The name is given to a number of sepulchral monuments placed on hill-tops.
The custom of constructing barrows or mounds of stone or earth over the remains of the dead was a characteristic feature of the sepulchral systems of primitive times.
The most successful Venetian sculpture is to be found in the many noble sepulchral private monuments.
Giusto occupies the site of a Roman temple, some of the walls and columns of which may be seen in the tower Into the facade are built fragments of sepulchral reliefs.
Not only the native form of writing, but the household arrangements, sepulchral usages, and religious rites remain substantially the same.
There are numerous sepulchral and other monuments, which are generally believed to be of prehistoric origin.
Usually the great barrows occupy conspicuous sites; but in general the external form is no index to the internal construction and gives no definite indication of the nature of the sepulchral usages.
After bidding their family farewell they were carried to the sepulchral cave, nothing but a bowl of milk being left them.
But among archaeologists the word is usually restricted in its technical modern application to a sepulchral mound of greater or less magnitude.
The National Museum, founded in 1866, is especially rich in archaic sculptures and in sepulchral and votive reliefs.
As for the chambers, based avowedly on universal suffrage, their existence thenceforth was ornamental or sepulchral.
In Abyssinia, at Axum and elsewhere, there is a marvellous series of obelisk-like monuments, probably sepulchral.
Sometimes a grave has been found hidden behind the carved front; in other cases no grave can be detected, but it is probable that they are all sepulchral.
The later sepulchral monuments belong to a class which is widely spread over Asia Minor from Lycia to Pontus.
Almost peculiar to Germany is the use of wrought iron for grave-crosses and sepulchral monuments, of which the Nuremberg and other cemeteries contain fine examples.
In the 13th and 14th centuries many life-size sepulchral effigies were made of beaten copper or bronze, and ornamented by various-coloured "champleve" enamels.
The actual antiquities of Korea are dolmens, sepulchral pottery, and Korean and Japanese fortifications.
In and around Boli are numerous marbles with Greek inscriptions, chiefly sepulchral, and architectural fragments.
In one, a large circular tomb, were found three sepulchral couches in stone, carved in imitation of wood, and a fine statuette in bronze of Ajax committing suicide.
BjdrkS ("the isle of birches"), by foreign authors called Birka, was a kind of capital where the king lived occasionally at least; history speaks of its relations with Dorestad in the Netherlands, and the extensive refuse heaps of the old city, as well as the numerous sepulchral monuments, show that the population must have been large.
Scribonius Libo, representing the puteal of Libo, which rather resembles a cippus (sepulchral monument) or an altar, with laurel wreaths, two lyres and a pair of pincers or tongs below the wreaths (perhaps symbolical of Vulcanus as forger of lightning), see C. Hiilsen, The Roman Forum (Eng.
Other ancient authorities considered that it was built as a place of meeting for the Egyptian nomes or political divisions; but it is more likely that it was intended for sepulchral purposes.
Two sepulchral chambers were discovered in it in 1838.
One particular tribe (the Kalmats), who left their name on the Makran coast and subsequently dominated Bela and Sind, west of the Indus, for a considerable period, exhibit great power of artistic design in their sepulchral monuments.
On the other hand James Fergusson (1872) contended that it was a sepulchral monument of the Saxon period.
an incense burner, seems to the present writer to have any chronological value, as it is an undoubted sepulchral relic of the Bronze Age.
That its analogues were chiefly used as sepulchres has been fully established, and this is presumptive evidence that the sepulchral element was, at least, one of the objects for which Stonehenge was constructed: and it was probably for this reason that it was erected on Salisbury Plain, where there already existed an extensive necropolis of the Bronze Age.
The "finds" of stone and bronze, of bronze and iron, and even of stone and iron implements together in tumuli and sepulchral mounds, suggest that in many countries the three stages in man's progress overlapped.
There is, moreover, much reason to believe that sepulchral mounds were opened from age to age and fresh interments made, and in such a practice would be found a simple explanation of the mixing of implements.
Barrows and sepulchral mounds strictly of the Bronze Age are smaller and less imposing than those of the Stone Age.
high, in the form of a rectangular pillar, resembling a tomb; but as there is no trace of a door to a sepulchral chamber it may be a shrine.
Greeks to a sepulchral chest, in stone or other material, which was more or less enriched with ornament and sculpture.
Numerous sepulchral insciptions of Imperial slaves and freedmen have been found at Surrentum.
Archaeologically Kerch is of particular interest, the kurgans or sepulchral mounds of the town and vicinity having yielded a rich variety of the most beautiful works of art.
A pyramid in the neighbouring village of Couhard was probably a sepulchral monument.
The megalithic structures common in the Hauran and Moab may be entirely sepulchral.
There is also the Casuccini collections of Etruscan sarcophagi, sepulchral urns and pottery.
The Groote Kerk of St James (15th and 16th centuries) hasafine vaulted interior, and contains some old stained glass, a carved wooden pulpit (1550), a large organ and interesting sepulchral monuments, and some escutcheons of the knights of the Golden Fleece, placed here after the chapter of 1456.
The holy-water basin is formed of a sepulchral cippus of the Roman period.
Dennis, and a sepulchral chamber discovered in the middle, composed of large well-cut and highly polished blocks of marble, the chamber being ft.
by Venturi) to be sepulchral, but really the remains of human habitations, analogous to shell heaps or kitchen middens.
imperishable records of their domestic and sepulchral usages.
sepulchral slabs are set against the wall to the south of the arch.
sepulchral monuments dating from the first twenty years of the fourteenth century.
sepulchral inscriptions for martyrs who had none.
sepulchral tones: Why, Jeremy?
sepulchral stones and remains have come to light.
Three medieval sepulchral slabs are set against the wall to the south of the arch.
This is the great sepulchral tumulus now called New Grange, on the Boyne.
(See Stone Monuments, Barrow and Cairn.) The custom of constructing sepulchral tumuli was widely prevalent throughout the prehistoric ages and is referred to in the early literature of various races as a fitting commemoration of the illustrious dead.
They occur with frequency also in northern Africa, and in many parts of North and South America the aboriginal populations have practised similar customs. Sepulchral tumuli, however, vary so much in shape and size that the external appearance is no criterion of age or origin.
In North America, especially in the Wisconsin region, there are numerous mounds made in shapes resembling the figures of animals, birds or even human forms. These have not been often found to be sepulchral, but they are associated with sepulchral mounds of the ordinary form, some of which are as much as 300 ft.
In south-eastern Europe, and especially in southern Russia, the sepulchral tumuli are very numerous and often of great size, reaching occasionally to 400 ft.
Notices of some ancient inscriptions found at Larissa are given by Miller in MÃ©langes philologiques (Paris, 1880); several sepulchral reliefs were found in the neighbourhood in 1882.
Some are lofty towers containing sepulchral chambers in stories; 3 others are house-like buildings with a single chamber and a richly ornamented portico; the sides of these chambers within are adorned with the names and sculptured portraits of the dead.
Thus sepulchral inscriptions have been found on the Acropolis, though no burials took place there in ancient times.
The scanty traces which remain have not been systematically excavated except in the neighbourhood of the Dipylon; the discovery of sepulchral tablets built into the masonry illustrates the statement of Thucydides with regard to the employment of such material in the hasty construction of the walls.
The excavation of the outlying cemetery revealed the unique " Street of the Tombs " and brought to light a great number of sepulchral monuments, many of which remain in situ.
Six centuries elapsed before the accidental discovery of a sepulchral chamber by some labourers digging for pozzolana earth (May 31, 1578) revealed to the amazed inhabitants of Rome " the existence," to quote a contemporary record, " of other cities concealed beneath their own suburbs."
The doorways which are seen interrupting the lines of graves are those of the family sepulchral chambers, or cubicula, of which we shall speak more particularly hereafter.
In the pagan cemeteries, on the other hand, the sepulchral recess as a rule entered the rock like an oven at right angles to the corridor, the body being introduced endways.
Such recesses were known respectively as bisomi, trisomi, quadrisomi, &c., terms which often appear in the sepulchral inscriptions.
(From Agincourt.) November 1864, August the sides pierced with sepulchral recesses running lengthwise into the rock.
The most remarkable of these sepulchral chambers is a large circular hall about 25 ft.
It may have been used as a burial-place for martyrs, and Professor Marucchi is inclined to see in it the sepulchral chapel of Pope Marcellinus, who died in A.D.
In 1902, in that part of the Via Ardeatina which passes between the cemeteries of Calixtus and Domitilla, was discovered a crypt with frescoes and the sanctuary of a martyr: it is thought that this, rather than a neighbouring crypt brought to light in 1847, may prove to be the sepulchral crypt of SS.
The tumulus, which is crowned with a chapel, was excavated by Rene Galles in 1862; and the contents of the sepulchral chamber, which include several jade and fibrolite axes, are preserved in the museum at Vannes.
The most striking archaeological monuments of the prehistoric period are the sepulchral mounds, which are found by thousands in various parts of the country, especially in the neighbourhood of the ancient towns.
The new synagogue was built by Rosengarten between 1857 and 1859, and to the same architect is due the sepulchral chapel built for the Hamburg merchant prince Johann Heinrich, Freiherr von Schroder (1784-1883), in the churchyard of the Petrikirche.
square and a few inches deep, which served for containing inscriptions or reliefs, sometimes of a sepulchral character, but sometimes relating to the cult of a divinity.
As it was illegal in Roman times to bury within the walls, we are forced to the conclusion that the places where these sepulchral remains have been found were at one time extramural.
Several of them have been opened by modern excavators, but in every case it was found that treasure-seekers of an earlier time had removed any articles of value which had been deposited in the sepulchral chambers.
For he applied himself to manufacture wares having a close affinity with the shocking monstrosities used for sepulchral purposes in ancient Apulia, where fragments of dissected satyrs, busts of nymphs or halves of horses were considered graceful excrescences for the adornment of an amphora or a pithos.
within the later walls: later fortifications (but previous to 1127), largely constructed with Roman inscribed sepulchral urns and other fragments, had been superimposed on it.
To the south-east, in the district known as the Cunelie, are a large number of tombs, known as sesi, similar in character to the nuraghi of Sardinia, though of smaller size, consisting of round or elliptical towers with sepulchral chambers in them, built of rough blocks of lava.
The local museum contains a valuable and important collection of objects from the necropolis, including some specially fine bucchero, sepulchral urns of travertine, alabaster and terra-cotta, painted vases, stone cippi with reliefs, &c.
On this latter road, beyond Decimo, two milestones, one of Tiberius, the other of Maxentius, each bearing the number 11, have been found; and farther on, at Capocotta, traces of ancient buildings, and an important sepulchral inscription of a Jewish ruler of a synagogue have come to light.
- Sepulchral Clay Urn, in the form of a jaguar-like human figure, with shell ornament and loin-cloth.
It contains a few sepulchral monuments, removed from the cloisters (pulled down in 1721), and a fine modern organ, but the historical old bell La Clemence has been replaced by a newer and larger one which bears the same name.
In the Kubr-er-Rumia - " grave of the Roman lady " (Roman being used by the Arabs to designate strangers of Christian origin) - the Medrassen and the Jedars, Algeria possesses a remarkable series of sepulchral monuments.
The sepulchral chambers are separated by a short passage, and are cut off from the gallery by stone doors made of a single slab which can be moved up and down by levers, like a portcullis.
When the sepulchral chamber was opened in 1873 by Bauchetet, a French engineer officer, clear evidence was found that at some remote period the tomb had been rifled and an attempt made to destroy it by fire.
The great sepulchral monuments, popularly called maghazil, i.e.
The archaeological museum is housed here on the ground floor; besides Roman and pre-Roman objects it contains fragments of the 9th century basilica of Santa Maria in Aurona, one of the first examples of vaulted Lombard architecture; the bas-reliefs of the ancient Porta Romana of Milan, representing the return of the Milanese in 1171 after the defeat of Barbarossa; the remains of the church of Santa Maria in Brera, the work of Balduccio da Pisa; the grandiose sepulchral monument of Bernabo Visconti formerly in the church of San Giovanni in Conca; the tomb of Regina della Scala, the wife of Bernabo; the funeral monument of the Rusca family; the great portal of the palace of Pigello Portinari, seat of the Banco Mediceo at Milan, a work of Michelozzo; a series of Renaissance sculptures, including works by Amadeo Mantegazza, Agostino Busti (surnamed Bambaia), including fragments of the tomb of Gaston de Foix.
of Tiaret are the sepulchral monuments known as the Jedars (see ALGERIA: § Archaeology).
The town is of great interest for the antiquary as one of the chief centres of the Buddhist kingdom of Vengi, and for its stupa (sepulchral monument).
from the city on the banks of the Bisagno, is one of the chief features of Genoa; its situation is of great natural beauty and it is remarkable for its sepulchral monuments, many of which have been executed by the foremost sculptors of modern Italy.
But none of the other inscriptions found in Genoa or existing there at the present day, which are practically all sepulchral, can be demonstrated to have belonged to the ancient city; it is equally easy to suppose that they were brought from elsewhere by sea (Mommsen in Corp. Inscr.
When a mosque is also the founder's tomb, it has a richly ornamented sepulchral chamber always covered by a dome (see further Mosque, which contains plans of the mosques of Amr and sultan Hasan, and of the tomb mosque of Kait Bey).
In the Saite period a sort of standard edition was drawn up, consisting of 165 chapters in a fixed order and with a common title the book of going forth in the day; this recension was published by Lepsius in 1842 from a Turin papyrus Like the Pyramid texts, the Book of the Dead served a funerary purpose, but its contents are far more heterogeneous; besides chapters enabling the dead man to assume what shape he will, or to issue triumphant from the last judgment, there are lists of gates to be passed and demons to be encountered in the nether world, formulae such as are inscribed on sepulchral figures and amulets, and even hymns to the sun-god.
Ptah was early assimilated to the sepulchral gods Sokaris and Osiris.
He was early identified with an ancient but obscure god Tenen, and further with the sepulchral deity Sokaris.
to the sepulchral chamber where the dead man was deposited amid the funereal furniture destined for his use; and no device was neglected that might enable him to rest here undisturbed.
Still more important than all such funereal objects are the books that were placed in the grave for the use of the dead: in the pyramids they are written on the walls of the sepulchral chamber and the passages leading to it; in the Middle Kingdom usually inscribed on the inner sides of the sarcophagus; in later times contained in rolls of papyrus.
That it was inhabited at a remote date is proved by the prehistoric sepulchral mounds, the Hunebedden already mentioned.
As in the case of the long barrows, the traditional form of the circular, chambered barrow was retained through various changes in the sepulchral customs of the people.
It is highly illustrative of the tenacity with which the ancient sepulchral usages were retained even after the introduction of Christianity that King Harold, son and successor of Gorm the Old, who is said to have christianized all Denmark and Norway, followed the pagan custom of erecting a chambered tumulus over the remains of his father, on the summit of which was placed a rude pillar-stone, bearing on one side the memorial inscription in runes, and on the other a representation of the Saviour of mankind distinguished by the crossed nimbus surrounding the head.
So curiously alike in their general features were the sepulchral usages connected with barrow-burial over the whole of Europe, that we find the Anglo-Saxon Saga of Beowulf describing the chambered tumulus with its gigantic masonry "held fast on props, with vaults of stone," and the passage under the mound haunted by a dragon, the guardian of the treasures of heathen gold which it contained.
Captain Beaufort was the first to visit several places on the sea-coast, and the remarkable rock-hewn tombs of Telmessus had been already described by Dr Clarke, but it was Sir Charles Fellows who first discovered and drew attention to the extraordinary richness of tile district in ancient remains, especially of a sepulchral character.
Most of the inscriptions are sepulchral; by far the longest and most important is that on an obelisk found at Xanthus, which is a historical document, the concluding part of it being in a peculiar dialect, supposed to be an older and poetical form of the language.
The rock-cut tomb usually represented the house of the living, with an elaborate facade, but in one or two instances, notably that of the so-called Harpy-tomb, the facade is surmounted by a tall, square tower, in the upper part of which is the sepulchral chamber.
Monuments of this class are carved on the front of a sepulchral chamber, the entrance to which is a small doorway placed high and inaccessible in the rocks.
The subjugation of those primitive tribes did not mean their annihilation: their blood still flows in the veins of Frenchmen; and they survive also on those megalithic monuments (see STONE MONUMENTS) with which the soil of France is dotted, in the drawings and sculptures of caves hollowed out along the sides of the valleys, and in the arms and ornaments yielded by sepulchral tumuli, while the names of the rivers and mountains of France probably perpetuate the first utterances of those nameless generations.
There are three badly mutilated sepulchral monuments dating from the first twenty years of the fourteenth century.
Certainly, eleswhere in Italy, the practice was to concoct sepulchral inscriptions for martyrs who had none.
Every so often they mutter dead words, in sepulchral tones: Why, Jeremy?
By the second pillar are three medieval sepulchral fragments.
The garden to the NW was the graveyard of the Priory and sepulchral stones and remains have come to light.
The walls of the compartments are occupied by arched sepulchral recesses, above and below which are tiers of ordinary graves or loculi.
In the latter case, if the tumulus of stones covers a megalithic cist or a sepulchral chamber with a passage leading into it from the outside, it is often called a dolmen.
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