How to use Septuagint in a sentence
To the above we have a good parallel in the Book of Daniel; for the variations of its two chief Greek Versions - that of the Septuagint and of Theodotion - go back to variations in the Semitic.
The Septuagint translators did not read the clause which speaks of "priests and Levites," and 2 Chron.
The history in Kings was not finally settled until a very late date, as is evident from the important variations in the Septuagint, and it is especially in the description of the time of Solomon and the disruption that there continued to be considerable fluctuations.'
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
The word " oxen," which occurs in our version of the Scriptures, as well as in the Septuagint and Vulgate, denotes the species, rather than the sex.Advertisement
The name Syria is not found in the Hebrew original of the Scriptures; but it was used by the Septuagint to translate Aram.
I I KaTOLKb7ETE E7r ' i%7rt&c t' E f loL »' ye shall dwell securely with me "; for here ir' iXxiSc, as several times in the Septuagint, is a wrong rendering of ni '.
There the Septuagint was produced.
The word is commonly used in the Alexandrian Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) for the Hebrew word (ger) which is derived from a root (gur) denoting to sojourn.
The Septuagint has Aµ43aKoi*.Advertisement
As they stood in the Septuagint or Greek canon, along 2 The New Testament shows undoubtedly an acquaintance with several of the apocryphal books.
Since this surplusage is in turn derived from the Septuagint, from which the old Latin version was translated, it thus follows that the difference between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic Old Testament is, roughly speaking, traceable to the difference between the Palestinian and the Alexandrian canons of the Old Testament.
But this is only true with certain reservations; for the Latin Vulgate was revised by Jerome according to the Hebrew, and, where Hebrew originals were wanting, according to the Septuagint.
The second book among the minor prophets in the Bible is entitled The word of Yahweh that came to Joel the son of Pethuel, or, as the Septuagint, Latin, Syriac and other versions read, Bethuel.
The last-named gives an elaborate history of interpretation from the Septuagint down to Calvin, and appends the Ethiopic text edited by Dillmann.Advertisement
In the part covered by the books of the Bible Josephus follows them, and that mainly, if not entirely as they are translated into Greek by the Seventy (the Septuagint version).
An inferior limit for the final collection is given by the Septuagint translation.
This does not necessarily prove that " the technical terms of the Temple music had gone out of use, presumably because they were already become unintelligible, as they were when the Septuagint version was made "; for it does not follow that technical musical terms which had originated in the Temple at Jerusalem and were intelligible in Palestine would have been understood in Egypt.
In Egypt by the translators of the Septuagint these terms were not understood.
The "tin" of the Bible (KauoLTEpos in the Septuagint) corresponds to the Hebrew bedhil, which is really a copper alloy known as early as 1600 B.C. in Egypt.Advertisement
I, 1-2), to the Septuagint version of the book (produced between 260 and 130 B.C.), in which the disputed prophecies are already found, and to the Greek translation of the Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, which distinctly refers to Isaiah as the comforter of those that mourned in Zion (Eccles.
It could be explained as a contraction of Malachiah, messenger of Yahweh "; but the Septuagint is probably right in not regarding it as a proper name (" by the hand of His messenger ").
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
This work was valuable for the use which its author made of the Greek of the Septuagint, of the Old and New Testament Apocrypha, of Josephus, and of the apostolic fathers, in illustration of the language of the New Testament.
The two canonical books entitled Ezra and Nehemiah in the English Bible' correspond to the I and 2 Esdras of the Vulgate, to the 2 Esdras of the Septuagint, and to the Ezra and Nehemiah of the Massoretic (Hebrew) text.Advertisement
I I; some recensions of the Septuagint even include the "Samaritans"!
Among these appears to have been a portion of the Septuagint.
There is a curious resemblance between one form of the story and the Septuagint account of the rise of Jeroboam.
While Apostolic phrases are used, the sense behind them is often different and less evangelic. They have not caught the Apostolic meaning, because they have not penetrated to the full religious experience which gave to the words, often words with long and varied history both in the Septuagint and in ordinary Greek usage, their specific meaning to each apostle and especially to Paul.
The traditional pronunciation (MoX6x), which goes back Fas far as the Septuagint version of Kings, probably means that the old form was perverted by giving it the vowels of bosheth " shame," the contemptuous name for Baal.
Sufficient proof of this statement is furnished by the Samaritan Pentateuch and the versions, more especially the Septuagint.
Externally also the ancient versions, especially the Septuagint, frequently exhibit variations from the Hebrew which are not only intrinsically more probable, but often explain the difficulties presented by the Massoretic text.
The Samaritan Pentateuch agrees with the Septuagint version in many passages, but its chief importance lies in the proof which it affords as to the substantial agreement of our present text of the Pentateuch, apart from certain intentional changes,' with that which was promulgated by Ezra.
The earliest among the versions as well as the most important for the textual criticism of the Old Testament is the Septuagint.
The name Septuagint, strictly speaking, only applies to the translation of the Pentateuch, but it was afterwards extended to include the other books of the Old Testament as they were translated.
That the interval which elapsed before the Prophets and the Hagiographa were also translated was no great one is shown by the prologue to Sirach which speaks of " the Law, the Prophets and the rest of the books," as already current in a translation by 132 B.C. The date at which the various books were combined into a single work is not known, but the existence of the Septuagint as a whole may be assumed for the 1st century A.D., at which period the Greek version was universally accepted by the Jews of the Dispersion as Scripture, and from them passed on to the Christian Church.
The position of the Septuagint, however, as the official Greek representative of the Old Testament did not long remain unchallenged.
Its slavish adherence to the original caused the new translation to be received with favour by the Hellenistic Jews, among whom it quickly superseded the older Septuagint.
He retained, however, those passages of which there was no Hebrew equivalent, and added translations of the Hebrew where the latter was not represented in the Septuagint.
A peculiar feature of his translation is his excessive use of transliteration, but, apart from this, his work has many points of contact with the Septuagint, which it closely resembles in style; hence it is not surprising to find that later MSS.
In the case of the book of Daniel, as we learn from Jerome (praefatio in Dan.), the translation of Theodotion was definitely adopted by the Church, and is accordingly found in the place of the original Septuagint in all MSS.
The most probable explanation of this phenomenon is that these renderings are derived from an early Greek translation, differing from the Septuagint proper, but closely allied to that which Theodotion used as the basis of his revision.
Indeed Dr Swete 1 thinks it probable that " he wrote with Aquila's version before him, (and that) in his efforts to recast it he made free use both of the Septuagint and of Theodotion."
That Origen did not succeed in his object of recovering the original Septuagint is due to the fact that he started with the false conception that the original text of the Septuagint must be that which coincided most nearly with the current Hebrew text.
Indeed, the result of his monumental labours has been to impede rather than to promote the restoration of the genuine Septuagint.
The Hexapla as a whole was far too large to be copied, but the revised Septuagint text was published separately by Eusebius and Pamphilus, and was extensively used in Palestine during the 4th century.
His revision (to quote Dr Swete) " was doubtless an attempt to revise the (or ' common text ' of the Septuagint) in accordance with the principles of criticism which were accepted at Antioch."
The Peshito (P'shitta) or " simple " revision of the Old Testament is a translation from the Hebrew, though certain books appear to have been influenced by the Septuagint.
Its value for textual purposes is not great, partly because the underlying text is the same as the; Massoretic, partly because the Syriac text has at different times been harmonized with that of the Septuagint.
This Syriac translation of the Septuagint column of the Hexapla was made by Paul, bishop of Tella, at Alexandria in A.D.
Of the remaining versions of the Old Testament the most important are the Egyptian, Ethiopic, Arabic, Gothic and Armenian, all of which, except a part of the Arabic, appear to have been made through the medium of the Septuagint.
Beneath the ancient Greek version, the Septuagint, there certainly underlay an earlier form of the Hebrew text than that perpetuated by Jewish tradition, and if Christian scholars could have worked through the version to the underlying Hebrew text, they would often have come nearer to the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries.
For reasons suggested partly by the study of Semitic inscriptions, partly by comparison of passages occurring twice within the Old Testament, and partly by a comparison of the Hebrew text with the Septuagint, it is clear that the authors of the Old Testament (or at least most of them) themselves made some use of these vowel consonants, but that in a great number of cases the vowel consonants that stand in our present text were inserted by transcribers and editors of the texts.
Capellus drew conclusions from such important facts as the occurrence of variations in the two Hebrew texts of passages found twice in the Old Testament itself, and the variations brought to light by a comparison of the Jewish and Samaritan texts of the Pentateuch, the Hebrew text and the Septuagint, the Hebrew text and New Testament quotations from the Old Testament.
In regard to the Septuagint, though the work is by no means complete, much has been done.
More especially since the time of Capellus the value of the Septuagint for correcting the Hebrew text has been recognized; but it has often been used uncritically, and the correctness of the Hebrew text underlying it in comparison with the text of the Hebrew MSS., though still perhaps most generally underestimated, has certainly at times been exaggerated.
Its text in the Old Testament is thought by some scholars to show signs of representing the Hesychian recension, but this view seems latterly to have lost favour with students of the Septuagint.
It is omitted in the Septuagint.
The text of the Septuagint, a translation of the Old Testament made from MSS.
To the Jew the word ecclesia as used in the Septuagint suggested the assembly of the congregation of Israel.
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it immediately precedes Esther, and along with Tobit comes after Nehemiah; in the English Apocrypha it is placed between Tobit and the apocryphal additions to Esther.
In 1880 he was Bampton lecturer, and from 1880 to 1884 Grinfield lecturer on the Septuagint.
Following other synchronisms, the Septuagint (Lucian's recension) names Ahaziah of Judah; from 2 Kings i.
The word is not found in pre-Christian writings except in the Septuagint, though as Deissmann has shown it is found on the Papyri as an official title for the village magistrates of Egypt and the members of the yEpovoia, or senate, of many towns in Asia Minor.
The Hebrew text, as we have it, has a history of progressive corruption behind it, and its readings can often be emended from the Septuagint, e.g.
On the other hand, it follows Judges in the Septuagint, the Vulgate and the English version.
The secondary character of these concluding chapters receives considerable confirmation from a comparison of the Septuagint text.
The order of the commandments relating to murder, adultery and stealing varies in the Vatican text of the Septuagint, viz.
Of the ancient versions the Septuagint is the only one that is of great service for the criticism of the Hebrew text of Proverbs.
The Latin, the Peshitta Syriac and the Targum occasionally offer suggestions; the Hexaplar Syriac and the Coptic are of value for the determination of the text of the Septuagint.
How very late the historical books are in their present text or form may be seen from the Septuagint version of Joshua, Samuel and Kings, and from their internal literary structure, which suggests that only at the last stages of compilation were they brought into their present shape.
According to the Septuagint addition to Josh.
As a Hebrew word it might connect with nuah, " rest"; and the Septuagint has, "he will give us rest," instead of "he will comfort us"; and this is sometimes accepted as the original reading.
He was Boyle lecturer in 1866-1867 ("Christ and Christendom"), and Grinfield lecturer on the Septuagint at Oxford 1872-1874.
Of the Greek there are three forms. One is in the Vatican and Alexandrian MSS.; another is in the Sinaitic. Both these texts are to be found in Swete's Septuagint, the former denoted by B, and the latter by B is the common text, which is followed in the English Apocrypha.
In the Septuagint it is called Opiivoc, " Funeral-songs " or " Dirges," the usual rendering of Heb.
Some Septuagint MSS., and the Syriac and other versions, have the fuller title Lamentations of Jeremiah.
But the Septuagint appends the book to Jeremiah (Baruch intervening), just as it adds Ruth to Judges; thus making the number of the books of the Hebrew Canon the same as that of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, viz.
Let the time " (fl y; see Septuagint) " of their calamity come!
The tradition of Jeremiah's authorship cannot be traced higher than the Septuagint version.
Even in the Septuagint the existing order may not be original.
Thus, of 174 words which occur in the pastorals alone (of all the New Testament writings), 97 are foreign to the Septuagint and 116 to the rest of the Pauline letters.
Thus it agrees at times with the Samaritan, or Septuagint, or Syriac, or Vulgate, or even with Onkelos against all the rest.
To be more exact, our book represents some form of the Hebrew text of the Pentateuch midway between the forms presupposed by the Septuagint and the Syriac; for it agrees more frequently with the Septuagint, or with combinations into which the Septuagint enters, than with 1 In the Ethiopic Version in xxi.
Next to the Septuagint it agrees most often with the Syriac or with combinations into which the Syriac enters.
On the other hand, its independence of the Septuagint is shown in a large number of passages, where it has the support of the Samaritan and Massoretic, or of these with various combinations of the Syriac Vulgate and Onkelos.
The Septuagint also gives it at the beginning of Pss.
The literal text of the Septuagint seems to be the only decisive authority, and that is so sacred and almighty, that, whenever it comes into collision with the human conscience, the latter is silenced when the voice of revelation speaks."
Two Recensions of the Text.-It has often been said that we have virtually two recensions of the text, that represented by the Septuagint and the Massoretic text, and critics have taken different sides, some for one and some for the other.
It may also be admitted that the scribes who produced the Hebrew basis of the Septuagint version, conscious of the unsettled state of the text, did not shrink from what they considered a justifiable simplification.
This addition was placed by Theodotion before chap. i., and Bel and the Dragon at its close, whereas by the Septuagint and the Vulgate it was reckoned as chap. xiii.
The tradition which connects the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament into Greek with his name is not historical.
The early popularity of the book is shown by the interpolated passages in the Septuagint and the Old Latin versions.
Such phases are probable, considering the later phases represented in the Septuagint.
While the English version follows the Septuagint directly in speaking of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy, it follows the Vulgate in speaking of Numbers.
The title "Deuteronomy" is due to a mistranslation by the Septuagint of the clause in chap. xvii.
Both here and in the preceding chapters the Septuagint has several variations and omissions, due either to an (unsuccessful) attempt to simplify the present difficulties, or to the use of another recension.
Moreover, P in its turn shows elsewhere definite indications of different periods and standpoints, and the fluid state of the book at a late age is shown by the presence of Deuteronomic elements in Joshua xx., not found in the Septuagint, and by the numerous and often striking readings which the latter recension presents.
This interpretation is perhaps as old as the (original) Septuagint, and is current with the later Jews.
The division into two (like the two Hebrew books of Kings) follows the Septuagint and the Vulgate, whose four books of " kingdoms " correspond to the Hebrew books of Samuel and Kings.
Both Samuel and Kings, like Judges, are made up of a series of extracts and abstracts from various sources, worked over from time to time by successive editors, and freely handled by copyists down to a comparatively late date, as is shown by the numerous and often important variations between the Hebrew text and the Greek version (Septuagint).
The Hebrew text is often corrupt but can frequently be corrected with the help of the Septuagint.
The most convenient editions of the Greek text are Tischendorf's in the second volume of his Septuagint, and Swete's in vol.
Scholars have long bemoaned the lack of an adequate Hebrew index to the Septuagint.
Demetrius's use of proper names and characteristic expressions match the Septuagint, the Greek Bible, not the Hebrew scriptures.
He believed that the Greek translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint, dating from the third century BC) was divinely inspired.
It is probable that, as in Palestine an Aramaic paraphrase of the Hebrew text was found to be necessary, so in Alexandria the Septuagint grew up gradually, as need arose.
Furthermore, the Vulgate rejects 3 and 4 Maccabees and Psalm cli., which generally appear in the Septuagint, while the Septuagint and Luther's Bible reject 4 Ezra, which is found in the Vulgate and the Apocrypha Proper.
This writer (see Origen) conceived the idea of collecting all the existing Greek versions of the Old Testament with a view to recovering the original text of the Septuagint, partly by their aid and partly by means of the current Hebrew text.
In the Septuagint column he drew attention to those passages for which there was no Hebrew equivalent by prefixing an obelus; but where the Septuagint had nothing corresponding to the Hebrew text he supplied the omissions, chiefly but not entirely from the translation of Theodotion, placing an asterisk at the beginning of the interpolation; the close of the passage to which the obelus or the asterisk was prefixed was denoted by the metobelus.
The recension (see Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of Me Books of Samuel, p. 52) is characterized by the substitution of synonyms for the words originally used by the Septuagint, and by the frequent occurrence of double renderings, but its chief claim to critical importance rests on the fact that " it embodies renderings not found in other MSS.
The identity of Shinar and Shumer is also demon= strated by the Septuagint renderindof Shinar in Isaiah xi.
Eusebius did not find them in the Hexaplar Septuagint.'