The reduction is brought about simply by the segmentation of the spirem thread into half the number of segments instead of the normal number.
The first segmentation of the ventral rise to the mid-gut.
The group, the exceptions being met with almost entirely among the higher Brown Seaweeds, in which is found parenchyma produced by the segmentation of an apical cell of the whole shoot, or by cell division in some other type of meristem.
Segmentation takes place during its passage down the uterus.
Segmentation in these is very unequal, and results in the formation of small cells called micromeres and large cells called megameres, as in fig.
This coelom is lined by peritoneal cells and is divided into a series of metameres by septa which correspond to the segmentation of the FIG 15.
The segmentation of the fertilized nucleus results in the formation of a number of nuclei which arrange themselves around the periphery of the egg and, the protoplasm surrounding them becoming constricted, a blastoderm or layer of cells, enclosing the central yolk, is formed.
These views are not, however, supported plate is not, however, very definite, and the segmentation does not by other recent observers.
- The nervous system is ectodermal in origin, and is developed and segmented to a large extent in connexion with the outer part of the body, so that it affords important evidence as to the segmentation thereof.
The continuous layer of cells from which the nervous system is developed undergoes a segmentation analogous with that we have described as occurring in the ventral plate; there is thus formed a pair of contiguous ganglia for each segment of the body, but there is no ganglion for the telson.
The evidence of the exact equivalence of the segmentation and appendages of Limulus and Scorpio, and of a number of remarkable points of agreement in structure, was furnished by Ray Lankester in an article published in 1881 (" Limulus an Arachnid," Quart.
This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.
- Opisthosoma without trace of separate terga and sterna, the segmentation merely represented posteriorly by slight integumental folds and the sterna of the 1st and 2nd somites by the opercular plates of the pulmonary sacs.
The segmentation of the prosoma and the form of the appendages bear a homoplastic similarity to the head, pro-, meso-, and meta-thorax of a Hexapod with mandibles, maxillary palps and three pairs of walking legs; while the opistho io i e d c b o a S' S" 2 I VT V S IV III II I Opisthosoma Prosoma FIG.
In many pathological cells undergoing indirect segmentation, centrosomes appear to be absent, or at any rate do not manifest themselves at the poles of the achromatic spindle.
In pathological cell-division it happens occasionally that the segmentation of the cytoplasm is delayed beyond that of the mitotic network.
In the earlier accepted notion of direct segmentation, usually known as the schema of Remak, division was described as commencing in the nucleolus, as thereafter spreading to the nucleus, and as ultimately implicating the cell-substance.
In one family (Ligulidae) the segmentation is only expressed in the metameric distribution of the generative organs and the worm is externally unisegmental.
In the remainder the segmentation involves primarily the genitalia and includes the integument, muscles and part of the excretory system.
We therefore regard the body of a Cestode as a single organism within which the gonads have become segmented, and the segmentation of the body as a secondary phenomenon associated with diffuse osmotic feeding in the narrow intestinal canal.
Trematodes never exhibit segmentation, though a superficial annulation may occur, e.g.
LAMPREY, a fish belonging to the family Petromyzontidae (from r rpos and Ww, literally, stone-suckers), which with the hag-fishes or Myxinidae forms a distinct subclass of fishes, the Cyclostomata, distinguished by the low organization of their skeleton, which is cartilaginous, without vertebral segmentation, without ribs or real jaws, and without limbs.
In the latter respect, and in the fact that they frequently develop by a metamorphosis, they approach the Mollusca, but they differ from that group notably in the occurrence of metameric segmentation affecting many of the systems of organs.
Often the head is retractile, and a constriction of flexible cuticle distal to it is termed a neck: in Philodinaceae there are a series of thin flexible rings which permit both distal and proximal ends to be telescoped into the middle; and in Taphrocampa, regular constrictions of the whole bodywall give an appearance of metemeric segmentation to the body.
The egg is holoblastic, but the segmentation is very unequal, recalling that of marine annelids and of molluscs.
They are also well marked on the cephalic shield, the tergal elements being represented by a median axial elevated area showing indistinct signs of segmentation, and a lateral unsegmented plate, the gena, which carries the eyes.
In animals which exhibit typical segmentation or metamerism, such as segmented worms (Chaetopoda), each segment or metamere possesses its own coelomic cavity, a pair of coelomic ducts, and a pair of nephridia.
When the segmentation is unequal one of the megameres gives rise by successive divisions to two primary mesoderm cells called mesomeres; these divide to form two masses of cells called mesoblastic bands.
The segmentation is complete; one side of the hollow blastosphere invaginates and forms a gastrula.
Narrowing of the posterior portions of the spider's cephalothorax and sometimes of the anterior end of the abdomen reproduces the slender waist of the ant, and frequently transverse bands of hairs represent the segmentation of this region in the insect.
Segmentation is total and at first regular, and is followed by invagination, the blastopore passing to the position of the future mouth.
Bary.) (X 400.) undergoes segmentation into more or less numerous globular masses, each of which secretes an enveloping cell-wall and becomes a spore (endospore), and branched systems of sporangia may arise as before (Thamnidium).
By longitudinal segmentation we have a leaf formed consisting of sheath, stalk and blade; or one or other of these may be absent, and thus stalked, sessile, sheathing, &c., leaves are produced.
Lateral segmentation affects the lamina, producing indentations, lobings or fissuring of its margins.
In this way two marked forms of leaf are produced - (I) Simple form, in which the segmentation, however deeply it extends into the lamina, does not separate portions of the lamina which become articulated with the midrib or petiole; and (2) Compound form, where portions of the lamina are separated as detached leaflets, which become articulated with the midrib or petiole.
In both simple and compound leaves, according to the amount of segmentation and the mode of development of the parenchyma and direction of the fibro-vascular bundles, many forms are produced.
The resemblance of Dinophilus to the Rotifera is, however, quite superficial, and the general structure of this genus with distinct traces of segmentation, especially in the embryo, points to its close affinity, if not to Polygordius in particular, at all events to the Annelida.
Fertilization is external; and in about three days a small ciliated larva, not unlike that of the Echiuroids, but with no trace of segmentation, emerges from the egg-shell.
By the segmentation of the fertilized egg, now invested by cell-membrane, the embryo-plant arises.
Its segmentation always begins before that of the egg, and thus there is timely preparation for the nursing of the young embryo.
The segmentation or cleavage of the ovum which follows ï¿½ upon fertilization terminates in the achievement of the blastula form, a minute sphere of cells surrounding a central cavity.
Then follows the phenomenon of gastrulation, by which onehalf of the blastula is invaginated into the other, so as to obliterate the segmentation cavity.
The Sminthuridae are further characterized by the globular abdomen, which shows but little external trace of segmentation, and by the well-developed spring.
Such filaments are not always of the same diameter throughout, and their segmentation varies considerably.
Coalescence, or suppression of segmentation (" lipomerism "), may involve more or less extensive regions.
A remarkable feature found only in the Stomatopoda is the reappearance of segmentation in the anterior part of the cephalic region.
Segmentation is usually of the superficial or centrolecithal type.
The mesoderm becomes segmented, and the parapodia subsequently develop from before backwards; but almost all internal traces of segmentation are lost in the adult.
Regarding the Echinoderms as a whole in the light of the foregoing account, we may give the following analytic summary of the characters that distinguish them from other coelomate animals: They live in salt or brackish water; a primitive bilateral symmetry is still manifest in the right and left divisions of the coelom; the middle coelomic cavities are primitively transformed into two hydrocoels communicating with the exterior indirectly through a duct or ducts of the anterior coelom; stereom, composed of crystalline carbonate of lime, is, with few exceptions, deposited by special amoebocytes in the meshes of a mesodermal stroma, chiefly in the integument; reproductive cells are derived from the endothelium, apparently of the anterior coelom; total segmentation of the ovum produces a coeloblastula and gastrula by invagination; mesenchyme is formed in the segmentation cavity by migration of cells, chiefly from the hypoblast.
A second contraction may take place later, immediately preceding the segmentation of the thread.
The segmentation is of the mesoblast to begin with, and appears later behind the mouth, the part anterior to this becoming the prostomium of the adult.
Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
I, 2) is composed of a number of sclerites firmly sutured together, so that the primitive segmentation is masked.
- Morphology of an Insect: the embryo of Gryllotalpa, somewhat diagrammatic. The longitudinal segmented band along the middle line represents the early segmentation of the nervous system and the subsequent median field of each sternite; the lateral transverse unshaded bands are the lateral fields of each segment; the shaded areas indicate the more internally placed mesoderm layer.
In the cockroach embryo, before the segmentation of the germ-band has begun, the primitive germ-cells can be recognized at the hinder end of the mesoderm, from whose ordinary cells they can be distinguished by their larger size.
Carpenter (1899, 1902-1904) has lately endeavoured to show an exact numerical correspondence in segmentation between the Hexapoda, the Crustacea, the Arachnida, and the most primitive of the Diplopoda.
Its integument is marked by a large number of transverse grooves simulating the segmentation of Annelids, and near the anterior extremity close to the mouth are two pairs of recurved chitinous hooks.
40) is also similar to a Trilobite so far as its segmentation and trilobation are concerned.