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seljuk

seljuk

seljuk Sentence Examples

  • Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.

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  • Toghrul, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur his residence in 1037.

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  • It became Turkish (Seljuk) in the Ilth century.

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  • From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.

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  • The town was captured by the Seljuk sultan, Alp Arslan, 1064, and by the Mongols, 1243, before passing to the Osmanli Turks.

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  • It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands.

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  • ALP ARSLAN, or [[Axan, Mahommed Ben Da'Ud]] (1029-1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty, was born in the year A.D.

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  • Their first operation was the siege of Nicaea, defended by a Seljuk garrison, but eventually captured, with the aid of Alexius, after a month's siege (June 18).

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  • In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.

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  • Expenditure, as under the Seljuk sultans, was defrayed partly in cash, partly in " assignations " (havale).

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  • Thus Persian became the language of their court and government, and when by-and-by they pushed their conquests into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljuk Empire of Ram, they carried with them their Persian culture, and diffused it among the peoples newly brought under their sway.

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  • What had happened to the Seljuks two centuries before happened to the Ottomans now: the less civilized race adopted the culture of the more civilized; and, as the Seljuk Empire fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy its place, the sons of men who had called themselves Seljuks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as Ottomans.

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  • The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.

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  • In 1040 the Seljuk Turks crossed the Oxus from the north, and having defeated Masud, sultan of Ghazni, raised Toghrul Beg, grandson of Seljuk, to the throne of Persia, founding the Seljukian dynasty, with its capital at Nishapur.

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  • East of the old Seljuk capital is Giaur Kalah, the Mer y of the Nestorian era and the capital of the Arab princes.

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  • It soon became the capital of the Seljuk state, and one of the most brilliant cities of the world.

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  • ALP ARSLAN, or [[Axan, Mahommed Ben Da'Ud]] (1029-1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty, was born in the year A.D.

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  • Thus Persian became the language of their court and government, and when by-and-by they pushed their conquests into Asia Minor, and founded there the Seljuk Empire of Ram, they carried with them their Persian culture, and diffused it among the peoples newly brought under their sway.

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  • North of the old Seljuk capital are the ruins of Iskender Kalah, probably to be identified with the ancient Mery of the Seleucid dynasty.

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  • Thirteen years later it recognized and received the Fatimites, and passed under various Moslem dynasties, forming part of the Seljuk dominion from 1090 to 1117.

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  • The Seljuk invasion of Armenia was followed by an exodus of Armenians southwards, and in 1080 Rhupen, a relative of the last king of Ani, founded in the heart of the Cilician Taurus a small principality, which gradually expanded into the kingdom of Lesser Armenia.

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  • 1045) he appears as financial secretary and revenue collector of the Seljuk sultan Toghrul Beg, or rather of his brother Jaghir Beg, the emir of Khorasan, who had conquered Mery in 1037.

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  • 1045-1052) Nasir visited Mecca four times, and performed all the rites and observances of a zealous pilgrim; but he was far more attracted by Cairo, the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Fatimite sultan Mostansir billah, the great champion of the Shia, and the spiritual as well as political head of the house of `Ali, which was just then waging a deadly war against the 'Abbaside caliph of Bagdad, and the great defender of the Sunnite creed, Toghrul Beg the Seljuk.

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  • About a century later (1075-1094) the 'Abbasid caliph was again recognized as spiritual head owing to the success in arms of his protector the Seljuk Malik-Shah.

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  • A remnant of the nation took refuge in an island of the Caspian (Siahcouye); others retired to the Caucasus; part emigrated to the district of Kasakhi in Georgia, and appear for the last time joining with Georgia in her successful effort to throw off the yoke of the Seljuk Turks (1089).

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  • The period of its greatest splendour was after the conquest by the Seljuk Turks about 1072-1074.

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  • When the Seljuk state broke up, and the Osmanli or Ottoman sovereignty arose, Konia decayed, its population dwindled and the splendid early Turkish buildings were suffered to go to ruin.

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  • The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.

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  • There are interesting remains of Seljuk buildings, all showing strong traces of Persian influence in their decorative details.

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  • The Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks about the end of the 11th century; but the successes of the Greek general Philocales in 1118 relieved the district for the time, and the ability of the Comneni, together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk power, retained it in the Byzantine dominions.

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  • Soon after 1301 the Seljuk amirs overran the whole of the Hermus and Cayster valleys, and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to Aragonese period.

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  • Finally in 1390 Philadelphia, which had for some time been an independent Christian city, surrendered to Sultan Bayezid's mixed army of Ottoman Turks and Byzantine Christians, and the Seljuk power in the Hermus valley was merged in the Ottoman empire.

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  • In 1141 the assistance of this Khitaian prince was invoked by the shah of Kharezm against Sanjar, the Seljuk sovereign of Persia, who had expelled the shah from his kingdom and killed his son.

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  • It was taken eighteen years later by the Seljuk Turks, five times by the Georgians between 1125 and 1209, in 1239 by the Mongols, and its ruin was completed by an earthquake in 1319.

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  • It took the place of Laodicea when that town was deserted during the wars between the Byzantines and Seljuk Turks, probably between 1158 and 1174.

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  • Bryennius successfully defended the walls of Constantinople against the attacks of Godfrey of Bouillon (1097); conducted the peace negotiations between Alexius and Bohemund, prince of Antioch (ll08); and played an important part in the defeat of Malik-Shah, the Seljuk sultan of Iconium (1116).

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  • Malik Shah, third of the Seljuk dynasty of Persia, passed the Oxus about the end of the 11th century, and subdued the whole country watered by that river and the Jaxartes.

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  • After suffering from Persian and Arabic raids, Galatia was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century and passed to the Ottoman Turks in the middle of the t4th.

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  • Neither had civilization anything to fear from them, since they represented a strong neutral power, which made the intimate union of Persian and Arabian elements possible, almost at the expense of the national Turkish - literary monuments in that language being during the whole period of the Seljuk rule exceedingly rare.

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  • The first Seljuk rulers were Toghrul Beg, Chakir Beg and Ibrahim Niyal, the son of Mikail, the son of Seljuk, the son of Tukak, or Tuqaq (also styled Timuryalik, "iron bow").

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  • The foundation of the Seljuk empire of Rum was the immediate result of this great victory.

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  • All the members of the Seljuk house had the same obligations in this respect, but they had not the same rights, as one of them occupied relatively to the others a place almost analogous to that of the great khan of the Mongols in later times.

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  • Though victorious in this war, Sinjar could not hinder Atsiz from afterwards joining the gurkhan (great khan) of the then rapidly rising empire of the Karakitai, at whose hands the Seljuk suffered a terrible defeat at Samarkand in 1141.

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  • By the invasion of these hordes several Turkish tribes, the Ghuzz and others, were driven beyond the Oxus, where they killed the Seljuk governor of Balkh, though they professed to be loyal to Sinjar.

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  • as long as the important city of Antioch belonged to the Greeks, so that we may date the real foundation of this Seljuk empire from the taking of that city by the treason of its commander Philaretus in 1084, who afterwards became a vassal of the Seljuks.

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  • During his reign - he died in I 155 - the Greek emperors undertook various expeditions in Asia Minor and Armenia; but the Seljuk was cunning enough to profess himself their ally and to direct them against his own enemies.

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  • But his greatest military fame was won by a war which, however glorious, was to prove fatal to the Seljuk empire in the future: in conjunction with his ally, the Ayyubite prince Ashraf, he defeated the Khwarizm shah Jalal ud-din near Erzingan (1230).

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  • Masud, the son of Izz ed-din, who on the death of his father had fled from the Crimea to the Mongol khan and had received from him the government of Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum during the lifetime of Kaikhosrau III., ascended the Seljuk throne on the death of Kaikhosrau.

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  • It contains the ruins of a castle and of several Seljuk mosques.

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  • Under one of these emperors, Romanus Diogenes (1067-1071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks.

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  • It derives its name from the Seljuk emir who took Tralles, and is the richest and most productive province of Asiatic Turkey.

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  • In the Seljuk period it was a secondary city under the provincial capital, Tireh.

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  • The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan, Zangi, governor of `Irak, made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144.

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  • The Egyptian court, chiefly owing to the jealousy of the vizier, sent no efficient aid to Basgsiri, and after a year Bagdad was retaken by the SeljUk Toghrul Beg, and the Abbasid caliph restored to his rights.

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  • During this time, however, Syria was overrun by an invader in league with the SeljUk Malik Shah, and Damascus was permanently lost to the Fg~imites; other cities were recovered by Badr himself or his officers.

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  • In 1084 the Seljuk Turks captured it but held it only fourteen years, yielding place to the crusaders, who besieged it for nine months, enduring frightful sufferings.

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  • 999), of the Ghaznevid dynasty, of the Seljuk princes of Persia and of Khorasan, of the Ghbri or Shansabanya kings, and of the sultans of Khwarizm.

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  • He reduced the army, cut down the soldiers' pay, failed to keep up the supply of war material, and neglected the frontier fortresses at a time when the Seljuk Turks were pressing hard upon the eastern portion of the empire.

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  • This was that of the Seljuk Turkomans from Khorasan.

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  • During the first half of his long reign took place the development of the power of the Ghuzz, a great Turkish tribe, who took the name Seljuk from Seljuk their chief in Transoxiana.

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  • In the first year of the Caliphate of al-Moqtadi bi amri'llah (" he who follows the orders of God"), a grandson of Qaim, the power of the Seljuk empire reached its zenith.

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  • The Seljuk princes were too much absorbed by internal strife to concentrate against the new assailants.

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  • 1141) under the king Ghurkhan defeated the great army of the Seljuk prince and compelled the Turkish tribes of the Ghuzz to cross the Oxus and to occupy Khorasan.

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  • Wherever the people accepted Islam they called themselves Turks, and a majority of the so-called "Turks" belong by blood to the races that occupied Asia Minor before the Seljuk invasion.

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  • Armenians are most numerous in the eastern districts, where they have been settled since the great migration that preceded and followed the Seljuk invasion.

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  • In 1067 the Seljuk Turks ravaged Cappadocia and Cilicia; in 1071 they defeated and captured the emperor Romanus Diogenes, and in 1080 they took Nicaea.

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  • The Seljuk sultans were liberal patrons of art, literature and science, and the remains of their public buildings and tombs are amongst the most beautiful and most interesting in the country.

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  • As the result of anarchy in the army, the Byzantines lost their last possessions in Italy (r071), and were forced to cede a large strip of Asia Minor which they were unable to defend against the Seljuk Turks (1074).

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  • after his victory over the Arabs in 740, its name was changed by the Seljuk Turks to Kara-hissar.

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  • In 1037 Seljuk princes were recognized in Merv and Nishapur, and in the ensuing eighteen years the Seljuks conquered Balkh, Jorjan, Tabaristan, Klwarizm, Hamadan, Rai, Isfahan, and finally Bagdad (1055).

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  • The first three Seljuk rulers were Toghrul Beg, Alp Arsian and Malik Shah.

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  • In every part of the empire they gradually superseded the Seljuk princes, and the minor dynasties above mentioned all owed their existence to the ambition of the Turkish regents or atabegs.

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  • It is noteworthy for a splendid ruined mosque built by the Seljuk, Isa Bey II., of Aidin, in 13 7 5, which contains magnificent columns: for a castle, near which lie remains of the pendentives from the cupola of the great cathedral of St John, now deeply buried in its own ruins: and for an aqueduct, Turkish baths and mosque-tombs.

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  • Rebellions broke out at home and abroad; the Normans conquered Lombardy, which subsequently (1055) became the duchy of Apulia, and thus Italy was lost to the empire; the Petchenegs (Patzinaks) crossed the Danube and attacked Thrace and Macedonia; and the Seljuk Turks made their appearance on the Armenian frontier.

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  • (b) In a more restricted sense to designate Mahommedan Turkish-speaking tribes, especially in Russia, who never formed part of the Seljuk or Ottoman Empire, but made independent settlements and remained more or less cut off from the politics and civilization of the rest of the Mahommedan world.

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  • It has few industries and little trade, but the medieval walls, well preserved castle and mosques are interesting, and the old Seljuk medresse, or college, is a beautiful building.

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  • In 1064 it was taken by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, and in the 13th century it fell a prey to the Mongols of Jenghiz Khan.

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  • After temporary occupations by the Seljuk Turks (1089-1092) and by the Venetians (1124-1125, 1172, 1204-1225), it was given in fief to the Genoese family of Zaccaria, and in 1346 passed definitely into the hands of a Genoese maona, or trading company, which was organized in 1362 under the name of "the Giustiniani."

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  • Ala ud-din, the Seljuk sultan of Iconium (1245-1254), and Ertoghrul, his lieutenant and the founder of the Ottoman branch of the Turkish race, assumed it as a device, and it appeared on the standard of the janissaries of Sultan Orkhan (1326-1360).

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  • He created in those highlands a strongly fortified frontier, which, if his successors had been capable, should have proved an effective barrier against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks.

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  • After the Arab and Seljuk invasions, there was a large emigration of Aryan and Semitic Armenians to Constantinople and Cilicia; and all that remained of the aristocracy was swept away by the Mongols and Tatars.

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  • by Alp Arslan, 1071, Armenia formed part of the Seljuk empire until it split up, 1157, into petty states, ruled by Arabs, Kurds and Seljuks, who were in turn swept away by the Mongol invasion, 1235.

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  • After the death of Timur, Armenia formed part of the territories of the Turkoman dynasties of Akand Kara-Kuyunli, and under their milder rule the seat of the Catholicus, which, during the Seljuk invasion, had been moved first to Sivas, and then to Lesser Armenia, was re-established, 1441, at Echmiadzin.

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  • The last Great Seljuk sultan of Western Iran died in battle in 1194 when the Great Seljuks were defeated by the Mongols.

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  • Torn by civil war, the Seljuk sultanate disintegrates as its provinces and cities become independent under local dynasties.

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  • Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.

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  • Toghrul, the first ruler of the Seljuk dynasty, made Nishapur his residence in 1037.

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  • From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.

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  • The town was captured by the Seljuk sultan, Alp Arslan, 1064, and by the Mongols, 1243, before passing to the Osmanli Turks.

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  • It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands.

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  • Their first operation was the siege of Nicaea, defended by a Seljuk garrison, but eventually captured, with the aid of Alexius, after a month's siege (June 18).

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  • It became Turkish (Seljuk) in the Ilth century.

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  • In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.

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  • Expenditure, as under the Seljuk sultans, was defrayed partly in cash, partly in " assignations " (havale).

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  • What had happened to the Seljuks two centuries before happened to the Ottomans now: the less civilized race adopted the culture of the more civilized; and, as the Seljuk Empire fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy its place, the sons of men who had called themselves Seljuks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as Ottomans.

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  • When Nizam-ul-mulk was raised to the rank of vizier by the Seljuk sultan Alp-Arslan (A.D.

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  • The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.

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  • In 1040 the Seljuk Turks crossed the Oxus from the north, and having defeated Masud, sultan of Ghazni, raised Toghrul Beg, grandson of Seljuk, to the throne of Persia, founding the Seljukian dynasty, with its capital at Nishapur.

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  • East of the old Seljuk capital is Giaur Kalah, the Mer y of the Nestorian era and the capital of the Arab princes.

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  • North of the old Seljuk capital are the ruins of Iskender Kalah, probably to be identified with the ancient Mery of the Seleucid dynasty.

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  • Thirteen years later it recognized and received the Fatimites, and passed under various Moslem dynasties, forming part of the Seljuk dominion from 1090 to 1117.

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  • The Seljuk invasion of Armenia was followed by an exodus of Armenians southwards, and in 1080 Rhupen, a relative of the last king of Ani, founded in the heart of the Cilician Taurus a small principality, which gradually expanded into the kingdom of Lesser Armenia.

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  • 1045) he appears as financial secretary and revenue collector of the Seljuk sultan Toghrul Beg, or rather of his brother Jaghir Beg, the emir of Khorasan, who had conquered Mery in 1037.

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  • 1045-1052) Nasir visited Mecca four times, and performed all the rites and observances of a zealous pilgrim; but he was far more attracted by Cairo, the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Fatimite sultan Mostansir billah, the great champion of the Shia, and the spiritual as well as political head of the house of `Ali, which was just then waging a deadly war against the 'Abbaside caliph of Bagdad, and the great defender of the Sunnite creed, Toghrul Beg the Seljuk.

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  • About a century later (1075-1094) the 'Abbasid caliph was again recognized as spiritual head owing to the success in arms of his protector the Seljuk Malik-Shah.

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  • A remnant of the nation took refuge in an island of the Caspian (Siahcouye); others retired to the Caucasus; part emigrated to the district of Kasakhi in Georgia, and appear for the last time joining with Georgia in her successful effort to throw off the yoke of the Seljuk Turks (1089).

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  • The period of its greatest splendour was after the conquest by the Seljuk Turks about 1072-1074.

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  • It soon became the capital of the Seljuk state, and one of the most brilliant cities of the world.

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  • When the Seljuk state broke up, and the Osmanli or Ottoman sovereignty arose, Konia decayed, its population dwindled and the splendid early Turkish buildings were suffered to go to ruin.

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  • The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.

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  • There are interesting remains of Seljuk buildings, all showing strong traces of Persian influence in their decorative details.

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  • After the capture of Nicaea by the Crusaders (1097), Konia became the capital of the Seljuk Sultans of Rum (see Seljuks and Turks).

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  • The Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks about the end of the 11th century; but the successes of the Greek general Philocales in 1118 relieved the district for the time, and the ability of the Comneni, together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk power, retained it in the Byzantine dominions.

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  • Soon after 1301 the Seljuk amirs overran the whole of the Hermus and Cayster valleys, and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to Aragonese period.

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  • Finally in 1390 Philadelphia, which had for some time been an independent Christian city, surrendered to Sultan Bayezid's mixed army of Ottoman Turks and Byzantine Christians, and the Seljuk power in the Hermus valley was merged in the Ottoman empire.

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  • long and 23 broad, with an inscription partly illegible, commemorating Mahmud, a grandson of the Seljuk king Malik Shah, and dated A.H.

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  • In 1141 the assistance of this Khitaian prince was invoked by the shah of Kharezm against Sanjar, the Seljuk sovereign of Persia, who had expelled the shah from his kingdom and killed his son.

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  • It was taken eighteen years later by the Seljuk Turks, five times by the Georgians between 1125 and 1209, in 1239 by the Mongols, and its ruin was completed by an earthquake in 1319.

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  • It took the place of Laodicea when that town was deserted during the wars between the Byzantines and Seljuk Turks, probably between 1158 and 1174.

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  • Bryennius successfully defended the walls of Constantinople against the attacks of Godfrey of Bouillon (1097); conducted the peace negotiations between Alexius and Bohemund, prince of Antioch (ll08); and played an important part in the defeat of Malik-Shah, the Seljuk sultan of Iconium (1116).

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  • Malik Shah, third of the Seljuk dynasty of Persia, passed the Oxus about the end of the 11th century, and subdued the whole country watered by that river and the Jaxartes.

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  • After suffering from Persian and Arabic raids, Galatia was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century and passed to the Ottoman Turks in the middle of the t4th.

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  • Neither had civilization anything to fear from them, since they represented a strong neutral power, which made the intimate union of Persian and Arabian elements possible, almost at the expense of the national Turkish - literary monuments in that language being during the whole period of the Seljuk rule exceedingly rare.

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  • The first Seljuk rulers were Toghrul Beg, Chakir Beg and Ibrahim Niyal, the son of Mikail, the son of Seljuk, the son of Tukak, or Tuqaq (also styled Timuryalik, "iron bow").

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  • At the end of the same year (1055) the Seljuk entered the city and after a tumult seized the person of Malik-al.

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  • The foundation of the Seljuk empire of Rum was the immediate result of this great victory.

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  • All the members of the Seljuk house had the same obligations in this respect, but they had not the same rights, as one of them occupied relatively to the others a place almost analogous to that of the great khan of the Mongols in later times.

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  • Though victorious in this war, Sinjar could not hinder Atsiz from afterwards joining the gurkhan (great khan) of the then rapidly rising empire of the Karakitai, at whose hands the Seljuk suffered a terrible defeat at Samarkand in 1141.

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  • By the invasion of these hordes several Turkish tribes, the Ghuzz and others, were driven beyond the Oxus, where they killed the Seljuk governor of Balkh, though they professed to be loyal to Sinjar.

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  • as long as the important city of Antioch belonged to the Greeks, so that we may date the real foundation of this Seljuk empire from the taking of that city by the treason of its commander Philaretus in 1084, who afterwards became a vassal of the Seljuks.

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  • During his reign - he died in I 155 - the Greek emperors undertook various expeditions in Asia Minor and Armenia; but the Seljuk was cunning enough to profess himself their ally and to direct them against his own enemies.

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  • But his greatest military fame was won by a war which, however glorious, was to prove fatal to the Seljuk empire in the future: in conjunction with his ally, the Ayyubite prince Ashraf, he defeated the Khwarizm shah Jalal ud-din near Erzingan (1230).

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  • Masud, the son of Izz ed-din, who on the death of his father had fled from the Crimea to the Mongol khan and had received from him the government of Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum during the lifetime of Kaikhosrau III., ascended the Seljuk throne on the death of Kaikhosrau.

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  • It contains the ruins of a castle and of several Seljuk mosques.

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  • Under one of these emperors, Romanus Diogenes (1067-1071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks.

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  • It derives its name from the Seljuk emir who took Tralles, and is the richest and most productive province of Asiatic Turkey.

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  • In the Seljuk period it was a secondary city under the provincial capital, Tireh.

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  • The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan, Zangi, governor of `Irak, made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144.

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  • The Egyptian court, chiefly owing to the jealousy of the vizier, sent no efficient aid to Basgsiri, and after a year Bagdad was retaken by the SeljUk Toghrul Beg, and the Abbasid caliph restored to his rights.

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  • During this time, however, Syria was overrun by an invader in league with the SeljUk Malik Shah, and Damascus was permanently lost to the Fg~imites; other cities were recovered by Badr himself or his officers.

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  • About 123132 Kamil led a confederacy of Ayyubite princes against the Seljuk Kaikobad into Asia Minor, but his allies mistrusted him and victory rested with Kaikobad (see SELJUKS).

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  • In 1084 the Seljuk Turks captured it but held it only fourteen years, yielding place to the crusaders, who besieged it for nine months, enduring frightful sufferings.

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  • 999), of the Ghaznevid dynasty, of the Seljuk princes of Persia and of Khorasan, of the Ghbri or Shansabanya kings, and of the sultans of Khwarizm.

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  • about 1280, it was superseded a few years later, after the Seljuk conquest, by a new town, founded by the amir Aidin in a lower situation (see AIDIN).

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  • He reduced the army, cut down the soldiers' pay, failed to keep up the supply of war material, and neglected the frontier fortresses at a time when the Seljuk Turks were pressing hard upon the eastern portion of the empire.

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  • This was that of the Seljuk Turkomans from Khorasan.

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  • During the first half of his long reign took place the development of the power of the Ghuzz, a great Turkish tribe, who took the name Seljuk from Seljuk their chief in Transoxiana.

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  • In the first year of the Caliphate of al-Moqtadi bi amri'llah (" he who follows the orders of God"), a grandson of Qaim, the power of the Seljuk empire reached its zenith.

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  • The Seljuk princes were too much absorbed by internal strife to concentrate against the new assailants.

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  • 1 Henceforward the history of the Caliphate is largely that of the Seljuk princes (see SELJuxs).

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  • 1141) under the king Ghurkhan defeated the great army of the Seljuk prince and compelled the Turkish tribes of the Ghuzz to cross the Oxus and to occupy Khorasan.

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  • Wherever the people accepted Islam they called themselves Turks, and a majority of the so-called "Turks" belong by blood to the races that occupied Asia Minor before the Seljuk invasion.

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  • Armenians are most numerous in the eastern districts, where they have been settled since the great migration that preceded and followed the Seljuk invasion.

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  • In 1067 the Seljuk Turks ravaged Cappadocia and Cilicia; in 1071 they defeated and captured the emperor Romanus Diogenes, and in 1080 they took Nicaea.

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  • The Seljuk sultans were liberal patrons of art, literature and science, and the remains of their public buildings and tombs are amongst the most beautiful and most interesting in the country.

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  • As the result of anarchy in the army, the Byzantines lost their last possessions in Italy (r071), and were forced to cede a large strip of Asia Minor which they were unable to defend against the Seljuk Turks (1074).

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  • after his victory over the Arabs in 740, its name was changed by the Seljuk Turks to Kara-hissar.

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  • In 1037 Seljuk princes were recognized in Merv and Nishapur, and in the ensuing eighteen years the Seljuks conquered Balkh, Jorjan, Tabaristan, Klwarizm, Hamadan, Rai, Isfahan, and finally Bagdad (1055).

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  • The first three Seljuk rulers were Toghrul Beg, Alp Arsian and Malik Shah.

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  • In every part of the empire they gradually superseded the Seljuk princes, and the minor dynasties above mentioned all owed their existence to the ambition of the Turkish regents or atabegs.

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  • It is noteworthy for a splendid ruined mosque built by the Seljuk, Isa Bey II., of Aidin, in 13 7 5, which contains magnificent columns: for a castle, near which lie remains of the pendentives from the cupola of the great cathedral of St John, now deeply buried in its own ruins: and for an aqueduct, Turkish baths and mosque-tombs.

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  • Rebellions broke out at home and abroad; the Normans conquered Lombardy, which subsequently (1055) became the duchy of Apulia, and thus Italy was lost to the empire; the Petchenegs (Patzinaks) crossed the Danube and attacked Thrace and Macedonia; and the Seljuk Turks made their appearance on the Armenian frontier.

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  • (b) In a more restricted sense to designate Mahommedan Turkish-speaking tribes, especially in Russia, who never formed part of the Seljuk or Ottoman Empire, but made independent settlements and remained more or less cut off from the politics and civilization of the rest of the Mahommedan world.

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  • It has few industries and little trade, but the medieval walls, well preserved castle and mosques are interesting, and the old Seljuk medresse, or college, is a beautiful building.

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  • In 1064 it was taken by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, and in the 13th century it fell a prey to the Mongols of Jenghiz Khan.

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  • After temporary occupations by the Seljuk Turks (1089-1092) and by the Venetians (1124-1125, 1172, 1204-1225), it was given in fief to the Genoese family of Zaccaria, and in 1346 passed definitely into the hands of a Genoese maona, or trading company, which was organized in 1362 under the name of "the Giustiniani."

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  • Ala ud-din, the Seljuk sultan of Iconium (1245-1254), and Ertoghrul, his lieutenant and the founder of the Ottoman branch of the Turkish race, assumed it as a device, and it appeared on the standard of the janissaries of Sultan Orkhan (1326-1360).

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  • He created in those highlands a strongly fortified frontier, which, if his successors had been capable, should have proved an effective barrier against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks.

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  • After the Arab and Seljuk invasions, there was a large emigration of Aryan and Semitic Armenians to Constantinople and Cilicia; and all that remained of the aristocracy was swept away by the Mongols and Tatars.

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  • by Alp Arslan, 1071, Armenia formed part of the Seljuk empire until it split up, 1157, into petty states, ruled by Arabs, Kurds and Seljuks, who were in turn swept away by the Mongol invasion, 1235.

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  • After the death of Timur, Armenia formed part of the territories of the Turkoman dynasties of Akand Kara-Kuyunli, and under their milder rule the seat of the Catholicus, which, during the Seljuk invasion, had been moved first to Sivas, and then to Lesser Armenia, was re-established, 1441, at Echmiadzin.

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  • The last Great Seljuk sultan of Western Iran died in battle in 1194 when the Great Seljuks were defeated by the Mongols.

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  • Torn by civil war, the Seljuk sultanate disintegrates as its provinces and cities become independent under local dynasties.

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