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seljuks

seljuks Sentence Examples

  • By the end of October they had perished utterly at the hands of the Seljuks; a heap of whitening bones also remained to testify to the later crusaders, when they passed in the spring of 1097, of the fate of the people's Crusade.

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  • In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in 117 5.

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  • In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus and was captured by Saladin in 117 5.

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  • By this means it was able to defy both the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and to maintain its independence against the emperors of Nicaea and Constantinople.

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  • It rose to importance under the Seljuks.

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  • Seljuks >>

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  • p. 113; also articles Caliphate and Persia: History, section B, and for the later period Mahmud, Seljuks, Mongols.

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  • Without being intolerant, the Turks were a rougher and ruder race than the Arabs of Egypt whom they displaced; while the wars between the Fatimites of Egypt and the Abbasids of Bagdad, whose cause was represented by the Seljuks, made Syria (one of the natural battle-grounds of history) into a troubled and unquiet region.

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  • It is the Church which creates the First Crusade, because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre; because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity, and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.

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  • In 1141 he was taken captive by the Turks (Seljuks) and remained in their hands for a year.

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  • 1097, became an important town of Lesser Armenia and was taken by the Seljuks in 1147.

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  • Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in Asia Minor the Seljuks, then a mere horde of savages, had overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the civilization of the people they had subdued.

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  • It was the descendants of those Persianized Seljuks whom the early Ottomans found ruling in Asia Minor on their arrival there.

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  • What had happened to the Seljuks two centuries before happened to the Ottomans now: the less civilized race adopted the culture of the more civilized; and, as the Seljuk Empire fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy its place, the sons of men who had called themselves Seljuks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as Ottomans.

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  • Hence the vast majority of the people whom we are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljuks or Seljukian subjects, who had derived from Persia whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary taste.

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  • North from these lies the old capital of the Seljuks, known as Sultan Kalah, and destroyed by the Mongols in 1219.

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  • It was one of the chief towns of the kingdom of Trebizond and of the Seljuks, one of whose sultans, Kaikobad I., enriched it with fine buildings and restored the castle, which was thus enabled to stand a seven months' siege by Timur.

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  • Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.

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  • (1100-1123), in alliance with the Christian princes of Syria, waged successful war against Byzantines and Seljuks.

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  • This is supposed to have suggested to the Seljuks of Konia their heraldic device adopted in the 13th century, which, brought to Europe by the Crusaders, became the emblem of Teutonic empire in 1345.

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  • In the 11th century it belonged to the Seljuks, and in the 12th, under the sway of the Atabegs, particularly of Zenki, it had a short period of splendour.

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  • The district passed from the Byzantines to the Seljuks after the defeat of Romanus, 1071, and from the latter to the Mongols in 1243.

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  • [[Seljuks, Seljuks]], or Seljuqs, the name of several Turkish dynasties issued from one family, which reigned over large; parts of Asia in the Ilth, 12th and 13th centuries of the Christian era.

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  • The history of the Seljuks forms the first part of the history of the Turkish empire.

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  • Proceeding from the deserts of Turkestan, the Seljuks reached the Hellespont; but this barrier was crossed and a European power founded by the Ottomans (Osmanli).

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  • The Seljuks inherited the traditions and at the same time the power of the Arabian caliphate, of which, when they made their appearance, only the shadow remained in the person of the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad.

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  • Some of them served in the armies of the Ghaznavids Sabuktagin (Sebuktegin) and Mallmud (997-1030); but the Seljuks, a royal family among them, had various relations with the reigning princes of Transoxiana and Khwarizm, which cannot be narrated here.'

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  • Persia now lay open to the victors, who proclaimed themselves independent at Mer y (which became from that time the official capital of the principal branch of the Seljuks), and acknowledged Toghrul Beg as chief of the whole family.

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  • It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.

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  • This chief inherited his possessions; Toghrul was the last representative of the Seljuks of Irak.

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  • The province of Kerman was one of the first conquests of the Seljuks, and became the hereditary fief of Kavurd, the son of Chakir Beg.

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  • as long as the important city of Antioch belonged to the Greeks, so that we may date the real foundation of this Seljuk empire from the taking of that city by the treason of its commander Philaretus in 1084, who afterwards became a vassal of the Seljuks.

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  • Afterwards there arose a natural rivalry between the Seljuks and the Danishmand, which ended with the extinction of the latter about 1175.

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  • Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.

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  • The sultan Mahommed, however, set at liberty his eldest son Malik Shah, who reigned for some time, until he was treacherously murdered (it is not quite certain by whom), being succeeded by his brother Masud, who established himself at Konia (Iconium), from that time the residence of the Seljuks of Ram.

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  • (Barbarossa) entered his 1 The Turkmans who dwelt in these western parts of Asia Minor, which were never regained by the Seljuks, were called Utch (Outsiders).

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  • On this occasion he was fortunate enough to take prisoner the'Comnenian prince (Alexius) who ruled the independent empire of Trebizond, and he compelled him to purchase his liberty by acknowledging the supremacy of the Seljuks, by paying tribute, and by serving in the armies of the sultan.

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  • Soon afterwards the sultan died (1219) and was succeeded by his brother, Ala ud-din Kaikobad I., the most powerful and illustrious prince of this branch of the Seljuks, renowned not only for his successful wars but also for his magnificent structures at Konia, Alaja, Sivas and elsewhere, which belong to the best specimens of Saracenic architecture.

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  • Kaikobad extended his rule as far as this city, and desisted from further conquest only on condition that the Armenian princes would enter into the same kind of relation to the Seljuks as had been imposed on the Comnenians of Trebizond.

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  • During this war Kaikobad put an end to the collateral dynasty of the Seljuks of Erzerum and annexed its possessions.

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  • The independence of the Seljuks was now for ever lost.

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  • With him ended the dynasty of the Seljuks; but the Turkish empire founded by them continued to exist under the rising dynasty of the Ottomans.

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  • - The best, though insufficient, account of the Seljuks is still de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, bks.

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  • Lagus, Helsingfors, 1854) (on the Seljuks of Asia Minor exclusively, but of little value).

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  • It was taken by the Seljuks, Aidin and Mentesh, late in the 13th century, and about 1390, when ruled by Isa Bey, a descendant of the first-named, acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty.

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  • On a neighbouring height are to be seen the ruins of the ancient Tralles, the site to which the name Giizel Hissar was particularly given by the Seljuks.

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  • By 1055 the Seljuks had taken the caliph under their charge.

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  • The power of the Seljuks quickly disintegrated.

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  • It was taken c. 638 by the Arabs, and afterwards passed into the hands of the Seljuks and Persians, from whom it was finally captured by Selim I.

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  • There are Armenian and Catholic churches, but the most beautiful building is a medresse erected in the 12th century by the Seljuks, with ornamental doorway and two graceful minarets known as the Chifte Minare.

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  • It was captured by the Seljuks in 1201, when it was an important city, and it fell into Turkish possession in 1517.

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  • The various dynasties of sultans (Buyids, Ghaznevids, Seljuks, and finally the Mongols) never paid heed to the caliphs, and at length abolished them; but the fall of the theocracy only increased the influence of the clergy, the expounders and practical administrators of that legislation of Koran and Sunna which had become part of the life of the Mahommedan world.

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  • Thenceforth this progress was rapid (see Seljuks).

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  • Under his reign the central power of the Seljuks was rapidly sinking.

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  • Nasir was very ambitious; he had added Khuzistan to his dominions, and desired to become also master of Media (Jabal, or Persian Irak, as it was called in the time of the Seljuks).

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  • One branch of the Seljuks founded the empire of Rum, with its capital first at Nicaea and then at Iconium.

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  • After having formed part of the possessions of the Seljuks, Mongols, Tatars and Persians, Van passed in 1514, after the defeat of Shah Ismail by Selim I.

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  • With the rise of the Ghaznevids and later uhaznevtds the Seljuks, the Abbasid caliphate ceased to count as an independent power.

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  • Even before this time, however, the supremacy which they enjoyed under Mahmud in Persia had fallen into the hands of the Seljuks who, in the reign of Masud L, son seij~s.

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  • In 1037 Seljuk princes were recognized in Merv and Nishapur, and in the ensuing eighteen years the Seljuks conquered Balkh, Jorjan, Tabaristan, Klwarizm, Hamadan, Rai, Isfahan, and finally Bagdad (1055).

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  • The Abbasid caliphs, who still enjoyed a precarious and shadowy authority at the pleasure of Turkish viziers, gladly surrendered themselves to the protection of the Mahommedan Seljuks, who paid them all outward respect.

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  • The history of this period is treated at length in the articles CALIPHATE: C, ~ 26 sqq.; and SELJUKS.

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  • On the death of the last the empire was distracted by civil war between his sons Barkiyaroq, Mahommed arid Sinjar, with the result that, although the Seljuks of the direct line maintained nominal supremacy till the death of Sinjar (i15~), other branches of the family established themselves in various parts of the empireSyria, Rum (Asia Minor),

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  • Meanwhile an independent dynasty was formed about 1136 in Azerbaijan by the governors (atabegs) appointed by the Seljuks; this dynasty was overthrown by the Khwarizm shahs in 1225.

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  • The empire of the Seljuks was essentially military.

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  • In 1231 the last of his house, Jelal ud-din (Jalaluddin) Mangbarti, or Mango-berti, was banished, and thus the empire of the Kliwarizm shahs, which for a brief period had included practically all the lands conquered by the Seljuks, passed away.

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  • The real rulers of Persia during the years 8741231 were, as we have seen, the Samanids, the Buyids, the Ghaznevids, the Seljuks, the Salgharids and the Khwarizm shahs.

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  • and restored by the Seljuks.

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  • The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Seljuks of Aidin and has remained till the present day in Mahommedan hands.

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  • From 984 to 1085 the country from Diarbekr to Melasgerd was ruled under the suzerainty first of Arabs then of Byzantines and Seljuks, by the Mervanid dynasty of Kurds, called princes of Abahuni ('Airaxouvi - js).

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  • The country was raided by Seljuks and harried by Byzantine soldiers, and the miseries of the people were regarded as gain to the Orthodox church.

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  • by Alp Arslan, 1071, Armenia formed part of the Seljuk empire until it split up, 1157, into petty states, ruled by Arabs, Kurds and Seljuks, who were in turn swept away by the Mongol invasion, 1235.

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  • For more than three centuries after the appearance of the Seljuks, Armenia was traversed by a long succession of nomad tribes whose one aim was to secure good pasturage for their flocks on their way to the g p g y richer lands of Asia Minor.

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  • This dynasty lasted about ninety years; it was supplanted by that of the Abbasids, who removed the seat of empire to Mesopotamia; and Damascus passed through a period of unrest in which it was captured and ravaged by Egyptians, Carmathians and Seljuks in turn.

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  • In 1031 the emperor recovered Edessa; but in 1040 it fell into the hands of the Seljuks, whose progress had added a large element of Armenian refugees to the population of Osrhoene.

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  • The last Great Seljuk sultan of Western Iran died in battle in 1194 when the Great Seljuks were defeated by the Mongols.

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  • By this means it was able to defy both the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and to maintain its independence against the emperors of Nicaea and Constantinople.

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  • The city was several times besieged, the most formidable attack being that which occurred in the reign of Andronicus I., the second emperor, when the Seljuks, under the command of Melik, the son of the great sultan Ala-ed-din, first assaulted the northern wall in the direction of the sea, and afterwards endeavoured to storm the upper citadel by night.

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  • It rose to importance under the Seljuks.

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  • p. 113; also articles Caliphate and Persia: History, section B, and for the later period Mahmud, Seljuks, Mongols.

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  • Without being intolerant, the Turks were a rougher and ruder race than the Arabs of Egypt whom they displaced; while the wars between the Fatimites of Egypt and the Abbasids of Bagdad, whose cause was represented by the Seljuks, made Syria (one of the natural battle-grounds of history) into a troubled and unquiet region.

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  • Brave and sage as he was, he could hardly cope at one and the same time with the hostility of the Normans on the west, of the Petchenegs (Patzinaks) on the north, and of the Seljuks on the east and south.

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  • It is the Church which creates the First Crusade, because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre; because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity, and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.

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  • By the end of October they had perished utterly at the hands of the Seljuks; a heap of whitening bones also remained to testify to the later crusaders, when they passed in the spring of 1097, of the fate of the people's Crusade.

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  • had dreamed of such a union, to be followed by a joint attack of East and West on the Seljuks, so in 1439, at the council of Florence, a new union of the two churches was again attempted and temporarily secured, in order that a united Christendom might face the new Turkish danger.'

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  • In 1141 he was taken captive by the Turks (Seljuks) and remained in their hands for a year.

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  • 1097, became an important town of Lesser Armenia and was taken by the Seljuks in 1147.

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  • The Osmanli sultans, as also the Mamelukes and the Seljuks, were accustomed to give largesse to their military forces on their accession to the throne, or on special occasions of rejoicing, a custom which still is practised in form, as for instance on the first day of the year, or the birthday of the Prophet (mevlud).

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  • Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in Asia Minor the Seljuks, then a mere horde of savages, had overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the civilization of the people they had subdued.

    0
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  • It was the descendants of those Persianized Seljuks whom the early Ottomans found ruling in Asia Minor on their arrival there.

    0
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  • What had happened to the Seljuks two centuries before happened to the Ottomans now: the less civilized race adopted the culture of the more civilized; and, as the Seljuk Empire fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy its place, the sons of men who had called themselves Seljuks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as Ottomans.

    0
    0
  • Hence the vast majority of the people whom we are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljuks or Seljukian subjects, who had derived from Persia whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary taste.

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  • The attempt was futile, Bagdad was besieged and taken, and from that time until their final downfall the Abbasid caliphs were mere puppets, while the real rulers were successively the Turkish guard, the Buyids and the Seljuks.

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  • North from these lies the old capital of the Seljuks, known as Sultan Kalah, and destroyed by the Mongols in 1219.

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  • It was one of the chief towns of the kingdom of Trebizond and of the Seljuks, one of whose sultans, Kaikobad I., enriched it with fine buildings and restored the castle, which was thus enabled to stand a seven months' siege by Timur.

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  • Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.

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  • (1100-1123), in alliance with the Christian princes of Syria, waged successful war against Byzantines and Seljuks.

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  • This is supposed to have suggested to the Seljuks of Konia their heraldic device adopted in the 13th century, which, brought to Europe by the Crusaders, became the emblem of Teutonic empire in 1345.

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  • After the capture of Nicaea by the Crusaders (1097), Konia became the capital of the Seljuk Sultans of Rum (see Seljuks and Turks).

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  • In the 11th century it belonged to the Seljuks, and in the 12th, under the sway of the Atabegs, particularly of Zenki, it had a short period of splendour.

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  • The district passed from the Byzantines to the Seljuks after the defeat of Romanus, 1071, and from the latter to the Mongols in 1243.

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  • [[Seljuks, Seljuks]], or Seljuqs, the name of several Turkish dynasties issued from one family, which reigned over large; parts of Asia in the Ilth, 12th and 13th centuries of the Christian era.

    0
    0
  • The history of the Seljuks forms the first part of the history of the Turkish empire.

    0
    0
  • Proceeding from the deserts of Turkestan, the Seljuks reached the Hellespont; but this barrier was crossed and a European power founded by the Ottomans (Osmanli).

    0
    0
  • The Seljuks inherited the traditions and at the same time the power of the Arabian caliphate, of which, when they made their appearance, only the shadow remained in the person of the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad.

    0
    0
  • Some of them served in the armies of the Ghaznavids Sabuktagin (Sebuktegin) and Mallmud (997-1030); but the Seljuks, a royal family among them, had various relations with the reigning princes of Transoxiana and Khwarizm, which cannot be narrated here.'

    0
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  • Persia now lay open to the victors, who proclaimed themselves independent at Mer y (which became from that time the official capital of the principal branch of the Seljuks), and acknowledged Toghrul Beg as chief of the whole family.

    0
    0
  • It has been already observed that the Seljuks considered themselves the defenders of the orthodox faith and of the Abbasid caliphate, while they on their side represented the temporal power which received its titles and sanction from the successor of the Prophet.

    0
    0
  • This chief inherited his possessions; Toghrul was the last representative of the Seljuks of Irak.

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  • The province of Kerman was one of the first conquests of the Seljuks, and became the hereditary fief of Kavurd, the son of Chakir Beg.

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  • But the possession of Asia Minor was insecure to the Seljuks 2 An outline of the history of this branch of the Seljuks is given in Z.D.M.G.

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  • as long as the important city of Antioch belonged to the Greeks, so that we may date the real foundation of this Seljuk empire from the taking of that city by the treason of its commander Philaretus in 1084, who afterwards became a vassal of the Seljuks.

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  • Afterwards there arose a natural rivalry between the Seljuks and the Danishmand, which ended with the extinction of the latter about 1175.

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  • Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.

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  • The sultan Mahommed, however, set at liberty his eldest son Malik Shah, who reigned for some time, until he was treacherously murdered (it is not quite certain by whom), being succeeded by his brother Masud, who established himself at Konia (Iconium), from that time the residence of the Seljuks of Ram.

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  • (Barbarossa) entered his 1 The Turkmans who dwelt in these western parts of Asia Minor, which were never regained by the Seljuks, were called Utch (Outsiders).

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  • On this occasion he was fortunate enough to take prisoner the'Comnenian prince (Alexius) who ruled the independent empire of Trebizond, and he compelled him to purchase his liberty by acknowledging the supremacy of the Seljuks, by paying tribute, and by serving in the armies of the sultan.

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  • Soon afterwards the sultan died (1219) and was succeeded by his brother, Ala ud-din Kaikobad I., the most powerful and illustrious prince of this branch of the Seljuks, renowned not only for his successful wars but also for his magnificent structures at Konia, Alaja, Sivas and elsewhere, which belong to the best specimens of Saracenic architecture.

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  • Kaikobad extended his rule as far as this city, and desisted from further conquest only on condition that the Armenian princes would enter into the same kind of relation to the Seljuks as had been imposed on the Comnenians of Trebizond.

    0
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  • During this war Kaikobad put an end to the collateral dynasty of the Seljuks of Erzerum and annexed its possessions.

    0
    0
  • The independence of the Seljuks was now for ever lost.

    0
    0
  • With him ended the dynasty of the Seljuks; but the Turkish empire founded by them continued to exist under the rising dynasty of the Ottomans.

    0
    0
  • - The best, though insufficient, account of the Seljuks is still de Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns, bks.

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    0
  • Lagus, Helsingfors, 1854) (on the Seljuks of Asia Minor exclusively, but of little value).

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  • It was taken by the Seljuks, Aidin and Mentesh, late in the 13th century, and about 1390, when ruled by Isa Bey, a descendant of the first-named, acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty.

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  • On a neighbouring height are to be seen the ruins of the ancient Tralles, the site to which the name Giizel Hissar was particularly given by the Seljuks.

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  • By 1055 the Seljuks had taken the caliph under their charge.

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  • The power of the Seljuks quickly disintegrated.

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  • It was taken c. 638 by the Arabs, and afterwards passed into the hands of the Seljuks and Persians, from whom it was finally captured by Selim I.

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  • There are Armenian and Catholic churches, but the most beautiful building is a medresse erected in the 12th century by the Seljuks, with ornamental doorway and two graceful minarets known as the Chifte Minare.

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  • It was captured by the Seljuks in 1201, when it was an important city, and it fell into Turkish possession in 1517.

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  • About 123132 Kamil led a confederacy of Ayyubite princes against the Seljuk Kaikobad into Asia Minor, but his allies mistrusted him and victory rested with Kaikobad (see SELJUKS).

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  • The various dynasties of sultans (Buyids, Ghaznevids, Seljuks, and finally the Mongols) never paid heed to the caliphs, and at length abolished them; but the fall of the theocracy only increased the influence of the clergy, the expounders and practical administrators of that legislation of Koran and Sunna which had become part of the life of the Mahommedan world.

    0
    0
  • Thenceforth this progress was rapid (see Seljuks).

    0
    0
  • Under his reign the central power of the Seljuks was rapidly sinking.

    0
    0
  • Nasir was very ambitious; he had added Khuzistan to his dominions, and desired to become also master of Media (Jabal, or Persian Irak, as it was called in the time of the Seljuks).

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  • One branch of the Seljuks founded the empire of Rum, with its capital first at Nicaea and then at Iconium.

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  • After having formed part of the possessions of the Seljuks, Mongols, Tatars and Persians, Van passed in 1514, after the defeat of Shah Ismail by Selim I.

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  • With the rise of the Ghaznevids and later uhaznevtds the Seljuks, the Abbasid caliphate ceased to count as an independent power.

    0
    0
  • Even before this time, however, the supremacy which they enjoyed under Mahmud in Persia had fallen into the hands of the Seljuks who, in the reign of Masud L, son seij~s.

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    0
  • In 1037 Seljuk princes were recognized in Merv and Nishapur, and in the ensuing eighteen years the Seljuks conquered Balkh, Jorjan, Tabaristan, Klwarizm, Hamadan, Rai, Isfahan, and finally Bagdad (1055).

    0
    0
  • The Abbasid caliphs, who still enjoyed a precarious and shadowy authority at the pleasure of Turkish viziers, gladly surrendered themselves to the protection of the Mahommedan Seljuks, who paid them all outward respect.

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  • The history of this period is treated at length in the articles CALIPHATE: C, ~ 26 sqq.; and SELJUKS.

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    0
  • On the death of the last the empire was distracted by civil war between his sons Barkiyaroq, Mahommed arid Sinjar, with the result that, although the Seljuks of the direct line maintained nominal supremacy till the death of Sinjar (i15~), other branches of the family established themselves in various parts of the empireSyria, Rum (Asia Minor),

    0
    0
  • Meanwhile an independent dynasty was formed about 1136 in Azerbaijan by the governors (atabegs) appointed by the Seljuks; this dynasty was overthrown by the Khwarizm shahs in 1225.

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  • The empire of the Seljuks was essentially military.

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  • In 1231 the last of his house, Jelal ud-din (Jalaluddin) Mangbarti, or Mango-berti, was banished, and thus the empire of the Kliwarizm shahs, which for a brief period had included practically all the lands conquered by the Seljuks, passed away.

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  • The real rulers of Persia during the years 8741231 were, as we have seen, the Samanids, the Buyids, the Ghaznevids, the Seljuks, the Salgharids and the Khwarizm shahs.

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  • and restored by the Seljuks.

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  • The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Seljuks of Aidin and has remained till the present day in Mahommedan hands.

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  • From 984 to 1085 the country from Diarbekr to Melasgerd was ruled under the suzerainty first of Arabs then of Byzantines and Seljuks, by the Mervanid dynasty of Kurds, called princes of Abahuni ('Airaxouvi - js).

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  • The country was raided by Seljuks and harried by Byzantine soldiers, and the miseries of the people were regarded as gain to the Orthodox church.

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  • by Alp Arslan, 1071, Armenia formed part of the Seljuk empire until it split up, 1157, into petty states, ruled by Arabs, Kurds and Seljuks, who were in turn swept away by the Mongol invasion, 1235.

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  • For more than three centuries after the appearance of the Seljuks, Armenia was traversed by a long succession of nomad tribes whose one aim was to secure good pasturage for their flocks on their way to the g p g y richer lands of Asia Minor.

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  • This dynasty lasted about ninety years; it was supplanted by that of the Abbasids, who removed the seat of empire to Mesopotamia; and Damascus passed through a period of unrest in which it was captured and ravaged by Egyptians, Carmathians and Seljuks in turn.

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  • In 1031 the emperor recovered Edessa; but in 1040 it fell into the hands of the Seljuks, whose progress had added a large element of Armenian refugees to the population of Osrhoene.

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  • The last Great Seljuk sultan of Western Iran died in battle in 1194 when the Great Seljuks were defeated by the Mongols.

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