How to use Settlers in a sentence
The settlers were finally removed in May 1796.
In 1624 arrived eighteen families of Dutch Walloons, the first actual permanent settlers, as distinguished from traders.
Nantucket was the home of Benjamin Franklin's mother, Abiah, whose father, Peter Folger, was one of the earliest settlers (1663); of Maria Mitchell, and of Lucretia Mott.
The marshes near the Danube and Theiss were cleared, roads and canals were built at great expense of labour, German artisans and other settlers were attracted to colonize the district, and agriculture and trade encouraged.
Under the wise administration of Sir Melmoth Osborn, the commissioner, whose headquarters were at Eshowe, and the district magistrates, the Zulu became reconciled to British rule, especially as European settlers were excluded from the greater part of the country.Advertisement
At the close of the war the Natal government decided to allow white settlers in certain districts of Zululand, and a Lands Delimitation Commission was appointed.
The district is now largely peopled with recent settlers from Greece, Crete and the Balkans.
The number of Burmese Christians is considerably increased by the inclusion among them of the Christian descendants of the Portuguese settlers of Syriam deported to the old Burmese Tabayin, a village now included in the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo.
Even in the distant colony at Kara Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 5th century B.C. In Babylonia a different system was adopted.
Here in Akkad the first Semitic empire was founded, Semitic conquerors or settlers spread from Sippara to Susa, Khana to the east of the Tigris was occupied by " West Semitic " tribes, and " out of " Babylonia " went forth the Assyrian."Advertisement
This double method of writing words arises from the circumstance that the cuneiform syllabary is of non-Semitic origin, the system being derived from the non-Semitic settlers of the Euphrates valley, commonly termed Sumerians (or Sumero-Akkadians), to whom, as the earlier settlers, the origin of the cuneiform script is due.
The Nymphi (Kara Bel) and Niobe sculptures near Smyrna are probably memorials of that extension, Certainly some inland Anatolian power seems to have kept Aegean settlers and culture away from the Ionian coast during the Bronze Age, and that power was in all likelihood the Hatti kingdom of Cappadocia.
The first settlers came from the New Haven Colony in 1640; but the Dutch, on account of the exploration of Long Island Sound by Adrian Blok in 1614, laid claim to Greenwich, and as New Haven did nothing to assist the settlers, they consented to union with New Netherland in 1642.
The settlers of Kent are described by Bede as Jutes, and there are traces in Kentish custom of differences from the other.
At Merry Mount, in that part of Braintree which is now Quincy, a settlement was established by Thomas Morton in 1625, but the gay life of the settlers and their selling rum and firearms to the Indians greatly offended the Pilgrims of Plymouth, who in 1627 arrested Morton; soon afterward Governor John Endecott of Massachusetts Bay visited Merry Mount, rebuked the inhabitants and cut down their Maypole.Advertisement
In the same year sixty-four settlers arrived at Carlisle Bay and the present capital was founded.
Their agent sold most of it to settlers and, it is said, named the township, when it was organized in 1806, in honour of Alfred the Great.
For several years most of the settlers were Seventh-Day Baptists, and in 1812 they organized a church here.
The invitation was declined, but in the 16th century the Syrian Christians sought the help of the Portuguese settlers against Mussulman oppression, only to find that before long they were subjected to the fiercer perils of Jesuit antagonism and the Inquisition.
This movement, extending in time from about the middle of the 11th to the middle of the 13th century and carrying a stream of settlers and traders from the Northwest, resulted not only in the Germanization of a wide territory but in the extension of German influence along the sea-coast far to the east of actual territorial settlement.Advertisement
Germans were early pushing as permanent settlers into the Scandinavian towns, and in Wisby, on the island of Gothland, the Scandinavian centre of Baltic trade, equal rights as citizens in the town government were possessed by the German settlers as early as the beginning of the 13th century.
The Mosquito Coast is so called from its principal inhabitants, the Misskito Indians, whose name was corrupted into Mosquito by European settlers and has been entirely superseded by that form except in the native dialects.
Watertown was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay settlements, having been begun early in 1630 by a group of settlers led by Sir Richard Saltonstall and the Rev. George Phillips.
The Punic settlers semitized the coast, but left the Berbers of the interior almost untouched.
Their real origin is involved in that obscurity which conceals the ethnography of the earliest settlers in the Venetian plain.Advertisement
It was around this truncated cone that the early Greek settlers founded their little colonies.
An inn was erected in 1788, and new settlers, largely New Englanders, began to arrive.
In 1640 the Generar Court of Massachusetts declared that the representatives of Aquidneck were " not to be capitulated withal either for themselves or the people of the isle where they inhabit," and in 1644 and again in 1648 the application of the Narragansett settlers for admission to the New England Confederacy was refused except on condition that they should pass under the jurisdiction of either Massachusetts or Plymouth.
None of the above three, however, can be regarded as the earliest settlers in Japan.
Moreover the practice among Athenian settlers of acquiring land in the allied districts must have been vexatious to the allies, the more so as all important cases between Athenians and citizens of allied cities were brought to Athens.
There are also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers.
It was a post of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1828-1846, and was protected by a large stockade, to which settlers fled for protection when attacked by the Indians.
His kingdom became an imperial province; in it many colonies were founded and peopled by settlers drawn from different parts of the empire.
The chief city was called Hermoupolis after the name of the ship which brought the earlier settlers.
The first settlers on the site of the city were several Quaker families who came in the 18th century.
This vast domain has been utilized to provide homes for settlers, to encourage education, to subsidize railways, and to build the state capitol.
Most of the settlers came from the southern section of the Union and of course brought their slaves with them, but there is no evidence to show that their object was the territorial extension of slavery, or that the revolt against Mexico was the result of dissatisfaction with that country's anti-slavery policy.
In the crisis of 1860-61 Texas sided with the other Southern States in spite of the strong Unionist influence exerted by the German settlers and by Governor Sam Houston.
Besides a number of settlers a Roman Catholic bishop and a party of four missionaries and nuns were murdered in the Kilwa hinterland, while nearer Nyasa the warlike Wangoni held possession of the country.
Nearly all the stucco-fronted brick houses, with flat roofs and cornices and wide spreading stoeps, of the early Dutch settlers have been replaced by shops, warehouses and offices in styles common to English towns.
Less than a mile from the station is Groote Schuur, a typical specimen of the country houses built by the Dutch settlers in the 17th century.
Cape Town was founded in 1652 by settlers sent from Holland by the Netherlands East India Co., under Jan van Riebeek.
The members of the first group of settlers in these colonies were mostly small farmers, belonged to the same church, and dwelt in a village for protection from the Indians.
The Indians and white settlers used it as a manure, and the name is Narragansett for "fertilizer."
His example stimulated the settlers at Panama, who had heard of a great people owning vast quantities of gold to the south of them.
The settlers by degrees threw off the control of the proprietors who had received grants from the crown and had promoted the first settlements.
Apart from settlers who came for trade, the flow of government officials, and soldiers, both officers and men, ended generally in recruiting the Creole element.
Of its origin and early history we have no record except the bare statement of Bede that its settlers were of the Old Saxon race.
The struggle which the frontier settlers of Pennsylvania had made in the state legislature to secure unlimited issues of paper money and the enactment of laws favourable to the debtor class prejudiced him against the West, and he tried to introduce into the constitution a clause guaranteeing forever the political supremacy of the states east of the Alleghanies.
About 1628 the religious troubles in England led to the emigration of a large number of Puritans; the colony of Massachusetts Bay was founded in 1628-1630 by settlers led by John Endicott and John Winthrop, and a church on congregational lines was founded at Salem in 1629, and another soon afterwards at Boston, which became the centre of the colony.
The principal problem which divided the settlers was that known as the " Half Way Covenant," which concerned the status of the children of original church members.
Of far greater importance not only to Congregationalism but also to the future of the American colonies was the care taken by the settlers to provide adequate training for their ministers.
Two new theological schools began to emerge from the old Calvinistic theology of the early settlers.
Among the foreigners males greatly outnumber females; even in the case of the German settlers the proportion is two to one.
The money has chiefly been spent on railways, telegraphs, roads, bridges, land purchase from the native tribes and private estate owners, on loans to settlers and on native wars.
Lord Glenelg, the colonial minister, had the support of the missionaries in withstanding Wakefield's New Zealand Company, which at length resolved in desperation to send an agent to buy land wholesale in New Zealand and despatch a shipload of settlers thither without official permission.
Some French settlers, convoyed by a man-of-war, reached Akaroa in South Island in the May following.
Other bands of company's settlers in like manner landed at Nelson, Wanganui and New Plymouth, to be met with the news that the British government would not recognize the company's purchases.
So profitable was sheep-farming seen to be that energetic settlers began to burn off the bracken and cut and burn the forest in the North Island and sow English grasses on the cleared land.
In the South artificial grassing went on for a time hand in hand with cereal-growing, which by 1876 seemed likely to develop on a considerable scale, thanks to the importation of American agricultural machinery, which the settlers were quick to utilize.
Pastoral and mining enterprise, however, could not save the settlers from severe depression in the years 1867 to 1871.
In 1894 was passed the Advances to Settlers Act, under which state money-lending to farmers on mortgage of freehold or leasehold land was at once begun.
In American history the name " Pilgrims " is applied to the earliest settlers of the colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and more specifically to the first company of emigrants, who sailed in the " Mayflower " in 1620.
The first settlers on the site of Fond du Lac arrived about 1835.
American settlers in considerable numbers soon began to enter the region south of the Columbia river, and in 1841, and again in 1843, these settlers attempted to form a provisional government.
Others soon followed in spite of the efforts of the chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, Dr John M ` Loughlin, and these permanent settlers finally carried the day.
Interest in the Oregon country developed with the increase of settlers and of knowledge and a demand for the settlement of the boundary dispute arose.
Other South Arabs, and especially the Sabaeans, doubtless also planted settlers on the northern trade routes, who in process of time united into one community with their North-Arab kinsmen and neighbours.
The fauna has undergone a great alteration since the first white settlers entered the country.
The Basuto were already a strong force when the first white settlers, Dutch farmers from the Cape, entered the country in 1824; the white element has since been reinforced by a considerable strain of British, particularly Scottish, blood.
The rearing of live stock, the chief pursuit of the first Dutch settlers, is an important industry.
In 1907 a Land Settlement Board was created to deal with the affairs of these settlers.
He introduced the first bill for giving small tracts of government land free to actual settlers, and published an exposure of abuses in the allowance of mileage to members, which corrected the evil, but brought him much personal obloquy.
He planted Flemish and Dutch settlers in the land between the Elbe and the Oder, fostered the growth and trade of Lubeck, and in other ways encouraged trade and agriculture.
Milwaukee was on the direct route of travel between Fort Dearborn (Chicago) and the flourishing settlement at Green Bay, and at once after the treaties between the United States and the Menominee in 1831 and 1833 for the extinguishing of the Indian titles, settlers began to come to the neighbourhood.
A saw-mill was built in 1834, and settlers began to arrive.
Watertown was founded about 1836 by settlers who gave it the name of their former home, Watertown, New York.
For a century the Appalachians were a barrier to the westward expansion of the English colonies; the continuity of the system, the bewildering multiplicity of its succeeding ridges, the tortuous courses and roughness of its transverse passes, a heavy forest and dense undergrowth all conspired to hold the settlers on the seaward-sloping plateaus and coastal plains.
The principal cemeteries are Mount Pleasant, overlooking the Passaic in the northern part of the city, and Fairmount in the western part; about 1894 the remains of the early settlers were removed from the Old 1 The river channel before improvement had a navigable depth of 7 ft.
Melyn surrendered his rights as a patroon in 1661 and during the remainder of the Dutch regime many small grants of land were made to French, Dutch, and English settlers.
Such estates have increased greatly in number and extent, not only in Java but elsewhere, since the agrarian law of 1870, under which it became possible for settlers to obtain waste lands on hereditary lease for 75 years.
Under this system, which was intended to provide Netherlands India with a fixed population of European descent, Dutch girls were sent to the archipelago to be married to white settlers, and subsequently marriages between Dutchmen and captive native women were encouraged.
The hardship inflicted on the native races provoked an insurrection throughout Java, in which the Chinese settlers participated; but the Dutch maintained naval and military forces strong enough to crush all resistance, and a treaty between the company and the Susuhunan in November 1749 made them practically supreme throughout the island.
From Bengal are imported opium, drugs and cloths; from China, teas, raw silk, silk piece-goods, coarse China wares, paper, and innumerable smaller articles for the Chinese settlers.
The original settlement was on the right bank of the Warthe, but the new town, established on the opposite bank by German settlers about 1250, soon became the more important part of the double city.
Obliged, for fear of the Tatars, to go about with arms in their hands, these settlers gradually grew strong enough to raid their raiders, selling the booty thus acquired to the merchants of Muscovy and Poland.
On the summit of Osengal Hill, about a mile to the west of the town, a graveyard of early Saxon settlers was discovered during the cutting of the railway.
This led to the revolt of Texas, which was full of settlers from the United States.
According to tradition, reinforced by the similarity of names, it was founded by colonists from the Thessalian tribe of the Magnetes, with whom were associated, according to Strabo, some Cretan settlers (Magnesia retained a connexion with Crete, as inscriptions found there attest).
It is not unlikely that Roman settlers may have been attracted to the spot by the presence of the warm springs which still rise in the heart of the town, and spread fertility in the surrounding gardens.
The census showed that in addition to French settlers and their descendants (278,976) there were 117,475 Spaniards (most of whom are found in the department of Oran), 33,153 Italians (chiefly in the department of Constantine), 64,645 Jews, 6217 Maltese, and smaller communities of British, Germans, Levantines and Greeks.
In September 1904, a new scheme, intended to attract more European settlers, was adopted.
For the purpose of creating villages, land was put at the disposition of societies or individuals, who undertook to people them with immigrants fulfilling the same conditions as independent settlers.
Whalers, sealers and traders followed in the wake of explorers, the traders dealing chiefly in copra, trepang, pearls, tortoiseshell, &c. The first actual settlers in the islands were largely men of bad character - deserting sailors, escapers from the penal settlements in Australia and others.
There were occasional native risings, as in Samoa (where, however, the fighting was rather in the nature of civil warfare), the French possessions in eastern Polynesia, and the New Hebrides, apart from attacks on individual settlers or visitors, which have occurred here and there from the earliest period of exploration.
As Lynn (Lun, Lenne, Bishop's Lynn) owes its origin to the trade which its early settlers carried by the Ouse and its tributaries its history dates from the period of settled occupation by the Saxons.
Settlers slowly came; the town became the county-seat in 1805, was incorporated as a village in 1811, and was re-incorporated in 1828.
In such a case it must have been bestowed ironically, for the country proved very unprofitable to the gold-seekers, who were its earliest European settlers.
The early settlers and the Indians came to the springs to shoot large game for food, and by boiling the waters the settlers obtained valuable supplies of salt.
The early settlers were often attacked by Indian raiders from what is now Tennessee or from the country north of the Ohio, but the work of colonization would have been far more difficult if those Indians had lived in the Kentucky region itself.
The title was declared void by the Virginia government in 1778, but' Henderson and his associates received 200,000 acres in compensation, and all sales made to actual settlers were confirmed.
The aristocratic influences in both states have always been on the Southern and Democratic side, but while they were strong enough in Virginia to lead the state into secession they were unable to do so in Kentucky., 1 Most of the early settlers of Kentucky made their way thither either by the Ohio river (from Fort Pitt) or - the far larger number - by way of the Cumberland Gap and the " ` Wilderness Road."
Although most of the settlers were too loyal to be led into any such plot they generally agreed that it might have a good effect by bringing pressure to bear upon the Federal government.
A tract along the Tunxus (now Farmington) river, called Massacoe or Saco by the Indians, was ceded to whites in 1648, and there were settlers here from Windsor as early as 1664.
With the natives south of the latitude of Tampico there was little trouble after the Mixton War (in Guadalajara) in 1540-1562, save for occasional risings in Yucatan, Tehuantepec, and in 1711 in the Nayarit mountain region west of Zacatecas, and Tamaulipas was conquered in 1748; but the wild Indians of Sonora and New Mexico gave constant trouble to the missions and outlying settlers.
It was called the "Hottentots' god" by early settlers.
A fresh charter was granted in 1207 by King John to the inhabitants of Dublin, who had not yet made their peace with the neighbourhood, but, like the settlers in other towns, were at constant feud with the native Irish; so that two years after the date of this charter, whilst the citizens of Dublin were celebrating Easter at Cullenswood, they were set upon by the Irish of the neighbouring mountains, and 500 of them killed.
Nearly all of them were converted to Christianity by the Mayhews, and they were friendly to the settlers during King Philip's war.
Its principal village, Vineyard Haven, was called "Holmes's Hole" (in honour of one of the early settlers) until 1871, when the present name was adopted.
In 1821, while occupied by the North-West Fur Company, it was burned and practically abandoned, only a few settlers remaining.
There was a quarter or suburb of the old Babylonian city of Lagash whose name was written in the same way; this may possibly have been the home of those settlers from Babylonia who gave its name to the Assyrian city.
The first settlers were mostly Germans, but the direction of municipal affairs until the outbreak of the War of Independence was in the hands of the English-speaking inhabitants.
Minerals.In 1619 the erection of works for smelting the ores of iron was begun at Falling Creek, near Jamestown, Va., and iron appears to have been made in 1620; but the enterprise was stopped by a general massacre of the settlers in that region.
The first English settlers on the Atlantic bartered lead of domestic origin with the Indians in the 17th century, and so did the French in the upper Mississippi Valley.
At times also the proceeds of the sales of public lands have formed an important element of the receipts of government, although it has been the accepted policy to sell such lands to actual settlers at rates so low as to be inconsistent with the object or attainment (relatively) of revenue.
Meanwhile about 150,000 acres had been sold to prospective settlers in France, and in October 1790 the French immigrants, who had been detained for two months at Alexandria, Virginia, arrived on the site of Gallipolis, where rude huts had been built for them.
In 1795 the Ohio Company sold to the French settlers for $1.25 an acre the land they occupied and adjacent improved lots, and the United States government granted to them 24,000 acres in the southern part of what is now Scioto County in 1795; little of this land (still known as the "French Grant"), however, was ever occupied by them.
As the St Lawrence invited the earliest settlers to Canada and gave the easiest communication with the Old World, it is not surprising to find the wealthiest and most populous part of the country on its shores and near the Great Lakes which it leads up to; and this early development was greatly helped by the flat and fertile plain which follows it inland for over 600 m.
Its chief value lies in its vast tracts of fertile soil, now rapidly filling up with settlers from all parts of the world, and the grassy uplands in the foot-hill region affording perennial pasturage for the cattle, horses and sheep of the rancher.
They are a distinct breed of Jersey and Brittany type, and are stated to be descended from animals imported from France by the early settlers.
The first English settlers in the conquered country were chiefly petty traders, not of a character to lead in social or public affairs.
Until this time the present New Brunswick and Ontario had contained few European settlers; now they developed, largely under the influence of the loyalists of the Revolution.
A population largely Roman Catholic in creed, and partly French in origin and language, feared that an influx of new settlers would overthrow cherished traditions.
Several of the white settlers who resisted this rebellious movement were arrested and kept in confinement.
The topography of the Orkneys is wholly Norse, and the Norse tongue, at last extinguished by the constant influx of settlers from Scotland, lingered until the end of the 18th century.
Again, in 446, when Euboea endeavoured to throw off the yoke, it was once more reduced by Pericles, and a new body of settlers was planted at Histiaea in the north of the island, after the inhabitants of that town had been expelled.
The colony was led by two men of consular and one of praetorian rank, and 3000 pedites formed the bulk of the settlers.
He introduced German settlers and customs. into the duchy, founded many towns, and was extremely generous towards ecclesiastical foundations.
Painesville was founded in1800-1802by settlers from Connecticut and New York, conspicuous among whom was General Edward Paine (1746-1841), an officer from Connecticut in the War of Independence; it was incorporated as a village in 1832, and became a city in 1902 under the new Ohio municipal code.
With the encroachment of the white settlers upon their hunting-grounds the Creek Indians began to grow restless, and the great Shawnee chief Tecumseh, who visited them in 1811, fomented their discontent.
When the outbreak of the second war with Great Britain in 1812 gave the Creeks assurance of British aid they rose in arms, massacred several hundred settlers who had taken refuge in Fort Mims, near the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers, and in a short time no white family in the Creek country was safe outside a palisade.
In 1832 the national government provided for the removal of the Creeks; but before the terms of the contract were effected, the state legislature formed the Indian lands into counties, and settlers flocked in.
By some authorities Ainu colonists are supposed to have been the first settlers, and to have arrived there via Yezo; by others, the earliest corners are believed to have been a hyperborean tribe travelling southwards by way of Kamchatka.
There is little disposition to emigrate thither from Japan proper, the number of settlers being less than loo annually.
In spite of the incapacity which he displayed in this war, John was sent a little later 'to govern Ireland (1185); but he returned in a few months covered with disgrace, having alienated the loyal chiefs by his childish insolence and entirely failed to defend the settlers from the hostile septs.
Many naturalized foreign Catholics, including Americans, were among the original settlers.
Sugar refineries, distilleries of rum, and sawmills are worked in Mayotte by French settlers.
John McIntire (1759-1815), one of the early settlers, provided by will for the maintenance of a school for poor children, and such a school was maintained from 1836 to 1856, when it was transferred to the city school system, annual contributions being made from the fund for poor children; later the McIntire Home was founded, and in 1902 donations to the city school system were discontinued and the entire revenues of the estate devoted to the maintenance of the Home, which is a model of its kind.
The first settlers of Rockbridge county established themselves in 1737 near the North river, a short distance below Lexington.
A great revolt of the Jewish settlers in the time of Trajan settled the fate of Cyrene and Barca; the former is mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus in the 4th century A.D.
In 1869 Ali Riza Pasha of Tripoli tried to induce settlers to go to Bomba and Tobruk; and in 1888 an abortive effort was made to introduce Kurds.
The conditions in general are very like those of central Italy, and there is ample room for new settlers.
Slowly other settlers gathered.
An effort made in 1619 obtained greater success, and, the materials being present, the Virginian settlers were strongly urged to devote attention to the profitable industry of silk cultivation.
Not very long ago Pan-Germans were paying much attention to the German settlers in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, where large villages spoke nothing but German, and German, as the only language known on the spot, had become the tongue in which municipal business was transacted.
In the 17th century, after a long struggle, the settlers in the plains wrested from Aurangzeb terms which left them almost as independent as their brothers in the hills.
Large confiscations of the estates in the county were made in 1586, and on the termination of the wars of 1641; and in 1666 the restoration of his estates to the 4th Viscount Mayo involved another confiscation, at the expense of Cromwell's settlers.
The river valley, being of exceptional richness, early attracted the traders, and so in the beginning of the 19th century gained the attention of Lord Selkirk, a benevolent Scottish nobleman who sent out in1811-1815several hundreds of Highland settlers.
After bloodshed between the rival fur companies, and their union in 1821, Fort Garry was erected, as a trading post and settlers' depot, and with somewhat elaborate structure, with stone walls, bastions and portholes.
When the transfer of Rupert's Land took place to Canada in 1870, the governor of Assiniboia had his residence at Fort Garry, and here was the centre of government for the settlers over the area surrounding Fort Garry.
Its acquisition by Canada and the influx of settlers from Eastern Canada led to the greater importance of Winnipeg, as the new town was now generally called.
The establishment of Dominion government agencies, the formation of a local government, the machinery required for the government of the province, the influx of a small army of surveyors who mapped out and surveyed wide districts of the country, and the taking up of free lands in all directions by Canadian settlers, all tended to build up the hamlet of Winnipeg into a considerable town.
The natives seldom cultivate more than half an acre apiece, and the Portuguese settlers usually only 25 or 30 acres at most.
At a date no doubt previous to the foundation of Syracuse it was peopled by settlers from Corinth, but it appears to have previously received a stream of emigrants from Eretria.
The splendid commercial position of Corcyra on the highway between Greece and the West favoured its rapid growth, and, influenced p erhaps by the presence of non-Corinthian settlers, its people, quite contrary to the usual practice of Corinthian colonies, maintained an independent and even hostile attitude towards the mother city.
The settlers, however, were not sufficiently numerous to preserve their nationality, and in almost all cases they were soon absorbed by the populations (Teutonic, Celtic, Latin or Slavonic) which they had conquered.
The early settlers in west Pennsylvania also found that some unknown people had dug pits several feet in depth around the oil springs apparently for the purpose of collecting the oil.
Many of the early settlers were French Canadians, who came down the Mississippi to join the new colony.
A large part of North-west Africa was colonized from Phoenicia; owing to these first settlers, and after them to the Carthaginians, the Phoenician language became the prevailing one, just as Latin and Arabic did in later times, and the country assumed quite a Phoenician character.
The district was called Juneau and the camp Harrisburg by the first settlers; exploring naval officers named the camp Rockwell, in honour of Commander Charles Henry Rockwell, U.S.N.
Lawless and predatory, the English settlers were hardly distinguishable from the native Irish, and the authority of the English king over both had been reduced to vanishing point.
The statute also contained clauses for compelling the English settlers to keep the laws.
Endecott experienced some trouble with the previous settlers and with Thomas Morton's settlement at "Merry Mount" (Mount Wollaston, now Quincy), where, in accordance with his strict Puritanical tenets, he cut down the maypole and dispersed the merry makers.
Though not in existence before the arrival of the Ionians in Asia, its original founders were largely settlers from Phlius and Cleonae.
In 1683, several families, chiefly Scotch, led by Henry Erskine, third Lord Cardross (1650-1693), established on the island a settlement named Stuart's Town (probably in honour of Cardross's family); but three years later most of the settlers were murdered by Spaniards from Florida and the remainder fled to Charleston.
With the access of English and French settlers, Samuel Drisius, who preached in Dutch, German, English and French, was summoned, and he laboured in New Amsterdam and New York from 1652 to 1673.
Kolin was colonized in the 13th century by German settlers and made a royal city.
In the year 1618 was published The True Honour of Navigation and Navigators, by John Wood, D.D., dedicated to Sir Thomas Smith, governor to the East India Company, and about the same time appeared the well-known treatise of Hugo Grotius, De veritate religionis christianae, written for the express use of settlers in distant lands.
Those missions, however, are more properly an outlying branch of home missions, being to the professing Christian settlers or their descendants.
But these Christian settlers have their own missions to the heathen - both to the heathen at their doors and to the great heathen lands beyond.
Among the early settlers in Ohio many were inhabitants of Norwich.
Simalu is peopled partly by Achinese and partly by Menangkabo settlers.
Early in the Civil War the Confederates regarded the site (then an island) as of such strategic importance that (near the brick church tower and probably near the site of the first fortifications by the original settlers) they erected heavy earthworks upon it for defence.
Hatfield Chase, a portion of this tract south of Thorne, was partly drained by the Dutch engineer Vermuyden in the 17th century, and there were in the district numerous Dutch settlers.
According to this the kingdom was founded by two princes, Cerdic, and Cynric his son, who landed in 494 or 495 and were followed by other settlers in 501 and 514.
The settlers numbered 161 in 1908.
Though they succeeded in establishing a kind of imperium in imperio, and were allowed to drill the natives to the use of arms, the Jesuits never controlled the government of Paraguay; indeed they had nearly as often to defend themselves from the hostility of the governor and bishop at Asuncion as from the invasions of the Paulistas or Portuguese settlers of Sao Paulo.
It was from the young Greenland colony that an attempt was made to establish a new outpost in Vinland, but plans for permanent settlement were given up on account of the hostility of the natives, with whom the settlers felt powerless to grapple.
In 1638 allotments of land between the Mystic Pond and the present Woburn were made to various Charlestown settlers, including John Harvard and Increase Nowell (1590-1655), secretary of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1644-1649, and the new settlement was called Waterfield.
When first visited by the English settlers, the site of Concord was occupied by Penacook Indians; a trading post was built here about 1660.
The New Hampshire grantees undertook to establish here a colony of Londonderry Irish; but the Massachusetts settlers were firmly established by the spring of 1727, Massachusetts definitely assumed jurisdiction in 1731, and in 1734 her general court incorporated the settlement under the name of Rumford.
The conflicting rights of Rumford and Bow gave rise to one of the most celebrated of colonial land cases, and although the New Hampshire authorities enforced their claims of jurisdiction, the privy council in 1755 confirmed the Rumford settlers in their possession.
Andover was settled about 1643 and was incorporated in 1646, being named from the English town of Andover, Hampshire, whence some of the chief settlers had migrated; the first settlement was made in what is now the township of North Andover (pop. 4614 in 1905), which was separated from Andover in 1855.
Near the present site in 1643 colonists from Sweden built Fort Elfsborg; but the Swedish settlers in 1655 submitted to the Dutch at New Amsterdam, and the latter in turn surrendered to the English in 1664.
Here it is not enough to regulate the flow of streams. The object of the government is to dispose of the land to settlers who will build homes upon it.
Courland and Livonia were brought into subjection, and into these lands also Christian institutions were introduced and German settlers brought the arts of peace.
Spreading their advanced religious views, these settlers were partly responsible for two serious outbreaks of disorder, At Aix-laChapelle the Protestants, not being allowed freedom of worship, took possession of the city in 1581.
Many of the Germans were, however, not contented with this, and disputes regarding the rights of German settlers in Fiji caused some change of feeling.
The rocky hills of the tableland to the north long repelled settlement, the region being looked on by the thrifty farmers of the south as a wilderness useless except for its forests and its furs; and unfortunate settlers who ventured into it usually failed and went west or south in search of better land.
The eastern counties of Stormont and Glengarry, and parts of the western peninsula, had been settled by Highlanders; the Canada Company, organized in 1825 by the Scottish novelist, John Galt, had founded the town of Guelph, had cleared large tracts of land in the western peninsula, and settled thereon hundreds of the best .class of English and Scotch settlers.
Lizar's In the Days of the Canada Company depicts the life of the early settlers.
Thus nearly all the east coast of Sicily, a great part of the south coast, and a much smaller part of the north, passed into the hands of Greek settlers - Siceliots (IcrcfXt&rac), as distinguished from the native Sicels.
Their political constitutions were aristocratic; that is, the franchise was confined to the descendants of the original settlers, round whom an excluded body (Ffflos or plebs) was often growing up. The ancient kingship was perhaps kept on or renewed in some of the Siceliot and Italiot towns; but it is more certain that civil dissensions led very early to the rise of tyrants.
He restored Messana, peopling it with motley settlers, among whom were some of the old Messenians from Peloponnesus.
Sicily stood out before the rest as the first land to be tilled by slave-gangs, on the estates both of rich natives and of Roman settlers.
But the first cS aracen Saracen settlers in Sicily were the African neighbours of Sicily, and they were called to the work by a home treason.
We hear dimly of treasonable dealings with them on the part of the strategos Alexius, son-in-law of the emperor Theophilus; but we see more clearly that Saracen advance was largely hindered by dissensions between the African and the Spanish settlers.
The Norman conquest opened Sicily to settlers from Italy, above all from the Norman possessions in Italy.
Milford is a typical old New England town, and many of the permanent inhabitants are descendants from the first settlers.
Spanning the Wepowaug river near a gorge and not far from its mouth is a granite bridge and tower, built, as a memorial to the first settlers, in 1889, in connexion with the celebration of the 250th anniversary of the founding of the town.
He soon began to use his influence, however, to force the admission of Kansas into the Union under the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution, contrary to the wishes of the majority of the settlers.
The Dalriadic settlers in Argyll and the Isles, the (Irish) Scots, were Christians in the Irish manner.
Owing to the admixture of the Polynesians with the Papuans in Fiji some authorities have thought the first settlement was in those islands, and that the settlers were eventually driven thence by the Papuan occupiers.
The dampness and miasma, to which so many of the early settlers' fatal "chills and fever" were due, have practically disappeared before modern methods of sanitary drainage.
The first European settlers, who were French, came by way of the Great Lakes, and established intimate relations with New Orleans by the Mississippi river.
The American settlers came by way of the Ohio river, and the immigrants from the New England and Eastern states found their way to Illinois over the Erie Canal and the Great Lakes.
The local government of Illinois includes both county and township systems. The earliest American settlers came from the Southern States and naturally introduced the county system; but the increase of population from the New England and Middle States led to a recognition of township organization in the constitution of 1848, and this form of government, at first prevalent only in the northern counties, is now found in most of the middle and southern counties.
In 1818, however, many citizens were in debt for their lands, and "squatters" invaded the rights of settlers.
Congress therefore reduced the price of land from $2 to $1.25 per acre, and adopted the policy of pre-emption, preference being given to the claims of existing settlers.
The appointment of Mr. Smith, like Dr. Laws an Aberdeenian, was highly popular with the Nyasaland settlers, who are mainly Scots.
It was afterwards occupied by German settlers and became a royal free town in the 11th century.
The panic of 1857 interrupted its growth, and the population dwindled so that in 1860 there were only a few hundred settlers on the town-site.
As the flood poured over Syria and flowed south, Israel (Samaria) suffered grievously, and the gaps caused by war and deportation were filled up by the introduction of new settlers by Sargon, and by his successors in the 7th century.
The fact that among the new settlers were desert tribes, suggests the introduction, not merely of a simpler culture, but also of simpler groups of ideas.
There was, in one case, a retrospect which did not include the deluge, and in another the patriarchs were actual settlers, a descent into Egypt and subsequent exodus being ignored; moreover, the standpoints of those who did not go into exile and of those who did and returned would naturally differ.
By the Dutch settlers of New York it was called seawan or zeewand, and roenoke in Virginia, and perhaps farther south, for shell-money was also known in the Carolinas, but whether the roenoke of the Virginian Indians was made from the same species of shell as wampum is not clear.
The majority of the early settlers came from the southern and border states, principally from Missouri and Kentucky; but subsequently there was a large immigration of New England and Eastern people, and these elements were stronger in the population of Jacksonville than in any other city of southern Illinois.
Repeopled with Albanian settlers, Argos was chosen as seat of the Greek national assembly in the wars of independence.
When European adventurers found the way to India, cotton and silk always formed part of the rich cargoes that they brought home, and the early settlers were always careful to fix their abode amid a weaving population, at Surat, Calicut, Masulipatam or Hugli.
After the fall of the central power, the scattered Hunnish settlers, like so many before them, became rapidly Hinduized, and are probably the ancestors of some of the most famous Rajput clans.4 The last native monarch, prior to the Mahommedan conquest,' to establish and maintain paramount power in the north was Harsha, or Harshavardhana (also known as Siladitya), for whose reign (606-648) full and trustworthy materials exist in the book of travels written by the Chinese pilgrim Hstian Tsang and the Harsha-charita (Deeds of Harsha) composed by Bana, a Brahman who lived at the royal court.
Pietermaritzburg was founded early in 1839 by the newlyarrived Dutch settlers in Natal, and its name commemorates two of their leaders - Piet Retief and Gerrit Maritz.
Governor Estevan Miro of Louisiana, however, disapproved of the grant, on the ground that it would cause the province to be overrun by Americans; the settlers became restive under the restraints imposed upon them; Morgan himself left; and in December 1811 and January 1812 a series of severe earthquake shocks caused a general emigration.
A small military post had existed there since 1717, but efforts to create a town had been fruitless until Zabala offered to make hidalgos of the first settlers and to give them cattle and sheep. The first families to accept this offer came from the Canary Islands in 1726 under the direction of Don Francisco Alzeibar; they were followed by others from Andalusia and some of the Spanish-American settlements.
The kernel of his subjects consisted of genuine Arabs, not only recent immigrants along with Islam, but also old settlers who, through contact with the Roman empire and the Christian church, had become to some extent civilized.
The conditions, however, were not observed by the imperial generals, who for their own profit forced the new settlers to buy food at famine prices.
Other settlers in the coast towns were also of high standing and importance.
In violation therefore of international amities, and practically in disobedience of orders, he broke the peace, caused a band of Mexican cavalry mounts to be seized, and prompted some American settlers to occupy Sonoma (14th June 1846).
The settlers invited were merchants (mercatores personati) and handicraftsmen.
The necessary land was placed at the disposal of new settlers, either by the members of the older agricultural community, or by the various churches.
Settlers intending to occupy such lands must satisfy the state that they have entered into contracts with the irrigating company for a sufficient water-right and a perpetual interest in the irrigation works.
With the approach of United States troops under Albert Sidney Johnston in 1857, Fort Supply was abandoned, and in the next year the Mormon settlers retired to Salt Lake City, again leaving the region almost without permanent inhabitants.
The settlers in Wyoming shared the general antipathy to the Chinese, common to the western country.
Some of these small settlers owned no cattle, and subsisted by stealing calves and unbranded cattle (mavericks) belonging to the range cattlemen.
The country round was roused and large numbers of settlers and others turned out and besieged the cattlemen, who had taken refuge in some ranch buildings.
However this may be, it is certain that the flourishing condition of Borneo in the 16th and 17th centuries was largely due to the energy of Chinese settlers and to trade with China.
The Malay chiefs of other districts encouraged immigration from China with a view to developing the mineral resources of their territories, and before long Chinese settlers were to be found in considerable numbers in Sambas, Montrado, Pontianak and elsewhere.
The east coast is very sparsely populated and its inhabitants are mostly Bajaus and settlers from the neighbouring Sulu archipelago.
Here are all the large towns, and hither European settlers were attracted from the first by the temperate climate, rich soil, and natural waterways.
The purchaser undertook to introduce settlers from northern Europe, to import cattle for the improvement of the Nicaraguan breed, to plant rubber and vanilla, and to provide schools for agricultural instruction.
From a very early period the little civic communities of Greece had sent forth numerous colonizing streams. At points so far asunder as the Tauric Chersonese, Cyrene and Massilia were found prosperous centres of Greek commercial energy; but the regions most thickly peopled by settlers of Greek descent were the western seaboard of Asia Minor, Sicily and the southern parts of the Italian peninsula.
It was borne by one of the 'early settlers in Iceland, and a monk named Biuulf is commemorated in the Liber Vitae of the church of Durham.
Before the arrival of the "government" and their shiploads of settlers the original colony was reduced to the direst straits.
But in 1616 the land was parcelled out and the settlers were scattered along the shores of the James and Appomattox rivers many miles inland.
These losses were repaired, however; the tobacco industry grew in importance, and the settlers built their cabins far in the interior of lowland Virginia.
This rapid growth was scarcely retarded by a second Indian attack, in April 1641, which resulted in the death of about 350 settlers.
This first West, made up of the older small farmers, of the Scottish settlers, of the Germans from the Palatinate and the Scottish-Irish, far outnumbering the people of the old counties, demanded the creation of new counties and proportionate representation in the Burgesses.
It is chiefly from the populations of the south-west of Europe that the New World is being colonized; but the territories over which the settlers and their recruits from abroad are able to scatter are so extensive that even the lower densities of the Old World have not yet been attained, except in a few tracts along the eastern coasts of Australia and North America.
For these settlers he has to find British wives, and to this end collects 11,000 noble and 60,000 plebeian virgins, who are wrecked on their passage across.
Julesburg, in the extreme north-east corner, at the intersection of the Platte valley and the overland wagon route, became transiently important during the rush of settlers that followed.
Its acts, owing to the indifference of the settlers, had slight importance.
Although the Franciscan missionaries by 1617 had built seven churches and had baptized 14,000 Indians, there were in this year only 48 soldiers and settlers in the province.
But of the mode in which it was planted, steeped, heckled, cleansed and generally prepared for use, we can form no idea any more than we can of the mode or tools employed by the settlers in its cultivation..
For Owen's brilliant but brief career and ruthless treatment of English settlers and Anglophil Welshmen, his countrymen had not unnaturally to pay a heavy penalty in the severe statutes which the affrighted parliaments of Henry IV.
This position gave him the chief control of Indian affairs for the territory, which was then occupied almost entirely by natives, there being only 6000 white settlers.
Why should philosophical Brahmanism, or the Buddhism which reacted against it, be associated with so undeveloped a form as the religion of the ancient Latin settlers in mid-Italy?
In the first place, we have the possibility of a mixture of native blood having occurred; in the second, there have almost always been a succession of immigrants from the parent country, who continually intermingle with thefamilies of the early settlers.
In 1865 it was near 182,000, the majority being of "Dutch, German or French origin, mostly descendants of original settlers."
Some of her followers left her before 1800, and then the community gradually broke up. The name of the village is said to have been derived from the first syllables of "Pennsylvania" and "Yankee," as most of the early settlers were Pennsylvanians and New Englanders.
It became a northwestern centre, and in its neighbourhood many employees of the fur company, both Scottish and French, took up land as settlers.
As freighters for the Hudson's Bay Company many of these settlers made, with their ox or pony carts, the long journey over the natural prairie roads to Fort Garry, fording or swimming the streams, carrying furs for a thousand miles or more on the eastern trip, and returning brought loads of merchandise for the company.
Indeed it is said that Hadrian, conscious of the difficulty of retaining it, had contemplated its abandonment and was only deterred by consideration for the safety of the numerous Roman settlers.
In front of the stock exchange is a monument in memory of the 257 settlers killed in the Matabele rebellion of 1896, and at the junction of two of the principal streets is a colossal bronze statue of Cecil Rhodes.
The white settlers in Zoutpansberg had for many years a reputation for lawlessness, and were later regarded as typical "back velt Boers."
The fact that many of the names which occur in Russian chronicles seem to be peculiarly Swedish suggests that Sweden was the home of the settlers, and the best authorities consider that the original Scandinavian conquerors were Swedes who had settled on the east coast of the Baltic.
The government has made repeated efforts to secure immigrants from Europe, but the lands set apart for immigrant settlers are in the forested provinces south of the Bio-Bio, where the labour and hardships involved in establishing a home are great, and the protection of the law against bandits and criminal assaults is weak.
Many of them, especially the landed proprietors, are descendants of the original Spanish settlers and are celebrated for their politeness and hospitality.
As there was no gold in the country the number of settlers was small, the loose tribal organization of the natives made it impossible to inflict a vital defeat on them, and the mountainous and thickly wooded country lent itself admirably to a warfare of surprises and ambuscades.
It was this constant warfare with the Indians and the necessity for hard continuous work, owing to the lack of precious metals in Chile, that no doubt helped to produce in the settlers the strength and hardihood of character that distinguishes the Chileans among South American races.
The Indian warfare occupied nearly the whole attention of the governors and much of the time of the settlers.
Internal development was promoted by the working of the silver mines of Copiapo and the coal mines of Lota, by the building of railways and erection of telegraphs, and by the colonization of the rich Valdivia province with German settlers.
The native population of these villages and rural districts, at first, had no civic rights, but were governed by the foreign settlers.
Thus an active Hellenic life soon arose in the East; and Greek settlers must have come in numbers and founded new cities, which afterwards formed the basis of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom.
In the year following, 1788, Nembana, a Timni chief, sold a strip of land to Captain John Taylor, R.N., for the use of the "free community of settlers, their heirs and successors, lately arrived from England, and under the protection of the British government."
Owing mainly to the utter shiftlessness of the settlers and the great mortality among them, but partly to an attack by a body of natives, this first attempt proved a complete failure.
A question arose in the time of Domitian between the inhabitants of Falerio and Firmum as to land which had been taken out of the territory of the latter (which was recolonized by the triumvirs), and, though not distributed to the new settlers, had not been given back again to the people of Firmum.
The basis of the language as spoken to-day is that 17th-century Dutch of Holland which the first settlers brought to the country; and although the Dutch of Holland and the Dutch of South Africa differ very widely to-day, Cape Dutch differs less widely from the Dutch language of the 17th century than from the modern Dutch of Holland.
In the first place, the early settlers were drawn principally from the peasant class, being chiefly discharged soldiers and sailors; and, further, when once settled, the necessity for making the language intelligible to the natives by whom the settlers were surrounded led to a still further simplification of speech structure and curtailment of the vocabulary.
The part played by the various native races in modifying the character of the European colonization will be best considered as they successively came into contact with the white settlers.
More settlers were landed from time to time, including a number of orphan girls from Amsterdam, and during1688-1689the colony was greatly strengthened by the arrival of some three hundred Huguenots (men, women and children), who were located at Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, Frenchhoek and Paarl.
In process of time the French settlers were absorbed in the Dutch population, but they have had an enduring influence on the character of the people.
Following the peace of Amiens the colony was handed over (February 1803) by Great Britain to a commissioner of the Batavian Republic. During the eight years the British held the Cape notable reforms in the government were effected, but the country remained essentially Dutch, and few British settlers were attracted to it.
Before tracing the history of South Africa during the 19th century, the early relations of the white settlers with the natives may be briefly reviewed.
Next to the Hottentots the white settlers encountered the Bushmen (q.v.).
They were driven back and the country up to the Keiskama River annexed to the colony; but the disaster which nearly overwhelmed the eastern province convinced Lord Charles Somerset, then governor of the colony, of the necessity for a line of frontier forts and a more numerous settlement of Settlers colonists.
Among these settlers were a number of married men with families.
After it had been secured by walls, which began to be built about 1270 and are still in part traceable, it became the residence of a number of enterprising settlers, through whom it attained a position of much commercial celebrity.
Of these settlers the principal families, fourteen in number, were known as the tribes of Galway.
The plant (which is not a native of Virginia) was probably introduced there in consequence of the intercourse of the early settlers with the Spaniards.
In the period of great invasions from the north Thebes received settlers of that stock which in historical times was homogeneously spread over Boeotia.
Glatz existed as early as the 10th century, and received German settlers about 1250.
The first settlers with whom they intermarried were probably Carthaginians, who were followed in smaller numbers by.
The first settlers at Terre Haute built their cabins near Fort Harrison, which was erected by command of Governor William Henry Harrison in the winter of 1810-11.
After the conquest of Peru by the Spaniards in the 16th century the natives were subjected to much tyranny and oppression, though it must in fairness be said that much of it was carried out in defiance of the efforts and the wishes of the Spanish home government, whose legislative efforts to protect the Indians from serfdom and ill-usage met with scant respect at the hands of the distant settlers and mine-owners, who bid defiance to the humane and protective regulations of the council of the Indies, and treated the unhappy natives little better than beasts of burden.
There are also Somali, Arab and Hindu settlers.
But there is evidence that from the Bronze Age there had been settlers in northern Britain who were broad-skulled and cremated their dead, a practice which had arisen in south Germany in the early Bronze Age or still earlier.
Henry soon became unpopular, as he was accused of unduly favouring the German settlers in Bohemia.
But the secession of the greater part of his church to Monophysitism [[[Coptic Church]]], and the Mahommedan conquest of Egypt, have left him but the shadow of his former greatness; and at the present time he has only the bishop of Libya under him, and rules over some 20,000 people at the outside, most of whom are settlers from elsewhere.
While serving in this capacity he devised a plan for disposing of the public lands upon favourable terms to actual settlers, and also assisted in the division of the North-west Territory.
The great migration was in 376, when they were allowed to pass as peaceful settlers under their chief Frithigern.
It was named Paarl by the first settlers from the fancied resemblance of one of the boulders on the top of the hill, when glistening in the sun, to a gigantic pearl.
P. Boss has modified the ordinary plant by making the pulp flowing from the stamps pass through a grinding pan, then through a series of amalgamating pans followed by a row of settlers.
The town site was claimed by Missourians from Weston in June 1854, Leavenworth thus being the oldest permanent settlement in Kansas; and during the contest in Kansas between the anti-slavery and pro-slavery settlers, it was known as a pro-slavery town.
Between them and the European settlers there were seldom any manifestations of acute hostility, though each race feared and distrusted the other.
During the rule of Governor William Kieft, the Indians, disturbed by the encroachments of the settlers, assumed a hostile attitude.
From the Connecticut to the Raritan the savages rose in arms, laid waste the farms, massacred the settlers and compelled those who escaped to take refuge on Manhattan Island.
In the meantime Governor Nicolls of New York, ignorant of the grant to Berkeley and Carteret, had approved certain Indian sales of land to settlers within New Jersey, and had confirmed their titles to tracts in what later became Elizabethtown, Middletown and Shrewsbury.
But by degrees the difficulties inseparable from the foundation of a remote colony were surmounted, several additional convictships landed their living freight on the shores of Port Jackson, and in 1793 an emigrant-ship arrived with free settlers, who were furnished with provisions and presented with free grants of land.
But although the free settlers prospered, and were enabled to purchase land on very easy terms, they were dissatisfied with the administration of justice, which was in the hands of a judge-advocate assisted by military officers, and with the absence of a free press and representative institutions.
It was during the governorship of Sir John Young that the distinction between the descendants of convicts and the descendants of free settlers, hitherto maintained with great strictness, was finally abandoned.
At this time a mission church was built on the heights overlooking the bay by Captain Allen Gardner, R.N., who named the hill Berea in gratitude for support received from the settlers, whom he found " L 'more noble than those of " Zululand - Dingaan having refused to allow the captain to start a mission among his people.
The first mayor was Mr George Cato (c. 1810-1893), one of the earliest settlers in Natal.
The early settlers were chiefly Scotch-Irish.
Yet the taxes were continually on the increase, and the hospodar Scarlat Ghica (1758-61), though he tried to win some popularity by the removal of Turkish settlers and the abolition of the vakarit or tax on cattle and horses, which was peculiarly hateful to the peasantry, raised the total amount of taxation to 25,000,000 lion-dollars, about £I,000,000.
In 1563 the people rose, massacred the Hungarian guards, the foreign settlers, and finally Jacob himself.
The early settlers of the state were practically all from Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and the old slave-states of the south-east, and their influence was easily dominant in the state until well after the Civil War (about 1875), when northerners first began to enter the state in large numbers.
Meanwhile, after the peace of 1815 a great immigration had set in, many settlers coming from the free states north of the Ohio.
Jorge Villalonga, Count de la Cueva, expressing his opinion that the maintenance of this dignity was too great a burden on the settlers, the viceroyalty gave place to a simple presidency.
Ten generations of settlers from northern Europe have been born, lived and died there, and the race is as strong and vigorous as that from which it sprang.
The advent of Dutch settlers and a few Huguenot families in the 17th century was followed in the 19th century by that of English and German immigrants.
They and the German settlers are mainly pastoral people.
The British settlers have developed few characteristics differing from the home type.
In several of the towns, notably those founded by the early Dutch settlers, the streets are tree-lined.
The first Dutch settlers planted small vineyards, while the cuttings of French vines introduced by the Huguenots about 1688 have given rise to an extensive culture in the southwestern districts of the colony.
The influence of this small body of immigrants on the character of the Dutch settlers was marked.
Their introduction was the chief cause leading the white settlers to despise manual labour.
The war of 1817-19 led to the first introduction of English settlers on a considerable scale, an event fraught with far-reaching consequences.
The settlers in the military villages, which had been established along the frontier, assembled in fancied security to celebrate Christmas Day, were surprised, many of them murdered, and their houses given to the flames.
The country depopulated as the result of this delusion was afterwards peopled by European settlers, among whom were members of the German legion which had served with the British army in the Crimea, and some 2000 industrious North German emigrants, who proved a valuable acquisition to the colony.
Each nation contributed a band of colonists, who selected the island of St Kitts or St Christopher, in the West Indies, where the settlers of both nations were simultaneously planted.
Such successes removed the buccaneers further and further from the pale of civilized society, fed their revenge, and inspired them with an avarice almost equal to that of the original settlers from Spain.
On the northern bank of the Columbia in1824-1825he built Fort Vancouver, which became a port for ocean vessels and a great entrepot for the western fur trade; in 1829 he began the settlement of Oregon City; and, most important of all, he extended a hearty welcome to all settlers and aided them in many ways, though this was against the company's interests.
A compromise was finally reached, whereby the company was to be exempt from taxes on all its property except the goods sold to settlers, and the officers and employees of the company and all the British residents were to become subject to the provisional government.