In 1542 the settlement of Buenos Aires was re-established by an expedition sent for the purpose from Spain, under a tried adelantado, Cabeza de Vaca.
The settlement was at first called Aspinwall, in honour of William H.
The second settlement made by his expedition at Buenos Aires was even less successful and long-lived than the first.
Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.
That a far more advanced race had at one time a settlement on the north-west coast is indicated by the cave-paintings and sculptures discovered by Sir George Grey.
To gratify his own imagination or strike the imagination of the world he took his army over the Danube and burnt a settlement of the Getae upon the other side.
Churches of all denominations are liberally supported throughout the states, and the residents of every settlement, however small, have their places of worship erected and maintained by their own contributions.
Churches of all denominations are liberally supported throughout the states, and the residents of every settlement, however small, have their places of worship erected and maintained by their own contributions.
Cabot, with a large following, entered the Parana and established a settlement just above the mouth of the river Carcaranal, to which he gave the name of San Espiritu, among the Timbu Indians, with whom he formed friendly relations.
Philip Carteret first observed this settlement in May 1767, and on account of the hostility of the Spaniards preferred to put in at Masa-Fuera.
In the north, however, the hot lowlands are malarial and unsuited to north European settlement, while the dry, elevated plateaus are celebrated for their healthiness, those of Catamarca having an excellent reputation as a sanatorium for sufferers from pulmonary and bronchial diseases.
His second great work, Meditations on the First Philosophy, which had been begun soon after his settlement in the Netherlands, expounded in more detail the foundations of his system, 1 Ouvres, vi.
It was founded (perhaps on the site of an early Sicanian settlement) by colonists from Gela about 582 B.C., and, though the lastest city of importance founded by the Greeks in Sicily, soon acquired a position second to that of Syracuse alone, owing to its favourable situation for trade with Carthage and to the fertility of its territory.
Political Divisions and Towns.-The chief political divisions of the republic consist of one federal district, 14 provinces and 10 territories, the last in great part dating from the settlement of the territorial controversies with Chile.
As Cabot was descending the stream to his settlement of San Espiritu, he encountered an expedition which had been despatched from Spain for the express purpose of exploring the river discovered by Solis, under the command of Diego Garcia.
During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.
The synod hears appeals and references from presbyteries; and by its discussions and decisions business of various kinds, if not settled, is ripened for consideration and final settlement by the general assembly, the supreme court of the Church.
In South Australia and the Northern Territory a large number are outside the bounds of settlement, and it is probable that they are as numerous there as in Queensland.
Here, on the 2nd of February, Mendoza laid the foundations of a settlement which in honour of the day he named Santa Maria de Buenos Aires.
An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.
Matters about which there is any doubt or difficulty, or division of opinion in the session, may be carried for settlement to the next higher court, the presbytery.
In the settlement of this question, made in 1505, he secured a considerable increase of territory, and when the king met the diet at Cologne in 1505 he was at the height of his power.
Wendover (Wendovre, Wandovre, Wendoura) is on the Upper Icknield Way, which was probably an ancient British road, and various traces of a British settlement have been found in the town and neighbourhood.
The settlement of Fort St George or Madras, captured by force of arms, had only recently been restored in accordance with a clause of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
At the same time a settlement of the land revenue on leases for five years was begun, and the police and military systems of the country were placed upon a new footing.
of the Andes which is claimed by Bolivia, and the settlement of the dispute may materially diminish its size.
The exact position of the Jebusite city is unknown; some authorities locate it on the western hill, now known as Zion; some on the eastern hill, afterwards occupied by the Temple and the city of David; while others consider it was a double settlement, one part being on the western, and the, other on the eastern hill, separated from one another by the Tyropoeon valley.
The exact position of the Jebusite city is unknown; some authorities locate it on the western hill, now known as Zion; some on the eastern hill, afterwards occupied by the Temple and the city of David; while others consider it was a double settlement, one part being on the western, and the, other on the eastern hill, separated from one another by the Tyropoeon valley.
In 1811 he founded at the mouth of the Columbia river a settlement named after him Astoria, which was intended to serve as the central depot; but two years later the settlement was seized and occupied by the English.
King George Sound, of which Albany is the township, was first occupied in 1826 and a penal settlement was established.
Finding their comrades did not return, Irala and his companions determined to descend the river, and on their downward journey opposite the mouth of the river Pilcomayo, finding a suitable site for colonizing, they founded (1536) what proved to be the first permanent Spanish settlement in the interior of South America, the future city of Asuncion (15th August 1536).
The Portuguese were even worse offenders, for in 1680 they made a settlement on the north of the river Plate, right opposite to Buenos Aires, named Colonia, which with one or two short intervals, remained.
Since his departure from Bengal in 1764 the situation of affairs in that settlement had scarcely improved.
In 1337 the industry received an impulse from the settlement of a party of Flemish clothiers, and extended so greatly that when it was found necessary in 1566 to appoint by act of parliament deputies to assist the aulnegers, Bolton is named as one of the places where these deputies were to be employed.
It is the oldest existing European settlement on the South American continent, having been founded by Diego Castellon in 1523 under the name of Nueva Toledo.
Notwithstanding their complete subjection, women are treated with a certain respect, and are often employed as intermediaries in the settlement of feuds; a woman may traverse a hostile district without fear of injury, and her bessa will protect the traveller or the stranger.
From archaeological discoveries it would appear that the ancient town was preceded by a prehistoric settlement of the Bronze Age, the dwellings of which rested upon piles - one, indeed, of the so-called terremare, which are especially frequent in the neighbourhood of Parma.
From archaeological discoveries it would appear that the ancient town was preceded by a prehistoric settlement of the Bronze Age, the dwellings of which rested upon piles - one, indeed, of the so-called terremare, which are especially frequent in the neighbourhood of Parma.
The municipality owns its electric-lighting plant; the water-works are under private ownership. The first settlement in the neighbourhood was made in 1838.
Five miles from Norfolk and with Norfolk as its headquarters was held from the 26th of April to the 30th of November 1907 the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, celebrating the first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown, Virginia.
A military station having been fixed by the British government at Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnheim Land, for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called Queensland.
Above sea-level, the climate is hot, humid and unhealthy, and the conditions for permanent settlement are apparently unfavourable.
After the revocation of the edict of Nantes the settlement of some French refugees further stimulated this industry.
The judicial powers of the county court are confined to probate, the appointment of executors, administrators and other personal representatives, and the settlement of their accounts, matters relating to apprentices and to contested elections for county and district officers.
From this island, ten years later, parties crossed Bass Strait to Port Phillip, where a new settlement was shortly established, forming till 1851 a part of New South Wales, but now the state of Victoria.
The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other states was caused by the inability of the government to construct lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in the interests of settlement.
In 1827 and 1829, an English company endeavoured to plant a settlement at the Swan river, and this, added to a small military station established in 1825 at King George Sound, constituted Western Australia.
The object of settlers, however, in a great many, perhaps in the majority of instances, is to dispose of their holdings as soon as possible after the requirements of the law have been complied with, and to avoid permanent settlement.
Other consignments of intending settlers in " New Australia " followed; but though the settlement is still in existence it has completely failed to realize the impracticable ideals of its original members.
The president has the power to appoint assessors to advise him on technical points; and considerable powers of devolution of authority for the purpose of inquiry and report are conferred upon the court, the main object of which is to secure settlement by conciliatory methods.
He took a leading part in the negotiation of 1890 for the Bohemian settlement, but the elections of 1891, in which the young Czechs who were opposed to the feudal party gained a decisive victory, made his position a very difficult one.
He supported the claims of Bohemia to a full autonomy; he strongly attacked both the February constitution and the Ausgleich with Hungary; what he desired was a common parliament for the whole empire based on a settlement with each one of the territories.
The first English settlement was probably made at Chimney Point, in Addison township, in 1690 by a party from Albany.
The first permanent white settlement was established by Massachusetts at Fort Dummer (near the present Dummer, in the south-eastern part of the present town of Brattleboro) in 1724.
New York protested against the Bennington grant in 1749, but the question did not become serious until the chief obstacle to settlement was removed by the conquest of Canada in 1760-61.
Cromwell and the army now turned with hopes of a settlement to Charles.
Meanwhile the failure to come to terms with Charles and provide a settlement appeared to threaten a general anarchy.
The agitators demanded immediate settlement by force by the army.
Cromwell's land settlement - modified by the restoration under Charles II.
The settlement here was made on more moderate lines than in Ireland.
It was only when five years had passed since the death of the king without any "settlement of the nation" being arrived at, that Cromwell at last accepted a constitution drafted by his military officers, and attempted to impose it on the parliament.
Vevey was a Roman settlement [Viviscus] and later formed part of the barony of Vaud, that was held by the counts and dukes of Savoy till 1536, when it was conquered by Bern.
Maceio dates from 1815 when a small settlement there was created a " villa."
Among the inhabitants are numbers of Mahommedans, and there is a settlement of Falashas.
But the city, as a superficial inspection of the site shows, must have existed as a settlement long before Omri, as potsherds of earlier date lie scattered on the surface.
The first settlement within its present limits was made about 1672; the land was bought from the Indians in 1676; and the township was separated from East Hartford and incorporated in 1823.
During the excavations on Chatham Hill after 1758 a number of tumuli containing human remains, pottery, coins, &c., suggestive of an ancient settlement, were found.
A man might make his wife a settlement by deed of gift, which gave her a life interest in part of his property, and he might reserve to her the right to bequeath it to a favourite child, but she could in no case leave it to her family.
If she did not remarry, she lived on in her husband's house and took a child's share on the division of his estate, when the children had grown up. She still retained her dowry and any settlement deeded to her by her husband.
The principal industry is stock-raising, which dates from the first settlement in 1674 by Domingos Affonso Mafrense, who established here a large number of cattle ranges.
This new settlement lasted but a few years.
Charles took possession of the kingdom of Italy, as limited by Pippins settlement.
The famous league of Lombard cities, styled Concordia in its acts of settlement, was now established.
At the same time, the change which had now come over Italian politics, the desire on all sides for a settlement, and the growing conviction that a federation was necessary, proved advantageous to the popes as sovereigns.
The country was exposed to anarchy, Settlement of which this had been the last and most disgraceby Spain.
He there received the imperial crown, and summoned the Italian princes for a settlement of all disputed claims. Francesco Sforza, the last and childless heir of the ducal house, was left in Milan till his death, which happened in 1535.
The great gainer by this settlement was the papacy, which held the most substantial Italian province, together with a prestige that raised it far above all rivalry.
Their annals are filled with records of dynastic changes and redistributions of territory, consequent upon treaties signed by foreign powers, in the settlement of quarrels which no wise concerned the people.
Austrian mediation was now imminent, as the Vienna revolution had been crushed, and the new emperor, Francis Joseph, refused to consider any settlement other than on the basis of the treaties of 1815.
Tidings of a new Mahdist incursion into Abyssinian territory reaching the negus induced him to postpone the settlement of his quarrel with Menelek until the dervishes had been chastised.
At the same time it mediated between the companies and the employees, and in June a settlement was formally concluded between the ministers of public works and of the treasury and the directors of the companies concerning the grievances of the employees.
He terminated the war with Holland in 1674, and from that time maintained a friendly correspondence with William; while in 1677, after two years of tedious negotiations, he overcame all obstacles, and in spite of James's opposition, and without the knowledge of Louis XIV., effected the marriage between William and Mary that was the germ of the Revolution and the Act of Settlement.
The first settlement on the site of Lincoln was made in 1835, and the city was first chartered in 1857.
The official figures in inches for the station at Port Blair, which is situated in by far the driest part of the settlement, were: - A tidal observatory has also been maintained at Port Blair since 1880.
Tea is grown in considerable quantities and the cultivation is under a department of the penal settlement.
The point of enduring interest as regards the Andamans is the penal system, the object of which is to turn the life-sentence and few long-sentence convicts, who alone are sent to the settlement, into honest, self-respecting men and women, by leading them along a continuous course of practice in self-help and self-restraint, and by offering them every inducement to take advantage of that practice.
He can farm, keep cattle, and marry or send for his family, but he cannot leave the settlement or be idle.
With approved conduct, however, he may be absolutely released after twenty to twenty-five years in the settlement; and throughout that time, though possessing no civil rights, a quasi-judicial procedure controls all punishments inflicted upon him, and he is as secure of obtaining justice as if free.
Under the chief commissioner, who is the supreme head of the settlement, are a deputy and a staff of assistant superintendents and overseers, almost all Europeans, and sub-overseers, who are natives of India.
The total population of the settlement, consisting of convicts, their guards, the supervising, clerical and departmental staff, with the families of the latter, also a certain number of ex-convicts and trading settlers and their families, numbered 16,106.
The net annual cost of the settlement to the government is about £6 per convict.
In the sequel the settlement was established by Captain Blair, in September 1789, on Chatham Island, in the S.E.
Outrages on shipwrecked crews continued so rife that the question of occupation had to be taken up again; and in 1855 a project was formed for such a settlement, embracing a convict establishment.
To avoid confusion, the name of Port Blair was given to the new settlement, which was established in the beginning of 1858.
For some time sickness and mortality were excessively large, but the reclamation of swamp and clearance of jungle on an extensive scale by Colonel Henry Man when in charge (1868-1870), had a most beneficial effect, and the health of the settlement has since been notable.
The Andaman colony obtained a tragical notoriety from the murder of the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, by a Mahommedan convict, when on a visit to the settlement on the 8th of February 1872.
The speaker seeks to make intelligible the appearance of art and contrivance in the world as a result of a natural settlement of the universe (which passes through a succession of chaotic conditions) into a stable condition, having a constancy in its forms, yet without its several parts losing their motion and fluctuation.
The first settlement here was made about 1659 in a part of Marlboro called Chauncy (because of a grant of Soo acres here to Charles Chauncy, president of Harvard College, made in 1659 and revoked in 1660 by the General Court of Massachusetts).
Further development was, however, not stopped, but in many cases stimulated by migration and settlement in new homes.
One of the crew of Enciso's ship, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the future discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, induced his commander to form a settlement on the other side of the Gulf of Darien.
Bougainville had first, to perform the unpleasant task of delivering up the Falkland Islands, where he had encouraged the formation of a French settlement, to the Spaniards.
The rushes to gold-fields and diamond-fields are typical in- stances; the growth of towns on coal-fields and near other sources of power, and the rapid settlement of such rich agricultural districts as the wheat-lands of the American prairies and great plains are other examples.
The first permanent settlement within the present limits of the city was established in 1797 on the west bank of the Scioto, was named Franklinton, and in 1803 was made the county-seat.
Four years later, when the legislature held its first session here, the settlement was incorporated as the Borough of Columbus.
Wakefield seceded, and joined Lord Lyttelton and John Robert Godley in establishing the Canterbury settlement as a Church of England colony.
ACT OF SETTLEMENT, the name given to the act of parliament passed in June 1701, which, since that date, has regulated the succession to the throne of Great Britain and Ireland.
In these circumstances the Act of Settlement was passed, enacting that, in default of issue to either William or: Anne, the crown of England, France 4 and Ireland was to pass to "the most excellent princess Sophia, electress and duchess dowager of Hanover," a grand-daughter of James I., and "the heirs of her body being Protestants."
The importance of the Act of Settlement appears from the fact that, in all the regency acts, it is mentioned as one of the 4 The title of king of France was retained by the British sovereigns until 1801.
Scotland accepted the Act of Settlement by Art.
The first permanent settlement on the peninsula was.
The Indian name of the peninsula was Machegonne, and the new settlement was during the next few years known by various names, such as Casco, Casco Neck, Cleeve's Neck, and Munjoy's Neck.
The earliest settlement there goes back to neolithic times, but it was already a fortified city when Elam was conquered by Sargon of Akkad (3800 B.C.) and Susa became the seat of a Babylonian viceroy.
Pernambuco was first settled in 1526 by Christovao Jacques who founded a settlement on the Rio Iguarassu that was afterwards abandoned.
The first permanent settlement was made by Duarte Coelho Pereira at Olinda in 1530, and four years later he was granted a capitania of 50 leagues extending from the mouth of the Sao Francisco northward to that of the Iguarassu.
There the most prominent figure was that of Samuel ibn Nagdela (or Nagrela), generally known as Samuel the Nagid or head of the Jewish settlement, who died in 1055.
Coco-nut oil is produced on Nias and also more especially on the Nako group. A Dutch commissioner is established at Gunong Sitoli on the east coast, a settlement of Malay and Chinese traders.
A pueblo or villa called Branciforte, one of the least important of the Spanish settlements (now a suburb of Santa Cruz), was founded in the vicinity in 1797, and before the American conquest was merged with the settlement that had grown up about the mission.
The first settlement within the present township of Lee was made in 1760.
Like as the Norman still is to the Northman, the effects of a settlement of Normans are utterly different from the effects of a settlement of Northmen.
The 10th century is the time of the settlement of the Northmen in Gaul, and of the change in religion and language of which the softening of the name is the outward sign.
The circumstances of his settlement in his two great fields of conquest were widely different; his position when he was fully established in his two insular realms was widely different; but the end has been the same in both cases.
The conquest of Apulia, won bit by bit in many years of what we can only call freebooting, was not a national Norman enterprise like the conquest of England, and the settlement to which it led could not be a national Norman settlement in the same sense.
From England, moreover, he spread into Scotland, Wales and Ireland, and in each land his settlement put on a somewhat different character, according to the circumstances of the land.
He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester traditions; and, to the consternation of, the official wire-pullers, he vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the Gladstonian settlement with the Boers.
It was gradually consummated by the military and commercial settlements of the Portuguese, and subsequently by the Spaniards, who established themselves formally in Montevideo under Governor Zavala of Buenos Aires in 1726, and demolished the rival Portuguese settlement in Colonia in 1777.
The president of the senate, Juan Cuestas, in accordance with the constitution, assumed the duties of president of the republic. He arranged that hostilities should cease on the conditions that representation of the Blancos was allowed in Congress for certain districts where their votes were known to predominate; that a certain number of the jefes politicos should be nominated from the Blancos; that free pardon be extended to all who had taken part in the revolt; that a sufficient sum in money be advanced to allow the settlement of the expenses contracted by the insurgents; and that the electoral law be reformed on a basis allowing the people to take part freely in e1ctions.
This was located in 1820 in almost the exact geographical centre of the state, where a small settlement had recently been made, and the town of Indianapolis was laid out in the following year.
Gold was discovered here in 1682 by Bartholomeu Bueno, the first European explorer of this region, and the settlement founded by him was called Santa Anna, which is still the name of the parish.
The plebs, like the English commons, contained families differing widely in rank and social position, among them those families which, as soon as an artificial barrier broke down, joined with the patricians to form the new older settlement, a nobility which had once been the whole people, was gradually shorn of all exclusive privilege, and driven to share equal rights with a new people which had grown up around it.
The renowned patriciate of Venice was as far removed as might be from the character either of a nobility of conquest or of a nobility of older settlement.
Kolomea is a very old town and is mentioned already in 1240, but the assertion that it was a Roman settlement under the name of Colonia is not proved.
In revenge the Portuguese bombarded the town, but no further attempt was made for some years to establish a trading settlement there.
In 1615 the town was visited by an English expedition under Captain Keeling, who concluded a treaty with the zamorin; but it was not until 1664 that an English trading settlement was established by the East India Company.
The French settlement, which still exists, was founded in 1698.
Generally regarded as the partisan of a pro-English policy, he rendered most valuable service to his country by his able management of the foreign relations of Turkey, and not least by his efficacious settlement of affairs in Syria after the massacres of 1860.
The first settlement in the neighbourhood was made in 1826; in 1830 the town was founded, and in 1875 it was chartered as a city.
Thus it would seem certain that the Maoris, starting from "further Hawaiki," or Samoa, first touched at Rarotonga, "nearer Hawaiki," whence, after forming a settlement, they journeyed on to New Zealand.
It was not till 1633 that the Dutch attempted to enter into alliance with the native princes, and their earliest permanent settlement at Port Badung only dates from 1845.
The final settlement of a rule requiring brake-levers to be fitted on both sides of goods-wagons was, however, deferred, owing to objections raised by certain of the railway companies.
Roads had been constructed in advance of settlement, and land-seekers had been transported to these frontier sections only to become dependent upon the railways for their very existence.
There is also on Keppel Island a Protestant missionary settlement for the training in agriculture of imported Fuegians.
Meanwhile in 1765 Commodore Byron had taken possession on the part of England on the ground of prior discovery, and had formed a settlement at Port Egmont on the small island of Saunders.
iii.; Gee's Elizabethan Clergy; Birt's Elizabethan Religious Settlement; and Pierce's Introduction to the Marprelate Tracts (1909).
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
On the other hand, the connexion of the name Samson with sun-worship throws light on the period of the Hebrew settlement in Canaan and not on pre-Mosaic times.
the kadishtu of the temples of the Babylonian Ishtar) were foreign Canaanite elements which became imported into Hebrew worship during the period of the Hebrew settlement in Canaan.
show that Samuel was regarded as head of the prophetic settlement at Naioth.
One of his specially noteworthy performances was the settlement of the terms of peace after the defeat of the league of Schmalkalden at Miihlberg in 1547, a settlement in which, to say the least, some particularly sharp practice was exhibited.
The first settlement in what is now the state of Nevada was planted in the valley of the Carson river in 1849.
Plymouth was the first permanent white settlement in New England, and dates its founding from the landing here from the "Mayflower" shallop of an exploring party of twelve Pilgrims, including William Bradford, on the 21st of December (N.s.) 1620.
He filled the office of vice-treasurer from 1660 till 1667, served on the committee for carrying out the declaration for the settlement of Ireland and on the committee for Irish affairs, while later, in 1671 and 1672, he was a leading member of various commissions appointed to investigate the working of the Acts of Settlement.
As there is no evidence of Roman or British settlement, it is probable that Sherborne (Scireburn, Shireburne) grew up after the Saxon conquest of the country from the Corn-Welsh in the middle of the 7th century.
The story of the settlement of the national and tribal ancestors in Palestine is interrupted by an account of the southward movement of Jacob (or Israel) and his sons into a district under the immediate influence of the kings of Egypt.
3 The book of Judges represents a period of unrest after the settlement of the people.
(I) The Philistines, a foreign people whose presence in Palestine 2 The story of Joseph has distinctive internal features of its own, and appears to be from an independent cycle, which has been used to form a connecting link between the Settlement and the Exodus; see also Ed.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
12) seems to be connected with other references to some new settlement (Neh.
So the Jews of Judaea obtained the settlement for which they had pleaded at the death of Herod; and some of them beg2 n to regret it at once.
In Norway there is a small Jewish settlement (especially in Christiania) who are engaged in industrial pursuits and enjoy complete liberty.
They are restricted to the pale of settlement which was first established in 1791.
The first settlement on the site was made about 1800.
171), ascribes the eventual settlement of the Greeks in Crete to a widespread desolation that had Minoan fallen on the central regions.
There is evidence, moreover, that the script and with it the indigenous language did not die out during this period, and that therefore the days of Hellenic settlement at Cnossus were not yet.
As a scene of human settlement this site is of immense antiquity.
Assuming that the lower strata were formed at approximately the same rate as the upper, we have an antiquity of from 12,000 to 14,000 years indicated for the first Neolithic settlement on this spot.
coast important remains of a settlement contemporary with that of Gournia were explored by D.
The foreign consuls intervened in the hope of bringing about a peaceful settlement, but the Sultan resolved on the employment of force, and an expedition despatched to Vamos effected the relief of that town with a loss of 200 men.
The prospect of a final settlement was improved by the withdrawal of Germany and Austria, which had favoured Turkish pretensions, from the European concert (April 1898); the remaining powers divided the island into four departments, which they severally undertook to administer.
A final settlement of the dispute was one among the other reasons which led Constantine to summon the council of Nicaea in 325.
Honiton (Honetona, Huneton) is situated on the British Icknield Street, and was probably the site of an early settlement, but it does not appear in history before the Domesday Survey, when it was a considerable manor, held by Drew (Drogo) under the count of Mortain, who had succeeded Elmer the Saxon, with a subject population of 33, a flock of 80 sheep, a mill and 2 salt-workers.
The present name is from a settlement called Barfurush-deh, which was added to the old city A.D.
During the wild era of speculation which followed (especially in 1832 - upon the opening of the Chickasaw Cession to settlement) a large number of banks and railroad corporations with banking privileges were chartered.
The first European settlement in Mississippi was founded in 1699 by Pierre Lemoyne, better known as Iberville, at Fort Maurepas (Old Biloxi) on the north side of Biloxi Bay, in what is now Harrison county.
During the next few years Fort St Peter and a small adjoining colony were established on the Yazoo River in Warren county, and some attempts at settlement were made on Bay St Louis and Pascagoula Bay.
In1729-1730the Natchez tribe destroyed Fort St Peter, and some of the small outposts, and almost destroyed the Fort Rosalie (Natchez) settlement.
A settlement was made on the Big Black, 17 m.
from its mouth, in 1774 by Phineas Lyman (1716-1774) of Connecticut and other "military adventurers," veterans of the Havana campaign of 1762; this settlement was loyal during the War of Independence.
portion of the Mountain Region; and that mica was mined here before any European settlement of the country seems proved by numerous excavations and by huge heaps on which are large oak and chestnut trees, some fallen and decayed.
It is possible that some of the early French and Spanish explorers visited the coast of North Carolina, but no serious attempt was made by Europeans to establish a settlement until near the close of the 16th century.
With the completion of the surveys of Baluchistan and Makran much light has also been thrown on the ancient connexion between east and west; and the final settlement of the southern galuch- boundaries of Afghanistan has led to the reopening of istan and one at least of the old trade routes between Seistan Makran.
commissions, working on the basis of the Kabul agreement of 1893, which lasted for nearly four years, terminating with the Mohmand settlement at the close of an expedition in 1897.
The Robert Browning Settlement was founded in York Street, Walworth Road, in 1895 and incorporated in 1903, and in Nelson Square is the Women's University Settlement.
Apparently it was here, too, that the Danites found a settlement (Judg.
The ancient town, Arelate, was an important place at the time of the invasion of Julius Caesar, who made it a settlement for his veterans.
In 1720, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was curtailed by extensive concessions to Prussia, but the district to the west of the Peene remained in the possession of Sweden until the general European settlement of 1815.
Harrodsburg was founded on the 16th of June 1774 by James Harrod (1746-1793) and a few followers, and is the oldest permanent settlement in the state.
It was a noble effort to secure a lasting settlement of the slavery question, but he was bitterly denounced throughout the north as a renegade.
Some correspondence took place between him and Franklin, but matters had gone too far to allow of a settlement.
The first permanent settlement was made about 1836, and Manitowoc was chartered as a city in 1870.
The first permanent settlement within the present limits of the city was made in 1609 in the district long known as Rockett's.
below this settlement, and near the site of the present Powhatan.
This tract he named " Nonesuch," and here he attempted to establish a small body of soldiers who had occupied a less favourable site in the vicinity; but they objected to the change and, being attacked by the Indians, sought the protection of Smith, who made prisoners of their leaders, with the result, apparently, that the settlement was abandoned.
The settlement was laid out in April 1737 by Major William Mayo (c. 1685-1744), and was incorporated as a town in 1742.
This wise moderation of the Elizabethan settlement, which had been effected before his appointment, was obviously not due to him; and Elizabeth could have placed Knox or Bonner in the chair of St Augustine had she been so minded.
Dixon's Histories of the Church; Birt's Elizabethan Settlement; H.
Joanna, Edward's sister, was to be given in marriage to David, the infant son of Bruce, born subsequent to the settlement of 1318 and now recognized as heir to the crown, and the ceremony was celebrated at Berwick on the 12th of July 1328.
The settlement which he thereby imposed was in many ways excellent; but it was dearly purchased by the complete ascendancy of Bonaparte in all important affairs, and by the claim for the services of a considerable contingent of Swiss troops which he thereafter rigorously enforced.
(The "Old" was added subsequently to distinguish it from a Point Comfort settlement at the mouth of the York river on Chesapeake Bay).
From him emanates Yardena rabba, " the great Jordan," which, as the higher-world 1 In 1882 they were said to have shrunk to 200 families, and to be seeking a new settlement on the Tigris, to escape the persecutions to which they are exposed.
It was of about 180 tons burden, and in company with the "Speedwell" sailed from Southampton on the 5th of August 1620, the two having on board 120 Pilgrims. After two trials the "Speedwell" was pronounced unseaworthy, and the "Mayflower" sailed alone from Plymouth, England, on the 6th of September with the zoo (or 102) passengers, some 41 of whom on the lzth of November (o.s.) signed the famous "Mayflower Compact" in Provincetown Harbor, and a small party of whom, including William Bradford, sent to choose a place for settlement, landed at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 11th of December (21st N.s.), an event which is celebrated, as Forefathers' Day, on the 22nd of December.
This charge he resigned in the next year, and, after making arrangements for the protection of his northern diocese from an expected inroad of the Scots, he proceeded in July 1336 to France to attempt a settlement of the claims in dispute between Edward and Philip. In the next year he served on three commissions for the defence of the northern counties.
In 1902 the surrounding highlands were found to be suitable for European settlement, and Nairobi speedily grew in importance; in 1907 the headquarters of the administration were transferred to it from Mombasa.
The death of Eustace, which occurred during the next year, was hailed with general satisfaction as opening the possibility of a peaceful settlement between Stephen and his rival, the young Henry of Anjou.
This settlement, with jurisdiction over all the territory now included in Portsmouth, New Castle and Greenland, and most of that in Rye, was known as " Strawberry Banke " until 1653, when it was incorporated (by the government of Massachusetts) under the name of Portsmouth.
The floors of both crypts have sunk considerably and are often under water; this settlement accounts for the inequalities of the pavement.
The settlement of the peninsula by Charles V.'s coronation at Bologna in 1530 secured the preponderance to Spain, and the combination of Spain and the church dominated the politics of Italy.
After the adoption of the North-West Ordinance the work of settlement made rapid progress.
The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the oldest permanent settlement in the state.
(For the settlement of the eastern boundary, see Pennsylvania.) After having been temporarily at Marietta, Cincinnati, Chillicothe and Zanesville the capital was established at Columbus in 1816.
Smith (ed.), The St Clair Papers: Life and Services of Arthur St Clair (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1882); Jacob Burnet, Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory (Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E.
In 1868 he was appointed minister to Great Britain and soon after his arrival in England negotiated the Johnson-Clarendon treaty for the settlement of disputes arising out of the Civil War; this, however, the Senate refused to ratify, and he returned home on the accession of General U.
The first settlement within the township was made in 1720 by Dutchmen and Englishmen, who in 1719 had bought from the Indians a tract of land along the Housatonic, called "Weatogue" - an Indian word said to mean "the wigwam place."
In 1794, however, on the break-up of the Vizianagram estate, Chinna Ranga Rao was restored by the British, and in 1801 a permanent settlement was made with his son.
The location seemed one suitable for commerce and defence, and the Winthrop party chose it for their settlement.
Originally an Arab settlement, the oasis was transformed in the course of time from a mere halting-place for caravans to a city of the first rank.
There is a large settlement of mixed Portuguese descent, known as Feringhis.
The first settlement was made in 1801 by Augustus Sackett, and the village was incorporated in 1821.
A tenant for life under a settlement has extensive powers of leasing under the Settled Land Act 1882.
A successful settlement was made in 1851-1854 under the auspices of the New York Trust Co.; the Illinois Central railway was opened in 1856; and Cairo was chartered as a city in 1857.
The first settlement in New Haven (called Quinnipiac, its Indian name, until 1640) was made in the autumn of 1637 by a party of explorers in search of a site for colonization for a band of Puritans, led by Theophilus Eaton and the Rev. John Davenport, who had arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, from England in July 1637.
In the following spring a permanent settlement was made.
The final settlement of a " future " settlement contract involved usually a crowd of persons, and the of " differ= passage of large sums of money backwards and for e"ces."
At the settlement, every member of the exchange receives the " differences " owing to him and pays those which he has incurred.
Thus if a person holds futures for 10,000 bales which stood at 5.20 on the last settlement day and now stand at 5.30, and in the course of the previous week has sold 5000 bales of " futures " at 5.1 o, he receives 10,000 X - i ce o d.
If the test of the settlement were not frequently applied, speculators who were unfortunate would be tempted to plunge deeper until finally some became insolvent for large sums. As it is, the speculator who has incurred losses beyond his means tends to be discovered before his creditors are heavily involved.
Settlement days fall on Thursday, and the closing prices on the preceding Monday are taken as the basis of the settlement.
From all differences interest at 5% is deducted for the time between settlement day and the tenth day of the second month on which the " future " elapses, since settlement terms mean that money is paid in instalments before it is actually due.
By 1884, however, the advantages of " settlement terms " became so evident that they were adopted by the Cotton Association, at first for fortnightly periods, with the saving clause originally that they should not be compulsory.
The first settlement in what is now Pittsfield was made in 1743, but was soon abandoned on account of Indian troubles.
In 1749 the settlement was revived, but the settlers did not bring their families to the frontier until 1752.
The settlement was first called "Boston Plantation," or "Poontoosuck," but in 1761, when it was incorporated as a township, the name was changed to Pittsfield, in honour of the elder William Pitt.
Following the purchase from the Indians of the country, now known as the Platte Purchase, in 1836, a settlement grew up about this trading post, and in 1843 Robidoux laid out a town here and named it St Joseph in honour of his patron saint.
It is believed to occupy the site of the ancient Aetna, a settlement founded by the colonists whom Hiero I.
The record of Hadrian's journeys 1 through all parts of the empire forms the chief authority for the events of his life down to his final settlement in the capital during his last years.
Somewhere in that region he desired to make a permanent settlement, but he was abandoned by most of his followers and gave up his attempt in 1561.
In the following year, Jean Ribaut (1520-1565), with a band of French Huguenots, landed first near St Augustine and then at the mouth of the St Johns river, which he called the river of May, and on behalf of France claimed the country, which he described as " the fairest, fruitfullest and pleasantest of all the world "; but he made his settlement on an island near what is now Beaufort, South Carolina.
It was commanded by Pedro Menendez de Aviles (1523-1574), one of whose aims was to destroy the Huguenot settlement.
Menendez then turned his attention to the founding of a settlement which he named St Augustine (q.v.); he also explored the Atlantic coast from Cape Florida to St Helena, and established forts at San Mateo (Fort Caroline), Avista, Guale and St Helena.
Pensacola, the other centre of Spanish settlement, though captured and occupied (1719-1723) by the French from Louisiana, had a more peaceful history.
The first settlement here was in 1844; and Brazil was incorporated as a town in 1866, and was chartered as a city in 1873.
Long drouths prevail in this region and there is no inducement for settlement, the nomadic Indians visiting it only on their hunting expeditions.
It was cheaper to seize Louisiana than to await the settlement of doubtful points.
by the Lombards; and these in their turn were soon forced to retire before an overwhelming invasion of Sla y s, who on their settlement there took the name of Moravians (German, Mehranen or Mahren) from the river Morava.
For the first requisites of a primitive settlement - food supply and defence - it afforded every advantage.
75), anterior to the occupation of the Acropolis and afterwards abandoned for the later settlement.
The earliest settlement on the Acropolis was doubtless soon increased by groups of dwellings at its base, inhabited by the dependents of the princes who ruled in the stronghold.
Under the new settlement Athens remained a free and sovereign city - a boon which she repaid by zealous Caesar-worship, for the favours bestowed upon her tended to pauperize her citizens and to foster their besetting sin of calculating flattery.
The foreign settlement at Taipe lies outside the walls of the city, and is called Twatutia (Taitotei by the Japanese).
It is the site of the first foreign settlement, has a population of about 7000, but cannot be made a good harbour without considerable expenditure.
The Dutch were the first, however, to take footing in the island; in 1624 they built a fort, Zelandia, on the east coast, where subsequently rose the town of Taiwan, and the settlement was maintained for thrity-seven years.
Ponce's hospitable reception by the native chief, Aquebana or Guaybana, and his fairly profitable search for the precious metal led King Ferdinand in 1509 to give him an appointment as temporary governor of the island, where his companions had already established the settlement of Caparra (Pueblo Viejo, near the present San Juan).
In 1785, during the Spanish occupation of Louisiana, Juan Filhiol, commandant of the district of Ouachita, founded a settlement on the site of the present Monroe, which was called Ouachita Post until 1790 and then Fort Miro, in honour of the governor-general.
COMPROMISE MEASURES OF 1850, in American history, a series of measures the object of which was the settlement of five questions in dispute between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States.
His idea was to combine the more conservative elements of both sections in favour of a settlement which would concede the Southern view on two questions, the Northern view on two, and balance the fifth.
Fighting with the Arabs followed, and in 1889 the company handed over their settlement to the German imperial government.
In 1283 a council, or, as it is sometimes called, a parliament, met in his house at Acton Burnell, and he was responsible for the settlement of the court of chancery in London.
Under the original settlement concluded by the treaties of 1853 and 1860 the revenues of the province were assigned primarily for the maintenance of the Hyderabad contingent, such surplus as accrued from year to year being made over to the nizam, while the province itself was administered in trust by the government of India through the resident at Hyderabad.
In November 1902 a fresh settlement was arranged and Berar was leased in perpetuity to the British government in return for an annual rental of 25 lakhs.
The equivalent weight is capable of fairly ready determination, but the settlement of the second factor is somewhat more complex, and in this direction the law of atomic heats is of service.
No settlement was made until 1770, and in 1772 the place was again granted by New York under the name of Socialborough.
From a mining settlement the city grew as the inequalities of the site permitted.
The city dates from 1701, when a gold-mining settlement was established in its ravines by Antonio Dias of Taubate.
The circumstance that the gold turned black on exposure to the humid air (owing to the presence of silver) gave the name of Ouro Preto to the mountain spur and the settlement.
A]] second settlement, made at Triparadisus in Syria in 321, constituted Antipater regent and increased the power of Antigonus in Asia.
The settlement of boundaries in northern Afghanistan (1883) and in Seistan (1870) has necessitated surveys of some interest.
Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.
and the publication of parish and township or county maps keeps pace with the settlement of the country; but with the exception of Victoria none of these states is in possession of a topographical map equal in accuracy to similar maps published in Europe.
In 1903 there was established at Woodbrooke, an estate at Selly Oak on the outskirts of Birmingham, a permanent settlement for men and women, for the study of these questions on modern lines.
The remains of a Roman camp have been discovered near Pontefract, but there is no trace of settlement in the town itself until after the Conquest.
CHANDERNAGORE, or Chandarnagar, a French settlement in India, with a small adjoining territory, situated on the right bank of the river Hugli, 20 m.
It became a permanent French settlement in 1688, but did not rise to any importance till the time of Dupleix, during whose administration more than two thousand brick houses were erected in the town and a considerable maritime trade was carried on.
The first settlement was made in 1818.
The pueblo was created after 1773; but the history of the settlement goes back to 1571, and the parochial church dates from 1710.
Wesley spent some time during the summer of 1738 in visiting the Moravian settlement at Herrnhuth and returned to London on September 16, 1738, with his faith greatly strengthened.
settlement in Canaan.
The first settlement of Leon occurred in 1552, but its formal foundation was in 1576, and it did not reach the dignity of a city until 1836.
He provided a steady revenue by the levying of a tax of 10% on the annual net produce of the gold mines, and devoted special attention to the repatriation of the Boers, land settlement by British colonists, education, justice, the constabulary, and the development of railways.
were opened to settlement by the railway.
This was the earliest settlement in what is now the state of Louisiana.
The chief interest of the Spanish period lies in the advance of settlement in the western territories of the United States, the international intrigues - British, French and Spanish - involving the future of the valley, the demand of the United States for free navigation on the Mississippi, and the growing consciousness of the supreme importance of the river and New Orleans to the Union.
The machinations of Aaron Burr are of interest in connexion with Louisiana annals, and likewise the settlement and revolutionizing of West Florida by Americans.
It first attained prominence with the settlement in.
The average of settlement per square mile varied from 169.7 in Havana province to 11.8 in Camaguey, and was 46.4 for all of Cuba; the percentage of urban population (in cities, that is, with more than 1000 inhabitants) in the different provinces.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
From Gobwen, a trading settlement about 3 m.
It is commonly stated that in 1629 the British formed a settlement in New Providence, which they held till 1641, when the Spaniards expelled them.
The vicinity was settled between 1729 and 1747 by Highlanders, the settlement called Cross Creek lying within the present limits of Fayetteville.
In 1859 the settlement of palace debts gave rise to the issue of 1,000,000 purses of new interior bonds (esham-i jedide) spread over a period of three years, repayable in twenty-four years, and bearing interest at 6%.
Even this treaty, however, was but an apparent settlement.
The war, which broke out in 1743, was waged with varying fortunes, and the peace by which it was concluded on the 5th of September 1746, beyond stipulating for a few privileges for Persian pilgrims to the holy places, altered nothing in the settlement arranged ten years before with Murad IV.
The Treaty of Adrianople, by which the Danubian principalities were erected into practically independent states, the treaty rights of Russia in the navigation of the Bosporus Anapa and Poti in Asia ceded to the tsar, included also a settlement of the Greek question on the terms of the protocol of the 22nd of March.
But neither Napoleon nor Nicholas desired a settlement.
In August a conference of the four powers assembled at Vienna, but the settlement they proposed, which practically conceded everything demanded by Russia except the claim to the protectorate, though accepted by the tsar, was rejected by the Porte, now fallen into a mood of stubborn resentment at the Russian invasion.
Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlis or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted.
It is assumed that the former arose during the pastoral period of Israelite history before or during the stay in Egypt, while the latter was adopted from the Canaanites after the settlement in Palestine.
Ploen is mentioned as early as the 11th century as a Wendish settlement, and a fortified place.
At Tasiusak (73° 22' N.), the most northern civilized settlement in the world, gardening has been attempted without success, but several plants do well in forcing frames.
Each of the inspectorates is divided into districts, each district having, in addition to the chief settlement or coloni, several outlying posts and Eskimo hunting stations, each presided over by an udligger, who is responsible to the colonibestyrer, or superintendent of the district.
Following the west coast northward, the trading centres are these: in the south inspectorate, Julianehaab, near which are remains of the early Norse settlements of Eric the Red and his companions (the Oster-Bygd); Frederikshaab, in which district are the cryolite mines of Ivigtut; Godthaab, the principal settlement of all, in the neighbourhood of which are also early Norse remains (the Vester-Bygd); Sukkertoppen, a most picturesque locality; and Holstenborg.
The settlements were called respectively Oster Bygd (or eastern settlement) and Vester (western) Bygd, both being now known to be on the south and west coast (in the districts of Julianehaab and Godthaab respectively), though for long the view was persistently held that the first was on the east coast, and numerous expeditions have been sent in search of these " lost colonies " and their imaginary survivors.
It was visited by whalers, chiefly Dutch, but nothing in the form of permanent European settlements was established until the year 1721, when the first missionary, the Norwegian clergyman Hans Egede, landed, and established a settlement near Godthaab.
No traces have been found of any pre-Roman settlement at Cardiff.
The settlement here, gathering about the Methodist mission and school, began to grow in the decade 1840-1850.
It was during this time that he paid his famous visit to the leper settlement at Molokai.
But in 1893 the uniform good fortune which had attended the Stevensons since their settlement in Samoa began to be disturbed.
Two treaties negotiated with the Sioux by Luke Lea, commissioner, and Governor Alexander Ramsey in 1851 opened to settlement the greater part of the land within the territory west of the Mississippi, and such an unparalleled rush to the new lands took place that a census taken in 1857 showed a population of 150,037.
The valley portion is level and contains several settlement centres, the largest of which, a busy industrial village (manufactures of cotton and paper), bears the same name as the township, and is on a branch of the Boston and Albany railroad.
At this time the chief settlement was at the place now called Phylakopi, on the north-east coast.
The first settlement was made here in 1848; and Georgetown was incorporated as a town in 1866, and was chartered as a city in 1890.
In May 1623 a settlement was established by Edward Hilton on Dover Point, about 5 m.
As the settlement was outside the jurisdiction of any province, and as trouble arose between the two sects, a plantation covenant was drawn up and signed in 1640 by forty-one of the inhabitants.
After this time the city disappears from history; and, whether or not its ruin was caused by the Arabs, they seem to have made no settlement there.
During a two years' visit to England he sought earnestly to gain friends to his colony's cause, but returned to Boston in April 1776 convinced that a friendly settlement of the dispute was impossible.
By the treaty signed in London on the 6th of July 1827, England, France and Russia agreed to demand an armistice, as preliminary to a settlement.
The first settlement was made here in 1849; rich deposits of gold were soon afterwards found on or near the surface, and the settlement had the characteristic growth of a western mining town; its output of gold reached its maximum in 1850-1851.
Its settlement will depend in part on the cost of producing rubber from plants, which from their point of view it is to the interests of planters to reduce as far as possible.
Tamara has a good harbour, and contains the principal settlement.
Not considering its situation sufficiently strong, he moved to the neighbouring new settlement of the Hussites, to which the biblical name of Tabor was given.
Negotiations took place for a settlement of the religious differences.
Negotiations were not, however, broken off; and a change in the political situation of Bohemia finally resulted in a settlement.
Sibir) in the 16th century indicated the chief settlement of the Tatar khan Kuchum - Isker on the Irtysh.
The difficulty between America and Newfoundland about fisheries was referred to the Hague Tribunal for final settlement.
The settlement was at first called Conduskeag and for a short time was locally known as Sunbury.
The Bishnupur raj was one of the largest estates in Bengal in the end of the 18th century, but it was sold for arrears of revenue shortly after the conclusion of the permanent settlement in 1793.
vi (" separate "), Africa being considered, in this connexion, as a Phoenician settlement " separated " from the mother country, Asiatic Phoenicia.
Although its convenient harbour was probably used before Saxon times, and bronze weapons and Roman interments have been found, there is no evidence that Weymouth (Waimue, Waymuth) was a place of early settlement.
The township has two villages: Colchester Centre, a small, quiet settlement, and Winooski (pop. in 1900, 3783) on the Winooski river.
The village was founded in 1772 by Ira Allen and for many years it was known as "Allen's Settlement"; but later it was called Winooski Falls, and in 1866 it was incorporated as the Village of Winooski.
It is probably the only tropical island that had never been inhabited by man before the European settlement.
The settlement in Flying Fish Cove now numbers some 250 inhabitants, consisting of Europeans, Sikhs, Malays and Chinese, by whom roads have been cut and patches of cleared ground cultivated.
Soon afterwards a small settlement was established in Flying Fish Cove by Mr G.
Christians being released, in important particulars, from conformity to the Old Testament polity as a whole, a real difficulty attended the settlement of the limits and the immediate authority of the remainder, known vaguely as the moral law.
The original settlement occupied the hill above it (143 ft.) and later became the acropolis.
The history of international arbitration is dealt with in the article Peace, where treaties of general arbitration are discussed, both those which embrace all future differences thereafter to arise between the contracting parties, and also those more limited conventions which aim at the settlement of all future differences in regard to particular subjects, e.g.
The signatory powers desiring to apply to the tribunal for the settlement of a difference between them are to notify the same to the arbitrators.
Ultimately, in May 1902, an agreement was come to between the two governments which provided for the settlement of the dispute by the Hague tribunal.
The settlement of the place, the oldest in the county, was begun in 1847; it was laid out as a town in 1851, incorporated as a village in 1857, chartered as a city in 1865, and for a short time in 1853 was the county-seat.
As regards the Peruvian boundary, an agreement was reached in 1904 to submit the dispute to the arbitration of the president of Argentina in case further efforts to reach an amicable settlement failed.
Negotiations for the settlement of this controversy, which involved fully one-third of the state of Amazonas, were broken off in 1870, but were resumed in 1905.
The more arid districts offer no inducement for settlement and are inhabited only by a few roving bands of Indians, but there were settlements of whites in the grazing districts of the Rio Branco at an early date, and a few hundreds of adventurers have occupied the mining districts of the east.
Gold was discovered by the Portuguese soon after their settlement of the coast in the 16th century, but the washings were poor and attracted little attention.
He made no settlement, but Brazil.
Cabral despatched a small vessel to Lisbon to announce his discovery, and, without forming any settlement, proceeded to India on the 3rd of May.
The Portuguese were obliged to abandon their settlement; but several of them returned at a later period, with Brazil.
granting them to such persons as were willing to undertake their settlement, with unlimited powers of jurisdiction, both civil and criminal.
The first settlement made under this new system was that of Caramuru, and thus a European community was established in the district.
Nicholas Durand de Villegagnon, a bold and skilful seaman, having visited Brazil, saw at once the advantages which might accrue Settle- to his country from a settlement there.
Villegagnon, finding his force much diminished in consequence of his treachery, sailed for France in quest of recruits; and during his absence the Portuguese governor, by order of his court, attacked and dispersed the settlement.
For some years the French kept up a kind of bush warfare; but in 1567 the Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement at Rio.
In 1630 the Dutch attempted again to effect a settlement; and Olinda, with its port, the Recife-Olinda, was destroyed, but the Recife was fortified and held, reinforcements They had extended their limits southwards till they reached the Spanish settlements of La Plata.
His first step was to introduce a regular government among his countrymen; his second, to send to the African coast one of his officers, who took possession of a Portuguese settlement, and thus secured a supply of slaves.
Eventually he formed a settlement near Canudos, situated about 400 m.
Difficulty arose between the governor of Bahia and this fanatical missionary, with the result that Conselheiro was ordered to leave the settlement and take away his people.
The chief feature of the administration of Dr Campos Salles was the statesmanlike ability with which various disputes with foreign powers on boundary questions were seriously taken in hand and brought to a satisfactory and pacific settlement.
The dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in 1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to arbitration in that same year of the FrancoBrazilian dispute, led to an agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.
The district in dispute was the site of the fabled Lake of Parima and the Golden City of Manoa, the search for which in the early days of European settlement attracted so many adventurous expeditions, and which fascinated the imagination of Raleigh and drew him to his doom.
Dr Campos Salles had signalized his administration, not only by the settlement of disputes with European powers, but by efforts to arrive at a good understanding with the neighbouring South American republics.
The result was of importance, as it was known that Brazil was on friendly terms with Chile, and this interchange of courtesies had some effect in bringing about a settlement of the controversy between Chile and Argentina over the Andean frontier question without recourse to hostilities.
Negotiations were set on foot, and finally by treating the matter in a give-and-take spirit a settlement was reached and a treaty for an amicable exchange of territories in the district in question, accompanied by a pecuniary indemnity, was signed by President Alves at Petropolis on the 17th of November 1903.
The settlement of the place, then called the Grand Traverse of the Flint, began in 1820, but Flint's growth was very slow until 1831, when it was platted as a village; it was chartered as a city in 1855.
COUNCIL OF SARDICA, an ecclesiastical council convened in 343 by the emperors Constantius and Constans, to attempt a settlement of the Arian controversies, which were then at their height.
Under the protection of the hill-fort, a native settlement was established on the ridge running down to the valley at the foot of Salisbury Crags, and another hamlet, according to William Maitland (1693-1757), the earliest historian of Edinburgh, was founded in the area at the northwestern base of the rock, a district that afterwards became the parish of St Cuthbert, the oldest in the city.
His friends procured his discharge, and he was granted a free passage, a seat at the captain's table, and a salary, the amount of which was to be fixed by the governor of the French settlement in India.
Bristol was one of the first places to be settled in Pennsylvania after William Penn received his charter for the province in 1681, and from its settlement until 1725 it was the seat of government of the county.
Portuguese, whose nearest settlement was at Delagoa Bay.
No settlement was then made and in 1705 the son of the chief repudiated the bargain.
In 1721 the Cape government did form a settlement at the bay, but it was soon afterwards abandoned.
When in 1824 the next attempt was made by Europeans to form a settlement at the bay, Cape Colony had passed from the Dutch into the ' possession of Great Britain, while in Natal great changes had come over the land as a result of wars between the natives.
Such was the situation when the first British settlement was made in Natal.
Having at length received an intimation from London that the queen " could not acknowledge the independence of her own subjects, but that the trade of the emigrant farmers would be placed on the same footing as that of any other British settlement, upon their receiving a military force to exclude the interference 1 Commonly called the Republic of Natalia or Natal.
On the 26th the Boers captured the harbour and settlement, and on the 31st blockaded the British camp, the women and children being removed, on the suggestion of Pretorius, to a ship in the harbour of which the Boers had taken possession.
The protest made by the Natalians against the settlement was in vain.
In justice, however, to the colonists of Natal it must be recorded that, finding their protest with regard to the Transvaal settlement useless, they made up their minds to shape their policy in conformity with that settlement.
Cloete, Emigration of the Dutch Farmers from the Cape and their Settlement in Natal ...
Just as the negotiations were re-opened, however, the questions were further complicated and their settlement delayed by the attack of the British ship " Leopard upon the American frigate " Chesapeake."
But the Benedictines, whose settlement in Hungary dates from the establishment of their monastery at Pannonhalma (c. 1 ooi), were the chief pioneers.
This made war inevitable; though Batthyany hurried to Vienna to try and arrange a settlement.
The Balkan crisis threw this question into the background during the winter; but, with the settlement of the international questions raised by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, it once more came to the front.
Nothing now remained but for the king to request Dr Wekerle to remain " for the present " in office with his colleagues, thus postponing the settlement of the crisis (July 4).
On the 28th the Hungarian parliament adjourned sine die, pending the settlement of the crisis, without having voted the estimates for 1910, and without there being any prospect of a meeting of the delegations.
The new settlement was crushed by Crotona, but the Athenians lent aid to the fugitives and in 443 Pericles sent out to Thurii a mixed body of colonists from various parts of Greece, among whom were Herodotus and the orator Lysias.
The climate is tropical and generally unfavourable to white settlement, the exceptions being the elevated localities on the Amazon exposed to the strong winds blowing up that river.
Before the boundary settlement of 1873 the small states of Roshan and Shignan extended to the left bank of the Oxus, and the province of Darwaz, on the other hand, extended to the right bank.
The first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Saltillo in 1586, when it formed part of the province of Nueva Viscaya.
The two most notable cases were the formation of the Uskok pirate settlements along the Dalmatian coast in the 16th century, and the settlement of the Serbian patriarch and many thousand Serb refugee families in Slavonia and S.
Within certain limits Croatia's autonomy was respected, but so far from Zagreb being consulted, the terms of the new settlement were in effect dictated from Budapest and only submitted pro forma to a carefully " packed " Croatian Diet, after the bargain between Budapest and Vienna had already made of them an accomplished fact.
The bad impression made by the claims now submitted to the Supreme Council was only partially removed by a speech of Trumbic and by his proposal to leave the settlement of frontiers to a plebiscite (April 16).
At last on Dec. 9 1919 the Supreme Council (Clemenceau, Polk and Crowe) addressed a memorandum to Italy, outlining new terms of settlement - viz.
But this ultimatum was rendered invalid by a wire from Lansing, protesting against any settlement without the participation of America.
But the prospect of a settlement roused the Italian Nationalists to a final effort: the Nitti Cabinet fell, and D'Annunzio, repeating his defiance of Europe, attempted a further raid upon Dalmatia.
The settlement, though far from ideal, involved concessions on both sides: and Italy, though still forgetful of the principles enunciated at the Roman congress, could at least claim to be the only victorious Power which had relinquished its hold upon conquered territory.
In many quarters it was openly accepted on the ground that any constitution was better than none, and that further delays and discussions would arrest the new State's development and discredit it abroad: but the settlement could not be regarded as definitive.
He steered a middle course between the factions at Rome, and sought a settlement of the Sicilian question.
Among institutions are the missionary settlement of the Oxford House, founded in 1884, with its women's branch, St Margaret's House; the NorthEastern hospital for children, the Craft school and the Leather Trade school.
The first settlement in this vicinity was made in what is now Half-Moon township about 1680.
The principal head in the allocation of this loan was the purchase of the railways in the two colonies at a cost of £13,520,000, while an additional £5,958,000 was devoted to the building of new lines, purchases of rolling stock, &c. The debt of the South African Republic was paid off; £542,000 went to make good the deficit on the administration for 1901-1902; the sum of £1,561,000 was paid to burghers of the Cape Colony and Natal as compensation for war losses; £3,000,000 was devoted to land settlement schemes and £2,000,000 to public works other than railways.
1 In addition to the £35,000,000 guaranteed loan of1903-1904two small loans for land settlement and public works, together amounting to £254,800, were issued, and in 1907 an imperial guarantee was given for the raising of another loan, of £5,000,000, by the colonial government.
The act authorizing the loan devoted £2,500,000 to the establishment of a land and agricultural bank, and £2,500,000 to railways, public works, irrigation and agricultural settlement and development.
The principal heads of expenditure are on railways and other public works, including posts and telegraphs, justice, education, police, land settlement and agriculture generally, mines and native affairs.
The first permanent white settlement north of the Vaal was made by a party under Potgieter's leadership. That commandant had in March 1838 gone to Natal, and had endeavoured to avenge the massacre of Piet Retief and his comrades by the Zulus.
It proved fever-ridden and was abandoned, a new village being laid out on higher ground and named Lydenburg in memory of their sufferings at the abandoned settlement.
Schoemansdal, a village at the foot of the Zoutpansberg, was the most important settlement of the district, and the most advanced outpost in European occupation at that time in South Africa.
When called upon to go to the aid of this settlement, which in1865-1866was sore pressed by one of the mountain Bantu tribes known as the Baramapulana, the burghers of the southern Transvaal objected that the white inhabitants of that region were too lawless and reckless a body to merit their assistance.
It was not until 1869 that peace was patched up, and the settlement arrived at left the mountain tribes in practical independence.
After the " settlement " of the Zulu question, Sir Garnet Wolseley proceeded to Pretoria and immediately organized an expedition against Sikukuni, who throughout the Zulu campaign had been acting under the advice of Cetywayo.
Kruger would have none of it, although by so doing he could have obtained permission for a settlement at and railway to Kosi Bay.
Alfred Milner to meet President Kruger at Bloemfontein, hoping to be able to exert pressure on both parties and to arrange a settlement as favourable as possible to Bioem- the Transvaal.
A commission which had been appointed to inquire into schemes of land settlement reported in June, and this was followed by the creation of a land board in December 1901.
At this period Mr Chamberlain determined to visit South Africa and use his personal influence to help forward the settlement of the country.
Thereupon the Union ministry was urged by the British government to effect a permanent settlement acceptable to all parties.
southern extremity of Assyria proper, whose territory, soon after the first Assyrian settlement, was bounded on the N.
The kingdom of Assyria, which was the outgrowth of the primitive settlement on the site of the city of Assur, was developed by a probably gradual process of colonization in the rich vales of the middle Tigris region, a district watered by the Tigris itself and also by several tributary streams, the chief of which was the lower Zab.'
Iquique was an insignificant Peruvian fishing settlement until 1830 when the export of nitrate began.
Harrismith was founded in 1849, the site first chosen being on the Elands river, where the small town of Aberfeldig now is; but the advantages of the present site soon became apparent and the settlement was removed.
This area, however, was subject to the settlement of the Colombia boundary line, and the measurement is only approximate.
Some of these claims brought Venezuela into conflict with the governments of Great Britain, Germany and Italy in 1903, and Venezuelan ports were blockaded and there was an enforced settlement of the claims (about £104,417), which were to be paid from 30% of the revenues of the La Guaira and Puerto Cabello custom-houses.
This settlement was followed by an adjustment of all other claims, payment to be effected through the same channels.
Beira occupies the site of a forgotten Arab settlement.
and other princes, but as no settlement was reached the master continued his efforts to obtain help in view of a renewal of the war.
The first settlement was made in 1830, and the borough incorporated in 1892.
The first Jesuit mission in Sonora, founded among the Mayos in 1613, seems to have been the first permanent settlement in the state, although Coronado passed through it and its coast had been visited by early navigators.
The hostility of certain tribes prevented its rapid settlement.
3) gives the Phoenician settlement on the island, 2 though it is certainly such a place as Thucydides (vi.
The name of the island, Ortygia (6prv, a quail), has, again, been held to point to the possible existence of an Aetolian settlement on the island before Archias came.
In 663 it founded the settlement of Acrae, in 643 Casmenae, 4 and in 598 Camarina, of which the first was unusually far inland.
Whether the inland Sicel town of Henna was ever a Syracusan settlement is doubtful.
Besides attending to the spiritual needs of the lepers, he managed, by the labour of his own hands and by appeals to the Hawaian government, to improve materially the water-supply, the dwellings, and the victualling of the settlement.
Such are the Oxford House, Bethnal Green; the Cambridge House, Camberwell Road; Toynbee Hall, Whitechapel; Mansfield House, Canning Town; the Robert Browning Settlement, Southwark; and the Passmore Edwards Settlement, St Pancras.
One help towards a settlement of the question may be found in the discovery of burial places.
One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.
York was conquered and occupied by the Saxons, and there not only are the results of English settlement clear but all records of Roman government were destroyed.
From this time there appears to have been a permanent Danish settlement in London, probably Aldwich, referred to below.
We have neither record of their settlement nor of the origin of their names.
Reference has already been made to a Danish settlement, and there seems some reason for placing it on the ground now occupied by the parishes of St Clement Danes and Aldwich.
Nkandhla is a small settlement in the south-west of the country.
Drifts and inclined shafts following the deposit may prove difficult of maintenance when the workings become large and settlement of the overlying strata begins.
The shrinkage of the rock-filling and the settlement of the workings /, Yan be greatly lessened by the use of hard rock with a minimum of fine stuff; but even so the advantage lies with the American system of timbering.
At first a fall of the roof occurs locally, here and there throughout the mine, and these falls may succeed one another until the settlement of portions of the roof has so far relieved the strain that the remaining areas are supported by the stronger pillars, and by the fallen rock masses.
This body was to have control of Indian affairs, impose taxes, nominate all civil officers, authorize the opening of new lands to settlement, and in general have charge of colonial defence, and of the enlistment, equipment and maintenance of an army.
See William Barnes, The Settlement and Early History of Albany (Albany, 1864); J.
Here is a Protestant colony, known as "the Settlement" and founded in 1834.
by rail west of Stavropol, built in 1848 for the settlement of Armenian mountaineers, and now a well-built, growing town with 80co inhabitants, the merchants of which carry on a lively trade.
The settlement was founded in 1842.
The town and district form a small ethnographical island, having been peopled in the 18th century by a colony of Takruri from Darfur, who, finding the spot a convenient resting-place for their fellow-pilgrims on their way to Mecca and back, obtained permission from the negus of Abyssinia to make a permanent settlement.
This was made by order of Khammurabi after the expulsion of the Elamites and the settlement of his kingdom.
This script, together with the general Sumerian culture, was taken over by the Babylonians upon their settlement in the Euphrates valley and adapted to their language, which belonged to the Semitic group. In this transfer the Sumerian words - largely monosyllabic - were reproduced, but read as Semitic, and 1 Cf.
favour of a settlement, and suggested a council within her own territory.
The first settlement here was made in 1799 and anthracite coal was discovered in 1817.
He submitted, however, to the Elizabethan settlement of religion, and was rewarded with the archdeaconry of Middlesex, a canonry at Canterbury and in 1560 with the deanery of St Paul's.
end of Lake Champlain was granted to Colonel Philip Skene (1725-1810), who fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and in 1759, and who established here in 1761 a settlement of about thirty families which he called Skenesborough and which was patented in 1765.
About 1818 most of the Indians were expelled from the vicinity, and a settlement was made by the whites.
Was a compromise possible which would bring about a satisfactory settlement?
This, together with certain outstanding grievances and the pretext of enforcing the settlement of the Greek Question approved by the powers, gave Russia the excuse for declaring war against Turkey.
He resented the action of France and England in forcing the settlement of Kutaiah upon him, and remained shut up in his palace, inaccessible to all save his favourites and the representative of Russia.
During the World War he developed a polemic directed against democratichumanitarian conceptions and particularly those of President Wilson, whose influence on the peace settlement was regarded by him as injurious to Italy.
There was a religious settlement here from the 7th century, which subsequently became a Franciscan monastery.
The capital, Noumea, was founded in 185 4 (it was then called Port de France); in 1860 New Caledonia became a colony distinct from the French possessions in the Pacific at large; in 1864 the first penal settlement was made on Nou Island, off Noumea.
The first settlement in the township was made in 1650 at what is now the village of East Norwalk by a small company from Hartford, and the township was incorporated in the next year.
At Merry Mount, in that part of Braintree which is now Quincy, a settlement was established by Thomas Morton in 1625, but the gay life of the settlers and their selling rum and firearms to the Indians greatly offended the Pilgrims of Plymouth, who in 1627 arrested Morton; soon afterward Governor John Endecott of Massachusetts Bay visited Merry Mount, rebuked the inhabitants and cut down their Maypole.
Later the place was abandoned, and in 1634 a Puritan settlement was made here.
In the days of the decaying empire and of the chaotic German settlement, the weak freeman, the small landowner, was exposed to attack in almost every relation of life and on every side.
Nor was the feudal system established in any sense by the settlement of the comitatus group on the conquered land.
It was touched in 1605 by the British ship "Olive Blossom," whose crew, finding it uninhabited, took possession in the name of James I.; but the first actual settlement was made in 1625, at the direction of Sir William Courteen under the patent of Lord Leigh, afterwards earl of Marlborough, to whom the island had been granted by the king.
Stendal was founded in 11, 51 by Albert the Bear, on the site of a Wendish settlement, and soon afterwards acquired a municipal charter.
The first settlement on the east side of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro dates from 1671, when a chapel was erected at Praia Grande, in the vicinity of an Indian village.
The settlement did not become a village until 1819, when it was named Villa Real da Praia Grande.
The first settlement within its present limits was made in 1807.
The connexion with Palestine has always been close; and the Abyssinian settlement is probably as late as the beginning of the Christian era.
After the battle of Siffin (657) arbitration was resorted to for the settlement of the rival claims. By a trick `Ali was deposed (658), and the Omayyad dynasty was established with its capital at Damascus.
He set himself to work to establish law and order throughout the state, to arrange its finances, and to encourage the settlement in Hail of artificers and merchants from abroad; the building of the citadel and palace commenced by Mehemet Ali, and continued by Abdallah Ibn Rashid, was completed by Taal.
This principle, first asserted by a resolution of the House of Commons in the earl of Danby's case (May 5, 1679), forms one of the provisions of the Act of Settlement, 12 & 13 Will.
This movement, extending in time from about the middle of the 11th to the middle of the 13th century and carrying a stream of settlers and traders from the Northwest, resulted not only in the Germanization of a wide territory but in the extension of German influence along the sea-coast far to the east of actual territorial settlement.
The situation thus created led by 1282 to the coalescence of the rival associations in the "Gild-hall of the Germans," but though the Baltic traders had secured a recognized foothold in the enlarged and unified organization, Cologne retained the controlling interest in the London settlement until 1476.
The first settlement was probably a Celtic one, Boiudurum; this was on the site of the present Innstadt.
At the corner of the Graben, one of the busiest thoroughfares, containing the most fashionable shops in Vienna, is the Stock im Eisen, the stump of a tree, said to be the last survivor of a holy grove round which the original settlement of Vindomina sprang up. It is full of nails driven into it by travelling journeymen.
The story of Vienna begins in the earliest years of the Christian era, with the seizure of the Celtic settlement of Vindomina by the Romans, who changed its name to Vindobona, and established a fortified camp here to command the Danube and protect the northern frontier of the empire.
The first white settlement in the Mosquito country was made in 1630, when the agents of an English chartered company - of which the earl of Warwick was chairman and John Pym treasurer - occupied two small cays, and established friendly relations with the Indians.
In 1514 Diego Velasquez founded, on Nuevitas Bay (then known as the Puerto del Principe), a settlement that was moved in 1515 or 1516 to the site of the present city of Puerto Principe (or Santa Maria del Puerto del Principe).
Iforsford thought were the remains of a Norse settlement in the 11th century, and which include a semicircular amphitheatre of six tiers or terraces which he thought was an assembly place, and a portion of a stone wall or dam.
It is probable, however, that the settlement of the Cuzco valley and district by the Incas or " people of the sun " took place some 300 years before Pizarro landed in Peru.
It was not so much the value of Tacna and Arica that put difficulties in the way of a settlement as the fact that the national pride of the Peruvians ill brooked the idea of permanently losing all claim to this section of country.
The revelation of the name to Moses was made at a mountain sacred to Yahweh (the mountain of God) far to the south of Palestine, in a region where the forefathers of the Israelites had never roamed, and in the territory of other tribes; and long after the settlement in Canaan this region continued to be regarded as the abode of Yahweh (Judg.
Copaum (21 acres) was, at the time of the first settlement, a bay and the commonly used harbour, but the present harbour (6 m.
The principal settlement and summer resort is the town of Nantucket (on the S.W.
The original settlement, now called Pueblo Viejo, 4 m.
It is one of the three cities, Wuchang, Hanyang and Hankow, which stand together at the mouth of the Han river, and is situated on the right bank of the river Yangtsze, almost directly opposite the foreign settlement of Hankow.
Mainz, one of the oldest cities in Germany, was originally a Celtic settlement.
461) in connexion with the treatment of the diseases of sheep. The fact that their eponymus is said to have been the son of Helios and Ge points to a very early settlement in the district.
Soon after the close of the War of Independence a settlement was begun, most of the newcomers being Palatine Germans from the lower Mohawk.
It was said to have been founded by Megarians and Argives under Byzas about 6S7 B.C., but the original settlement having been destroyed in the reign of Darius Hystaspes by the satrap Otanes, it was recolonized by the Spartan Pausanias, who wrested it from the Medes after the battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) - a circumstance which led several ancient chroniclers to ascribe its foundation to him.
Becoming dissatisfied with conditions at Portsmouth, Coddington and Clarke removed a few miles farther south on the 29th of April 1639, and established a settlement at Newport.
Colonists were sent out by the Ohio Company from New England, and Marietta, the first permanent settlement in the present state of Ohio, was founded in April 1788.
At Rishire, some miles south of Bushire, and near the summer quarters of the British resident and the British telegraph buildings, there are extensive ruins among which bricks with cuneiform inscriptions have been found, showing that the place was a very old Elamite settlement.
In Byzantine times a new settlement took its place under the name of Arta.
Excavations around the cathedral have incontestably proved that Frankfort-on-Main (Trajectum ad Moenum) was a settlement in Roman times and was probably founded in the 1st century of the Christian era.
A settlement was made here about 1827; in 1837 the site was chosen as headquarters for the Illinois & Michigan Canal and a village was laid out; it was incorporated in 1853, and was chartered as a city in 1904.
The first permanent settlement here was made in 1848, and Corsicana was incorporated as a village in 1850 and chartered as a city in 1871.
The new settlement was known as Sir Orda (" Golden Camp," whence "Golden Horde").
He declined to accept the revolution settlement as final, or to think with Burke that the constitution of the House of Commons could not be bettered.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.