Seleucus sentence example
Seleucus Nicator established the GrecoBactrian empire and continued the intercourse with India.
Authentic information respecting the great valley of the Ganges was supplied by Megasthenes, an ambassador sent by Seleucus, who reached the remote city of Patali-putra, the modern Patna.
Heliodorus, prime minister of Seleucus Philopator, who succeeded Antiochus, arrived at Jerusalem in his progress through Coele-Syria and Phoenicia and declared the treasure confiscate to the royal exchequer.
When Seleucus was assassinated by Heliodorus, Antiochus IV., his brother, who had been chief magistrate at Athens, came xv.
The founder Seleucus (surnamed for later generations Nicator) was a Macedonian, the son of Antiochus, one of Philip's generals.Advertisement
Seleucus, as a young man of about twenty-three, accompanied Alexander into Asia in 333, and won distinction in the Indian campaign of 326.
Seleucus himself had a hand in the murder of Perdiccas in 321.
At the second partition, at Triparadisus (321), Seleucus was given the government of the Babylonian satrapy.
In 316, when Antigonus had made himself master of the eastern provinces, Seleucus felt himself threatened and fled to Egypt.
In the war which followed between Antigonus and the other Macedonian chiefs, Seleucus actively co-operated with Ptolemy and commanded Egyptian squadrons in the Aegean.Advertisement
The victory won by Ptolemy at Gaza in 312 opened the way for Seleucus to return to the east.
Master of Babylonia, Seleucus at once proceeded to wrest the neighbouring provinces of Persis, Susiana and Media from the nominees of Antigonus.
A raid into Babylonia conducted in 311 by Demetrius, son of Antigonus, did not seriously check Seleucus's progress.
Whilst Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus during nine years (311-302) brought under his authority the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus.
In 305, after the extinction of the old royal line of Macedonia, Seleucus, like the other four principal Macedonian chiefs, assumed the style of king.Advertisement
Seleucus entered the Punjab, but felt himself obliged in 302 to conclude a peace with Chandragupta, by which he ceded large districts of Afghanistan in return for 500 elephants.
The pressing need for Seleucus once more to take the field against Antigonus was at any rate in large measure the cause of his abandonment of India.
A new partition of the empire followed, by which Seleucus added to his kingdom Syria, and perhaps some regions of Asia Minor.
The capture of Demetrius in 285 added to Seleucus's prestige.
War between Seleucus and Lysimachus broke out, and on the field of Coru-pedion in Lydia Lysimachus fell (281).Advertisement
Seleucus now saw the whole empire of Alexander, Egypt alone excepted, in his hands, and moved to take possession of Macedonia and Thrace.
At the end of 275 the question of Palestine, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301, led to hostilities (the "First Syrian War").
It had been continuously in Ptolemaic occupation, but the house of Seleucus maintained its claim.
Laodice poisoned him and proclaimed her son Seleucus Callinicus (reigned 246-227) king, whilst her partisans at Antioch made away with Berenice and her son.
In the interior of Asia Minor Seleucus maintained himself, and when Ptolemy returned to Egypt he recovered Northern Syria and the nearer provinces of Iran.Advertisement
At Ancyra (about 235 ?) Seleucus sustained a crushing defeat and left the country beyond the Taurus to his brother and the other powers of the peninsula.
A year later Seleucus was killed by a fall from his horse.
The Seleucid kingdom as Antiochus left it to his son, Seleucus Iv.
The true heir, Demetrius, son of Seleucus, being now retained in Rome as a hostage, the kingdom was seized by the younger brother of Seleucus, Antiochus Iv.
At this juncture Demetrius, the son of Seleucus IV., escaped from Rome and was received in Syria as the true king.Advertisement
Grypus (141-96), who succeeded in 126 the younger brother of Seleucus V., the sons of Grypus, Seleucus VI.
Bevan, House of Seleucus (1902), and the earlier literature of the subject there cited.
But now a third war began, the old associates of Antigonus, alarmed by his overgrown power, combining against him - Cassander, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, the governor of Thrace, and Seleucus, who had fled before Antigonus from his satrapy of Babylonia.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India.
Except indeed for Egypt and Palestine under Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus now divided the empire between them, with the Taurus in Asia Minor for their frontier.Advertisement
These two survivors of the forty years' conflict soon entered upon the crowning fight, and in 281 Lysimachus fell in the battle of Corupedion (in Lydia), leaving Seleucus virtually master of the empire.
Seleucus' assassination by Ptolemy Ceraunus in the same year brought back confusion.
Ptolemy Ceraunus (the son of the first Ptolemy, and halfbrother of the reigning king of Egypt) seized the Macedonian throne, whilst Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, succeeded in holding together the Asiatic dominions of his father.
In India, Seleucus had in 302 ceded large districts on the west of the Indus to Chandragupta, who had arisen to found a native empire which annexed the Macedonian provinces in the Panjab.
In southern Syria, which had been won by the house of Seleucus from the house of Ptolemy in 198, the independent Jewish principality was set up in 143.Advertisement
Where it is a case of delegating some part of the supreme authority, as when Seleucus I.
Some ten years later Seleucus appointed Antiochus as king for the eastern provinces.
The elephants which Alexander brought back from India were used in the armies of his successors, and in 302 Seleucus procured a new supply.
Among the travellers of whose information he was thus able to avail himself were Pytheas of Massilia, Patroclus, who had visited the Caspian (285-282 B.C.), Megasthenes, who visited Palibothra on the Ganges, as ambassador of Seleucus Nicator (302-291 B.C.), Timosthenus of Rhodes, the commander of the fleet of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-246 B.C.) who wrote a treatise " On harbours," and Philo, who visited Meroe on the upper Nile.
Seleucus Nicator gave it a Macedonian name, Beroea; but Chalcis, some distance S., was the capital of the province, Chalcidice (later, Kinnasrin), in which it lay, and the centre of that hellenized region, now a.Advertisement
There Heracleon, the court favourite and murderer of Antiochus Grypus, was born and made himself a principality (96 B.C.); and there the son of the latter king besieged his brother Philip in the last struggle for the heritage of Seleucus.
Little is known of his life, .except that he spent some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator at Antioch before coming to Alexandria, and that he cultivated anatomy late in life, after he had taken up his abode in the latter city.
When in command of the fleet of Seleucus (285) he undertook a voyage of exploration on the Caspian Sea to discover possible trade routes, especially for communication with the peoples of northern India.
After the death of Seleucus, Patrocles was sent by his successor Antiochus to put down a revolt in Asia Minor, and lost his life in an engagement with the Bithynians.
It was so named by Seleucus Nicator, after Apama, his wife.Advertisement
Mesopotamia naturally had its share of suffering in the struggles that disturbed the time, when Eumenes or Seleucus traversed it or wintered there.
Thus in 312 Tyre was captured from Antigonus by Ptolemy I., the ally of Seleucus; in 287 it passed into the dominion of Seleucus; in 275 again it was captured by Ptolemy II.
The oldest name of the town, according to Philo Herennius, was Payt9a or AevKi dKTii; it received that of Laodicea (ad mare) from Seleucus Nicator, who refounded it in honour of his mother as one of the four "sister" cities of the Syrian Tetrapolis (Antioch, Seleucia, Apamea, Laodicea).
Lysandra, the wife of Agathocles, took refuge with Seleucus, king of Syria, who made war upon Lysimachus and defeated him (281).
Seleucus, who had seized Lysimachus's kingdom, was murdered in 281 by Ptolemy Ceraunus (half-brother of Arsinoe), who thus became master of Thrace and Macedonia.
Asoka was the grandson of Chandragupta, the founder of the Maurya (Peacock) dynasty, who had wrested the Indian provinces of Alexander the Great from the hands of Seleucus, and he was the son of Bindusara, who succeeded his father Chandragupta, by a lady from Champa.
Soon after 321, Macedonian supremacy beyond the Indus collapsed before the advance of the native Maurya dynasty, and about 303 even large districts west of the Indus were ceded by Seleucus.
Along the southern coast, where the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy strove for predominance, we find the names of Berenice, Arsinoe and Ptolemais confronting those of Antioch and Seleucia.
Founded as a Greek city in 300 B.C. by Seleucus Nicator, as soon as he had assured his grip upon western Asia by the victory of Ipsus (301), it was destined to rival Alexandria in Egypt as the chief city of the nearer East, and to be the cradle of gentile Christianity.
But the first western sovereign practically to recognize the importance of the district was Antigonus, who began to build a city, Antigonia, on the Kara Su a few miles north of the situation of Antioch; but, on his defeat, he left it to serve as a quarry for his rival Seleucus.
The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the "gridiron" plan of Alexandria by the architect, Xenarius.
In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus Callinicus began a third walled "city," which was finished by Antiochus III.
Alexander the Great placed Phrygia under the command of Antigonus, who retained it when the empire was broken up. When Antigonus was defeated and slain, at the decisive battle of Ipsus, Phrygia came under the sway of Seleucus.
Abandoned by his captain and future rival, Seleucus, Ptolemy retired and left Palestine to Antigonus for ten years.
But when Seleucus came to claim Palestine as part of his share, he found his old chief Ptolemy in possession and retired under protest.
Berenice and her son were likewise removed from the path of her son Seleucus.
The need which drove Antiochus to this sacrilege rested heavily upon his successor Seleucus IV.
Antiochus had spent his youth at Rome as a hostage, and the death of Seleucus found him filling the office of war minister at Athens.
In 162 B.C. Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, escaped from Rome and was proclaimed king.
After his final peace with Seleucus, Ptolemy no longer engaged actively in war, although his forces might occasionally mingle in the broils of Asia Minor, and he supported the enemies of Macedonia in Greece.
About 310 B.C. Seleucus is said by Strabo to have given to the Indian Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), in consequence of a marriage-contract, some part of the country west of the Indus occupied by an Indian population, and no doubt embracing a part of the Kabul basin.
While, therefore, Seleucus was winning his way to the Syrian monarchy during the eleven years which followed Alexander's death, Chandragupta was building up an empire in northern India.
Seleucus reigned in Syria from 312 to 280 B.C., Chandragupta in the Gangetic valley from 321 to 296 B.C. In 312 B.C. the power of both had been consolidated, and the two new sovereignties were brought face to face.
In that year Seleucus, 'having recovered Babylon, proceeded to re-establish his authority in Bactria (q.v.) and the Punjab.
Seleucus, after a war with Chandragupta, determined to ally himself with the new power in India rather than to oppose it.
Antiochus Theos (grandson of Seleucus Nicator) and Asoka (grandson of Chandragupta), who ruled these two monarchies in the 3rd century B.C., made a treaty with each other (256).
On the other hand our knowledge of Chian Homeridae comes chiefly from the lexicon of Harpocration, where we are told that Acusilaus and Hellanicus said that they were so called from the poet; whereas Seleucus pronounced this to be an error.
In 315 he joined Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus against Antigonus, who, however, diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him.
In 302 when the second alliance between Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus was made, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance.
Seleucus joined him in 301, and at the battle of Ipsus Antigonus was slain.
Feeling that Seleucus was becoming dangerously great, he now allied himself with Ptolemy, marrying his daughter Arsin06.
In 284 Arsinoe, desirous of gaining the succession for her sons in preference to Agathocles (the eldest son of Lysimachus), intrigued against him with the help of her brother Ptolemy Ceraunus; they accused him of conspiring with Seleucus to seize the throne, and he was put to death.
The widow of Agathocles fled to Seleucus, who at once invaded the territory of Lysimachus in Asia.
The annexation of Iran by Seleucus Nicator led to a war for the countries on the Indian frontier; his opponent being Sandracottus or Chandragupta Maurya, the founder Seleucus I.
In 282 B.C. Seleucus took the field against Lysimachus, and annexed his dominions in Asia Minor and Thrace.
Callinicus (247226) successfully encountered Arsaces (or Tiridates), and even expelled him (c. 238); but new risings recalled Seleucus to Syria, and Arsaces was enabled to return to Parthia.
His Amphitryons is a free imitation of the Latin, yet thoroughly national in spirit and cast in the popular redondilha; the dialogue is spirited, the situations comic. King Seleucus derives from Plutarch and has a prose prologue of real interest for the history of the stage, while Filodemo is a clever tragi-comedy in verse with prose dialogues interspersed.
In 312 Ptolemy, with Seleucus, the fugitive satrap of Babylonia, invaded Palestine and beat Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in the great battle of Gaza.
But when news came that Antigonus had been defeated and slain at Ipsus (30r) by Lysimachus and Seleucus, Ptolemy occupied Palestine for the fourth time.
The other members of the coalition had assigned Palestine to Seleucus after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years the question of its ownership becomes the standing ground of enmity between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties.
Mithradates was at the battle of Ancyra (c. 241), in which he assisted Antiochus Hierax against his brother Seleucus Callinicus, in spite of the fact that he had married the daughter of the latter with Greater Phrygia as her dowry.
On the death of his father (283), he assumed the title of king of Macedonia, but did not obtain possession of the throne till 276, after it had been successively in the hands of Pyrrhus, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy Ceraunus.
Antigonus again claimed authority over the whole of Asia, seized the treasures at Susa, and entered Babylonia, of which Seleucus was governor.
Seleucus fled to Ptolemy, and entered into a league with him (315), together with Lysimachus and Cassander.
In 302, although Demetrius was again winning success after success in Greece, Antigonus was obliged to recall him to meet the confederacy that had been formed between Cassander, Seleucus and Lysimachus.
She married Seleucus Cybiosactes, but soon caused him to be slain, and married Archelaus, who had been made king of Comana in Pontus (or in Cappadocia) by Pompey.
Magas of Cyrene opened war on his half-brother (274), and Antiochus I., the son of Seleucus, desiring Palestine, attacked soon after.
From Lysimachus it passed to Seleucus, whose son Antiochus, seeing its geographical importance, refounded it on a more open site as Apamea.
In 305 Seleucus Nicator crossed the Indus, but was defeated by Chandragupta and forced to a humiliating peace (303), by which the empire of the latter was still farther extended in the north.
An excellent account of the court and administrative system of Chandragupta has been preserved in the fragments of Megasthenes, who came to Pataliputra as the envoy of Seleucus shortly after 303.
The dynasties founded by Alexander's generals, Seleucus, Antiochus and Ptolemy, encouraged the same spirit of enterprise which their master had fostered, and extended geographical knowledge in several directions.
The unpopularity of Lysimachus after the murder of Agathocles gave Seleucus an opportunity for removing his last rival.
It was probably founded on the site of a Phrygian sanctuary, by Seleucus Nicator, before 280 B.C. and was made a free city by the Romans in 189 B.C. It was a thoroughly Hellenized, Greekspeaking city, in the midst of a Phrygian people, with a mixed population that included many Jews.
Bactria became a province of the Macedonian empire, and soon came under the rule of Seleucus, king of Asia (see Seleucid Dynasty and Hellenism).
A large body of his troops remained in Bactria; and, in the partition of the empire which followed Alexander's death in 323 B.C., Bactria and India eventually fell to Seleucus Nicator, the founder of the Syrian monarchy (see Seleucid).
The weakness of Persian rule was disclosed by the expedition of Cyrus and the Ten Thousand Greeks, 402 B.C.; and in the following century Asia Minor was invaded by Alexander the Great, 334 B.C. (See Greece; Persia; Ionia.) The wars which followed the death of Alexander eventually gave Asia Minor to Seleucus, but none of the Seleucid kings was able to establish his rule over the whole peninsula.