Self-government Sentence Examples
The exact nature and degree of its self-government is not clear.
The burghers thus attained to a very considerable measure of self-government.
The Davidsons belonged to the congregation of James Robertson (1803-1860) of Ellon, one of the ministers of Strathbogie Presbytery, which in the controversy which led to the disruption, resisted the "dangerous claims of the established church to self-government."
When the Cuban rising in 1895 assumed a serious aspect, he was sent out by the Conservative cabinet of Canovas to cope with the rebellion, but he failed in the field, as well as in his efforts to win over the Creoles, chiefly because he was not allowed to give them local self-government, as he wished.
The system of local self-government is continued, so far as the 34 governments of old Russia are concerned, 6 in the elective district and provincial assemblies (zemstvos).Advertisement
Protected as they were by the right of self-government, exempted from military service, and endowed with considerable allotments of good land, these colonies are much wealthier than the neighbouring Russian peasants, from whom they have adopted the slowly modified village community.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
The local self-government institutions after a short period of feverish and not always well-directed activity, showed symptoms of organic exhaustion.
The Ottoman Empire possesses a very complete system of local self-government within certain limits.
Both the war of1899-1902and the grant of self-government to the new colonies were necessary preliminaries to the success of any unification scheme, but the causes which now led to the question of closer union being raised were not political but economic. Since the development of the diamond meat for and gold mining industries the coast colonies had Closer unduly neglected their own resources and had relied Union.Advertisement
The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
In various speeches he sounded a note of conciliation with Indian progressive feelings, and it was agreed on his return to England that valuable help had been given by his utterances to the work of self-government in India under the new regime.
In the internal administration of the colonies Cromwell interfered very little, maintaining specially friendly relations with the New Englanders, and showing no jealousy of their desire for self-government.
According to the terms of this treaty, the communes were confirmed in their right of self-government by con6uls, and their right of warfare.
The self-government of the mirs and volosts is, however, tempered by the authority of the police commissaries (stanovoi) and by the power of general oversight given to the nominated " district committees for the affairs of the peasants."Advertisement
The reformers of the previous reign had sought to make the new local administration (zemstvo) a system of genuine rural self-government and a basis for future parliamentary institutions; these later conservatives transformed it into a mere branch of the ordinary state administration, and took precautions against its ever assuming a political character.
The majority of this decided to approach the crown with a suggestion for a reform of the Russian system on the basis of a national representative assembly, an extension of local self-government, and wider guarantees for individual liberty.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
In the following year a form of self-government was established, but was once more followed by internal strife among the petty chieftains.
But it was hardly adapted to teach a people utterly without political experience the essential elements of self-government.Advertisement
In the latter part of 1904 and the early months of 1905 Lord Milner was engaged on the elaboration of a scheme to provide the Transvaal with a system of "representative" government, a half-way house between crown colony administration and that of self-government.
Despite superficial decentralization after 1878 any real growth of local self-government was rendered impossible.
All these officials unite in their own persons the judicial and executive functions, under the " Law of the Vilayets," which made its appearance in 1861, and purported, and was really intended by its framers, to confer on the provinces a large measure of self-government, in which both Mussulmans and non-Mussulmans should take part.
The revolt was suppressed, the Turko-Greek conflict was settled by a conference of the powers in Paris, and Crete received a charter of local self-government which for a time pacified the island.'
In September yet another Cretan charter of self-government was promulgated.Advertisement
The system appeared to be admirable, forming in this respect a kind of self-government, but in practice it was frequently oppressive for the taxpayers.
Here we pause to remark that in Tertullian's view the church as a whole possesses the power of self-government and administration, though in the interest of discipline and convenience it delegates that power to special officers.
While such was the domestic state of affairs during the period of self-government, the settlers cherished large territorial views.
For many years there had been an agitation among the colonists for self-government.
In 1882 the colony was offered Self- self-government coupled with the obligations of govern.
In 1890 the elections to the council led to the return of a majority in favour of accepting self-government, and in 1893 a bill in favour of the proposed change was passed and received the sanction of the Imperial government.
His views met with small support from the assembly, and with the exception of a short period after the decree of September 1871, by which the emperor raised hopes for Bohemian self-government, he ceased to appear in the senate from 1861 onwards.
As regards local government, the country is divided into municipalities or counties, which possess a certain amount of self-government.
Sir Michael, however, in a despatch dated September the 16th 1878, reiterated the intention of the British cabinet to grant the state " to the utmost practicable extent, its individuality and powers of self-government under the sovereignty of the queen."
He assured them that they might look forward to complete self-government under the Crown, and at the same time urged them to sink political differences and join hands with the British against their common enemy, the Zulus.
The most important of these terms were that the Transvaal should have complete internal self-government under British suzerainty and that a British resident should be stationed at Pretoria.
In later years, when the Boers desired to regard the whole of this convention (and not merely the articles) as cancelled by the London Convention of 1884, and with it the suzerainty, which was only mentioned in the preamble, Mr Chamberlain, a member of the cabinet of 1880-1885, pointed out that if the preamble to this instrument were considered cancelled, so also would be the grant of self-government.
In accordance with the promise made in 1904 a constitution for the Transvaal on representative lines was promulgated by letters patent on the 31st of March 1905; but there self-G,„„ was already an agitation for the immediate grant ment - the of full self-government, and on the accession to Botha office of the Campbell-Bannerman administration Ministry.
In 1881 the convention restoring self-government to the Transvaal was signed at Pretoria.
The question was referred for arbitration to the emperor of Austria, whose award published in 1880, upheld the contention of the Indians, and affirmed that the suzerainty of Nicaragua was limited by their right of self-government.
In 1244 certain rights of self-government were given to the citizens; and in 1254 Mainz was the centre and mainspring of a powerful league of Rhenish towns.
Freetown was the first place in British West Africa granted local self-government.
Throughout the existence of the new parliament Gladstone never relaxed his extraordinary efforts, though now nearer eighty than seventy, on behalf of the cause of self-government for Ireland.
The first charter, of which a copy only is preserved among the corporation records, is one given in 1262 by John Fitzalan granting the burgesses self-government.
One result of this movement was a slight advance in municipal self-government.
The report was received so cordially in the House of Commons that Mr. Montagu was able to claim at the end of the debate as " a remarkable fact " that all speakers admitted the principle of self-government for India.
There is no more eloquent commentary upon the wholesome results of British self-government than is to be found in Parkman's book.
At the same time, these letters bring home to us his conviction that, particularly in financial affairs, it was necessary that local self-government should be carried on under the vigilant supervision of imperial officers.
The Duma of the empire created in 1905 bears the name suggested by Speranski, and the institution of local self-government (the zemstvos) in 1864 was one of the reforms proposed by him.
He wished for the complete independence and self-government of the Church, with the right of excommunication to be used against the ungodly.
But though in each case the result has been an improved administration, it has been generally conceded that only most exceptional circumstances can justify such interference with local self-government, and later attempts to extend the practice have failed.
In Massachusetts, as in New England generally, the word " town " is used, officially and colloquially, to designate a township, and during the colonial era the New England town-meeting was a notable school for education in self-government.
The English colonies, though divided by interest or character, were all alike jealous to defend, and eager to extend, their freedom of self-government, based on charters granted by, or extorted from, the crown.
Though the British government gave, more or less unwillingly, a large measure of self-government to the Plantations, it was no less intent than the Spanish crown on retaining the whole colonial trade in British hands, and on excluding foreigners.
From the freedom of the United States came the revolt of Spanish America, and the grant by Great Britain to Canada of the amplest rights of self-government.
The states of the American Union are non-tropical, adapted to the development of European races, not mixed with Indian blood, and possessed by long inheritance of the machinery needed for the successful conduct of self-government.
Under this constitution the theory of local self-government was more fully realized in New York than at any other time.
In 1852 the mother-country granted self-government, and, after much wrangling and hesitation, a full parliamentary system and a responsible ministry were set going in 1856.
On the attainment of self-government the colonial legislature passed an act (1908) which in respect to primary and secondary education made attendance compulsory on all white children, the fee system being maintained.
A congress of ex-burghers was held at Brandfort in December 1904, when among other resolutions passed was one demanding the grant of self-government to the colony.
The previous (Conservative) government had in March 1905 made public a form of representative govern- government, intended to lead up to self-government meat* for the Transvaal, and had intimated that a similar constitution would be subsequently conferred on the Orange Colony.
It was not until the 1st of July 1907 that the letters-patent conferring self-government on the colony were promulgated, the election for the legislative assembly taking place in November following.
Next follow chapters on the literary renaissance of the nation, its progress in art, mathematics, chemistry and natural science; the magnificent development of agriculture, modern industry, commerce and finance; and in particular its flourishing selfgovernment, " which will be exercised in the fullest freedom," and in which " the communal organization embodies in the highest degree the conception of self-government " (p. 234), and " the independent sphere of activity unlimited in its fundamental principle " (p. 235) in that " State control is exercised seldom and discreetly " (p. 236).
Finally, the communes had self-government within their own sphere.
Immediately dependent upon the prince, from whom they obtained their privileges, the most important of which were self-government and freedom from taxation, these traders soon became an important factor in the state, counterpoising, to some extent, the influence of the gentry, enriching the land by developing its resources, and promoting civilization by raising the standard of comfort.
The country is divided into arrondissements and communes, with most of the apparatus of self-government enjoyed by the corresponding units in France.
In response to the demand for self-government, in September 1647 he and the council appointed - after the manner then followed in Holland - from eighteen representatives chosen by the people a board of nine to confer with him and the council whenever he thought it expedient to ask their advice; three of the nine, selected in rotation, were permitted to sit with the council during the trial of civil cases; and six were to retire each year, their successors to be chosen by the director and council from twelve candidates nominated by the board.
The compromise that resulted from these conflicting forces suited Elizabeth very well; she had little dislike of Catholics who repudiated the papacy, but she was forced to rely mainly on Protestants, and had little respect for any form of ecclesiastical self-government.
But their representatives, assisted by the senators and deputies of the Basque Provinces in the Cortes, negotiated successive pacts, each lasting several years, securing for the three Provinces their municipal and provincial self-government, and the assessment, distribution and collection of their principal taxes and octroi duties, on the understanding that an agreed sum should be paid annually to the state, subject to an increase whenever the national taxation of other provinces was augmented.
This constitution had failed; territories so different in size, history and circumstances were not contented with similar institutions, and a form of self-government which satisfied Lower Austria and Salzburg did not satisfy Galicia and Bohemia..
In the face of so much self-government the Vogt presently disappeared altogether.
State aid to religion, which was given to any denomination which would receive it, was abolished; local self-government was extended to the rural as well as to the urban districts; a policy of semiprotection was introduced; the island was connected by a submarine cable to the mainland of Australia, and thence to the rest of the civilized world; and the population, which was only 99, 328 in 1870, was nearly doubled.
No charter granting self-government to Wiveliscombe has been found, and the only evidence for the traditional existence of a borough is that part of the town is called "the borough," and that until the middle of the 19th century a bailiff and a portreeve were annually chosen by the court leet.
In every one of the North American colonies there was in operation at that date a system of self-government, in seven colonies under a charter from the Crown.
The value of local self-government as a training for the duties of citizenship has been very great, and in many parts of the country, especially where the funds dealt with are small, elections are not fought and offices not distributed upon party lines.
See also Lincoln Steffens, The Struggle for Self-Government; being an attempt to trace American Political Corruption to its Sources in Six States of the United States (New York, 1906).
In 1898, owing to the influx of miners, the Yukon territory was constituted and granted a limited measure of self-government.
It may be doubted whether at this time it would have been safe to give these small communities complete self-government.
He recommended the union of the two Canadian provinces at once, the ultimate union of all British North America and the granting to this large state of full self-government.
The French were suspicious of the Union, aimed avowedly at checking their influence, and the complete self-government for which the " Reformers " in English-speaking Canada had clamoured was not yet conceded by the colonial office.
This means the organization of production by society, and requires economic self-government throughout the whole mass of the people.
After the grant of self-government to the Transvaal in 1907, General Botha was called upon by Lord Selborne to form a government, and in the spring of the same year he took part in the conference of colonial premiers held in London.
The numerous townships which then sprang_up acquired rights of self-government according to German law, Breslau being refounded about 1250 as a German town, and a feudal organization was introduced among the landholding nobility.
The apparent object of the measure was to deprive the people of Pittsburg temporarily of the privileges of self-government by empowering the governor to appoint a recorder (in 1903 the title of mayor was again assumed) to exercise (until 1903, when the municipal executive should be again chosen by the people) the functions of the mayor, thus removed by the governor under this statute; and this act applied to the other cities of the second class, Allegheny and Scranton, although they had not offended the party managers.
The right of the burgesses to self-government and self-taxation is acknowledged and confirmed, they, on the other hand, being held bound to a constitutional obedience and subjection to the sovereign, particularly to the payment of definite imperial taxes, and the rendering of a certain amount of military service (as the ancient municipia had been).
Phoenicia was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria; Aradus, Sidon, Tyre and Tripolis were confirmed in their rights of self-government and in the possession of their territories.
Ministers were declared responsible to the States-General, and a liberal measure of self-government was also granted.
The provinces are governed by a governor nominated by the king, the canton is a judicial division for marking the limit of the jurisdiction of each juge de paix, and the commune is the administrative unit, possessing self-government in all local matters.
At the same time the self-government of the peasants was organized on democratic principles.
Viewed with suspicion by the Russian government, the Polish towns received no self-government like the villages.
This continued long after the battle of Worringen (1288) had finally secured for the city full self-government, and the archbishops had ceased to reside within its walls.
The central authority in the United States, formerly almost unheard of by the average citizen, now touches him in many of the activities of life and sometimes intrudes even into the domain of local self-government.
In Prussia at least the medieval system of local self-government had succumbed completely to the centralizing policy of the monarchy, and when it was revived it was at the will and for the purposes of the central authorities, as subsidiary to the bureaucratic system.
These are divided into rural communes (Land gemeinden) and urban communes (Stadtgemeinden), the powers and functions of which, though differing widely, are based upon the same general principle of representative local self-government.
Of these areas the provinces, circles and communes are for the purposes both of the central administration and of local self-government, and the bodies by which they are governedare corporations.
The wife and children have also their domicile in the place where the husband or father has his.i Relief of the poor is one of the chief duties of the organs of local self-government.
During the I9th century, however, a large measure of ecclesiastical self-government (by means of general synods, &c.) was introduced, pan passu with the growth of constitutional government in the state; and in effect, though the theoretical supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in the state, he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which is the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes.
It seemed to be the sign of a change when a new party, the Autonomisten, arose, vho demanded as a practical concession that the dictatorship of the chancellor should cease and local self-government be granted.
The oligarchic constitution established in Canada in 1 774 by the Quebec Act did not suit men trained in the school of local self-government which Britain had unwittingly established in the American colonies, and the gift of representative institutions was soon necessary.
At Pergamum indeed and (at any rate after Antiochus IV.) at Antioch, forms of self-government subsisted upon which, of course, the court had its hand, whilst at Alexandria even such forms were wanting.
Ptolemais, indeed, enjoyed all the ordinary forms of self-government, but Alexandria was governed despotically by royal officials.
Passing in review all the departments of the administration, he laid down the general lines on which the country was to be restored to order and prosperity, and endowed, if possible, with the elements of self-government for future use.
A party had also arisen, whose best-known leader was Mustafa Kamel Pasha (1874-1908), which held that Egypt was ready for self-government and which saw in the presence of the British a hindrance to the attainment of their ideal.
Great Britain, he declared, had no intention of proclaiming a protectorate over Egypt; on the other hand, recent events in Turkey in no way affected the question of self-government in Egypt.
On the 17th of September the burgesses introduced a bill proposing a new constitution, which was to include local self-government in the towns, the abolition of serfdom, and the formation of a national army.
In 1833 Scottish burghs were for the first time entitled to be governed by directly-elected bodies, and at various times since that date fuller powers of legal self-government were granted in different directions.
A good deal of local self-government was permitted; the cities struck their own bronze coins, inscribed on them the names of their own magistrates, 2 and probably administered their own laws in matters purely local.
In all other respects the district enjoys the privilege of self-government.
Thenceforward their land was part of the province Hispania Tarraconensis with some measure of local self-government.
In 1771 the people of the Illinois country, through a meeting at Kaskaskia, demanded a form of self-government similar to that of Connecticut.
And by his own labours he had vindicated his faith in the experiment of self-government.
Though not eligible for the council, they shared to a certain extent in the self-government through the aldermen of each corporation or gild, of which some appear as early as the statutes of 1240.
The republic has given up its own military contingent, its coinage and its postal dues to the German Empire; but it has preserved its municipal self-government and its own territory, the inhabitants of which enjoy equal political privileges with the citizens.
Local self-government, municipal and rural, in the form in which it now prevails in India, is essentially a product of British rule.
Another trait, more in accordance with the conditions of to-day, is that local self-government was more fully developed and strongly marked in the towns than without.
Meanwhile the tendency towards self-government spread even to the lower ranks of town society, resulting in the establishment of craft-gilds.
The claims of the imperial government, jurisdictional and other, were acknowledged, only such rights of self-government being admitted as could be shown to be grounded on imperial charters.
The remarkable federation of the Dominion of Canada which was thus originated presented the unique feature of a federal union of provinces practically exercising sovereign rights in relation to all local self-government, and sustaining a constitutional autonomy, while cherishing the colonial relationship to Great Britain.
In 1629 Whitby petitioned for incorporation on the ground that the town was in decay through want of good government and received letters patent giving them self-government..
Even so it seems to have preserved a measure of self-government and may be said to have been the last of the Greek city states.
Thus, political autonomy is self-government in its widest sense, independence of all control from without.
Local autonomy is a freedom of self-government within a sphere marked out by some superior authority; e.g.
Administrative or constitutional autonomy, such as exists in the British colonies, implies an extent of self-government which falls short only of complete independence.
As soon as the necessity for establishing a stable government arose the lack of training in self-government among the Chileans became painfully obvious.
In 1856 it was constituted a separate colony, but it did not possess self-government until 1893.
The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.
I It is remarkable that the Liberal government, despite this aspiration, and despite stronger language used by Mr Gladstone, did nothing to give the Boers any real self-government.
By this instrument the Transvaal was granted self-government subject to British suzerainty and the control of the foreign relations of the state.
With the elimination of the republics one great obstacle to federation was removed; while the establishment of self-government in the new colonies, promised (after a probationary period of " representative institutions") in No.
The Boer leaders declined the offer - they preferred the position of untrammelled critics, and the opportunity to work to regain power on constitutional lines when the grant of self-government should be made.
Short of granting full self-government it was of a liberal character.
The Liberal leader held, however, that the Boers should be given self-government at once.
The new letters patent instituting self-government in the Transvaal were issued on the 12th of December 1906; the elections were held in February 1907, and gave the Het Volk party a clear majority of seven (in a house numbering 69 members) over all other parties.
In the Orange River Colony the first elections under the self-government constitution were held in November 1907, and out of 38 seats in the House of Assembly Oranjie Unie candidates secured 2 9.
Again it was known that the Transvaal and Orange River colonies on their attainment of self-government would each demand full control of their own resources, to the detriment of the unitary services which Lord Milner had established.
Reviewing one by one the questions on which rivalry existed, Lord Selborne showed that the internal self-government which each colony enjoyed accentuated the difficulty of dealing with these questions as a whole.
Lord Selborne wrote in anticipation of the establishment, a few months subsequently, of self-government in the new colonies.
He granted fresh charters to many cities, legalizing the system of self-government which the Romans had bequeathed to the Visigoths and the Moors had retained or improved.
The league embraced an indefinite number of city-states which maintained their internal independence practically undiminished, and through their several magistrates, assemblies and law-courts exercised all traditional powers of self-government.
It may be that education and experience will develop the mestizos into a vigorous progressive nationality, but the first century of self-government can hardly be said to have given much promise of such a result.
The reaction that now ensued was felt more severely than in any other part of the monarchy; for not only were all attempts to obtain self-government and liberty ruthlessly suppressed, but a determined attempt was made to exterminate the national language.
The word suzerain is used in the Pretoria convention of the 3rd of August 1881 between the British government and the late South African Republic. The convention (by its preamble) granted to the inhabitants complete self-government, " subject to the suzerainty of her Majesty," and this suzerainty was reaffirmed in the articles.
Fresh doubts arose as to the effect of this omission; and a correspondence on the subject took place between the British government and the government of the republic before the outbreak of hostilities in South Africa, the former maintaining that the preamble of 1881, by which alone any self government was granted, was still in force, and therefore that the suzerainty - whatever it involved - remained; the Transvaal government, on the other hand, contending that the suzerainty had been abolished by the substitution of the 1884 convention for that of 1881.
Riaz's standpoint was that of the benevolent autocrat; he believed that the Egyptians were not fitted for self-government and must be treated like children, protected from ill-treatment by others and prevented from injuring themselves.
Under the constitution established in 1872 Cape Colony enjoyed self-government.
Ever since the granting of self-government the natives had enjoyed the franchise.
The main business of the session of 1920 was the Irish Home Rule bill, which Mr. Law justified as giving to Ireland the largest measure of self-government compatible with national security and pledges given.
Any portion of a county containing as many as 150 inhabitants may be incorporated as a town or city, and as such it possesses complete self-government in all purely local matters, even 2 Before 1904, under a law of 1901, the people voted for candidates for the United States Senate, but the legislative assembly was in no way bound to carry out the decision of the popular vote; and in 1904 the legislature chose as United States senator a candidate for whom no votes had been cast in the popular election.
This mercantile brotherhood, formerly a privileged class, alone exploited the mastic trade; at the same time the Greeks were allowed to retain their rights of self-government and continued to exercise their industries.
He recognized that the system under which Ireland had been governed in the past had failed to win the allegiance of her people; and he decided that it was wise and safe to entrust her with a large measure of self-government.
In 1907 the first session of the first parliament elected under the constitution granting the colony self-government was held in Bloemfontein.
A certain measure of self-government is likewise granted to the native Christian communities under their ecclesiastical chiefs.
In 1807 the sultan offered to grant the Serbs self-government, and to acknowledge Karageorge as the chief of the nation with the title of prince.
The code thus settled was acquiesced in by the Chinese authorities and by other nationalities as they came in, and it conferred on the foreign community local self-government, practically free from official control of any description.
Attempts were made at self-government, and the sovereignty was again offered, conditionally, to England, and to the United States.
Local Government.-Irish local government was entirely remodelled by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, which conferred on Ireland the same system and measure of self-government enjoyed by Great Britain.
Government, Revenue, &c. - The colony is not represented in the French Chambers, nor has it self-government.
Powers of self-government were acquired by the council (Rat) of the town, the importance of which was enhanced during the 15th century by several grants of privileges from the emperors.
Marshal Campos, who very soon succeeded Jovellar as governor-general of Cuba, for the first time held out to the loyalists of the island the prospect of reforms, fairer treatment at the hands of the mother country, a more liberal tariff to promote their trade, and self-government as the crowning stage of the new policy.
If things had not already gone too far in Cuba, and if public opinion in the United States had not exercised irresistible pressure on both Congress and president, the Moret home-rule project would probably have sufficed to give the Cubans a fair amount of self-government.
All hope of practical self-government under Russian protection now ceased, and the Armenians of Tiflis turned their attention to Turkish Armenia.
At the same time certain privileges of self-government were granted to the towns, representatives from which were summoned to sit in the diet.
Laos was granted self-government within the French Union on 19 July 1949.
Since 1965 the islands have had full internal self-government; matters of defense and external affairs remain the responsibility of the New Zealand government.
He therefore tried to raise up a Native Agency who could promote self-government among their own people.
It exercises self-government except in matters of defense, internal security and foreign affairs, which are reserved to the UK.
She attained self-government with British oversight in 1951, followed by formal independence in March 1957.
Iraqis have laid a solid foundation for democratic self-government.
So I did this everywhere and in Wales I spoke about the colonial question and the need for West Indian self-government.
However, by 1926 internal self-government within the rubric of unified imperial policy was no longer the hallmark of dominion status.
The subsequent abolition of the Irish self-government was one of the reasons for the huge growth in emigration in the nineteenth century.
For many people, including Bernardo O'Higgins, limited self-government was not enough.
Philip developed a system of regional self-government with viceroys answering to him and he ruled as an absolute monarch.
In England, this means nothing less than the restoration of genuine shire and city self-government.
It also has supreme jurisdiction in all disputes arising out of the administration of the empire, notably differences between the representatives of the central power and the elected organs of local self-government.
In the Baltic provinces (Courland, Livonia and Esthonia) the landowning classes formerly enjoyed considerable powers of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education, police and the administration of local justice.
Notwithstanding the changes in organization and terminology, the officials remained ignorant, indolent, careless, indifferent to the public welfare, high-handed and extortionate, and the local self-government which was intended to enlighten and control them proved sadly wanting in vitality and practically worthless.
Though the young emperor was of too phlegmatic a temperament to be carried away by the prevailing excitement and of too practical a turn of mind to adopt wholesale the doctrinaire theories of his selfconstituted, irresponsible advisers, he recognized that great administrative and economic changes were required, and after a short period of hesitation he entered on a series of drastic reforms, of which the most important were the emancipation of the serfs, the thorough reorganization of the judicial administration and the development of local self-government.
In short, the various forms of local self-government, which were intended to raise the nation gradually to the higher political level of western Europe, were condemned as unsuited to the national character and traditions, and as productive of disorder and demoralization.
They dared not stay in Seleucia, as this city, the most populous town of western Asia, always maintained her Greek self-government and a strong feeling of independence, which made her incline to the west whenever a Roman army attacked the Parthians.
He made his influence felt also by correspondence, with political leaders and by able political speeches, one of which, delivered in 1858, contained the sentence, "Democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, by all the people, for all the people," which probably suggested Abraham Lincoln's oft.-quoted variant.
Under the arrangement proposed the Boers might easily have secured the benefits of self-government, subject to an acknowledgment of British supremacy, together with the advantage of military protection, for the British government was then extremely reluctant to extend its colonial responsibilities.
The preamble to the Pretoria Convention of 1881 contained in brief but explicit terms the grant of Conve self-government to the Boers, subject to British suzerainty.
According to the so-called Steinsche Stadteverfassung (the system introduced in Prussia by Stein in 1808), which, to differentiate between it and other systems, is called the Magistratsverfassung (or magisterial constitution), the municipal communes enjoy a greater degree of self-government than do the rural.
The struggle against the bishops, in which a clamour for a reform of clerical life and a striving for local self-government were strangely interwoven, had raged for a couple of generations when King Henry V., great patron of municipal freedom as he was, legalized by a series of charters the status quo (Cremona, 1114, Mantua, 1116).
Like other villes franches under the king, Paris was governed by a prevot (provost), but certain functions of self-government for the city were delegated to the company of the marchands de l'eau, mercatores aquae, also called mercatores ansati, that is, the gild of merchants whose business lay down the river Seine, in other words, a body naturally exclusive, not, however, to the citizens as such.
The point as to whether the original conditions were or were not servile was never legally tested, for eventually on the grant of self-government to the Transvaal the Botha cabinet decided (June 1907) not to renew the indentures nor to permit any new importation of coolies.
They wish to see self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of it.
People of ethnic minority groups have the legal right to self-government in areas where they account for more than one-third of the local population.
Organs of self-government of autonomous areas have the right to manage local financial matters.
Third there was the vast Indian Empire which, again, few believed would be ready for self-government for many years.
More self-government for all schools is central to raising standards and extending diversity.
No one, he claims, has asked for self-government, and, moreover, democracy itself is a two-edged weapon.
He came to supersede self-government by consuls, to deprive the cities of the privilege of making war on their own account and to extort his regalian rights of forage, food and lodging for his armies.
Hiero's rule was kindly and enlightened, combining good order with a fair share of liberty and self-government.
After seventy years' subjection to the Medici Florence had forgotten the art of self-government, and felt the need of a strong guiding hand.
They inherited no machinery of self-government.
The powers of self-government thus conferred on the foreign community consist in exclusive police control within the area, in draining, lighting, maintenance of streets and roads, making and enforcement of sanitary regulations, control of markets, dairies and so forth.
The harassed population, the municipalities which under cover of civil war had resumed the right of self-government, and the parlements elated with their social importance and their security of position, were not alone in abandoning duty and obedience.