Her European possessions formed two separate theatres of war, Macedonia and Thrace, which were linked only by the coastal railway Dede Aghach - Seres - Salonika, and this line, open in its middle section to Bulgarian raids from the mountains on the N.
Instead of 3 divisions, I only was to operate in Macedonia, and this was directed to move independently from Dupnitsa in the direction of Seres and Salonika.
frankly began its march over Jumaya Pass into the Struma valley, heading for Seres.
For their part the Bulgarians used the railway lines Adrianople - Sofia and Dede Aghach - Seres (the latter secured by the conquest of the coastal region by the 7th and 2nd Divs.
The Bulgarian scheme of operations, necessarily offensive, suffered from the weakness of having two objectives - the Ovche Polye and Salonika - and being based on two main lines of communication diverging towards the rear - Kyustendil and Seres - Drama.
The scheme, therefore, was to begin with a succession of outpost affrays along the whole line (which could be represented as a provocation suffered), and then to strike vigorous offensive blows (a) from Seres towards Salonika, (b) from Strumitsa and Radovishta against the Vardar at Krivolak and Gevgeli (Gyevgheli), (the link between the Serbian and Greek armies); and (c) a blow from the region of Kochana towards Egri Palanka.
Army (Ivanov) (Strumitsa - Seres front).
His left (loth and 3rd Divs.) retook Gevgeli, his centre (4th, 2nd, 5th) Kilkish, and his right (1st, .6th, 7th) drove back the Bulgarian left on Nigrita and also eastward on the Seres road (July 3-4).
Neapolis was the port of Philippi, as Kavala now is of Seres; in the bay on which it stands the fleet of Brutus and Cassius was stationed during the battle of Philippi.
Apart from the industries carried on in the capital, there are manufactures of wine, liqueurs, sesame oil, cloth, macaroni and soap. The principal towns, Seres (pop. 30,000), Vodena (25,000) and Cavalla (24,000), are described in separate articles; Tikvesh (21,000) is the centre of an agricultural region, Caraferia (14,000) a manufacturing town, and Drama (13,000) one of the centres of tobacco cultivation.
Indians, Scythians and Seres (cf.
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