecution became more severe, and the breach between the Waldenses and the church widened.
The most severe trial to which the Vaudois of Piedmont were subjected occurred in 1655.
Very severe punishments were suggested for the clandestine lover, but the emperor rewarded the devotion of the pair by consenting to their marriage.
But the repression of " sectaries " was now, and onwards until the end of the reign, so severe as to prevent much action on these lines.
The climate is rather severe.
N., commemorates the deliverance of the town from a severe epidemic of fever in 1612.
In the Adirondack region the snowfall is heavy, the winter long and severe.
Not long afterwards there appeared in the Weekly Journal some severe criticisms of the administration.
No serious operations were attempted far inland; and though severe fighting took place effective Italian occupation never extended far from the sea.
In 1694 there was a severe earthquake; and the more terrible earthquake which on the 16th and the 17th of December 1857 passed through southern Italy, and in Basilicata alone killed 32,475 persons, laid the greater part of Potenza in ruins.
Along the whole west coast the climate resembles nothing in the British Islands so much as Cork and Kerry, for there are the same wet gales from a western ocean, the same clouds gathering on the dripping sides of wild mountains, an equal absence of severe frosts and hot sunshine, and a rich and evergreen vegetation.
- The increase of wealth went on after 1879 in spite of dull times, and was only checked by the especially severe financial depression of 1893 and 1894, caused by low prices and the Australian bank panic. The estimated private wealth of colonists fell from £236 per head in 1890 to £219 in 1895.
Pastoral and mining enterprise, however, could not save the settlers from severe depression in the years 1867 to 1871.
A severe property-tax and an increase of customs duties in 1879 only for a moment achieved financial equilibrium.
Among the results were the increase of the naval contribution (first to £40,000 and then, in 1908, to £100,000), and the imposition in 1903 and again in 1907 of severe discriminating duties against imports from foreign countries.
But after a severe struggle the publishing house failed, leaving the author charged with its very heavy debts.
In later years he published a few minor volumes of fiction, and a series of severe and also amusing criticisms of Christian Science (pub lished as a book in 1907), and in 1906 he began an autobiography in the North American Review.
Indeed so severe a stress is laid upon the explicitly Christian life and its specific means, that orthodoxy itself interprets the rebirth by water and spirit, and the eating the flesh and drinking the blood to which entrance into the Kingdom and possession of interior life are here exclusively attached, as often represented by a simple sincere desire and will for spiritual purification and a keen hunger and thirst for God's aid, together with such cultual acts as such souls can know or find, even without any knowledge of the Christian rites.
During their stay there they had inflicted a severe defeat on the Zulus under Dingaan (December 1838), an event which, following on the flight of Mosilikatze, greatly strengthened the position of Moshesh, whose power became a menace to that of the emigrant farmers.
His policy of gaining time had received a severe blow in the failure of his executive officer to realize it, and that officer, though his unpursued troops quickly regained their moral, had himself completely lost confidence.
The fighting, irregular but severe, continued.
He wished to inflict a severe blow before the enemy could be reinforced by the late besiegers of Port Arthur, and sent Grippenberg with seven divisions against Oku's two on the Japanese left.
But the usual decousu of Russian operations and their own magnificent resistance saved the Japanese, and after two days' severe fighting, although Grippenberg had not been checked, Kuropatkin, in face of a counter-attack by Oyama, decided to abandon the attempt.
Fighting for localities and alterations in the interior distribution of the opposing forces occupied much time, and by the 3rd, though the battle had become severe, Kuropatkin had merely drawn in his right and right centre (now facing W.
30 the rest of the line severe local fighting had continued, but the Russian positions were quite unshaken, and Kuropatkin's reserves - which would have been invaluable in backing up the counter-attack of the 2nd of March - had returned to face Nogi.
He had organized another counterstroke for the 6th, to be led by Kaulbars, but this collapsed unexpectedly after a brief but severe fight.
On this day the fighting between Nogi and Kaulbars was very severe, and Kuropatkin now made up his mind to retreat towards Tieling.
It is the prevailing wind of winter in the mountains and in consequence the periods of cold, though often severe, are short.
In this battle Colonel Roosevelt became the ranking officer and, abandoning his horse, led the charge up the hill on foot under severe fire at the head of his troops.
It was his business, if not exactly his duty, to preside at the formal election of his successor, the marechal de Matignon; but there was a severe pestilence in Bordeaux, and Montaigne writes to the jurats of that town, in one of the few undoubtedly authentic letters which we possess, to the effect that he will leave them to judge whether his presence at the election is so necessary as to make it worth his while to expose himself to the danger of going into the town in its then condition, "which is specially dangerous for men coming from a good air, as he does."
The criticism of Malherbe, followed by the establishment of the Academy, the minute grammatical censures of Claude Favre Vaugelas, and the severe literary censorship of Boileau, turned French in less than three-quarters of a century from one of the freest languages in Europe to one of the most restricted.
Further transportations were carried out, and in 797 Charles issued another capitulary which mitigated the severe provisions of the capitulary of 782; and about 802 the Saxon law was committed to writing.
With all his virtues, however, Augustus was an intolerant Lutheran, and used very severe means to exterminate the Calvinists; in his electorate he is said to have expelled 111 Calvinist preachers in a single month.
The climate of these islands is very severe.
Mosul shares the severe alternations of temperature experienced by upper Mesopotamia.
The governorship of the pashalik was long hereditary in the originally Christian family of the `Abd-al-Jalil, until the Porte, during the course of the 19th century, succeeded after a long and severe contest in establishing a more centralized system of government.
Gautsch, who was a convinced upholder of the principle of State authority, had recourse to severe measures of punishment and discipline, which had as their result a revolver attack on the Minister of Justice from the gallery of Parliament.
The Bad Lands of the White river are also noted for their wealth of animal fossils, which have been found in such quantities as to cause geologists to believe that the vertebrates perished there in droves during a severe storm or flood.
The snows are generally light, and cattle may graze on the prairies during most of the winter; but there are occasional severe " blizzards," which are accompanied by intense cold and high winds.
For the first eight months of his reign he did not disappoint the popular expectation; but after his recovery from a severe illness his true character showed itself.
But from this severe fall the Roman Church recovered with comparative readiness, and the upward movement is contemporaneous with the rise of Ultramontanism.
It is too long, the sentiment is overstrained, and severe moralists have accused it of a certain complaisance in dealing with amatory errors; but it is full of pathos and knowledge of the human heart.
Severe English moralists like Johnson thought but ill of him, but the public generally was not unwilling to testify against French intolerance, and regarded his sentimentalism with favour.
No sooner had he entered on his new duties than his great capacity for arduous work was put to a severe test.
The winters are long and severe.
There are, however, during every winter from one to four severe blizzards, which inflict great damage upon unprotected flocks and herds.
The plain is for the most part sandy and almost barren, subject to heavy floods in the rainy season, and to severe drought in the dry weather.
When, on the outbreak of the Swedish war of 1809, the emperor ordered the army to take advantage of an unusually severe frost and cross the ice of the Gulf of Finland, it was only the presence of Arakcheev that compelled an unwilling general and a semi-mutinous army to begin a campaign which ended in the conquest of Finland.
Of a less severe type were Cherbuliez, the novelist; TSpffer, who spread a taste for pedestrianism among Swiss youth; Duchosal, the poet; Marc Monnier, the litterateur; not to mention the names of any persons still living, or of politicians of any date.
The Radical government enacted severe laws as to the Romanists in Geneva, and gave privileges to the Christian Catholic Church, which, organized in 1874 in Switzerland, had absorbed the community founded at Geneva by Pere Hyacinthe, an ex-Carmelite friar.
Nevertheless, the extremely severe penal edicts issued during the reign of Sigismund I., though seldom applied, seem to point to the fact that heresy was spreading widely throughout the country.
Again and again the nobility attempted to exclude the deputies of Cracow from the diet, in spite of a severe edict issued by Sigismund I.
Kalinka is, however, far too severe upon the patriots and much too indulgent towards King Stanislaus.
From 1819 to 1835 he wrote about seventeen pieces and then abandoned publishing, having taken offence at some severe criticisms. At his death he left several comedies, which were issued in a posthumous edition.
Shortly afterwards the French arms suffered severe reverses in Italy, and Ferdinand was restored to his territories; but in 1801, by the peace of Luneville, Tuscany was converted into the kingdom of Etruria, and he was again compelled to return to Vienna.
After a very severe struggle he was repulsed with the loss of a quarter of his men, Jackson's divisions suffering even more severely and losing nearly all their generals and colonels.
Regensburg, 1846-1848) and on Luther (1851, Eng, tr., 1853) he is very severe on the Protestant leaders, and he also accepts, in his earlier works, the Ultramontane view then current on the practical condition of the Church of England, a view which in later days he found reason to change.
No one knows how severe or how long a Purgatory was, or is, implied in a hundred days of canonical penance."
Severe ghetto laws led many of the Jews to emigrate.
Missouri, at the other flank of the line, contained an even stronger Confederate element, and it was not without a severe struggle that the energy of Mr (afterwards General) F.
The course of the battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks bore some resemblance to that of Shiloh; a sharp attack found the Unionists unprepared, and only after severe losses and many partial defeats could McClellan check the rebel advance.
The character of the Algerian coast is severe and inhospitable.
On the mountains and the high plateaus the winter is often very severe; snow lies for six months on the higher peaks of the Kabyle mountains.
After a severe struggle De la Gardie's party finally prevailed, and its triumph was marked by that general decline of personal and political morality which has given to this regency its unenviable reputation.
Small animals are probably paralyzed or killed by the bite, the poison being effective enough to produce severe symptoms even in man.
In his trenchant criticism of the origin of what passed for Christianity in his time, he spoke bitter and severe truths, which have gained for him the reputation of the most rabid and wicked of all the enemies of Christianity.
Domestic bereavements and a severe illness then turned his thoughts in another direction.
Caesar first besieged and took Avaricum, whose occupants were massacred, and then invested Gergovia (near the Puy-de-Dome), the capital of the Arverni, but suffered a severe repulse and was forced to raise the siege.
The pope, who knew the situation, committed a visitation of the Society to Cardinal Saldanha, an intimate friend of Pombal, who issued a severe decree against the Jesuits and ordered the confiscation of all their merchandise.
The earthquake shocks of the 30th and 31st of July 1909 were unusually severe throughout southern Mexico, reducing Acapulco and Chilpancingo to ruins and shaking the city of Mexico severely.
Long and severe religious fasts were customary at special seasons, and drawing blood from the arms, legs and body, by thrusting in aloe-thorns, and passing sharp sticks through the tongue, was an habitual act of devotion recalling the similar practices of devotees in India.
The succeeding festival of Camaxtli was marked by a severe fast of the priests, after which stone knives were prepared with which a hole was cut through the tongue of each, and numbers of sticks passed through.
That city was taken by General Scott after a siege and bombardment (March 7 to 29, 1847); and after winning the battle of Cerrogordo (April 18), and a long delay at Puebla, Scott marched on Mexico City, stormed its defences against greatly superior forces, and effected an entrance after severe fighting on the 13th of September 1847.
The winters are usually long and severe, and the summers cool and salubrious, but the diversity of surface together with unequal distances from the sea cause marked variations for the different regions.
In the discipline of the Christian Church abstinence is the term for a less severe form of Fasting.
After a severe fight, Anang-pal's elephants were so terror-struck by the fire-missiles flung amongst them by the invaders that they turned and fled, the whole army retreating in confusion and leaving Mahmud master of the field.
C. In the first part of the action Greene was successful Eutaw after a desperate conflict; in the pursuit, however, P P > > Springs the Americans failed to dislodge the British from a stone house which they held, and their severe loss in both engagements was over 500 men.
But neither the severe climate nor the neighbourhood of wild and warlike hillmen shook their faith, and in the course of half a century, in one of the most unhealthy and unfertile localities in the Caucasus, they transformed this wilderness into flourishing colonies, and continued to live a Christian and laborious life, making friends with, instead of fighting, the hillmen.
At the battle of Contreras, on the 19th of August 1847, he was thrown from his horse and received severe injuries.
He recovered from small-pox in his fourth year with crippled hands and eyesight permanently impaired; and a constitution enfeebled by premature birth had to withstand successive shocks of severe illness.
His imagination, thus kindled, animated him to those severe labours of which his great discoveries were the fruit.
After a long silence in the face of severe and persistent criticism, Strachan made a general reply in a very able speech in the legislative council in March 1828.
For about 46 years they were the scourge of the western half of Asia Minor, ravaging the country, as allies of one or other of the warring princes, without any serious check, until Attalus I., king of Pergamum (241-197), inflicted several severe defeats upon them, and about 232 B.C. forced them to settle permanently in the region to which they gave their name.
Manlius Vulso, who taught them a severe lesson.
In England the tree grows well in warm situations, but suffers much in severe winters - its graceful form rendering it ornamental in the park or garden, where it sometimes grows 30 or 40 ft.
Long before his death he had become alienated from the advanced school of Catalan nationalists, and endeavoured to explain away the severe criticism of Castile in which his Historia de Cataluna y de la Corona de Aragon (1860-1863) abounds.
But when the Agape on one side and paganism on the other receded into a dim past, owing to the enhanced sacrosanctity of the Eucharist and because of the severe edicts of the emperor Theodosius and his successors, the psychological background fell away, and the Eucharist was left isolated and hanging in the air.
At Coatepeque the Guatemalans suffered a severe defeat, which was followed by a truce.
He who during his lifetime did not become one of the elect, who did not completely redeem himself, has to go through a severe process of purification on the other side of the grave, till he too is gathered to the blessedness of the light.
The displacement of the mountain block may still be in progress, for severe earthquakes have happened in the depression next east of the range; that of Owens Valley in 1870 was strong enough to have been very destructive had there been anything in the desert valley to destroy.
The severe earthquake of the 31st of May 1818 partially destroyed the two cathedral steeples; and that of the I Ith of March 1875 damaged many of the larger buildings.
Kolcsey's early metrical pieces contributed to the Transylvanian Museum did not attract much attention, whilst his severe criticisms of Csokonai, Kis, and especially Berzsenyi, published in 1817, rendered him very unpopular.
North-west and north-east of Hudson Bay it becomes too severe for the growth of trees as seen on the " barren grounds," and there may be perpetual ice beneath the coating of moss which serves as a non-conducting covering for the " tundras."
Leaving out the maritime provinces, southern Ontario, southern Alberta and the Pacific coast region on the one hand, and the Arctic north, particularly near Hudson Bay, on the other, Canada has snowy and severe winters, a very short spring with a sudden rise of temperature, short warm summers, and a delightful autumn with its " Indian summer."
The Seed Control Act of 1905 brings under strict regulations the trade in agricultural seeds, prohibiting the sale for seeding of cereals, grasses, clovers or forage plants unless free from weeds specified, and imposing severe penalties for infringements.
If, on opening the abdomen to find out what serious effects some severe injury has caused, the gall-bladder be found torn, the rent may be sewn up, or, if thought better, the gall-bladder may be removed.
A law forbidding under severe penalties a labourer from hiring himself to a second employer without giving notice of a prior contract, and an employer from hiring a labourer known by him to be bound by such a contract, had aided in the development of the system, though it had been enacted for a different purpose.
The war that followed was really a severe civil conflict, the Loyalist and Revolutionary parties being almost equal in numbers.
He inherited great difficulties - the feud with France, the dissensions of the continental provinces, the growing indifference of England to foreign conquests, the discontent of all his subjects with a strict executive and severe taxation.
The climate is mild in the south, but naturally very severe among the mountains.
Resorting to stimulants after illness, his marked excess in this respect on the occasion of his inauguration as vice-president undoubtedly did him harm with the public. Faults of personality were his great handicap. Though approachable and not without kindliness of manner, he seemed hard and inflexible; and while president, physical pain and domestic anxieties, added to the struggles of public life, combined to accentuate a naturally somewhat severe temperament.
The idea of a judgment so severe as to render possible an entire breach with the guilty past is common to all the prophets, but is expressed in a great variety of forms and images.
Although the island is subject to severe storms, the climate is healthy, the average temperature being 82° F.
On the 10th of December 1816 Pozzo di Borgo wrote to the duke enclosing a memorandum in which the emperor Alexander of Russia suggested a reduction in the army of occupation: "no mere question of finance, but one of general policy, based on reason, equity and a severe morality"; at the same time he left the question of its postponement entirely to Wellington.
Dante was perhaps too severe on Robert, whom he described as a re da sermone (word king), and contemporary critics accused him of covetousness, a fault partly excused by his pressing need of money to pay the expenses of his perpetual wars.
These tendencies had been fostered by his tutor Zhukovsky, the amiable humanitarian poet, who had made the Russian public acquainted with the literature of the German romantic school, and they remained with him all through life, though they did not prevent him from being severe in his official position when he believed severity to be necessary.
Thus appeared in the educated classes two extreme groups: on the one hand, the discontented Conservatives, who recommended a return to a more severe disciplinarian regime; and on the other, the discontented Radicals, who would have been satisfied with nothing less than the adoption of a throughgoing socialistic programme.
For some years the emperor, with his sound common-sense and dislike of exaggeration, held the balance fairly between the two extremes; but long years of uninterrupted labour, anxiety and disappointment weakened his zeal for reform, and when radicalism assumed more and more the form of secret societies and revolutionary agitation, he felt constrained to adopt severe repressive measures.
The " coenobian " monasteries (Kow60ea), each under the rule of an abbot (iiyouµEvos), are subjected to severe discipline; the brethren are clothed alike, take their meals (usually limited to bread and vegetables) in the refectory, and possess no private property.
The revolution of 1830 had just inflicted a severe blow on the ecclesiastical party in France, and almost the first act of the new government there was to seize Ancona, thus throwing all Italy, and particularly the Papal States, into an excited condition which seemed to demand strongly repressive measures.
The climate in the low-lying districts near the coast is moist and foggy, in the plains mild, on the Harz mountains severe and variable.
The flat frame is the most gentle in its usage of the silk, but is most costly in labour; whilst the circular frame, being more severe in its action, is not suitable for the thoroughly degummed silks, but on the other hand is best for silks containing much wormy matter, because the silk hanging down into the combing teeth is thoroughly cleansed of such foreign matter, which is deposited under the machine.
He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland, and in September 981 he marched into Apulia, where he met at first with considerable success; but an alliance between the Arabs and the Eastern Empire, whose hostility had been provoked by the invasion of Apulia, resulted in a severe defeat on Otto's troops near Stilo in July 982.
The early years of his Oxford professorship were occupied by severe labour, sundry travels, attacks of illness and another cruel disappointment in love.
5) Wade and Davis published in the New York Tribune the famous "Wade-Davis Manifesto," a vituperative document impugning the President's honesty of purpose and attacking his leadership. As long as President Johnson promised severe treatment of the conquered South, Wade supported him, but when the President definitively adopted the more lenient policy of his predecessor, Wade became one of his most bitter and uncompromising opponents.
1877-1878 Severe famine in north China.
In the 140 years since Warren Hastings initiated British rule in India, there have been nineteen famines and five severe scarcities.
As a result of the severe famine of 1878-1879, Lord Lytton's government instituted a form of insurance against famine known as the Famine Insurance Grant.
In the two years 1899 and 1900 the monsoon was very weak, the result being a severe famine which caused great mortality among the Bhil population.
While still engaged in the struggle with Ptolemy, he was attacked by Antiochus with a large army (134), and compelled to shut himself up in Jerusalem; after a severe siege peace was at last secured only on condition of a Jewish disarmament, and the payment of an indemnity and an annual tribute, for which hostages were taken.
It is said that Enghien lost half his men on this day and Mercy one-third of his, so severe was the battle.
He had specially prepared himself, as he thought, for "teaching imaginative men, and political men, and legal men, and scientific men who bear the world in hand"; and he did not attempt to win their attention to abstract and worn-out theological arguments, but discussed the opinions, the poetry, the politics, the manners and customs of the time, and this not with philosophical comprehensiveness, not in terms of warm eulogy or measured blame, but of severe satire varied by fierce denunciation, and with a specific minuteness which was concerned primarily with individuals.
The destruction of considerable portions of the forests by cattle, goats, insects, fire and cutting has been followed by reforesting, the planting of hitherto barren tracts, the passage of severe forest fire laws, and the establishment of forest reserves, of which the area in 1909 was 545,746 acres, of which 357,180 were government land.
The requisitions of their idolatry were severe and its rites cruel and bloody.
Caterina at first refused, for she clung to her royalty, but Venice was a severe parent to its adopted daughter and would not be gainsaid; she was forced to abdicate in favour of the republic, and returned to Venice in 1489.
A severe illness wrought a change; he married his mistress, Claude Desnoz, and joined the church of Calvin at Geneva (October 1548).
Great steadiness of card under severe shocks and vibrations, combined with a minimum of friction in the cap and pivot, is obtained with this compass.
This period, however, is characterized not only by the thoroughgoing development of the authority of the Holy See, but also by the severe struggle the popes had to sustain against the hostile forces that were opposed to their conquests or to the mere exercise of what they regarded as their right.
Severe censure, moreover, attaches to Charles V., of France.
Harassed by severe bodily ailments, encompassed by a raging tumult of religious conflict and persecution, and aware that the faint hopes of better times which seemed to gild the horizon of the future might be utterly darkened by a failure either in the constancy of his courage or in his discernment and discretion, he exerted his eloquence with unabating energy in the furtherance of the cause he had at heart.
He took a leading part in Absalom's revolt, and his defection was a severe blow to the king, who prayed that God would bring his counsel to "foolishness."
He had many struggles to pass through in early life, which tended to discipline his character and to form the habits of severe study and the mental independence for which he came to be distinguished.
His idea of history was more severe and less rhetorical than that of Sallust and Livy, whom he blamed for putting elaborate speeches into the mouths of the characters of whom they wrote.
and N.E., Silesia has a somewhat severe climate for its latitude, the mean annual temperature being 50 F., while the annual rainfall varies from 20 to 30 in.
The crests of the higher ridges in the central province are delightfully cool in summer, but the adjacent valleys are subject to excessive heat in summer and severe cold in winter.
away from the city (camp, 30° 12' 12" N.) he was finally stopped by the Lhasan authorities and obliged, in great part on account of the severe illness of Mrs Littledale, to give up the attempt to reach Sikkim, and to take a direct trail to Ladak.
In this reign a severe struggle took place with China, peace being concluded in 821 at Ch'ang-ngan and ratified at Lhasa the following year by the erection of bilingual tablets, which still exist.
Here they were placed under the authority of a prior, and were condemned to severe manual labour, fulfilling the duties usually executed by the lay brothers, who acted as farmservants.
The climate of Old Castile is healthy, but liable to severe cold and heat.
But vast tracts of land are useless except as pasture for sheep, and even the sheep are driven by the severe winters to migrate yearly into Estremadura (q.v.).
In 1585 a severe blow was struck at the prosperity of Antwerp when Parma captured it after a long siege and sent all its Protestant citizens into exile.
The result was a severe attack of congestion of the lungs in March 1744.
Winters are frequently severe but do not last long.
Perth was visited by plague in 1512, 1585-1587, 1608 and 1645; by cholera in 1832; and the floods of 1210, 1621, 1740, 1 773 and 1814 were exceptionally severe.
In ccllapse following severe haemorrhage and in sudden and accidental arrest of the heart or respiration during chloroform narcosis an intramuscular injection of 1 gr.
The great altitude accounts for very severe winter cold, occasionally ro to 25° below zero F., accompanied by blizzards (tipi) sometimes fatal to travellers overtaken by them.
In 1859 a severe earthquake destroyed much of the town, and another in November 1901 caused much damage.
Though considerable numbers are still bred in the British Islands, notwithstanding the diminished area suitable for them, most of those that fall to the gun are undoubtedly of foreign origin, arriving from Scandinavia towards the close of summer or later, and many will outstay the winter if the weather be not too severe, while the home-bred birds emigrate in autumn to return the following spring.
The burning by the American general McClure, on the 10th of December 1813, of Newark(Niagara on the Lake), for which severe retaliation was taken at Buffalo, was made the excuse for much destruction.
His cause was espoused by Senator Roscoe Conkling, for a time successfully; but on the 11th of July 1878, during a recess of the Senate, the collector was removed, and in January 1879, after another severe struggle, this action received the approval of the Senate.
The climate, influenced by the high elevation, is characterized by long and severe winters and short summers with great diurnal extremes of temperature.
Work was begun by the London Mission in 1819, and the work of civilization and evangelization went steadily forward till 1835, when a period of repression and severe persecution set in, which lasted till 1861.
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1864), the Norwegian Missionary Society (1866), and the Friends' Foreign Missionary Association joined in the work, the prosperity of which received a severe check by the French annexation in 1896.
In fact the Pope in 1897 was obliged to send a severe rebuke to the clergy for their lack of consistency and zeal.
After a severe defeat at Adys near Carthage, the Carthaginians were inclined for peace, but the terms proposed by Regulus were so harsh that they resolved to continue the war.
The olive has been known to survive severe cold when of short duration, but it cannot be cultivated with success where frosts are prolonged, or where the mean winter temperature falls below 42° F.; and to produce fruit it requires a heat of at least 75° F.
The protection afforded by winter snow enables the plant to resist severe and prolonged frosts, such as would be fatal in more exposed situations.
Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure.
Here, intense solar radiation by day, which raises the surface when dry to a temperature approaching 80° F., alternates with severe frost by night.
Negotiations for peace failed, and the emperor, having marched against Milan, suffered a severe defeat at Legnano on the 29th of May 1176.
In some places the south-western gales are so severe that a belt of trees is useful as a break wind and shelter.
Indeed, in very severe weather it is found better to drop a little from the maximum temperature by fire heat, and the loss so occasioned may be made good by a little extra heat applied when the weather is more genial.
With moisture as with heat, the cultivator must hold his hand somewhat in very severe or very dull weather; but while heat must not drop so as to chill the progressing vegetation, so neither must the lack of moisture parch the plants so as to check their growth.
The borders must be covered sufficiently deep with leaves or manure to prevent the soil from freezing, as it would be destruction to the vines to start the shoots if the roots were frozen; hence, when forcing is begun in January, the covering should be put on in November, before severe frosts begin.
In sections where it is an advantage to protect grape vines, raspberries, &c., from severe frost, these should be laid down as close to the ground as possible, and covered with leaves, straw or hay, or with a few inches of soil.
In internal affairs his ministry was characterized by a reactionary policy less severe than elsewhere in Germany, which led none the less from 1854 onward to a struggle with the parliament, which ended in the dismissal of Pfordten's ministry on the 27th of March 1859.
He was undoubtedly a clear-sighted and able mathematician, who handled admirably the severe geometrical method, and who in his Method of Tangents approximated to the course of reasoning by which Newton was afterwards led to the doctrine of ultimate ratios; but his substantial contributions to the science are of no great importance, and his lectures upon elementary principles do not throw much light on the difficulties surrounding the border-land between mathematics and philosophy.
A severe storm effected, however, a complete disaster without any actual engagement taking place.
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