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sepals

sepals Sentence Examples

  • The four sepals are arranged symmetrically, an outer median and an inner lateral pair.

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  • There are five free sepals, overlapping in the bud, and, alternating with these, five free petals.

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  • There are two sepals which fall off before the petals expand.

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  • From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, and the very numerous stamens.

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  • The sepals and petals are free or more or less united, the stamens as many or twice as many as the petals; the carpels, usually free, are equal to the petals in number, and form in the fruit follicles with two or more seeds.

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  • The sepals and petals are free or more or less united, the stamens as many or twice as many as the petals; the carpels, usually free, are equal to the petals in number, and form in the fruit follicles with two or more seeds.

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  • Sepals transformed into leaves.

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  • The sepals are generally organs for the protection of the flower-bud; the petals, for attracting insects by their conspicuous form and color; the foliage-leaves, for the assimilation of carbon dioxide and other associated functions.

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  • The sepals are generally organs for the protection of the flower-bud; the petals, for attracting insects by their conspicuous form and color; the foliage-leaves, for the assimilation of carbon dioxide and other associated functions.

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  • 2), which is also dioecious, the small male flowers are borne in large numbers in shortstalked spathes; the petals are minute and scalelike, and only two of the three stamens are fertile; the flowers become detached before opening and rise to the surface, where the sepals expand and form a float bearing the two projecting semi-erect stamens.

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  • They are distinguished by having one of the five blue or yellow coloured sepals (the posterior one) in the form of a helmet; hence the English name monkshood.

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  • an outer whorl of five opposite the petals alternates with an inner whorl of five opposite the sepals; at the base of each of the antisepalous stamens is a honey-gland.

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  • The sepals, very rarely three, which are two in number, fall off as the flower opens, the four (very rarely five or six) petals, which are crumpled in the bud stage, also fall readily.

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  • The Californian poppy (Platystemon californicus) is a pretty annual about a foot high, having yellow flowers with 3 sepals and 6 petals; and the white bush poppy (Romneya Coulteri) is a very attractive perennial and semishrubby plant 2-8 ft.

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  • in diameter, with five spreading white petals alternating with five persistent green sepals, a large number of stamens with pinkish-brown anthers, and one to three carpels sunk in the cup-shaped floral axis.

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  • in diameter, with five spreading white petals alternating with five persistent green sepals, a large number of stamens with pinkish-brown anthers, and one to three carpels sunk in the cup-shaped floral axis.

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  • Accepting this view of the phylogeny of the leaf, the perianthleaves (sepals and petals) and the foliage-leaves may be regarded as modified or metamorphosed sporophylls; that is, as leaves which are adapted to functions other than the bearing of spores.

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  • and Sambucus, more rarely two-lipped as in Lonicera; the sepals and petals are usually five in number and placed above the ovary, the five stamens are attached to the corolla-tube, there are three to five carpels, and the fruit is a berry as in honeysuckle or snowberry (Symphoricarpus), or a stone fruit, with several, usually three, stones, as in Sambucus.

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  • The flowers have a hollow tube at the base bearing at its free edge five sepals, an equal number of petals, usually concave or spoon-shaped, pink or white, and a great number of stamens.

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  • The flowers are regular, with four free sepals arranged in two pairs at right angles, four petals arranged crosswise in one series, and two sets of stamens, an outer with two members and an inner with four, in two pairs placed in the middle line of the flower and at right angles to the outer series.

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  • The flowers, which are solitary, or rarely in pairs, at the end of slender axillary flower-stalks, are very irregular in form, with five sepals prolonged at the base, and five petals, the lowest one larger than the others and with a spur, in which collects the honey secreted by the spurs of the two adjoining stamens.

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  • b, pair of bracteoles below the flower; s, sepals; p, petals; st, stamens; o, ovary.

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  • The sepals, which are generally free, show much variation in size, shape and covering, and afford valuable characters for the distinction of genera or sub-genera.

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  • The flowers have a hollow tube at the base bearing at its free edge five sepals, an equal number of petals, usually concave or spoon-shaped, pink or white, and a great number of stamens.

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  • The sepals, which are generally free, show much variation in size, shape and covering, and afford valuable characters for the distinction of genera or sub-genera.

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  • s, Sepals.

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  • The calyx is small, smooth and divided into five obtuse sepals.

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  • In some Rosaceous plants an epicalyx is present, due to the formation of stipulary structures by the sepals.

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  • The petals are usually showy, and normally alternate with the sepals.

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  • a, Stamens; c, carpels; p, petals; s, sepals.

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  • In such cases the tube varies in length, and the parts in their union follow the reverse order of what occurs in the calyx, where two sepals are united in the lower lip and three in the upper.

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  • When flowers become double by cultivation, the stamens are converted into petals, as in the paeony, camellia, rose, &c. When there is only one whorl the stamens are usually equal in number to the sepals or petals, and are arranged opposite to the former, and alternate with the latter.

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  • When the stamens are not equal in number to the sepals or petals, the flower is anisostemonous.

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  • If the stamens are double the sepals or petals as regards number, the flower is diplostemonous; if more than double, polystemonous.

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  • s, Sepals joined to form a gamosepalous calyx; c, corolla consisting of tube and spreading limb; a, stamens springing from the mouth of the tube; p, pistil.

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  • The sepals fly back to expose a white single corolla which forms a perfect bell.

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  • The large ray florets have either three or four sepals only.

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  • A true single fuchsia with baby pink tube and sepals which recurve to cover the tube.

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  • They carry generous clusters of gleaming flowers, with sleek scarlet sepals flaring to reveal a slim skirt of purple petals surrounding coral stamens.

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  • pointed sepals leave no question about the identification.

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  • sepals of each flower are called ' falls ' and have a fuzzy central portion called a ' beard ' .

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  • The male flowers have 4 sepals and 4 stamen s, whilst the females have 4 sepals and a 3- style d ovary.

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  • notice the sepals (modified flower leaves) which curve up around the purple unopened buds.

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  • There is an outer ring of modified leaves called sepals.

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  • The white spur and pointed sepals leave no question about the identification.

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  • A side view of the flower above reveals the ring of green sepals beneath the bloom.

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  • The tube is white striped green with white sepals tipped green.

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  • The three lance shaped outer sepals are a soft green.

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  • The tube is pale pink complimented with pink sepals tipped green.

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  • Five veined yellow sepals some 20 - 25 mm across the flower, pollinated by bees close-up.

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  • They carry generous clusters of gleaming flowers, with sleek scarlet sepals flaring to reveal a slim skirt of purple petals surrounding coral stamens.

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  • These are aquatic plants with thick fleshy rootstocks or tubers embedded in the mud, and throwing up to the surface circular shield-like leaves, and leafless flower-stalks, each terminated by a single flower, often of great beauty, and consisting of four or five sepals, and numerous petals gradually passing into the very numerous stamens without any definite line of demarcation between them.

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  • Thus, in a phanerogam, the sepals, petals, stamens and foliage-leaves all come under the category leaf, though some are parts of the perianth, others are spore-bearing organs (sporophylls), and others carry on nutritive processes.

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  • Accepting this view of the phylogeny of the leaf, the perianthleaves (sepals and petals) and the foliage-leaves may be regarded as modified or metamorphosed sporophylls; that is, as leaves which are adapted to functions other than the bearing of spores.

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  • The four sepals are arranged symmetrically, an outer median and an inner lateral pair.

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  • The parts of the flower are most frequently arranged in fives, or multiples of fives; for instance, a common arrangement is as follows, - five sepals, succeeded by five petals, ten stamens in two sets of five, and five or fewer carpels; an arrangement in fours is less frequent, while the arrangement in threes, so common in monocotyledons, is rare in dicotyledons.

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  • There is a very wide range in the general structure and arrangement of the parts of the flower, associated with the means for ensuring the transference of pollen; in the simplest cases the flower consists only of a few stamens or carpels, with no enveloping sepals or petals, as in the willow, while in, the more elaborate type each series is represented, the whole forming a complicated structure closely correlated with the size, form and habits of the pollinating agent (see Flower).

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  • Very beautiful also are the red velvet or white velvet sepals of the Mussaenda genus.

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  • s, Sepals.

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  • Pleurothallidinae, characterized by a thin stem bearing one leaf which separates at a distinct joint; the sepals are usually much larger than the petals and lip. Includes To genera, natives of tropical America, one of which, Pleurothallis, contains about 400 species.

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  • From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, and the very numerous stamens.

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  • and Sambucus, more rarely two-lipped as in Lonicera; the sepals and petals are usually five in number and placed above the ovary, the five stamens are attached to the corolla-tube, there are three to five carpels, and the fruit is a berry as in honeysuckle or snowberry (Symphoricarpus), or a stone fruit, with several, usually three, stones, as in Sambucus.

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  • The flowers are regular, with four free sepals arranged in two pairs at right angles, four petals arranged crosswise in one series, and two sets of stamens, an outer with two members and an inner with four, in two pairs placed in the middle line of the flower and at right angles to the outer series.

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  • The flowers, which are solitary, or rarely in pairs, at the end of slender axillary flower-stalks, are very irregular in form, with five sepals prolonged at the base, and five petals, the lowest one larger than the others and with a spur, in which collects the honey secreted by the spurs of the two adjoining stamens.

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  • b, pair of bracteoles below the flower; s, sepals; p, petals; st, stamens; o, ovary.

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  • They are distinguished by having one of the five blue or yellow coloured sepals (the posterior one) in the form of a helmet; hence the English name monkshood.

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  • There are five free sepals, overlapping in the bud, and, alternating with these, five free petals.

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  • an outer whorl of five opposite the petals alternates with an inner whorl of five opposite the sepals; at the base of each of the antisepalous stamens is a honey-gland.

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  • The calyx is small, smooth and divided into five obtuse sepals.

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  • The sepals, very rarely three, which are two in number, fall off as the flower opens, the four (very rarely five or six) petals, which are crumpled in the bud stage, also fall readily.

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  • The Californian poppy (Platystemon californicus) is a pretty annual about a foot high, having yellow flowers with 3 sepals and 6 petals; and the white bush poppy (Romneya Coulteri) is a very attractive perennial and semishrubby plant 2-8 ft.

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  • In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • Each flower is subtended by a bract, but there are no bracteoles, and corresponding with the absence of the latter the two first developed sepals stand right and left (fig.

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  • opposite to its lobes; this anomalous position is generally explained by assuming that an outer whorl of stamens opposite the sepals has disappeared, though sometimes represented by scales as in Samolus and Soldanella.

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  • Another explanation is based on the late appearance of the petals in the floral development and their origin from the backs of the primordia of the stamens; it is then assumed that three alternating whorls only are present, namely, sepals, stamens bearing petal-like dorsal outgrowths, and carpels.

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  • The flowers are regular and symmetrical, having five sepals, tapering to a point and hairy on the margin, five petals which speedily fall, ten stamens, and a pistil bearing five distinct styles.

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  • arose from the supposed resemblance of the corona to the crown of thorns, and of the other parts of the flower to the nails, or wounds, while the five sepals and five petals were taken to symbolize the ten apostles - Peter, who denied, and Judas, who betrayed, being left out of the reckoning.

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  • 2) consists of a receptacle varying in form from that of a shallow saucer to that of a long cylindrical or trumpet-shaped tube, thin or fleshy in consistence, and giving off from its upper border the five sepals, the five petals (rarely these latter are absent), and the threads or membranous processes constituting the "corona."

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  • The flowers are regular and rather showy, generally with three greenish sepals, followed in regular succession by three white or purplish petals, six to indefinite stamens and six to indefinite free carpels.

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  • 2), which is also dioecious, the small male flowers are borne in large numbers in shortstalked spathes; the petals are minute and scalelike, and only two of the three stamens are fertile; the flowers become detached before opening and rise to the surface, where the sepals expand and form a float bearing the two projecting semi-erect stamens.

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  • In some Rosaceous plants an epicalyx is present, due to the formation of stipulary structures by the sepals.

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  • Sepals transformed into leaves.

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  • 22, we recognize four distinct whorls of leaves: an outer whorl, the calyx of sepals; within it, another whorl, the parts alternating with those of the outer whorl, the corolla of petals; next a whorl of parts alternating with the parts of the corolla, the androecium of stamens; and in the centre the gynoecium of carpels.

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  • The sepals are generally of a greenish colour; their function is mainly protective, shielding the more delicate internal organs before the flower opens.

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  • The petals are usually showy, and normally alternate with the sepals.

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  • In some cases the petals have the appearance of sepals, then they are sepaloid, as in Juncaceae.

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  • s, Sepals; p, petals; a, stamens; c, carpels.

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  • a, Stamens; c, carpels; p, petals; s, sepals.

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  • Thus, a symmetrical flower may have five sepals, five petals, five stamens and five carpels, or the number of any of these parts may be ten, twenty or some multiple of five.

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  • 33 is a diagram of a symmetrical flower of stone-crop, with five sepals, five alternating petals, ten stamens and five carpels.

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  • A plane passing through the anterior and posterior sepal and through the floral axis is termed the median plane of the flower; a plane cutting it at right angles, and passing through the lateral sepals, is the lateral plane; whilst the planes which bisect the ?? ?

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  • - Diagram of the flower of Flax (Linum), consisting of five sepals (s), five petals (p), five stamens (a), and five carpels (c), each of which is partially divided into two.

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  • angles formed by the lateral and median planes are the diagonal planes and in these flowers the petals which alternate with the sepals are cut by the diagonal planes.

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  • - Diagram of flower of Sweet-pea (Lathyrus), showing five sepals (s), two superior, one inferior, and two lateral; five petals (p), one superior, two inferior, and two lateral; ten stamens in two rows (a); and one carpel (c).

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  • Thus, in many Caryophyllaceae, as Polycarpon and Holosteum, while the calyx and corolla are pentamerous, there are only three or four stamens and three carpels; in Impatiens Noli-me-tangere the calyx is composed of three parts, while the other verticils have five; in labiate flowers there are five parts of the calyx and corolla, and only four stamens; and in Tropaeolum pentaphyllum there are five sepals, two petals, eight stamens and three carpels.

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  • The following is a very simple mode which has been proposed: - The several whorls are represented by the letters S (sepals), P (petals), St (stamens), C (carpels), and a figure marked after each indicates the number of parts in that whorl.

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  • The sepals are sometimes free or separate from each other, at other times they are united to a greater or less extent; in the former case, the calyx is polysepalous, in the latter gamosepalous or monosepalous.

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  • Sepals are generally of a more or less oval, elliptical or oblong form, with their apices either blunt or acute.

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  • In a polysepalous calyx the number of the parts is indicated by Greek numerals prefixed; thus, a calyx which has three sepals is trisepalous; one with five sepals is pentasepalous.

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  • The sepals occasionally are of different forms and sizes.

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  • In a gamosepalous calyx the sepals are united in various ways, sometimes very slightly, and their number is marked by the divisions at the apex.

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  • There are two sepals which fall off before the petals expand.

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  • The part formed by the union of the sepals is called the tube of the calyx; the portion where the sepals are free is the limb.

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  • Occasionally, certain parts of the sepals undergo marked enlargement.

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  • In Pelargonium the spur from one of the sepals is adherent to the flower-stalk.

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  • In Potentilla and allied genera an epicalyx is formed by the development of stipules from the sepals, which form an apparent outer calyx, the parts of which alternate with the true sepals.

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  • In Eschscholtzia and Eucalyptus the sepals remain united at the upper part, and become disarticulated at the base or middle, so as to come off in the form of a lid or funnel.

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  • Petals differ more from ordinary leaves than sepals do, and are much more nearly allied to the staminal whorl.

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  • Longitudinal section of flower; v, bracteole on the peduncle; 1, sepals; ls, appendage of sepal; c, petals; cs, spur of the lower petals; fs, glandular appendage of the lower stamens; a, anthers.

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  • In such cases the tube varies in length, and the parts in their union follow the reverse order of what occurs in the calyx, where two sepals are united in the lower lip and three in the upper.

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  • When flowers become double by cultivation, the stamens are converted into petals, as in the paeony, camellia, rose, &c. When there is only one whorl the stamens are usually equal in number to the sepals or petals, and are arranged opposite to the former, and alternate with the latter.

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  • When the stamens are not equal in number to the sepals or petals, the flower is anisostemonous.

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  • If the stamens are double the sepals or petals as regards number, the flower is diplostemonous; if more than double, polystemonous.

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  • s, Sepals joined to form a gamosepalous calyx; c, corolla consisting of tube and spreading limb; a, stamens springing from the mouth of the tube; p, pistil.

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  • - Fruit of Rosa alba, consisting of the fleshy hollowed axis s', the persistent sepals s, and the carpels fr.

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  • The short tube is baby pink with white sepals tipped green which recurve gracefully to expose a compact full double white corolla.

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  • The three outer sepals of each flower are called ' falls ' and have a fuzzy central portion called a ' beard '.

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  • The male flowers have 4 sepals and 4 stamen s, whilst the females have 4 sepals and a 3- style d ovary.

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  • Notice the sepals (modified flower leaves) which curve up around the purple unopened buds.

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  • There is an outer ring of modified leaves called sepals.

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  • A side view of the flower above reveals the ring of green sepals beneath the bloom.

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  • The tube is white striped green with white sepals tipped green.

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  • The three lance shaped outer sepals are a soft green.

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  • The tube is pale pink complimented with pink sepals tipped green.

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  • Five veined yellow sepals some 20 - 25 mm across the flower, pollinated by bees close-up.

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  • Calypso - C. borealis is a pretty little hardy Orchid, with rosy-purple sepals and petals, and a white lip, heavily blotched with cinnamon brown, from the cold regions of N.

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  • The double varieties may be preferred to the type, and there is also a pretty form with pale rosy sepals.

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  • Each fruit is 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, apple or sometimes pear-shaped, covered with bristles and surmounted by a crown of large glandular sepals.

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  • At certain times and in certain soils the sepals are flushed with rose-color.

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  • Nymphaea Alba Arc-En-Ciel - A distinct hybrid with blending shades of pale salmon streaked with rose, and crimson spotted sepals.

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  • This is the only kind always bearing five sepals.

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  • Ignea - One of the brightest in its uniform carmine-red, deepening slightly towards the crown of vivid orange-red stamens; sepals pale olive-green edged with rose beneath, and paler above.

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  • The flowers-4 to 7 inches across-are pure white with green sepals, slightly incurved, and nearly scentless.

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  • The starry white flowers are 2 to 3 inches across, with purplish sepals and sweetly scented, though forms occur that are almost without scent, and others with flowers more or less incurved.

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  • They are creamy white, without a trace of color in the sepals or petals, which are longer and broader than in any other wild kind, and scentless.

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  • Richardsoni - An American seedling with double pure white flowers standing well out of the water; they are of finely rounded petals, curving inwards, the outer row and the sepals slightly drooping.

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  • In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or bird by agency of which pollination is effected.

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  • The sepals are leafy and persistent; the corolla is generally divided into a longer or shorter tube and a limb which is spreading, as in primrose, or reflexed, as in Cyclamen; in Soldanella it is bell-shaped; in Lysimachia the tube is often very short, the petals appearing almost free; in Glaux the petals are absent.

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  • opposite to its lobes; this anomalous position is generally explained by assuming that an outer whorl of stamens opposite the sepals has disappeared, though sometimes represented by scales as in Samolus and Soldanella.

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  • Another explanation is based on the late appearance of the petals in the floral development and their origin from the backs of the primordia of the stamens; it is then assumed that three alternating whorls only are present, namely, sepals, stamens bearing petal-like dorsal outgrowths, and carpels.

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  • The irregular flowers have five sepals united at the base, the dorsal one produced into a spurred development of the axis; of the five petals the two upper are slightly different and stand rather apart from the lower three; the eight stamens are unequal and the pistil consists of three carpels which form a fleshy fruit separating into three one-seeded portions.

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  • The flowers are regular and symmetrical, having five sepals, tapering to a point and hairy on the margin, five petals which speedily fall, ten stamens, and a pistil bearing five distinct styles.

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  • arose from the supposed resemblance of the corona to the crown of thorns, and of the other parts of the flower to the nails, or wounds, while the five sepals and five petals were taken to symbolize the ten apostles - Peter, who denied, and Judas, who betrayed, being left out of the reckoning.

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  • 2) consists of a receptacle varying in form from that of a shallow saucer to that of a long cylindrical or trumpet-shaped tube, thin or fleshy in consistence, and giving off from its upper border the five sepals, the five petals (rarely these latter are absent), and the threads or membranous processes constituting the "corona."

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  • The flowers are regular and rather showy, generally with three greenish sepals, followed in regular succession by three white or purplish petals, six to indefinite stamens and six to indefinite free carpels.

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  • 22, we recognize four distinct whorls of leaves: an outer whorl, the calyx of sepals; within it, another whorl, the parts alternating with those of the outer whorl, the corolla of petals; next a whorl of parts alternating with the parts of the corolla, the androecium of stamens; and in the centre the gynoecium of carpels.

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  • The sepals are generally of a greenish colour; their function is mainly protective, shielding the more delicate internal organs before the flower opens.

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  • In some cases the petals have the appearance of sepals, then they are sepaloid, as in Juncaceae.

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  • s, Sepals; p, petals; a, stamens; c, carpels.

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  • In some cases, as in the vine-family Ampelidaceae, this seems to be the ordinary mode of development, but the superposition of the stamens on the sepals in many plants, as in the pink family, Caryophyllaceae, is due to the suppression or abortion of the whorl of petals, and this idea is borne out by the development, in some plants of the order, of the suppressed whorl.

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  • Thus, a symmetrical flower may have five sepals, five petals, five stamens and five carpels, or the number of any of these parts may be ten, twenty or some multiple of five.

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  • 33 is a diagram of a symmetrical flower of stone-crop, with five sepals, five alternating petals, ten stamens and five carpels.

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  • - Diagrammatic section of a symmetrical pentamerous flower of Stone-crop (Sedum), consisting of five sepals (s), five petals (p) alternating with the sepals, ten stamens (a) in two rows, and five carpels (c) containing ovules.

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  • - Diagram of the flower of Flax (Linum), consisting of five sepals (s), five petals (p), five stamens (a), and five carpels (c), each of which is partially divided into two.

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  • angles formed by the lateral and median planes are the diagonal planes and in these flowers the petals which alternate with the sepals are cut by the diagonal planes.

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  • - Diagram of flower of Sweet-pea (Lathyrus), showing five sepals (s), two superior, one inferior, and two lateral; five petals (p), one superior, two inferior, and two lateral; ten stamens in two rows (a); and one carpel (c).

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  • Thus, in many Caryophyllaceae, as Polycarpon and Holosteum, while the calyx and corolla are pentamerous, there are only three or four stamens and three carpels; in Impatiens Noli-me-tangere the calyx is composed of three parts, while the other verticils have five; in labiate flowers there are five parts of the calyx and corolla, and only four stamens; and in Tropaeolum pentaphyllum there are five sepals, two petals, eight stamens and three carpels.

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  • The symmetry in the flower is evidently dimerous, and the abnormality in the androecium, where the four long stamens are opposite the posterior sepals, takes place by a splitting, at a very early stage of development, of a single outgrowth into two.

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  • The following is a very simple mode which has been proposed: - The several whorls are represented by the letters S (sepals), P (petals), St (stamens), C (carpels), and a figure marked after each indicates the number of parts in that whorl.

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  • As regards each leaf of the flower, it is either spread out, as the sepals in the bud of the lime-tree, or folded upon itself (conduplicate), as in the petals of some species of Lysimachia, or slightly folded inwards or outwards at the edges, as in the FIG.

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  • The sepals are sometimes free or separate from each other, at other times they are united to a greater or less extent; in the former case, the calyx is polysepalous, in the latter gamosepalous or monosepalous.

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  • Sepals are generally of a more or less oval, elliptical or oblong form, with their apices either blunt or acute.

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  • In a polysepalous calyx the number of the parts is indicated by Greek numerals prefixed; thus, a calyx which has three sepals is trisepalous; one with five sepals is pentasepalous.

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  • The sepals occasionally are of different forms and sizes.

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  • In a gamosepalous calyx the sepals are united in various ways, sometimes very slightly, and their number is marked by the divisions at the apex.

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  • The part formed by the union of the sepals is called the tube of the calyx; the portion where the sepals are free is the limb.

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  • Occasionally, certain parts of the sepals undergo marked enlargement.

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  • In the violet the calycine segments are prolonged downwards beyond their insertions, and in the Indian cress (Tropaeolum) this prolongation is in the form of a spur (calcar), formed by three sepals; in Delphinium it is formed by one.

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  • In Pelargonium the spur from one of the sepals is adherent to the flower-stalk.

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  • In Potentilla and allied genera an epicalyx is formed by the development of stipules from the sepals, which form an apparent outer calyx, the parts of which alternate with the true sepals.

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  • In Eschscholtzia and Eucalyptus the sepals remain united at the upper part, and become disarticulated at the base or middle, so as to come off in the form of a lid or funnel.

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  • Petals differ more from ordinary leaves than sepals do, and are much more nearly allied to the staminal whorl.

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  • Longitudinal section of flower; v, bracteole on the peduncle; 1, sepals; ls, appendage of sepal; c, petals; cs, spur of the lower petals; fs, glandular appendage of the lower stamens; a, anthers.

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  • The sepals are leafy and persistent; the corolla is generally divided into a longer or shorter tube and a limb which is spreading, as in primrose, or reflexed, as in Cyclamen; in Soldanella it is bell-shaped; in Lysimachia the tube is often very short, the petals appearing almost free; in Glaux the petals are absent.

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  • The irregular flowers have five sepals united at the base, the dorsal one produced into a spurred development of the axis; of the five petals the two upper are slightly different and stand rather apart from the lower three; the eight stamens are unequal and the pistil consists of three carpels which form a fleshy fruit separating into three one-seeded portions.

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  • In some cases, as in the vine-family Ampelidaceae, this seems to be the ordinary mode of development, but the superposition of the stamens on the sepals in many plants, as in the pink family, Caryophyllaceae, is due to the suppression or abortion of the whorl of petals, and this idea is borne out by the development, in some plants of the order, of the suppressed whorl.

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  • - Diagrammatic section of a symmetrical pentamerous flower of Stone-crop (Sedum), consisting of five sepals (s), five petals (p) alternating with the sepals, ten stamens (a) in two rows, and five carpels (c) containing ovules.

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  • The symmetry in the flower is evidently dimerous, and the abnormality in the androecium, where the four long stamens are opposite the posterior sepals, takes place by a splitting, at a very early stage of development, of a single outgrowth into two.

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  • As regards each leaf of the flower, it is either spread out, as the sepals in the bud of the lime-tree, or folded upon itself (conduplicate), as in the petals of some species of Lysimachia, or slightly folded inwards or outwards at the edges, as in the FIG.

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  • In the violet the calycine segments are prolonged downwards beyond their insertions, and in the Indian cress (Tropaeolum) this prolongation is in the form of a spur (calcar), formed by three sepals; in Delphinium it is formed by one.

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  • Thus, in a phanerogam, the sepals, petals, stamens and foliage-leaves all come under the category leaf, though some are parts of the perianth, others are spore-bearing organs (sporophylls), and others carry on nutritive processes.

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  • The parts of the flower are most frequently arranged in fives, or multiples of fives; for instance, a common arrangement is as follows, - five sepals, succeeded by five petals, ten stamens in two sets of five, and five or fewer carpels; an arrangement in fours is less frequent, while the arrangement in threes, so common in monocotyledons, is rare in dicotyledons.

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  • Very beautiful also are the red velvet or white velvet sepals of the Mussaenda genus.

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  • Pleurothallidinae, characterized by a thin stem bearing one leaf which separates at a distinct joint; the sepals are usually much larger than the petals and lip. Includes To genera, natives of tropical America, one of which, Pleurothallis, contains about 400 species.

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