How to use Servia in a sentence

servia
  • The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.

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  • The Berlin congress decided that it should remain with Servia.

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  • Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.

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  • Although Servia was protected from the consequences of defeat by the intervention of Austria, Prince Alexander's success sealed the union with Eastern Rumelia, and after long negotiations he was nominated governor-general of that province for five years by the sultan (April 5, 1886).

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  • Nor did these complications prevent him from recovering the fortress of Galamboc from the Turks, successfully invading Servia, and reasserting the suzerainty of the Hungarian crown over Bosnia.

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  • Early in the 13th century Uzhitse was the seat of St Sava, the first archbishop, and the patron saint of Servia.

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  • The archbishopric was soon removed to Ipek, in Old Servia; but after the Turkish garrison had been expelled in 1862 the city became once more the head of a diocese.

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  • As protector Nicholas of the Orthodox Christians he espoused the cause of L and the the rayahs in Greece, Servia and Rumania.

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  • Akerman, by which the autonomy of Moldavia,Walachia and Servia was confirmed, free passage of the straits was secured for merchant ships and disputed territory on the Asiatic frontier was annexed, and in July 1827 he signed with England and France the treaty of London for the solution of the Greek question by the mediation of the Powers.

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  • Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.

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  • The church is Byzantine in style, and has been partially restored; but the main tower dates from the year 1210, when it was founded by St Sava, the patron saint of Servia.

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  • Master of Servia and of Bulgaria, as well as of Asia Minor, the sultan Bayezid was now threatening Constantinople itself.

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  • The zadruga, or household community, more common in Servia (q.v.), survives to a small extent in Bosnia and Herzegovina; but, as a rule, the tenure of land resembles, the system called metayage.

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  • A farther line, from Serajevo to the frontiers of Servia and Novibazar, was undertaken in 1902, and by 1906 782 m.

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  • A full account of this language, and its literature, is given under Servia and Croatia-Slavonia.

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  • The commune is preserved, somewhat as in Servia (q.v.), but with modified powers.

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  • Dread of Servia impelled Kotro manic to aid Hungary.

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  • Defeated by the Servian tsar Dushan, and driven to ally himself with Servia and Venice against Louis I.

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  • In 1376 Tvrtko was crowned as "Stephen I., king of Bosnia, Servia, and all the Sea-coast," although Lazar retained his own title and a diminished authority.

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  • With Venetian aid he wrested from Hungary the entire Adriatic littoral between Fiume and Cattaro, except the city of Zara; thus adding Dalmatia to his kingdom at the moment when Servia was lost through the Ottoman victory of Kossovo (1389).

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  • He continued to extend his territories in the north and west; the king of Servia and the rulers of Kiustendil, Nicopolis and Silistria agreed to pay tribute to the conquering Turk.

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  • Here Lazarus, king of Servia, had collected an army of roo,000 Serbs, Hungarians, Moldavians, Walachians and others.

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  • The king of Servia was killed and his army cut to pieces, though the Turks numbered but 40,000 and had all the disadvantage of the position.

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  • Peace was also made at the same time with the despot of Servia and the voivode of Walachia, on the basis of the payment of tribute.

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  • The capture of Salonica had been preceded by renewed troubles with Servia and Hungary, peace being concluded with both in 1428.

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  • In 1432 the Turkish troops plundered in Hungary as far as Temesvar and Hermannstadt, while in Servia Semendria was captured and Belgrade invested.

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  • After some days' stay in Constantinople, during which he granted wide privileges to the Greeks and to their patriarch, the sultan proceeded northwards and entirely subdued the southern parts of Servia.

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  • Two years later internal dissensions in Servia brought about the conquest of the whole country by the Turks, only Belgrade remaining in the hands of the Hungarians.

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  • England and Holland now urged their mediation, and after negotiations the treaty of Passarowitz (Pozharevats in Servia) was signed (July 21, 1718); Venice ceded the Morea to Turkey but kept the strongholds she had occupied in Albania and Dalmatia; Belgrade, Temesvar and Walachia as far as the Olt were retained by Austria.

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  • In November the conferences broke up; in the spring of the following year Austrian divisions advanced simultaneously into Bosnia, Servia and Walachia; and in July the main army, under the prince of Lorraine, crossed the frontier and captured Nish.

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  • This was notably the case in Servia, where the temporary domination of Austria, to which the treaty of Sistova (1791) put an end, had had the effect of awakening the national spirit of the people.

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  • A serious outbreak took place at Adrianople in 1804, where 20,000 of the new troops had been sent, ostensibly to put down the revolt in Servia, but really to try to bring about the reform of the European provinces.

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  • The treaties as to the principalities were renewed; and though Servia was restored to the direct rule of Turkey it was stipulated that clemency was to be observed in the Porte's dealings with the country, which was given the power of regulating its own affairs.

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  • Karageorge, who had fled to Austria in 1812, was induced to return, but Milosh caused him to be murdered, and in 1817 was by a popular vote named hereditary prince of Servia.

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  • The affairs of Servia, however, were not the only question left unsettled by the treaty of Bucharest.

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  • Servia had long resented the occupation of her fortresses by Turkish troops; frequent collisions arising from this source resulted in June 1862 in the bombardment of Belgrade; some slight concessions were then made to Servia, but it was not until 1867 that, through the mediation of England and other powers, she succeeded in obtaining the withdrawal of the Turkish garrisons.

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  • There is a fine monument to Prince Michael (1860-1868) who succeeded in removing the Turkish garrison from the Belgrade citadel and obtaining other Turkish fortresses in Servia by skilful diplomacy.

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  • The bulk of the foreign trade of Servia passes through Belgrade, but the industrial output of the city itself is not large, owing to the scarcity both of labour and capital.

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  • The city was considered to be the key of Hungary, and its possession was believed to secure possession of Servia, besides giving command of the traffic between the Upper and the Lower Danube.

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  • The indirect consequence of this incident was that in 1866, on the categoric demand of Prince Michael of Servia, and under the diplomatic pressure of the great powers, the sultan withdrew the Turkish garrison from the citadel and delivered it to the Servians.

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  • Paul, the metropolitan church of the bishopric of Rassia, in which Stephen Nemanya, king of Servia, passed from the Roman to the Greek Church in 1143.

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  • The neighbouring Balkan states - Rumania and Servia - follow, and the United Kingdom receives somewhat more than 2% of the exports, while supplying about 1.5% of the imports.

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  • In 1371 they overwhelmed the Servian tsar Vukashin at the battle of Taenarus and penetrated to the heart of old Servia.

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  • The Arpad kings had succeeded in encircling their whole southern frontier with half a dozen military colonies or banates, comprising, roughly speaking, Little Walachia, 2 and the northern parts of Bulgaria, Servia and Bosnia.

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  • At the diet of Buda, early in 1444, supplies were voted for the enterprise, and Wladislaus was on the point of quitting his camp at Szeged for the seat of war, when envoys from Sultan Murad arrived with the offer of a ten years' truce on such favourable conditions (they included the relinquishment of Servia, Walachia and Moldavia, and the payment of an indemnity) that Hunyadi persuaded the king to conclude (in July) a peace which gave him more than could reasonably be anticipated from the most successful campaign.

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  • In the course of that year Kuprili regained Servia and Bulgaria, placed Tok611 on the throne of Transylvania, and on the 6th of October took Belgrade by assault.

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  • The separatist movement was strongest in the south, where the Rumans were in touch with their kinsmen in Walachia and Moldavia, the Serbs with their brethren in Servia, and the Croats intent on reasserting the independence of the" Tri-une Kingdom."

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  • It is the only proper industrial town in Servia, having numerous small factories for the manufacture of thin cloth (shayak), woollen braid (gaytan), and especially carpets.

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  • The town is of great strategical importance, for which reason the Russian plenipotentiaries at the Berlin congress (1878) stubbornly tried to include it within the Bulgarian frontier, while Austria and some other Powers insisted that it should be given to Servia.

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  • In the war between Servia and Bulgaria in 1885 the Bulgarians occupied and held it until the conclusion of peace.

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  • His friendliness for Russia did not, however, prevent him from strengthening the position of Austria as against Russia in the Balkan Peninsula by the establishment of a closer political and commercial understanding with Servia and Rumania.

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  • In 1885 he interfered after the battle of Slivnitza to arrest the advance of the Bulgarians on Belgrade, but he lost influence in Servia after the abdication of King Milan.

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  • Servia, Egypt and the principalities were successively the scene of hostilities in which Turkey gained no successes, and in 1807 a British fleet appeared at Constantinople, strange to say to insist on Turkey's yielding to Russia's demands besides dismissing the ambassador of Napoleon I.

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  • In the summer of 1876 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Servian army, but on entering Turkey was driven back by Osman Pasha, who followed him into Servia, defeating him at Zayechar and Yavor in July, and the campaign in Servia proved disastrous.

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  • He rashly proclaimed Milan king of Servia in September, and in October Aleksinats and Deligrad were in the hands of the Turks, and the road open to Belgrade.

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  • While the Austrian officials in Dalmatia, with hardly a pretence of concealment, were assisting the insurgents, Russian volunteers were flocking to Servia with the connivance of the Russian and Austrian governments, and General Ignatiev, as ambassador in 3 The names are vocalized to suggest the fanciful interpretations "victim" and "protection withheld."

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  • Poland, as has been said before, is not rich in national songs and legendary poetry, in which respect it cannot compare with its sister Slavonic countries Russia and Servia.

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  • It thus corresponded in the main to the modern Servia and Bulgaria.

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  • In the 7th century Sla y s and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdoms of Servia and Bulgaria.

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  • The Bogomils spread westwards, and settled first in Servia; but at the end of the 12th century Stephen Nemanya, king of Servia, persecuted them and expelled them from the country.

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  • He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.

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  • Their preparation is carried on on a large scale in Bosnia and Servia, as well as in Spain, Portugal and southern France.

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  • On the 6th of March 1889 his father, King Milan, abdicated and proclaimed him king of Servia under a regency until he should attain his majority at eighteen years of age.

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  • In 1898 he appointed his father commander-in-chief of the Servian army, and from that time, or rather from his return to Servia in 1894 until 1900, ex-king Milan was regarded as the de facto ruler of the country.

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  • But while, during the summer of 1900, Milan was away from Servia taking waters in Carlsbad, and making arrangements to secure the hand of a German princess for his son, and while the premier, Dr Vladan Dyorevich, was visiting the Paris Universal Exhibition, King Alexander suddenly announced to the people of Servia his engagement to Mme Draga Mashin, a widow, formerly a lady-in-waiting to Queen Natalie.

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  • He tried to reconcile political parties by granting from his own initiative a liberal constitution (April 6, 1901), introducing for the first time in the constitutional history of Servia the system of two chambers (skupshtina and senate).

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  • In the 12th century it was the residence of the kings of Servia, and the sanjak of Prizren forms part of the region still called Old Servia (Stara Srbiya) by the Sla y s.

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  • These were followed by similar treaties with Rumania and Servia, and in 1894, after a period of sharp customs warfare, with Russia.

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  • A compact with the Turks, made in 1370 and renewed in the next century, saved Ragusa from the fate of its more powerful neighbours, Servia and Byzantium, besides enabling the Ragusan caravans to penetrate into Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria and Rumania.

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  • By the treaty signed at Passarowitz on the 21st of July 1718, the banat, which rounded off Hungary and Belgrade, with the northern districts of Servia, were annexed to the Habsburg monarchy.

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  • In the December of this year AustriaHungary indeed decisively interfered in the war between Bulgaria and Servia, for at this time Austrian influence predominated in Servia, and after the battle of Slivnitza the Austro-Hungarian minister warned Prince Alexander of Bulgaria that if he advanced farther he would be met by Austro-Hungarian as well as Servian troops.

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  • The chief objects of the government in recent years have been to maintain Austro-Hungarian trade and influence in the Balkan states by the building of railways, by the opening of the Danube for navigation, and by commercial treaties with Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria; since the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia and the growth of Russian influence in that country have caused serious anxiety.

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  • With Great Britain, France and Germany, there was now only a " most favoured nation " agreement; fresh commercial treaties were made with Italy (1879), Switzerland and Servia (1881).

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  • This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).

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  • Accordingly in he concluded a treaty at Szegedin for ten years, by which he renounced all claim to Servia and recognized George Brancovich as its king.

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  • There is a central region, roughly triangular in shape, with its base resting upon the Quaternary K Triassic Tertiary Carboniferous q & Metamorphic 7 Jurassic Aegean Sea and its apex in Servia.

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  • It is diminishing in Thessaly; it has entirely dis appeared in the rest of Greece, almost entirely in Servia; and it continues to decrease in Bulgaria notwithstanding the efforts of the authorities to check emigration.

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  • Montenegro, like the other mountainous regions, adhered to the Greek Church; it received a number of Orthodox Servian refugees at the beginning of the i 5th century, when the Turks occupied Servia.

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  • The Bulgars, who descend from a fusion of the Slavonic element with a later Ugro-Finnish immigration, inhabit the kingdom of Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia), parts of the Dobrudja and the greater part of Macedonia, except Old Servia and the Aegean littoral.

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  • It is found in numerous detached settlements in Macedonia, Albania and northern Greece, and in colonies of recent date in Servia and Bulgaria.

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  • After Dushan's death his empire disappeared, and Servia fell a prey to anarchy.

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  • The independence of Greece was acknowledged in 1829, that of Servia (as a tributary principality) in 1830.

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  • The Montenegrin frontier laid down at San Stefano was considerably curtailed, Dulcigno, the district north-east of the Tara, and other territories being restored to Turkey; in addition to Nish, Servia received the districts of Pirot and Vranya on the east instead of the Ibar valley on the west; the Dobrudja, somewhat enlarged, was ceded to Rumania' which surrendered southern Bessarabia to Russia.

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  • The complete independence of the principalities of Servia,Rumania and Montenegro was recognized.

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  • Rumania was proclaimed a kingdom in that year, Servia in 1882.

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  • The scheme, which found favour in Servia, was frustrated by the opposition of Stamboloff, who denounced it to the Porte.

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  • Sulina is the only free port on the Danube, and is much used for the transhipment into seagoing vessels of grain which is brought down the river in large lighters from Rumania, Russia, Bulgaria, Servia and AustriaHungary.

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  • Semendria was the residence of that Servian ruler and the capital of Servia from 1430 to 1459.

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  • Between Russia and Turkey it interposed, in effect,a barrier of independent (Rumania, Servia) and quasi-independent (Bulgaria) states, erected with the counsel and consent of collective Europe.

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  • One horde settled under Roman protection in Little Scythia (the Dobrudzha), others in Dacia Ripensis (on the confines of Servia and Bulgaria) or on the southern borders of Pannonia.

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  • The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire has been regulated by the Great Powers, or some of them, in the treaties of London, 1832, 1863, 1864, and of Constantinople, 1881, with reference to Greece; and by the treaties of Paris, 1856; London, 1871; Berlin, 1878;1878; London, 1883, with reference to Montenegro, Rumania, Servia, Bulgaria and the navigation of the Danube.

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  • Narrative poetry of great interest is found in several countries (such as Spain and Servia), in which it has never attained to the epic stage.

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  • The great difference between the serial rank occupied in the respective lists by Russia, Servia and Galicia, with remarkably high rates of natural growth, as well as that found in the case of most of the other countries in question, shows that this factor is by no means a trustworthy guide in the estimate of hygienic balance.

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  • The United States produces roughly 50, Bulgaria and Rumania each 4 o and Servia 10 million gallons.

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  • Heap roasting has been successfully employed at Agordo, in the Venetian Alps, and at Majdanpek in Servia.

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  • In the next year it was ceded to Servia by the Bulgarian tsar Samuel, but revolted, in alliance with Ragusa, and only submitted in 1184, as a protected state, preserving intact its republican institutions, and its right to conclude treaties and engage in war.

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  • The downfall of Servia in 1389 left the city without a guardian, and, after being seized and abandoned by Venice and Hungary in turn, it passed under Venetian rule in 1420.

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  • Servia and Montenegro, once vassal states, may now be regarded as independent.

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  • The old outlines, however, are effaced wherever the Christian races have emancipated themselves from the Turkish rule, and the national churches of Greece, Servia and Rumania have reorganized themselves on a new basis.

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  • Eight years later the seat of ecclesiastical government was fixed at Belgrade; and when Servia gained its independence its church became autocephalous.

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  • On the union of the two principalities under Alexander Couza (December 1861) the Church was declared autocephalous under a metropolitan at Bucharest; and the fact was recognized by the patriarchs, as it was in the case of Servia, after the treaty of Berlin had guaranteed their independence.

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  • It has been a powerful factor in the development of several of the churches already spoken of, especially those of Servia and Montenegro, which are usually very much subject to Russian influences (`PcoQV60povE S or `PWVVWc¢tXoc).

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  • In 1366 the king of Servia was defeated at Samakov and forced to pay tribute.

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  • Europe was now aroused; Lazar, king of Servia, formed an alliance with the Albanians, the Hungarians and the Moldavians against the Turks.

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  • In 1456 the voivode Peter, alarmed at the progress of the Turks, who were now dominant in Servia and Walachia, offered the sultan Mahomet II.

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  • Russia had shown symptoms of anger against Rumania for not having taken up a decided attitude in the approaching struggle, and the Russian ambassador Ignatiev had some months previously threatened that his government would seize Rumania as a pledge as soon as the Turks occupied Servia and Montenegro.

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  • Kraguyevats itself is the main arsenal of Servia, and possesses.

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  • In the first years of Servia's autonomy under Prince Milosh, it was the residence of the prince and the seat of government (1818-1839).

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  • In 1876, when the Eastern question was looming large, he visited Servia and Turkey, and his subsequent speeches on the subject were marked by studious moderation, distasteful to extremists on both sides.

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  • In June 1876 Servia and Montenegro declared war against Turkey.

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  • In a few months Servia was hopelessly beaten.

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  • It is the capital of a department of the same name, and is an important station on the railway from Nish to Salonica, with a custom house, principally for merchandise imported into Servia via Salonica.

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  • Cordage is chiefly obtained from Servia.

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  • The emperor's first efforts against him were unsuccessful (981), and the war was not resumed till 996, Samuel in the meantime extending his rule along the Adriatic coast and imposing his lordship on Servia.

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  • The metric system is now obligatory in Argentina, Austria,-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Rumania, Servia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.

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  • The geological structure of Servia is varied.

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  • Elsewhere east of the Morava the prevailing rocks belong to the Cretaceous series, which enters Servia from Bulgaria.

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  • The climate of Servia is on the whole mild, though subject to the extremes characteristic of inland Eastern countries.

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  • Orchards are very extensive, and all the fruits of central Europe will thrive in Servia.

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  • Relatively to its population, Servia possesses a greater number of sheep (3,160,000 in 1905) and pigs (908,000 in 1905) than any country in Europe.

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  • A large proportion of the artisans throughout Servia are Austro-Hungarians or gipsies.

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  • A law of 1898 authorizes the government to grant concessions on very favourable terms to foreign capitalists willing to promote mining and manufactures in Servia; but in 1910 the number of large industrial establish ' One yutro is the area which two oxen can plough in a day.

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  • But the Berlin Treaty (1878) stipulated that Servia should construct part of the international railway to Constantinople and to Salonica, and should pay the Turkish landowners an indemnity for the estates which had been taken from them and divided among their Servian tenants.

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  • The chief towns of Servia are Belgrade, the capital, with 69,097 inhabitants in 1900; Nish (24,451); Kraguyevats (14,160); Pozharevats (12,957); Leskovats (13,000); Shabats (12,072); Vranya (11,921); Pirot (10,421); Krushevats (10,000); Uzhitse (7000); Valyevo (6800); Semendria (6912); Chupriya (6000); and Kralyevo (3600).

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  • That section of it which traverses Servia was begun in 1881 and finished in 1888.

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  • The Constantinople and Salonica roads remain the best in Servia.

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  • From 1843 in 1868 the Servian government undertook the carriage of letters in Servia itself, while the Austro-Hungarian consulate in Belgrade forwarded correspondence to and from central and western Europe.

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  • Servia joined the International Telegraphic Union in 1866, the Postal Union in 1874.

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  • With a continuous excess of births over deaths, and of male over female children, the population of Servia rose from 2,161,961 in 1890 to 2,493,770 in 1900, and to about 2,750,000 in 1910.

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  • AntiSemitism is not prevalent in Servia, owing to the smallness of the Jewish communities.

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  • Servia is a land without aristocracy or middle class.

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  • Few countries are richer than Servia in myth and folklore.

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  • By this instrument the government of Servia is an independent constitutional monarchy, hereditary in the male line, and in the order of primogeniture.

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  • The highest judicial authority in Servia is the Court of Cassation, created in 1855 and reorganized in 1865.

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  • It is subject, as a whole, to the ministry of education; for internal administration its governing body is a synod of five prelates, presided over by the archbishop of Belgrade, who is also the metropolitan of Servia.

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  • In February 1905 the Great School (Velika Shkola) in Belgrade was reorganized as the University of Servia, with faculties of theology, philosophy, law, medicine and engineering.

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  • See Servia by the Servians, ed.

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  • Vlastimir successfully defended the western provinces of Servia against the Bulgarian attacks, although the eastern provinces (Branichevo, Morava, Timok, Vardar, Podrimlye) were occupied by the Bulgars.

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  • The youngest son of Stephen Nemanya, Prince Rastko, secretly left his father's royal court, went to a convent in Mount Athos, made himself a monk, and afterwards, under the name of Sava, became the first archbishop of Servia.

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  • At the same time he raised the archbishop of Ipek, the primate of Servia, to the dignity of patriarch.

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  • The result was the publication, in 1349, of the Zakonik Tsara Dushana (Tsar Dushan's Book of Laws), a code of great historical interest which proves that Servia was not much behind the foremost European states in 1 Dushan is a term of endearment, derived from dusha, "the soul," and not, as formerly believed by Western philologists, from dushiti, " to strangle."

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  • This was the real cause of the Turkish attacks on Bulgaria and Servia in 1389, which resulted in the complete subjugation of Bulgaria and in the defeat of the Serb army in the battle of Kossovo (15th of June 1389).

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  • After the battle of Kossovo Servia existed for some seventy years (1389-1459) as a country tributary to the sultans but governing itself under its own rules, who assumed the Greek title of " despot."

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  • As despot, George worked to establish an alliance between Servia, Bosnia and Hungary.

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  • Lazar's widow Helena Palaeologina gave Servia to the pope, hoping thereby to secure the assistalice of Roman Catholic Europe against the Turks.

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  • But no one in Europe moved a finger to help Servia, and Sultan Mahommed II.

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  • Under his command the Serbs quickly succeeded in breaking the power of the Dahias, as the four chieftains of the Janissaries of Belgrade were called, who, having rebelled against the sultan, took possession of Servia, became its political and military masters, and exploited the country as their own private property.

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  • But when in 1812 Russia, attacked by Napoleon, had in great haste to conclude at Bucharest a treaty of peace with Turkey, and omitted to make sufficient provision for the security of her allies the Serbs, the Turkish army invaded and reconquered Servia, occupying all its fortresses.

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  • Of those who remained in Servia the natural leader, by his own position, talents and influence, was Milosh Obrenovich, voyvode of Rudnik.

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  • He surrendered to the Turks and was appointed by them the ruler of central Servia.

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  • He was successful not only in the field but in his diplomacy, and by 1817 Servia had regained autonomy under the suzerainty of the sultan.

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  • But his attempts to make Servia independent of Russian protection brought him into conflict with Russia, and his autocratic methods of government united against him all who wished for a constitution.

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  • Three days before his abdication he was induced to sign a constitution (that of 1838) imposed on Servia by the Porte, at the instance of Russia, with the object of undermining his position.

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  • But the politicians who forced Milosh to abdicate did not feel safe with Milosh's second son as the reigning prince of Servia.

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  • They started a military revolt, drove Michael also into exile (1842), and elected Alexander Karageorgevich, the younger son of Karageorge, as prince of Servia.

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  • Not only Russia but Servia also was dissatisfied with such a policy, and when Alexander Karageorgevich, forced by public opinion, at last dared convoke a national assembly, that assembly's first resolution was that Prince Alexander should be dethroned and replaced by the old Prince Milosh Obrenovich I.

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  • His political programme was that the law should be respected as the supreme will in the country, that Servia's political autonomy should be jealously guarded, and every encroachment on the part of the suzerain power should be resented and rebuffed.

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  • He introduced many important reforms in administration, and replaced the old constitution, granted to Servia by the Porte in 1830, by a new constitution which he himself gave to the country.

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  • Only a few of the less important forts were delivered to the Serbs at that time; but in 1863 Prince Michael sent his wife, the beautiful and accomplished Princess Julia (née Countess Hunyadi), to plead the cause of Servia in London, and she succeeded in interesting prominent English politicians (Cobden, Bright, Gladstone) in the fate of the Balkan countries.

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  • To prevent a general conflagration in the Balkan Peninsula, the powers advised the sultan to comply with the demand, and when the British government strongly supported that advice the sultan yielded and delivered all the fortresses on Servian territory to the keeping of the prince of Servia (March 1867).

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  • The conspirators failed to overthrow the government, and the army proclaimed Milan, the son of Prince Michael's first cousin Milosh Obrenovich (son of Yephrem, brother to Milosh the founder of the dynasty), as prince of Servia.

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  • This act of Russia created great dissatisfaction in Servia, and became the starting-point for a new departure in Servian politics.

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  • At the Berlin Congress the Servian plenipotentiary, Jovan Ristich, in vain appealed to the Russian representatives to assist Servia to obtain better terms. The Russians themselves advised him to appeal to Austria and to try to obtain her support.

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  • The utter neglect of the Servian interests by Russia at San Stefano, and her evident inability at the Berlin Congress to do anything for Servia, determined Prince Milan to change the traditional policy of his country, and instead of continuing to seek support from Russia, he tried to come to an understanding with Austria-Hungary concerning the conditions under which that power would give its support to Servian interests.

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  • The political history of Servia from 1879 to the abdication of King Milan on 3rd March 1889 was an uninterrupted struggle between King Milan and the Progressives on one side, and Russia with her adherents, the Servian Radicals, on the other.

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  • The union of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia inspired King Milan and his government with the notion that either that union must be prevented, or that Servia should obtain some territorial compensation, so that the balance of power in the Balkan Peninsula might be maintained.

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  • He tried to retrieve his position in the country, and succeeded in a great measure, by granting a very liberal constitution (January 1889, or Dec. 1888 O.S.) at a time when all agitation for a new constitution had been given up. Then, to the great astonishment of the Servians and of his Russian enemies, King Milan voluntarily abdicated, placing the government of the country in the hands of a regency during the minority of his only son Alexander, whom he proclaimed king of Servia on the 6th of March 1889.

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  • The Radical government thought to strengthen their position by letting the national assembly vote a law prohibiting the return of the king's father to Servia, and forcibly expelling the king's mother, Queen Natalie.

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  • At the same time reports were reaching King Alexander that Russia was discussing with the leaders of the extreme Radicals the conditions under which a Russian grand-duke was to be proclaimed king of Servia.

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  • One remarkable feature in the foreign policy of Servia in the last years of the 19th century was that after King Milan was appointed commander-in-chief of the Servian regular army (1898), Russia and Montenegro practically, although not formally, broke off their diplomatic relations with Servia, while at the same time the relations of that country with Austria-Hungary became more friendly than under the Radical regime.

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  • He threw himself into the arms of Russia, forbade his father Milan to reside in Servia, and followed Russian guidance in all questions of foreign policy.

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  • To strengthen his position in the country he promulgated a new constitution in April 1901, establishing for the first time in the history of Servia a parliament with two houses (skupshtina and senate).

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  • Further protests were made by many of the powers when the illusory nature of these concessions became known, and it was not until May 1906 that diplomatic relations with Servia were resumed by Great Britain.

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  • In the same year a convention was concluded by Servia and Bulgaria as a preliminary to a customs union between the two states.

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  • This convention, which tended to neutralize the dependence of Servia upon Austria-Hungary by facilitating the export of Servian goods through the Bulgarian ports on the Black Sea, brought about a war of tariffs between Servia and the Dual Monarchy.

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  • As, however, the armaments and finances of Servia were unequal to a conflict with Austria-Hungary, while Great Britain, Russia, France and Italy counselled peace, the skupshtina, meeting in secret session on the 11th of October 1908, determined to avoid open hostilities, and sent M Milanovich, the minister for foreign affairs, to press the claims of Servia upon the powers.

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  • But the threatening attitude of Austria-Hungary, with the moderating influence of M Pashich, who became the real, though not the nominal, head of a new ministry in February 1909, induced Servia to accept the advice of the Russian government by abandoning all claim to territorial " compensation," and leaving the Balkan question for solution by the Powers.

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  • By this declaration Servia abandoned all its demands as against Austria-Hungary, while the Austro-Hungarian foreign minister made simultaneously a public declaration that the Dual Monarchy harboured no unfriendly designs against Servia.

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  • Kerr, The History of Servia (London, 1847); id., Serbien and die Tiirkei im 19.

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  • But, as in the second half of the 19th century the kingdom of Servia, speaking the Ressava or ShumadiyaSyrmian dialect, became the centre of Servian literary activity, the last-mentioned dialect tended to become the literary language.

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  • Obradovich, or rather " Dositey " as Servians call him, was so highly appreciated as an author, savant and patriot that in 1807 Karageorge invited him to Servia and appointed him a senator and minister of public education, in which capacity he established in Belgrade the first Servian college (Velika Shkola).

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  • The war with Servia followed, and Stambolov, notwithstanding his official position, served as an ordinary soldier in the Bulgarian army.

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  • Even the costume of the Croatian peasantry, to whom brilliant colours and intricate embroideries are always dear, proclaims their racial identity with the Serbs; their songs, dances and musical instruments, the chief part of their customs and folk-lore, their whole manner of life, so little changed by its closer contact with Western civilization, may be studied in Servia (q.v.) itself.

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  • As in Servia, there is practically no middle class between the peasants and the educated minority; and the commercial element consists to a great extent of foreigners, especially Germans, Hungarians, Italians and Jews.

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  • The Croats brought with them their primitive tribal institutions, organized on a basis partly military, partly patriarchal, and identical with the Zhupanates of the Serbs (see Servia); agriculture, war and hunting were their chief pursuits.

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  • The three most important Croatian dialects are known as the Cakavci, Caka y stina or, in Servian, Chaka y ski, spoken along the Adriatic littoral; the Stokavci (Stoka y stina, Shtokayski), spoken in Servia and elsewhere in the north-west of the Balkan Peninsula; and the Kajkavci (Kajka y stina, Kayka y ski), spoken by the partly Slovene population of the districts of Agram, Warasdin and Kreuz.

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  • The linguistic and literary reforms which Dossitey Obradovich and Vuk Stefanovich Karajich carried out in Servia about the close of this period helped to stimulate among the Croats a new interest in their national history, their traditions, folk-songs and folktales.

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  • The river now flows south, separating Servia from Rumania down to its junction with the Timok, after which as far as Silistria, a distance of 284 m., it separates Rumania from Bulgaria.

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  • In 1441 he delivered Servia by the victory of Semendria.

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  • The impatience of the king and the severity of the winter then compelled him (February 1444) to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the sultan's power in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Servia, Bulgaria and Albania.

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  • No sooner had he regained Hungary than he received tempting offers from the pope, represented by the legate Cardinal Cesarini, from George Brankovic, despot of Servia, and George Castriota, prince of Albania, to resume the war and realize his favourite idea of driving the Turk from Europe.

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  • It is the principal commercial town of north-western Servia, exporting cereals, prunes, cattle and pigs to Hungary.

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  • The people of Shabats have the reputation of being the wittiest in Servia.

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  • One line goes north to Nish in Servia, where it meets the main line (Paris-Vienna-Constantinople) of the Oriental railways; another, after following the same route as far as Uskiib in Macedonia, branches off to Mitrovitza in Albania; the extension of this line to Serajevo in Bosnia was projected in 1908 in order to establish direct communication between Austria and Salonica.

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  • He annexed large regions in Thessaly and Epirus, but they were lost before his death to the rising power of Servia under Stephen Dusan.

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  • The zadruga system of land tenure was artificially kept in existence (see Servia).

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  • During the next half-century several local revolts occurred, but no movement of a strictly political character took place till after the Berlin Treaty (July 13, 1878), when some of the Moslems and Catholics combined to resist the stipulated transference of Albanian territory to Austria-Hungary, Servia and Montenegro, and the Albanian League was formed by an assemblage of chiefs at Prizren.

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  • Default in the public funds and an empty treasury, the insurrection in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, the war with Servia and Montenegro, the feeling aroused throughout Europe by the methods adopted in stamping out the Bulgarian rebellion, all combined to prove to the new sultan that he could expect little aid from the Powers.

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  • The harbour works in the Montenegrin port of Antivari, commenced in March 1905 and completed early in 1909, were an Italian concern, and Italy became a party to the agreement for the Danube-Adriatic Railway (June 2, 1908) together with Russia, France and Servia; Italy was to contribute 35,000,000 lire out of a total capital of 100,000,000, and to be represented by four directors out of twelve.

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  • Nikon was himself tried for abdicating his see, causing disorder in the realm, oppression and violence, first before a synod of Moscow composed of his suffragans and some Greek bishops, and afterwards before another synod in which sat the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch, the metropolitans of Servia and Georgia, the archbishops of Sinai and Wallachia, and the metropolitans of Nice, Amasis, Iconium, Trebizond, Varna and Scio, besides the Russian bishops.

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  • The result was perceived first in Montenegro and Servia, and then in Bulgaria.

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  • In July 1876 Servia and Montenegro joined the struggle, and in April 1877 Russia declared war on the sultan.

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  • Lala Shahin Pasha was appointed feudal lord of the district of Philippopolis, and Timur Tash Pasha became beylerbey of Rumelia; Monastir, Perlepe, and parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina were next taken, a.nd the king of Servia consented to furnish to Murad a fixed contingent of auxiliary troops, besides paying a money tribute.

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  • Indignant at the severity with which they were punished, Lazarus, king of Servia, joined the rebel princes.

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  • But the aggressive policy of Russia in the direction of the Caspian and Black Seas became more and more evident; complaints reached the Porte of a violation of the neutrality of Kabardia, of a seditious propaganda in Moldavia by Russian monks, and of Russian aid given to the malcontents in Servia and Montenegro.

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  • Though the foreign relations of Turkey remained untroubled, disturbances in Servia, Montenegro and Crete continued throughout the " sixties."

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  • For a town of such importance, which is also the seat of the metropolitan of Servia, Belgrade has very few churches, and these are of a somewhat modest type.

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  • The chief approaches from Servia and Montenegro have also been strongly fortified by the Turks.

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  • Both Servia and Bulgaria were by this time split up into half a dozen principalities which, as much for religious as for political reasons, preferred paying tribute to the Turks to acknowledging the hegemony of Hungary.

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  • In accordance with another clause of the treaty of Berlin, Austria was permitted to place troops in the sanjak of Novi-Bazar, a district of great strategic importance, which separated Servia and Montenegro, and through which the communication between Bosnia and Salonica passed.

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  • They were in constant communication with Servia and Montenegro; and their ultimate hope, the creation of a great Servian kingdom, was less easy to reconcile with loyalty to Austria.

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  • For full details as to the physical features, natural products, population, customs, trade, finance, government, religion, education, language, literature, antiquities, history, politics, &c., of the Balkan lands, see Albania, Bosnia And Herzegovina,Bulgaria,Croataslavonia, Dalmatia, Dobrudja, Greece, Illyria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Novibazar, Servia and Turkey.

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  • The Orthodox Serbs inhabit the kingdom of Servia, Old Servia (or Novibazar and north-western Macedonia), Montenegro, Herzegovina and parts of Bosnia.

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  • In the 7th the Serbo-Croats invaded the north-western regions (Croatia, Servia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro and northern Albania); they expelled or assimilated the Illyrian population, now represented in Dalmatia by the slavonized Morlachs or Mavro-Vlachs, and appropriated the old Roman colonies on the Adriatic coast.

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  • At the same time the frontiers of Servia and Montenegro were enlarged so as to become almost contiguous, and Montenegro received the ports of Antivari and Dulcigno on the Adriatic. From a strategical point of view the Bulgaria of the San Stefano treaty threatened Salonica, Adrianople and Constantinople itself; and the great powers, anticipating that the new state would become a Russian dependency, refused their sanction to its provisions.

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  • Miller, The Balkans (London, 1896), sketches the history of Bulgaria, Montenegro, Rumania and Servia.

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  • The long delay in announcing the assembly of the conference proved the extreme difficulty of arriving at any satisfactory basis of settlement; and though the efforts of the powers succeeded in salving the wounded pride of the Turks, and restraining the impetuosity of the Serbs and Montenegrins, warlike preparations on the part of Austria continued during the winter of 1908-1909, being justified by the agitation in Servia, Montenegro and the annexed provinces.

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  • Servia received financial assistance; a large consignment of arms was sent openly from St Petersburg to the prince of Montenegro; Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria became ostensibly reconciled with the Russian emperor, and his son Boris was received into the Eastern Orthodox Church; the Russian embassy at Constantinople tried to bring about a reconciliation between the Bulgarian exarch and the oecumenical patriarch; Bulgarians and Servians professed, at the bidding of Russia, to lay aside their mutual hostility.

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  • Slavonic had been the language of the Church from the early middle ages, and was therefore hallowed in the eyes of the people and the clergy; through the political connexion with the Slavonic kingdoms of the south, Bulgaria and Servia, it had also been the language of the chancellories and of the court.

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  • His ancestral Zhupaniya comprised Tara, Piva, Lim (the neck of land between the Montenegro and Servia of our days).

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  • For fully 345 years Servia remained a Turkish pashalik, enduring all the miseries which that lawless regime implied (see Turkey, History).

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  • To fulfil the engagements accepted in Berlin and the conditions under which independence had been granted to Servia, railways had to be constructed within a certain time, and the government had also to pay to the Turkish landlords in the newly acquired districts an equitable indemnity for their estates, which were divided among the peasants.

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  • This view, which did not find support anywhere outside Servia, led to war between Servia and Bulgaria (see Servo-Bulgarian War); the Servians were defeated at Slivnitza and had to abandon Pirot, whilst the farther advance of the Bulgarian army on Nish was stopped by the intervention of Austria-Hungary.

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  • Servia demanded compensation in various forms for the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; what the government hoped to obtain was the cession to Servia of a strip of territory between Herzegovina and Novibazar, which would check the advance of Austria-Hungary towards Salonica, make Servia and Montenegro conterminous, pave the way for a union between them, and give Servian commerce an outlet to the Adriatic. Neither the Dual Monarchy nor the Young Turks would consider the cession of any territory, and in January 1909 the outcry for war was renewed in Servia.

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  • The Old Slavonic words lyepo, byelo, are pronounced by the Servians of Herzegovina, Bosnia, Montenegro, Dalmatia, Croatia and south-western Servia as leeyepo, beeyelo; by the Servians of Syrmia the same vowel is pronounced sometimes as e (lepo, belo), sometimes as ee (videeti, leteeti); by the Servians of the Morava valley and its accessory Ressava valley, always only as e (lepo, belo, videti, leteti).

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