Servian sentence example
Among Servian cities, Nish is only surpassed by Belgrade in commercial and strategic importance; for it lies at the point where several of the chief Balkan highroads converge, and where the branch railway to Salonica leaves the main line between Belgrade and Constantinople.
The administration of the Servian railways has its factory for repairing engines and principal store of materials in the city, which also possesses an iron foundry.
After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
Towards the end of the 12th century the town was in the hands of the Servian prince Stephen Nemanya, who there received hospitably the German emperor Frederic Barbarossa and his Crusaders.
In the RussoTurkish War the Servian army, under the personal command of King Milan, besieged Nish, and forced it to capitulate on the 10th January 1878.Advertisement
The large number of Slavonic local names in Albania, even in districts where no trace of a Slavonic population exists, bears witness to the extensive Servian and Bulgarian immigrations in the early middle ages, but the original inhabitants gradually ousted or assimilated the invaders.
There are two Servian seminaries at Prizren.
In 640 northern Albania was invaded by the Serbo-Croats; it continued with interruptions under Servian rule till 1360.
He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the Servian invasion, and after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued King Milan into Servian territory as far as Pirot, which he captured (November 27).
The new Servian kingdom of the Nemanides, on the other hand, gave him much trouble and was the occasion of many bloody wars.Advertisement
The surrounding heights, though rugged and barren, produce some of the finest Servian tobacco.
The houses in Uzhitse are quite unlike those of more prosperous Servian towns, being tall, narrow structures of timber, frequently blackened by the damp. Pop. (1900) about 7000.
In the cathedral or church of Sveti Kral (the Saint King), a modern building, are preserved the remains of the Servian king Stefan Urosh II.
He found time, in addition, to write a short book on Die Serbische Revolution (1829), from material supplied to him by Wuk Stephanowich, a Servian who had himself been witness of the scenes he related.
They are supposed by some to be identical with the curatores tribuum, and to have been the officials who, under the Servian organization, levied the war-tax (tributum) in the tribes and the poll-tax on the aerarii.Advertisement
All alike belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language almost identical with Servian, though written by the Roman Catholics in Latin instead of Cyrillic letters.
The Bosnians or Bosniaks resemble their Servian kinsfolk in both appearance and character.
They have the same love for poetry, music and romance; the same intense pride in their race and history; many of the same superstitions and customs. The Christians retain the Servian costume, modified in detail, as by the occasional use of the turban or fez.
An unusually able ruler, connected by marriage with the powerful Servian dynasty of Nemanya, and by treaty with the republic of Ragusa, 2 Kulin perceived in the new doctrines a barrier between his subjects and Hungary.
At this period the Servian empire had reached its zenith; Hungary, governed by the feeble monarch, Charles Robert of Anjou, was striving to crush the insurgent magnates of Croatia; Venice, whose commercial interests were imperilled, desired to restore peace and maintain the balance of power.Advertisement
Defeated by the Servian tsar Dushan, and driven to ally himself with Servia and Venice against Louis I.
The death of Stephen Dushan, in 1356, had left his empire defenceless against the Hungarians, Turks and other enemies; and to win help from Bosnia the Servian tsar Lazar ceded to Tvrtko a large tract of territory, including the principality of Tribunia.
At his coronation he had proclaimed his purpose to revive the ancient Servian empire; in 1378 he had married the daughter of the last Bulgarian tsar; and it is probable that he dreamed of founding an empire which should extend from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.
The princes and kings who had consented to pay tribute were by this success encouraged to rebel, and the Servian troops who had taken part in the battle of Konia became insubordinate.
After the battle, while Murad was reviewing his victorious troops on the field, he was assassinated by Milosh Kabilovich, a Servian who was allowed to approach him on the plea of submission.Advertisement
The sultan's five sons were with the army, as well as all his generals; 7000 Servian auxiliaries under Stephen, son of Lazarus, took part in the battle (1402).
The new pasha of Belgrade appointed one Milosh Obrenovich headman of his own district, but a few years later Milosh raised a successful revolt, drove out the Turks, and re-established Servian semi-independence.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
Only the multitude of small gardens, planted with limes, acacias and lilacs, and the bright costumes of the Servian or Hungarian peasants, remain to distinguish it from a western capital.
There were, in 1900, four Servian Orthodox churches, including the cathedral, one Roman Catholic chapel, one Evangelical chapel (German), two synagogues and one mosque.Advertisement
This last is kept up entirely at the expense of the Servian government.
There are also an interesting national museum, with Roman antiquities and numismatic collections, a national library with a wealth of old Servian MSS.
During the 14th century it was in the hands of the Servian kings.
The Servian prince George Brankovich ceded it to the Hungarians in 1427.
This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).Advertisement
Novibazar is a mountainous region, watered by the Lim, which flows north into Bosnia, and by several small tributaries of the Servian Ibar.
Novibazar, the capital of the sanjak, is a town of about 12,000 inhabitants, on the site of the ancient Servian city of Rassia.
In Dalmatia the Venetians III were too strong for her; but she helped materially to break up the Byzantine rule in the Balkan peninsula by assisting Stephen Nemanya to establish an independent Servian kingdom, originally under nominal Hungarian suzerainty.
In 1371 they overwhelmed the Servian tsar Vukashin at the battle of Taenarus and penetrated to the heart of old Servia.
This was due partly to the excessive proselytizing energy of the Angevins, which provoked rebellion on the part of their Greek-Orthodox subjects, partly to the natural dynastic competition of the Servian and Bulgarian tsars, and partly to the emergence of a new nationality, called Walachia was regarded by the Magyars as part of the banate of Szoreny.Advertisement
On returning to Buda in 1439, he at once plunged into a war with the Turks, who had, in the meantime, captured the important Servian fortress of Semendria and subjugated the greater part of Bosnia.
The landless younger sons of the gentry and the Servian and Vlach immigrants provided him with excellent and practically inexhaustible military material.
As the earliest Magyarizer of Servian folk-song, Michael Vitkovics did valuable service.
The Rozsdk (Zombor, 1875) is a translation by Eugene Pavlovits from the Servian of Jovan Jovanovits.
Meanwhile he supported himself by teaching on a very small scale, but his progress was such that at sixteen he had a good knowledge of Hungarian, Latin, French and German, and was rapidly acquiring English and the Scandinavian languages, and also Russian, Servian and other Slavonic tongues.Advertisement
The Servian chroniclers connect its origin with their own nationality, basing this view upon the identification of Sarab with Sorb or Serbia.
Up to the 14th century it was at times the capital of the Servian tsars.
In the summer of 1876 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Servian army, but on entering Turkey was driven back by Osman Pasha, who followed him into Servia, defeating him at Zayechar and Yavor in July, and the campaign in Servia proved disastrous.
Orthodox churches (Russian, Servian, Syrian and Greek), which had practically no existence in 1890, the year of the last preceding census of religious bodies.
The real Servian commentary practically gives the only complete extant edition of a classic author written before the destruction of the empire.Advertisement
In 1898 he appointed his father commander-in-chief of the Servian army, and from that time, or rather from his return to Servia in 1894 until 1900, ex-king Milan was regarded as the de facto ruler of the country.
It was in Krushevats that the last Servian tsar, Lazar, assembled his army to march against the Turks, and lose his empire, at Kosovo, in 1389.
The city is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop, a Greek bishop, and a Servian theological seminary.
In the December of this year AustriaHungary indeed decisively interfered in the war between Bulgaria and Servia, for at this time Austrian influence predominated in Servia, and after the battle of Slivnitza the Austro-Hungarian minister warned Prince Alexander of Bulgaria that if he advanced farther he would be met by Austro-Hungarian as well as Servian troops.
The Young Czechs could not take their place; their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of their French sympathies; they entered into communication with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve order.
Some of the finest Servian cattle are bred in the neighbouring lowlands, and the town has a considerable trade in plums and other farm-produce.
There is a legend that here the Servian tsar Lazar (1374-1389) was visited by an angel, who bade him choose between an earthly and a heavenly crown.
Montenegro, like the other mountainous regions, adhered to the Greek Church; it received a number of Orthodox Servian refugees at the beginning of the i 5th century, when the Turks occupied Servia.
They have shown a tendency to advance in a north-easterly direction towards the Servian frontier, and the movement has been encouraged for political reasons by the Turkish government.
The Bulgarian, Servian, Montenegrin and Greek churches are, however, in reality autocephalous.
The Slavonic masses, however, both Servian and Bulgarian, preserved their language, which saved these nationalities from extinction.
The Servian, Bulgarian and Rumanian languages have borrowed largely from the Turkish in their vocabularies, but not in their structural forms, and have adopted many words from the Greek.
A short period of Servian predominance followed under Stephen Dushan (1331-1355) whose realm included Albania, Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly and northern Greece.
The Servian incursion was followed by a great Albanian emigration to the southern regions of the Peninsula.
Among the earliest advocates of this idea was Ristich, the Servian statesman.
At the time of the Servian reforms both branches of the plebs had a plausible claim to recognition as members of the state, the clients as already partial members of the curia and the gees, the unattached plebeians as equally free with the patricians and possessing clans of their own as solid and united as the recognized gentes.
He is regarded as the personification of the Servian race, and stories of strength and wonder have gathered round his name.
He is a great figure in Servian poetry, and his deeds are also told in the epic poems of the Rumanians and the Bulgarians.
The Servian poems about him were published in 1878; a German translation by Grdber (Marko, der Konigssohn) appeared at Vienna in 1883.
In the 15th century, when the Servian prince George Brankovich became lord of Tokay, in Hungary, he planted vines from Semendria on his estates there; and from these came the famous white wine Tokay.
Semendria was the residence of that Servian ruler and the capital of Servia from 1430 to 1459.
A road, the Via Ardeatina, led to Ardea direct from Rome; the gate by which it left the Servian wall was the Porta Naevia; a large tomb behind the baths of Caracalla lay on its course.
Velia up to the low cliffs of the Esquiline, and in another it laid waste the Aventine, the Forum Boarium and Velabrum till it reached the Tiber and the solid barrier of the Servian wall.
It is the seat of a Greek Orthodox bishop, and has become the literary and religious centre of the Servians in Hungary, especially since the foundation in 1864 of the Matica Srbska, or Servian Literary Society.
A local synod at Constantinople, in August 1872, pronounced it schismatical; Antioch, Alexandria and Greece followed suit; Jerusalem pronounced a modified condemnation; and the Servian and Rumanian churches avoided any definite expression of opinion.
If, as seemed likely in 1910, in addition to the Russian and Syrian bishops, Greek and Servian ones were appointed, an independent synod could be formed, and the bishops could elect their own metropolitan.
When the rout of the Christians was complete, a Servian named Milosh Kabilovich penetrated to Murad's tent on pretence of communicating an important secret to the sultan, and stabbed the conqueror.
Otherwise, the Danube constitutes the whole southern frontier; its right bank being Bulgarian for 290 m., and Servian, in the extreme west, for 50 m.
Besides the Moldavian and Servian breeds, thousands of so-called " swamp hogs " run wild among the marshes and on the islands of the Danube.
In central Moldavia there is a large population of Magyar descent, and the Servian and Bulgarian elements are strong near the Danube.
A Walachian contingent, apparently Mircea's, aided the Servian tsar Lazar in his vain endeavour to resist the Turks at Kossovo (1389); later he allied himself with his former enemy Sigismund of Hungary against the Turkish sultan Bayezid I., who inflicted a crushing defeat on the allied armies at Nikopolis in 1396.
He published an astounding pedigree, in which, starting from " Hercules Triptolemus," he wound his way through the royal Servian line to the kinship of Moldavian voivodes, and, having won the emperor Ferdinand to his financial and military support, succeeded, though at the head of only 1600 cavalry, in routing by a bold dash the vastly superior forces of the voivode, and even in purchasing the Turkish confirmation of his usurped title.
In Transylvania, with the conversion to Greek-Catholicism of Bishop Athanasius in 1701, the Greek Orthodox had to place themselves down to 1850 under the protection of the Servian metropolitan of Karlovatz.
Of greater importance was the collection of fables with their " moral " translated and modified from the Servian of Obrenovich - Fabule moralicesti, by Tzikindeal (Budapest, 1814).
In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 it was captured by the Servian army from the Turks, and subsequently was incorporated in the kingdom.
According to the survey carried out by the Servian general staff in 1884 the area of the country is 18,782 sq.
On the east of this river, three vast ranges, the Transylvanian Alps, the Balkans and Rhodope, encroach upon Servian soil; while on the west there is a chaos of mountain masses, outliers of the Bosnian and Albanian highlands.
Sooner or later, indeed, all the Servian rivers reach the Danube.
Apart from frontier rivers, the most important stream is the Morava, which, rising on the western slopes of the Kara Dagh, a little beyond the Servian frontier, enters the country with a north-easterly course near the extreme S.E., and then turns N.N.W.
In the upper part of its course it is known as the Bulgarian Morava, and only after receiving the Servian Morava on the left is it known as the Morava simply or as the Great Morava.
The Servian Morava is joined on the south by the Ibar, which comes from the Albanian Alps; the combined length of these rivers being about 130 m.
During the later middle ages the Servian mines brought in a large revenue to the merchant princes of Ragusa.
The wild life of the Servian highlands is unusually varied.
Servian methods of farming remain in many respects primitive.
The best Servian wines are those of Negotin and Semendria.
The Servian pig is pure white or black, but other breeds, notably the Berkshire and Yorkshire, are kept.
Despite American competition and Austro-Hungarian tariffs the export of swine remains the principal branch of Servian commerce.
Small holdings were in themselves a hindrance to Servian agricultural progress, inasmuch as small farmers cannot afford the cost of scientific farming; hence the great success of co-operation.
But the Berlin Treaty (1878) stipulated that Servia should construct part of the international railway to Constantinople and to Salonica, and should pay the Turkish landowners an indemnity for the estates which had been taken from them and divided among their Servian tenants.
The Mortgage Bank (Uprava Fondova), founded in 1862, is a state institution which lends money for agricultural operations, &c. The Export Bank, founded in 1901, is a private bank under state supervision, with branches in Budapest, Vienna, Berlin, &c. Its chief object is the furtherance of Servian foreign commerce.
Branch lines give access to Kraguyevats, Zayechar, Semendria and other important towns, and there are several smaller railways in the valleys of the Save, the Danube, the Servian Morava and their tributaries.
From 1843 in 1868 the Servian government undertook the carriage of letters in Servia itself, while the Austro-Hungarian consulate in Belgrade forwarded correspondence to and from central and western Europe.
The first telegraph line was constructed as early as 1855; telegrams between Constantinople, Sofia, Budapest and Vienna pass over lines constructed by the Servian government (under conventions with Austria-Hungary and Turkey) in 1899 and 1906.
Many Servian emigrants returned, after 1878, to the territories which the Treaty of Berlin restored to their country.
Even language does not afford a sure criterion, so nearly akin are many spoken dialects of Servian and Bulgarian.
It is largely this enthusiasm for the past which keeps alive the desire for a reunion of the whole race, in another Servian Empire, like that overthrown by the Turks in 1389.
The fasts of the Orthodox Church are strictly kept; while the festivals, which are hardly less numerous, are celebrated even by the Servian Moslems. As in Bulgaria and Rumania, the slava, or patron saint's day, is set aside for rejoicing.
A Servian crowd at a festival presents a medley of brilliant and picturesque costumes, scarlet being the favourite colour.
The Rumanian women retain their native costume, and are further distinguished by the wooden cradles, slung over the shoulders, in which they carry their infants; the Servian mothers prefer a canvas bag.
The Servian Church is an autocephalous branch of the Orthodox Eastern communion.
Other important institutions of a semi-educational character are the Royal Servian Academy (1836), which controls the national museum and national library in Belgrade, and publishes periodicals, &c.; the ethnographical museum (1891), the natural history museum (1904), the national theatre (1890), the State Archives (1866, reorganized 1901), and the state printing office (1831), all in Belgrade.
The Bulgarian danger, and probably the energetic and successful operations of the Greek emperor Basil the Macedonian (867-886), determined the Servian Zhupans to acknowledge again the suzerainty of the Greek emperors.
One of the important consequences of this new vassalship to the Byzantine empire was that the entire Servian people embraced Christianity, between 871 and 875.
During the reign of his heirs almost all the Servian provinces were conquered by the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon (924).(924).
In 931 Chaslav, one of the princes of the Visheslav dynasty, liberated the largest part of the Servian territory from Bulgarian domination, but to maintain that liberty he had to acknowledge the Byzantine emperors as his suzerains.
The principal scene of the RussoTurkish war being transferred to the Lower Danube, only a few unimportant actions took place on Servian territory.
In compliance with that treaty the sultan by the Hatti-Sherif of 1830 formally granted full autonomy to the Serbs, retaining at the same time Turkish garrisons in the Servian fortresses.
When in 1862 the Turkish garrison in the citadel of Belgrade bombarded the town, he demanded the evacuation of all the Servian fortresses and forts by the Turks.
To prevent a general conflagration in the Balkan Peninsula, the powers advised the sultan to comply with the demand, and when the British government strongly supported that advice the sultan yielded and delivered all the fortresses on Servian territory to the keeping of the prince of Servia (March 1867).
By that treaty Russia, desiring to create a great Bulgaria, took within its limits districts inhabited by Servians, and considered by the Servian politicians and patriots as the natural and legitimate inheritance of their nation.
This act of Russia created great dissatisfaction in Servia, and became the starting-point for a new departure in Servian politics.
At the Berlin Congress the Servian plenipotentiary, Jovan Ristich, in vain appealed to the Russian representatives to assist Servia to obtain better terms. The Russians themselves advised him to appeal to Austria and to try to obtain her support.
The utter neglect of the Servian interests by Russia at San Stefano, and her evident inability at the Berlin Congress to do anything for Servia, determined Prince Milan to change the traditional policy of his country, and instead of continuing to seek support from Russia, he tried to come to an understanding with Austria-Hungary concerning the conditions under which that power would give its support to Servian interests.
This new departure was considered by the Russians - especially by those of the Panslavist party - almost as an apostasy, and it was decided to oppose Prince Milan and his supporters, the Servian Progressives.
The political history of Servia from 1879 to the abdication of King Milan on 3rd March 1889 was an uninterrupted struggle between King Milan and the Progressives on one side, and Russia with her adherents, the Servian Radicals, on the other.
One remarkable feature in the foreign policy of Servia in the last years of the 19th century was that after King Milan was appointed commander-in-chief of the Servian regular army (1898), Russia and Montenegro practically, although not formally, broke off their diplomatic relations with Servia, while at the same time the relations of that country with Austria-Hungary became more friendly than under the Radical regime.
This convention, which tended to neutralize the dependence of Servia upon Austria-Hungary by facilitating the export of Servian goods through the Bulgarian ports on the Black Sea, brought about a war of tariffs between Servia and the Dual Monarchy.
Many Serbs still hoped for the realization of the so-called " Great Servian Idea," i.e.
The Servian government defined its attitude in a circular note to the Powers (9th of March), and finally accepted the terms of a conciliatory declaration suggested by the British government (31st of March).
The Russian and Bulgarian languages undoubtedly stand nearer to Old Slavonic than the Servian.
There can be no doubt that in the south-eastern group of the Slavonic languages SerboCroatian and Slovene form a special closely-connected group, in which the Servian and the Croat languages are almost identical.
Professor Belich of Belgrade University has tried to give in the Servian Dialectological Compendium (Belgrade, 1905) a new division of the Servian dialects into five groups, viz.
Of all the Servian dialects the most correct, richest and softest is the Herzegovinian or Zetta-Bosnian dialect.
But, as in the second half of the 19th century the kingdom of Servia, speaking the Ressava or ShumadiyaSyrmian dialect, became the centre of Servian literary activity, the last-mentioned dialect tended to become the literary language.
Servian and Croatian are only two dialects of the same Slavonic language.
Servian is sometimes called shtoka y ski because the Servian word for " what " is shto, whereas the Croats say cha for shto, and therefore their language is called chaka y ski.
The great dictionary compiled and published by the South Slavonic Academy of Agram is called The Lexicon of the Servian or Croatian Language.
Although the Croats write and print in Latin characters, while the Servians write and print in Cyrillic, and although many a Servian cannot read Croatian books, and vice versa, the literary language of both nations is one and the same.
That alphabet is called " Cyrillic " (in Servian Kyrilitsa), and is - simplified and modernized - practically the alphabet used by the Servians, Bulgarians and Russians of our times.
A few Servian books are still printed in Glagolitic, and some in Latin letters; but by far the greatest number are written and printed in Cyrillic.
The Old Slavonic church books had naturally to be copied from time to time, and the Servian, Bulgarian and Russian copyists were unable to resist the influences of their respective living languages.
Thus comparatively soon there appeared church books no longer written in pure Old Slavonic (of which the so-called " Asseman's Gospel " in the Vatican is the best type), but in Old Slavonic modified by Servian, Bulgarian, Russian influences, or in the languages which could be called Servian-Slavonic, Bulgarian-Slavonic, Russian-Slavonic. The best extant specimen of the Servian-Slavonic is " Miroslav's Gospel," written in the second half of the 12th century for the Servian prince Miroslav; a facsimile edition was published in 1897 in Belgrade.
The only noteworthy literary productions of this first period of Servian literature were zhivoti (biographies) and letopisi (chronicles).
To this period of Servian literature belongs the first attempt by an unknown author to write a romance.
The story of the love and sufferings of the Servian prince Vladimir, who lived in the 11th century, and his wife, the Bulgarian princess Kossara, written probably in the 13th century, was very popular among the Servians.
A characteristic example of the literary and also, as it appears, of the official language of the Servians in the middle ages is the Codex of Tsar Dushan (Zakonik Tsara Dushana), which was promulgated at the Servian parliament (Sabor) in Skoplye (Uskiib) in 1349 and 1 354.
The oldest document written in the vernacular Servian is considered to be a charter by which Kulin, the ban of Bosnia, grants certain commercial privileges to the Ragusan merchants in 1189.
A few years later the Servian nobleman Bozhidar Vukovich bought a printing-press in Venice and established it at Obod in Montenegro, from which issued in 1493 the first church book (the Octoich) printed on Servian territory.
But in the second half of that century all printing absolutely ceased in the Servian countries under the direct rule of the Turks, and was not resumed until the middle of the 18th century.
Between 1450 and 1530 there had already been founded in Spalato a small literary society, in which the Servian poets Marulich, Papalich, Martinich and others read their poetical compositions, mostly lyrical and religious songs.
Two of the finest works of this early period of the Servian literature of Ragusa are the poem Dervishiyada, written by the Ragusan nobleman Stepan Guchetich (1495-1525), rich in humour and satire, and the poem Yegyupka (" The Gipsy Woman "), written by Andreas Chubranovich (1500-1550), a goldsmith by profession and a very original and clever lyrical poet.
Another remarkable Ragusan poet was Hectorovich (1486-1572), who wrote the poem Ribanye (" The Fishing and Talking with Fishermen "), and anticipated a new movement in Servian literature by publishing three national songs as he heard them from the popular bards (guslars).
The subjects of most of his dramas were taken from Latin and Italian poets (Atalanta after Ovid, Lavinia after Virgil, Armida after Tasso); but at least in two dramas, Pavlimir and Tsaptislava, he displayed some originality, taking his themes from Servian national history.
But on the whole Servian literature on the Adriatic coast showed little originality in the 18th century; its writers were content to produce good translations of Latin, Italian and French works.
The literature of the Adriatic Servians was, with very few exceptions, Servian only in language, but Italian in form and spirit.
But Kachich Mioshich found no immediate followers among the Servian literati of the second half of the 18th century.
During the 18th century, however, they did not write in the living language of the Servian people.
After the disappearance of the Servian printing-presses in the 16th century, all liturgical books were brought from Russia and printed in the Russian-Slavonic language; while the teachers in the Servian schools were Russians.
During extensive travels in Russia and the Balkan countries Raich had collected a rich historical material and was able to write, for the first time in the annals of Servian literature, a work which has every claim to be considered as a real history.
The Servians call him " the father of Servian history."
But Russian-Slavonic was not readily understood by the Servian reading public. It was not much better when through the influence of the living language it began to approach nearer to Servian than to Russian, and was called " Slavonic-Servian " (Slaveno-Serbski).
An ardent Servian patriot, he proclaimed the principle that books ought to be written for the people and therefore in the language which the people understood and spoke.
His first book, The Life and the Adventures of Demeter Obradovich - a monk named Dositey (Leipzig, 1783), was written in the language spoken in Servian towns.
These books created a reading public among the Servians and mark the beginning of a really modern period of Servian literature.
Obradovich, or rather " Dositey " as Servians call him, was so highly appreciated as an author, savant and patriot that in 1807 Karageorge invited him to Servia and appointed him a senator and minister of public education, in which capacity he established in Belgrade the first Servian college (Velika Shkola).
By his publication of the national songs and poems, which he carefully collected, he opened the eyes of Servian authors to the wealth and beauty of their own language, as spoken by the mass of the people and used by the national bards.
Besides collecting national songs and poems, folk-lore, proverbs, &c., he wrote a grammar of the Servian language (Vienna, 1814) and the first Servian lexicon, with explanations in German and Latin (Vienna, 1818).
His thorough knowledge of the Servian language led him to reform the Cyrillic alphabet, in which several letters were redundant and certain sounds of the spoken language were unrepresented.
His efforts to make Servian writers adopt his reformed alphabet, and accept the language of the common people as a literary language, met with fierce opposition, especially on the part of the clergy and friends of the artificial Slaveno-Servian literary language.
Writers in different departments of literature vied with each other to write in pure and correct Servian.
His own lyrical and satirical poems are without a rival in Servian literature.
There are several editions of his collected poems; one of the best is that of the Servian Literary Association (Belgrade, 1896).
Milosh Tsvetich has given fine and lasting contributions to the Servian stage in his drama Stefan Nemanya and tragedy Todor of Stalach.
In modern scientific literature the principal Servian names are those of the electrician Nicholas Tesla, the botanist Dr Josif Panchich, and the geologists Dr Yovan Zhuyevich and Dr Yovan Tsviyich (Cynic).
In philology a very high place is occupied by Gyuro Danichich, once professor of philology at the high school in Belgrade and secretary to the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, where he was for years the principal editor of the great lexicon of the Servian or Croatian language.
He had a very distinguished pupil in Stoyan Novakovich, who wrote numerous studies on philological subjects, and whose Servian grammar is still the standard book in all Servian schools.
In the autumn of 1876 he took part as a volunteer in the Servian campaign against Turkey, and subsequently joined the Bulgarian irregular contingent with the Russian army in the war of 1877-78.
Their episcopal sees of Karlowitz and Pakrac depend upon the metropolitanate of Belgrade; but from 1830 to 1838 Karlowitz was itself the headquarters of the Servian Church.
The Croatian dialects, like the Servian, have gradually developed from the Old Slavonic, which survives in medieval liturgies and biblical or apocryphal writings.
The three most important Croatian dialects are known as the Cakavci, Caka y stina or, in Servian, Chaka y ski, spoken along the Adriatic littoral; the Stokavci (Stoka y stina, Shtokayski), spoken in Servia and elsewhere in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula; and the Kajkavci (Kajka y stina, Kayka y ski), spoken by the partly Slovene population of the districts of Agram, Warasdin and Kreuz.
This remarkable poem, written in the metre of the old Servian ballads, gives a vivid description of life in Bosnia under Turkish rule, and of the hereditary border feuds between Christians and Moslems. In later life Mazuranic distinguished himself as a statesman, and became ban of Croatia from 1873 to 1880.
A Hungarian Navigation Company, subsidized by the state, has also been formed, and the Hungarian railways, the Servian government and private owners own a large number of tugs and barges.
On one of the neighbouring heights is situated the monastery of Ipek, founded by Archbishop Arsenius in the 13th century, and famous as the seat until 1690 of the patriarchs of the Servian church.
Among its numerous objects of interest are the white marble tombs of Arsenius and other chiefs of the Servian church, and the white marble throne on which the patriarchs were crowned.
He lost the two days' battle of Kossovo (October 17th-19th) owing to the treachery of Dan, hospodar of Wallachia, and of his old enemy Brankovic, who imprisoned him for a time in the dungeons of the fortress of Semendria; but he was ransomed by the Magyars, and, after composing his differences with his powerful and jealous enemies in Hungary, led a punitive expedition against the Servian prince, who was compelled to accept most humiliating terms of peace.
Servian settlements exist in various parts of northern Albania; there is a strong Bulgarian colony in the neighbourhood of Dibra and Ochrida; farther south, Mount Zygos and the Pindus range - the "Great Walachia" of the middle ages - are inhabited by Vlachs or Tzintzars, who possibly number 70,000.
The region inhabited by a more or less homogeneous Albanian population may be roughly marked out by a line drawn from the Montenegrin frontier at Berane to Mitrovitza and the Servian frontier near Vranya; thence to Uskizb, Prilep, Monastir, Florina, Kastoria, Iannina and Parga.
A portion of Upper Albania was ruled by the Balsha dynasty (1366-1421), which, though apparently Servian by descent, assimilated itself with its Albanian subjects and embraced the faith of Rome.
Bela reached the apogee of his political greatness in 1264 when, shortly after his crushing defeat of the Servian king, Stephen Urosh, he entertained at his court, at Kalocsa, the ambassadors of the newly restored Greek emperor, of the kings of France, Bulgaria and Bohemia and three Tatar mirzas.
A crisis was precipitated by the example of Servian independence, the hope of Austrian intervention, and the public bankruptcy of Turkey.
They were in constant communication with Servia and Montenegro; and their ultimate hope, the creation of a great Servian kingdom, was less easy to reconcile with loyalty to Austria.
The revival of the various Balkan nationalities was in every case accompanied or preceded by a literary movement; in Servian literature, under the influence of Obradovich and Vuk Karajich, the popular idiom, notwithstanding the opposition of the priesthood, superseded the ecclesiastical RussianSlavonic; in Bulgaria the eastern dialect, that of the Sredna Gora, prevailed.
He became as proficient in Servian as in his native tongue.
Russia, Austria-Hungary and Montenegro were the only Powers which congratulated King Peter on his accession, and in December 1903 all the Powers temporarily withdrew their representatives from Belgrade, as a protest against the attitude of the Servian government towards the regicides.
The whole nation clamoured for war with AustriaHungary, and was supported in this attitude by Montenegro, despite a temporary rupture of diplomatic relations between Belgrade and Cettigne, due to the alleged complicity of the Servian crown prince in a plot for the assassination of Prince Nicholas.
Servia demanded compensation in various forms for the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; what the government hoped to obtain was the cession to Servia of a strip of territory between Herzegovina and Novibazar, which would check the advance of Austria-Hungary towards Salonica, make Servia and Montenegro conterminous, pave the way for a union between them, and give Servian commerce an outlet to the Adriatic. Neither the Dual Monarchy nor the Young Turks would consider the cession of any territory, and in January 1909 the outcry for war was renewed in Servia.
Af ter Gyorgyich the Servian literature of Ragusa and Dalmatia during the 18th century has no great name to show, except that of the mathematician, Ruggiero Boshkovich (see Boscovicu).