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servians

servians Sentence Examples

  • In 1375 the Turks captured Naissus for the first time from the Servians.

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  • In 1443 the allied armies of the Hungarians under Hunyady and the Servians under George Brankovich, retook it from the Turks, but in 1456 it again came under Turkish dominion, and remained for more than 300 years the most important Turkish military station on the road between Hungary and Constantinople.

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  • The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.

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  • The Turks raised as a monument of their victory a high tower composed entirely of the heads of the Servians slain in the battle of Nish.

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  • the Bulgarians conquered the southern portion of the country and Epirus as far as Khimara; under their powerful tsar Simeon (893-927), who defeated the Servians, they established their rule on the Adriatic littoral, except at Durazzo, which remained Byzantine, and colonized these regions in great numbers.

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  • The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).

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  • (Servians, Bulgarians, Croatians, &c.), and the E.

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  • Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.

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  • The Bulgarians, Bosnians and Servians had at different periods invaded and conquered the territories inhabited by them; the Albanians, original natives of their land, were governed by princes of their own.

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  • Murad, who had returned to Brusa, crossed over to Biga, and sent on Haji Ilbeyi with io,000 men; these fell by night on the Servians and utterly routed them at a place still known as the " Servians' coffer."

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  • In 1442 Hunyadi drove the Turks from Hermannstadt and, at the head of an army of Hungarians, Poles, Servians, Walachians and German crusaders, succeeded in the ensuing year in expelling them from Semendria, penetrating as far as the Balkans, where he inflicted heavy losses on the Turkish general.

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  • But the wars with Russia and other Christian powers, and the different risings of the Greeks and Servians, helped to stimulate the feelings of animosity and contempt entertained towards them by the ruling race; and the promulgation of the Tanzimat undoubtedly heralded for the subject nationalities the dawn of a new era.

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  • The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.

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  • In 1807 the Servians, having risen for their independence, forced the Turkish garrison to capitulate, and became masters of Belgrade, which they kept until the end of September 1813, when they abandoned it to the Turks.

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  • Up to the year 1862 not only was the fortress of Belgrade garrisoned by Turkish troops, but the Danubian slope of the town was inhabited by Turks, living under a special Turkish administration, while the modern part of the town (the plateau of the ridge and the western slope) was inhabited by Servians living under their own authorities.

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  • This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).

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  • The indirect consequence of this incident was that in 1866, on the categoric demand of Prince Michael of Servia, and under the diplomatic pressure of the great powers, the sultan withdrew the Turkish garrison from the citadel and delivered it to the Servians.

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  • Thus the Servians are mostly Greek Orthodox; the Ruthenians are Uniat Greeks; the Rumanians are either Greek Orthodox or Greek Uniats; the Slovaks are Lutherans; the only other Lutherans are the Germans in Transylvania and in the Zsepes county.

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  • equal terms with their imperial rivals for the possession of Dalmatia, Rascia (the original home of the Servians, situated between Bosnia, Dalmatia and Albania) and Rama or northern Bosnia (acquired by Hungary in 1135); but on the accession of Manuel Comnenus in 1143 the struggle became acute.

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  • Moreover, river fleets, built by Genoese masters and manned by Servians, were constructed to patrol and defend the great rivers of Hungary, especially on the Turkish frontier.

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  • According to nationality there were 578,789 Rumanians, 362,487 Germans, 251,938 Servians and 170,124 Magyars.

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  • The popular hero of the Servians and Bulgarians is Marko Kralyevich, son of Vukashin, characterized by Goethe as a counterpart of the Greek Heracles and the Persian Rustem.

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  • Through her agency an important bulwark for the Christian faith was created in the new nations which had sprung into existence since the beginning of the middle ages: the Bulgarians, the Servians, and the multifarious peoples grouped under the name of Russians.

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  • It was again the scene of stirring events during the Russo-Turkish Wars of 1854-55 and 1877-78, and successfully resisted the assaults of the Servians in the Servo-Bulgarian War of 1886-87.

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  • The Bulgarian power declined after his death and was extinguished at the battle of Velbilzhd (1330) by the Servians under Stephen Urosh III.

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  • established his capital at Adrianople; in 1389 the fate of the Slavonic states was decided by the rout of the Servians and their allies at Kossovo.

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  • Pop. (1900) 29,036, two-thirds Servians.

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  • Of the total population, civil and military, 578,458 were Magyars, 104,520 were Germans, 25,168 were Slovaks, and the remainder was composed of Croatians, Servians, Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, &c. According to religion, there were 445,023 Roman Catholics, 5806 Greek Catholics, 4422 Greek Orthodox; 67,319 were Protestants of the Helvetic, and 38,811 were Protestants of the Augsburg Confessions; 168,985 were Jews, and the remainder belonged to various other creeds.

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  • Chagrined at not himself becoming king after his father's death, he headed a revolt against the new ruler of the Servians.

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  • Pop. (1900) 24,843, of which about 60% are Servians.

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  • During the anxious months that followed the Austrian coup, the efforts of diplomacy were directed to calming the excitement of Servians, Montenegrins and the Young Turks, and to considering a European conference in which the fait accompli should be regularized in accordance with the accepted canons of international law.

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  • The Servians and Russians apparently always used the Cyrillic, and its advantages gradually ousted the Glagolitic elsewhere, though the service book in the old ecclesiastical language which is used by the Roman Catholic Croats is in Glagolitic.4 While the Carian and Lycian were probably independent of the Greek in origin, so, too, at the opposite end of the Mediterranean was the Iberian.

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  • During the revolutionary period of 1848-49 the Hungarians defeated the Servians here on the 11th of July 1848, while on the 19th of January 1849 the town was occupied by the Austrian troops.

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  • It is the seat of a Greek Orthodox bishop, and has become the literary and religious centre of the Servians in Hungary, especially since the foundation in 1864 of the Matica Srbska, or Servian Literary Society.

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  • The Orthodox Church in Austria-Hungary, which, however, really consists of four independent sections: the Servians of Hungary and Croatia, under the patriarch of Karlowitz; the Rumanians of Transylvania, under the archbishop of Hermannstadt; the Ruthenians of Bukovina, under the metropolitan of Czernowitz; and the Serbs of Bosnia-Herzogovina, where there are four sees, that of Sarajevo holding the primacy.

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  • By the terms of their subjection to the Huns, the East Goths came to fight for Attila against Christendom at Chalons, just as the Servians came to fight for Bajazet against Christendom at Nicopolis.

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  • The population of foreign descent comprises many Jews, Armenians, gipsies, Greeks, Germans, Turks, Tatars and Magyars, Servians and Bulgarians.

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  • The great majority of inhabitants are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there are also large numbers of Jews (133,000, exclusive of Karaites), as well as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nationalities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians.

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  • From his Thracian principality he levied several wars against the Servians.

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  • More than four-fifths of the Servians are peasant farmers; and the great majority of these cultivate the land belonging to their own families.

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  • See Servia by the Servians, ed.

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  • By that treaty Russia, desiring to create a great Bulgaria, took within its limits districts inhabited by Servians, and considered by the Servian politicians and patriots as the natural and legitimate inheritance of their nation.

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  • He tried to retrieve his position in the country, and succeeded in a great measure, by granting a very liberal constitution (January 1889, or Dec. 1888 O.S.) at a time when all agitation for a new constitution had been given up. Then, to the great astonishment of the Servians and of his Russian enemies, King Milan voluntarily abdicated, placing the government of the country in the hands of a regency during the minority of his only son Alexander, whom he proclaimed king of Servia on the 6th of March 1889.

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  • yezika, Belgrade, 1874), the Servians were the first Slavonic branch which separated from the original Slavonic stem, while the Russians and the Bulgarians only separated from it at a considerably later date.

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  • Both the Servians and the Croats arrived in the first half of the 7th century (or more precisely about A.D.

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  • Karajich and his followers tried to make it the literary language of the Servians.

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  • They are as follows: (a) while the Servians pronounce the Old Slavonic yach as ye or e or ee, the Croats pronounce it always as ee (Servian beeyelo or belo, Croatian beelo); (b) the Servians have the sound gye (softened d or g), the Croats are without it, but have instead ya or ye (Servian gospogya, Croatian gospoya); (c) the Servians let the vowel i transform the preceding consonant into a soft consonant, whereas the Croats pronounce the consonant unaffected by the softening influence of i (Servian bratya, Croatian bratia); (d) the Servians change the letter l at the end of a word into o whereas the Croats always pronounce it as 1.

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  • Although the Croats write and print in Latin characters, while the Servians write and print in Cyrillic, and although many a Servian cannot read Croatian books, and vice versa, the literary language of both nations is one and the same.

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  • That alphabet is called " Cyrillic " (in Servian Kyrilitsa), and is - simplified and modernized - practically the alphabet used by the Servians, Bulgarians and Russians of our times.

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  • Servian-Slavonic was the literary language of the Servians from the 12th century to the end of the 15th, i.e.

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  • The story of the love and sufferings of the Servian prince Vladimir, who lived in the 11th century, and his wife, the Bulgarian princess Kossara, written probably in the 13th century, was very popular among the Servians.

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  • A characteristic example of the literary and also, as it appears, of the official language of the Servians in the middle ages is the Codex of Tsar Dushan (Zakonik Tsara Dushana), which was promulgated at the Servian parliament (Sabor) in Skoplye (Uskiib) in 1349 and 1 354.

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  • During the first half of the 16th century the Servians had printing-presses in Belgrade, Skadar (Scutari) on the river Boyana, Gorazhde, Mileshevo and elsewhere.

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  • While among the Servians belonging to the Eastern Church all literary work had practically stopped from the middle of the r 6th century to the middle of the 18th, the Roman Catholic Servians of Dalmatia, and more especially those of the semi-independent republic of Ragusa, became more active.

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  • The awakening of literary ambition among these Servians of the Adriatic coast was originally due to the influence of immigrant Greek scholars who came to Ragusa after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

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  • The literature of the Adriatic Servians was, with very few exceptions, Servian only in language, but Italian in form and spirit.

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  • Under this denomination he comprised Servians, Croats, Slovenes and Bulgarians, anticipating the modern appellations of the Yugo-Sloveni (Southern Slays).

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  • His book immediately became the most popular that ever appeared among the Servians, and was again and again reprinted, under the less ponderous title Pesmaritsa, " The Book of Songs."

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  • - As long as the countries inhabited by the Orthodox Servians were under the deadening immediate rule of the Turks, they produced no serious literature.

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  • But when the Austrian wars of the 17th century began to roll back the Turkish power, and Hungary recovered its freedom, the Servians living in that country rapidly acquired some culture, and their literature began to revive.

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  • Russian-Slavonic thus became the literary language of the Orthodox Servians.

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  • (Moscow, 1 754); the Short Introduction into the History of the Origin of the SlavenoServian Nation, by Paul Yulinats (Venice, 1765); and above all the History of the Slavonic Nations, more especially of the Bulgarians, Croats and Servians, by Archimandrite Yovan Raich (Vienna, 1794).

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  • The Servians call him " the father of Servian history."

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  • The Servians had some authors in the 18th century, but it could hardly have been said that they had readers.

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  • These books created a reading public among the Servians and mark the beginning of a really modern period of Servian literature.

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  • Obradovich, or rather " Dositey " as Servians call him, was so highly appreciated as an author, savant and patriot that in 1807 Karageorge invited him to Servia and appointed him a senator and minister of public education, in which capacity he established in Belgrade the first Servian college (Velika Shkola).

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  • And, although it could not be justly said that the Servians of the 10th century produced a really great work from the literary point of view, they certainly made progress and produced some remarkable poetry.

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  • Sarayliya's most important work is Serbiyanka (Leipzig, 1826), in which he describes the rising of the Servians against the Turks in 1804 and 1815.

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  • For this reason he never was really popular among the Servians.

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  • The Servians consider Gorski Viyenats the finest poetical work in their literature.

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  • The Servians have as yet no great novelist, but they have several very successful writers of short stories.

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  • In dramatic literature the Servians are comparatively rich.

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  • In 1375 the Turks captured Naissus for the first time from the Servians.

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  • In 1443 the allied armies of the Hungarians under Hunyady and the Servians under George Brankovich, retook it from the Turks, but in 1456 it again came under Turkish dominion, and remained for more than 300 years the most important Turkish military station on the road between Hungary and Constantinople.

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  • The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.

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  • The Turks raised as a monument of their victory a high tower composed entirely of the heads of the Servians slain in the battle of Nish.

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  • the Bulgarians conquered the southern portion of the country and Epirus as far as Khimara; under their powerful tsar Simeon (893-927), who defeated the Servians, they established their rule on the Adriatic littoral, except at Durazzo, which remained Byzantine, and colonized these regions in great numbers.

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  • The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).

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  • (Servians, Bulgarians, Croatians, &c.), and the E.

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  • Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.

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  • The Bulgarians, Bosnians and Servians had at different periods invaded and conquered the territories inhabited by them; the Albanians, original natives of their land, were governed by princes of their own.

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  • Murad, who had returned to Brusa, crossed over to Biga, and sent on Haji Ilbeyi with io,000 men; these fell by night on the Servians and utterly routed them at a place still known as the " Servians' coffer."

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  • In 1442 Hunyadi drove the Turks from Hermannstadt and, at the head of an army of Hungarians, Poles, Servians, Walachians and German crusaders, succeeded in the ensuing year in expelling them from Semendria, penetrating as far as the Balkans, where he inflicted heavy losses on the Turkish general.

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  • But the wars with Russia and other Christian powers, and the different risings of the Greeks and Servians, helped to stimulate the feelings of animosity and contempt entertained towards them by the ruling race; and the promulgation of the Tanzimat undoubtedly heralded for the subject nationalities the dawn of a new era.

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  • The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.

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  • In 1807 the Servians, having risen for their independence, forced the Turkish garrison to capitulate, and became masters of Belgrade, which they kept until the end of September 1813, when they abandoned it to the Turks.

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  • Up to the year 1862 not only was the fortress of Belgrade garrisoned by Turkish troops, but the Danubian slope of the town was inhabited by Turks, living under a special Turkish administration, while the modern part of the town (the plateau of the ridge and the western slope) was inhabited by Servians living under their own authorities.

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  • This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).

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  • The indirect consequence of this incident was that in 1866, on the categoric demand of Prince Michael of Servia, and under the diplomatic pressure of the great powers, the sultan withdrew the Turkish garrison from the citadel and delivered it to the Servians.

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  • Thus the Servians are mostly Greek Orthodox; the Ruthenians are Uniat Greeks; the Rumanians are either Greek Orthodox or Greek Uniats; the Slovaks are Lutherans; the only other Lutherans are the Germans in Transylvania and in the Zsepes county.

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  • equal terms with their imperial rivals for the possession of Dalmatia, Rascia (the original home of the Servians, situated between Bosnia, Dalmatia and Albania) and Rama or northern Bosnia (acquired by Hungary in 1135); but on the accession of Manuel Comnenus in 1143 the struggle became acute.

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  • Moreover, river fleets, built by Genoese masters and manned by Servians, were constructed to patrol and defend the great rivers of Hungary, especially on the Turkish frontier.

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  • According to nationality there were 578,789 Rumanians, 362,487 Germans, 251,938 Servians and 170,124 Magyars.

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  • The popular hero of the Servians and Bulgarians is Marko Kralyevich, son of Vukashin, characterized by Goethe as a counterpart of the Greek Heracles and the Persian Rustem.

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  • Through her agency an important bulwark for the Christian faith was created in the new nations which had sprung into existence since the beginning of the middle ages: the Bulgarians, the Servians, and the multifarious peoples grouped under the name of Russians.

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  • It was again the scene of stirring events during the Russo-Turkish Wars of 1854-55 and 1877-78, and successfully resisted the assaults of the Servians in the Servo-Bulgarian War of 1886-87.

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  • The Bulgarian power declined after his death and was extinguished at the battle of Velbilzhd (1330) by the Servians under Stephen Urosh III.

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  • established his capital at Adrianople; in 1389 the fate of the Slavonic states was decided by the rout of the Servians and their allies at Kossovo.

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  • Pop. (1900) 29,036, two-thirds Servians.

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  • Of the total population, civil and military, 578,458 were Magyars, 104,520 were Germans, 25,168 were Slovaks, and the remainder was composed of Croatians, Servians, Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, &c. According to religion, there were 445,023 Roman Catholics, 5806 Greek Catholics, 4422 Greek Orthodox; 67,319 were Protestants of the Helvetic, and 38,811 were Protestants of the Augsburg Confessions; 168,985 were Jews, and the remainder belonged to various other creeds.

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  • Chagrined at not himself becoming king after his father's death, he headed a revolt against the new ruler of the Servians.

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  • Pop. (1900) 24,843, of which about 60% are Servians.

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  • During the anxious months that followed the Austrian coup, the efforts of diplomacy were directed to calming the excitement of Servians, Montenegrins and the Young Turks, and to considering a European conference in which the fait accompli should be regularized in accordance with the accepted canons of international law.

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  • The Servians and Russians apparently always used the Cyrillic, and its advantages gradually ousted the Glagolitic elsewhere, though the service book in the old ecclesiastical language which is used by the Roman Catholic Croats is in Glagolitic.4 While the Carian and Lycian were probably independent of the Greek in origin, so, too, at the opposite end of the Mediterranean was the Iberian.

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  • During the revolutionary period of 1848-49 the Hungarians defeated the Servians here on the 11th of July 1848, while on the 19th of January 1849 the town was occupied by the Austrian troops.

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  • It is the seat of a Greek Orthodox bishop, and has become the literary and religious centre of the Servians in Hungary, especially since the foundation in 1864 of the Matica Srbska, or Servian Literary Society.

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  • The Orthodox Church in Austria-Hungary, which, however, really consists of four independent sections: the Servians of Hungary and Croatia, under the patriarch of Karlowitz; the Rumanians of Transylvania, under the archbishop of Hermannstadt; the Ruthenians of Bukovina, under the metropolitan of Czernowitz; and the Serbs of Bosnia-Herzogovina, where there are four sees, that of Sarajevo holding the primacy.

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  • By the terms of their subjection to the Huns, the East Goths came to fight for Attila against Christendom at Chalons, just as the Servians came to fight for Bajazet against Christendom at Nicopolis.

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  • Servia received financial assistance; a large consignment of arms was sent openly from St Petersburg to the prince of Montenegro; Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria became ostensibly reconciled with the Russian emperor, and his son Boris was received into the Eastern Orthodox Church; the Russian embassy at Constantinople tried to bring about a reconciliation between the Bulgarian exarch and the oecumenical patriarch; Bulgarians and Servians professed, at the bidding of Russia, to lay aside their mutual hostility.

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  • The population of foreign descent comprises many Jews, Armenians, gipsies, Greeks, Germans, Turks, Tatars and Magyars, Servians and Bulgarians.

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  • The great majority of inhabitants are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there are also large numbers of Jews (133,000, exclusive of Karaites), as well as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nationalities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians.

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  • From his Thracian principality he levied several wars against the Servians.

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  • More than four-fifths of the Servians are peasant farmers; and the great majority of these cultivate the land belonging to their own families.

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  • See Servia by the Servians, ed.

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  • In all important transactions the Servians were led by the Grand Zhupan Mutimir Visheslavich (d.

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  • By that treaty Russia, desiring to create a great Bulgaria, took within its limits districts inhabited by Servians, and considered by the Servian politicians and patriots as the natural and legitimate inheritance of their nation.

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  • This view, which did not find support anywhere outside Servia, led to war between Servia and Bulgaria (see Servo-Bulgarian War); the Servians were defeated at Slivnitza and had to abandon Pirot, whilst the farther advance of the Bulgarian army on Nish was stopped by the intervention of Austria-Hungary.

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  • He tried to retrieve his position in the country, and succeeded in a great measure, by granting a very liberal constitution (January 1889, or Dec. 1888 O.S.) at a time when all agitation for a new constitution had been given up. Then, to the great astonishment of the Servians and of his Russian enemies, King Milan voluntarily abdicated, placing the government of the country in the hands of a regency during the minority of his only son Alexander, whom he proclaimed king of Servia on the 6th of March 1889.

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  • yezika, Belgrade, 1874), the Servians were the first Slavonic branch which separated from the original Slavonic stem, while the Russians and the Bulgarians only separated from it at a considerably later date.

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  • Both the Servians and the Croats arrived in the first half of the 7th century (or more precisely about A.D.

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  • The Old Slavonic words lyepo, byelo, are pronounced by the Servians of Herzegovina, Bosnia, Montenegro, Dalmatia, Croatia and south-western Servia as leeyepo, beeyelo; by the Servians of Syrmia the same vowel is pronounced sometimes as e (lepo, belo), sometimes as ee (videeti, leteeti); by the Servians of the Morava valley and its accessory Ressava valley, always only as e (lepo, belo, videti, leteti).

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  • Karajich and his followers tried to make it the literary language of the Servians.

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  • They are as follows: (a) while the Servians pronounce the Old Slavonic yach as ye or e or ee, the Croats pronounce it always as ee (Servian beeyelo or belo, Croatian beelo); (b) the Servians have the sound gye (softened d or g), the Croats are without it, but have instead ya or ye (Servian gospogya, Croatian gospoya); (c) the Servians let the vowel i transform the preceding consonant into a soft consonant, whereas the Croats pronounce the consonant unaffected by the softening influence of i (Servian bratya, Croatian bratia); (d) the Servians change the letter l at the end of a word into o whereas the Croats always pronounce it as 1.

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  • To facilitate this reform, to overcome the ecclesiastical prejudices of the Roman Catholic Croats against the Eastern Orthodox Servians, and vice versa, certain Croatian patriots, led by Ljudevit Gaj, proposed that all the Slavonic peoples in the north-western part of the Balkan Peninsula should call themselves Illyri and their language Illyrian (see Croatia-Slavonia: Language and Literature and History).

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  • Although the Croats write and print in Latin characters, while the Servians write and print in Cyrillic, and although many a Servian cannot read Croatian books, and vice versa, the literary language of both nations is one and the same.

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  • That alphabet is called " Cyrillic " (in Servian Kyrilitsa), and is - simplified and modernized - practically the alphabet used by the Servians, Bulgarians and Russians of our times.

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  • Servian-Slavonic was the literary language of the Servians from the 12th century to the end of the 15th, i.e.

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  • The story of the love and sufferings of the Servian prince Vladimir, who lived in the 11th century, and his wife, the Bulgarian princess Kossara, written probably in the 13th century, was very popular among the Servians.

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  • A characteristic example of the literary and also, as it appears, of the official language of the Servians in the middle ages is the Codex of Tsar Dushan (Zakonik Tsara Dushana), which was promulgated at the Servian parliament (Sabor) in Skoplye (Uskiib) in 1349 and 1 354.

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  • During the first half of the 16th century the Servians had printing-presses in Belgrade, Skadar (Scutari) on the river Boyana, Gorazhde, Mileshevo and elsewhere.

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  • While among the Servians belonging to the Eastern Church all literary work had practically stopped from the middle of the r 6th century to the middle of the 18th, the Roman Catholic Servians of Dalmatia, and more especially those of the semi-independent republic of Ragusa, became more active.

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  • The awakening of literary ambition among these Servians of the Adriatic coast was originally due to the influence of immigrant Greek scholars who came to Ragusa after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

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  • Mention must be made, however, of an author whose work connects the literature of the Adriatic Servians of the 18th century with the regenerative efforts of the Danubian Servians in the second decade of the 19th century.

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  • The literature of the Adriatic Servians was, with very few exceptions, Servian only in language, but Italian in form and spirit.

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  • Under this denomination he comprised Servians, Croats, Slovenes and Bulgarians, anticipating the modern appellations of the Yugo-Sloveni (Southern Slays).

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  • His book immediately became the most popular that ever appeared among the Servians, and was again and again reprinted, under the less ponderous title Pesmaritsa, " The Book of Songs."

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  • - As long as the countries inhabited by the Orthodox Servians were under the deadening immediate rule of the Turks, they produced no serious literature.

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  • But when the Austrian wars of the 17th century began to roll back the Turkish power, and Hungary recovered its freedom, the Servians living in that country rapidly acquired some culture, and their literature began to revive.

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  • Russian-Slavonic thus became the literary language of the Orthodox Servians.

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  • (Moscow, 1 754); the Short Introduction into the History of the Origin of the SlavenoServian Nation, by Paul Yulinats (Venice, 1765); and above all the History of the Slavonic Nations, more especially of the Bulgarians, Croats and Servians, by Archimandrite Yovan Raich (Vienna, 1794).

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  • The Servians call him " the father of Servian history."

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  • The Servians had some authors in the 18th century, but it could hardly have been said that they had readers.

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  • These books created a reading public among the Servians and mark the beginning of a really modern period of Servian literature.

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  • Obradovich, or rather " Dositey " as Servians call him, was so highly appreciated as an author, savant and patriot that in 1807 Karageorge invited him to Servia and appointed him a senator and minister of public education, in which capacity he established in Belgrade the first Servian college (Velika Shkola).

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  • And, although it could not be justly said that the Servians of the 10th century produced a really great work from the literary point of view, they certainly made progress and produced some remarkable poetry.

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  • Sarayliya's most important work is Serbiyanka (Leipzig, 1826), in which he describes the rising of the Servians against the Turks in 1804 and 1815.

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  • For this reason he never was really popular among the Servians.

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  • The Servians consider Gorski Viyenats the finest poetical work in their literature.

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  • The Servians have as yet no great novelist, but they have several very successful writers of short stories.

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  • After him the most popular authors of short stories are: Stefan Sremats, whose mild satire and sparkling humour earned for him the name of the " Servian Dickens "; Yanko Veselinovich, author of some delightful sketches from the life of Servian peasants; Sima Matavuly, whose stories give a true picture of the Servians of Dalmatia and of Montenegro.

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  • In dramatic literature the Servians are comparatively rich.

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