Seeds Sentence Examples
Many think that seeds improve with age.
The cotton gin cut the cost of removing seeds from cotton.
Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by 1965 that the government stepped in and urged the project forward.
The digestion of fat or oil has not been adequately investigated, but its decomposition in germinating seeds has been found to be due to an enzyme, which has been called lipase.
Elisabeth started drawing as Jackson cleaned the seeds to bake them.Advertisement
Its seeds are very large, and are used as food by the natives.
We find them to consist of representatives of the great classes of foodstuffs on which animal protoplasm is nourished, and whose presence renders seeds such valuable material for animal consumptien.
Among the trypsins we have the pa pain of the Papaw fruit (Carica Papaya), the bromelin of the Pine-apple, and the enzymes present in many germinating seeds, in the seedlings of several plants, and in other parts.
She studied the berry-like seeds that grew in a cluster at the top of the bush.
Their food was the meat they killed in the chase, or seeds and roots, grubs or reptiles.Advertisement
They subsisted miserably on the bounty of some natives, and partly by feeding on the seeds of a plant called nardoo.
The seeds of the cryptogams or flowerless plants are not true seeds and are properly designated "spores."
The whole world is represented by the figure of a tree, of which the seeds and roots are the first indeterminate matter, the leaves the accidents, the twigs and branches corruptible creatures, the blossoms the rational soul, and the fruit pure spirits or angels.
Seeds are carried with more facility when provided with plumes or wings.
The seeds of West Indian plants are thrown on the western shores of the British Isles, and as they are capable of germination, the species are only prevented from establishing themselves by an uncongenial climate.Advertisement
Birds are even more effective than wind in transporting seeds to long distances.
Fruit-pigeons are an effective means of transport in the tropics by the undigested seeds which they void in their excrement.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains (i) an extract of the fresh corm, having doses of 4 to i grain, and (2) the Vinum Colchici, made by treating the dried corm with sherry and given in doses of 10 to 30 minims. This latter is the preparation still most generally used, though the presence of veratrine both in the corm and the seeds renders the use of colchicine itself theoretically preferable.
Corn, seeds, cattle, butter and cheese are the principal produce.
Destiny helped her with planting the green bean seeds.Advertisement
The seeds are roasted and eaten by the natives; the timber, which somewhat resembles walnut, is soft, fine-grained, and takes a good polish, but is not durable.
They are propagated by cuttings, or from the leaves, which are cut off and pricked in welldrained pots of sandy soil, or by the scales from the underground tubes, which are rubbed off and sown like seeds, or by the seeds, which are very small.
The fruit is ripe in July, and is an oval, yellowish, fleshy berry, containing twelve or more seeds, each surrounded by a pulpy outer coat or aril.
Italy was broken up into districts, each offering points for attack from without, and fostering the seeds of internal revolution.
Individual things are supposed to arise out of the original being, as animals and plants out of seeds.Advertisement
Lucretius regards the primitive atoms (first beginnings or first bodies) as seeds out of which individual things are developed.
These atoms, which are the seeds of all things, are, however, not eternal but created by God.
We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.
It should be remembered that a single complete defoliation of a herbaceous annual may so incapacitate the assimilation that no stores are available for seeds, tubers, &c., for another year, or at most so little that feeble plants only come up. In the case of a tree matters run somewhat differently; most large trees in full foliage have far more assimilatory surface than is immediately necessary, and if the injury is confined to a single year it may be a small event in the life of the tree, but if repeated the cambium, bud-stores and fruiting may all suffer.
The pollination, of flowers and the dispersal of seeds by various animals are biological factors; but pollination and dispersal by the wind cannot be so regarded.
Aleurone.Aleurone is a proteid substance which occurs in seeds especially those containing oil, in the form of minute granules or large grains.
Nature therefore has provided various contrivances by which their seeds are disseminated beyond the actual position they occupy.
Quadrupeds also play their part by carrying seeds or fruits entangled in their coats.
Even insects, as in the case of South African locusts, have been found to be a means of distributing seeds.
Propagation is by the formation of new corms from the parent corm, and by seeds.
In the succeeding January or February it sends up its leaves, together with the ovary, which perfects its seeds during the summer.
The dried ripe seeds of this plant are also used in medicine.
They are exceedingly hard and difficult to pulverize, odourless, bitter and readily confused with black mustard seeds.
This Strophanthus is not remarkable for its rubber - which is mere bird lime - but for the powerful poison of its seeds, often used for poisoning arrows, but of late much in use as a drug for treating diseases of the heart.
Of the numerous other families of the Clavicornia may be mentioned the Cucujidae and Cryptophagidae, small beetles, examples of which may be found feeding on stored seeds or vegetable refuse, and the Mycetophagidae, which devour fungi.
Secondly, he knew that the greater the proportion of the Athenians who were prosperously at work in the country and therefore did not trouble to interfere in the work of government the less would be the danger of sedition, whose seeds are in a crowded city.
The leaves of the cypresses are scale-like, overlapping and generally in four rows; the female catkins are roundish, and fewer than the male; the cones consist of from six to ten peltate woody scales, which end in a curved point, and open when the seeds are ripe; the seeds are numerous and winged.
The seeds are sown in April, and come up in three or four weeks; the plants require protection from frost during their first winter.
The cones, about the size of a small walnut, bear spirally arranged imbricated scales which subtend the three-angled winged seeds.
In any case the association of Poseidon, representing the fertilizing element of moisture, with Demeter, who causes the plants and seeds to grow, is quite natural, and seems to have been widespread.
The view that the seeds of Yahwism were planted in the young Israelite nation in the days of the " exodus " conflicts with the belief that the worship of Yahweh began in the pre-Mosaic age.
The seeds are harvested from various grasses, especially from Aristida oligantha, a species known as " ant rice," which often grows in quantity close to the site selected for the nest, but the statement that the ants deliberately sow this grass is an error, due, according to Wheeler, to the sprouting of germinating seeds.
The seeds are minute and innumerable; they contain a small rudimentary embryo surrounded by a thin loose membraneous coat, and are scattered by means of hygroscopic hairs on the inside of the valves which by their movements jerk out the seeds.
The seeds, or properly fruits, are contained singly in a stony involucre or bract, which does not open until the enclosed seed germinates.
The yellow maggots devour the seeds and thus ruin the crop. When deformed fruits are noticed they should be picked off and burned immediately.
The ground continued to be cropped so long as it produced two seeds; the best farmers were contented with four seeds, which was more than the general produce.
Under the old Norfolk or four-course rotation (roots, barley, clover, wheat) land thus seeded with clover or grass seeds was intended to be ploughed up at the end of a year.
They are effected chiefly by some alteration in the description of the root-crop, and perhaps by the introduction of the potato crop; by growing a different cereal, or it may be more than one cereal consecutively; by the growth of some other leguminous crop than clover, since " clover-sickness " may result if that crop is grown at too short intervals, or the intermixture of grass seeds with the clover, and perhaps by the extension by one or more years of the period allotted to this member of the rotation.
Seeds of various plants are also attacked by weevils of the family Bruchidae, especially beans and peas.
These seed-feeders may be killed in the seeds by subjecting them to the fumes of bisulphide of carbon.
The elongated cylindrical cones grow chiefly at the ends of the upper branches; they are purplish at first, but become afterwards green, and eventually light brown; their scales are slightly toothed at the extremity; they ripen in the autumn, but seldom discharge their seeds until the following spring.
B, Ripe cone scale with seeds, enlarged.
The chief of these silk cottons is kapok, consisting of the hairs borne on the interior of the pods (but not attached to the seeds) of Eriodendron anfractuosum, the silk cotton tree, a member of the Bombacaceae, an order very closely allied to the Malvaceae.
Seeds covered with long hairs only, flowers yellow, turning to red.
It is usually regarded as the standard Egyptian cotton; the lint is yellowish brown, the seeds black and almost smooth, usually with a little tuft of short green hairs at the ends.
The fibre takes almost nothing from the land, and where the seeds are restored to the soil in some form, even without other fertilizers, the exhaustion of the soil is very slow.
The seed is dropped from a planter, five or six seeds in a single line, at regular intervals i o to 1 2 in.
This comprises separating the fibre or lint from the seeds, the operation being known as " ginning."
Channels formed at right angles to the cultivation ridges provide for the access of water to the crop. The seeds, previously soaked, are sown, usually in March, on the sides of the ridges, and the land watered.
The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.
They are adapted to special conditions which are lacking in their new surroundings, but a few will probably do fairly well the first year, and the seeds from these probably rather better the next, and so on, so that in a few years' time a strain may be available which is equal or even superior to the original one introduced.
But before the close of their rule a miraculous event occurred on the Chang-pai-Shan mountains which is popularly believed to have laid the seeds of the greatness of the present rulers of the empire.
The exports are chiefly groundnuts, rubber of inferior quality, sesamum and other oil seeds, tortoise-shell and ebony.
Though the fondness of this species for the seeds of flax (Linum) and hemp (Cannabis) has given it its common name in so many European languages,' it feeds largely, if not chiefly in Britain on the seeds of plants of the order Compositae, especially those growing on heaths and commons.
It is convenient to place in a small envelope gummed to an upper corner of the sheet any flowers, seeds or leaves needed for dissection or microscopical examination, especially where from the fixation of the specimen it is impossible to examine the leaves for oilreceptacles and where seed is apt to escape from ripe capsules and be lost.
Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium is exported for the manufacture of insect-powder, and sunflowers are cultivated for the oil contained in their seeds.
That there is no essential difference between the two is, however, shown by the facts that the seeds of the peach will produce nectarines, and vice versa, and that it is not very uncommon, though still exceptional, to see peaches and nectarines on the same branch, and fruits which combine in themselves the characteristics of both nectarines and peaches.
As to the nectarine, of its origin as a variation from the peach there is abundant evidence, as has already been mentioned; it is only requisite to add the very important fact that the seeds of the nectarine, even when that nectarine has been produced by bud-variation from a peach, will generally produce nectarines, or, as gardeners say, "come true."
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
Other important crops in the order of their value are oats, hay and forage, Indian corn, barley, flax-seed, potatoes, rye, grass seeds, wild grass, clover, beans, peas, and miscellaneous vegetables and orchard products.
Plant albumins or phyto-albumins have been chiefly investigated in the case of those occurring in seeds; most are globulins,.
It is known as the silk rubber tree, probably on account of the silky hairs which are attached to the seeds.
The fruit is a capsule containing three seeds rather larger than cobnuts, having a brown smooth surface figured with black patches.
The seeds readily lose their vitality, and on this account need special care in transport.
These seeds have been examined at the Imperial Institute, and the kernels have been found to contain nearly half their weight (48%) of an oil resembling linseed oil and applicable for the same purposes.
There is present in the seeds an enzyme which rapidly decomposes the oil if the seeds are crushed and kept, setting free a fatty acid and glycerin.
As the seeds are very abundant, they will probably be utilized commercially as soon as the demand for planting has subsided.
The flowers are yellow, and the seeds enclosed in a pod are long and thin with numerous long silky fibres attached to them, which enable the seeds to be readily carried by the wind.
The seeds are filled with the large embryo, the two cotyledons of which are variously folded.
The seeds of keeping.
By the contraction of the valves the small smooth seeds, which form FIG.
The anthers are so situated that the pollen on escaping comes into contact with the stigma; in such flowers self-fertilization is compulsory and very effectual, as seeds in profusion are produced.
They are easily propagated by divisions of the root or by seeds; great care should be taken not to leave pieces of the root about owing to its very poisonous character.
Besides these, tonka beans, anatto, vanilla, and castor-oil seeds form a part of the exports.
In Paris he made the acquaintance of Wilkes, and from Montpellier, in January 1766, addressed a letter to him which sowed the seeds of their personal antipathy.
On his return from exile, after the subsidence of the Tatar deluge, he found his kingdom in ashes; and his two great remedies, wholesale immigration and castle-building, only sowed the seeds of fresh disasters.
It has important commerce in linen, flax, hemp, wool and seeds, and a considerable transit trade.
The principal exports are rubber, sugar, ground-nuts and oil seeds, beeswax, chromite (from Rhodesia), and gold (from Manica).
At marriage they burn benzoin with nim seeds (Melia Azadirachta, Roxburgh) to keep off evil spirits, and prepare the bride-cakes by putting a quantity of benzoin between layers of wheaten dough, closed all round, and frying them in clarified butter.
The plague was scarcely stayed before the whole city was in flames, a calamity of the first magnitude, but one which in the end caused much good, as the seeds of disease were destroyed, and London has never since been visited by such an epidemic. On the 2nd of September 1666 the fire broke out at one o'clock in the morning at a house in Pudding Lane.
There are also iron, zinc and chemical manufactures, and the cultivation of agricultural seeds is carried on.
The seeds or grape-stones are somewhat club-shaped, with a narrow neck-like portion beneath, which expands into a rounded and thickened portion above.
Soil whose temperature remains low, whether from its northerly aspect or from its high water content or other cause, is unsatisfactory, because the germination of seeds and the general life processes of plants cannot go on satisfactorily except at certain temperatures well above freezing-point.
Later the nitrogen-content of the nodule decreases, most of the organisms, which are largely composed of proteid material, becoming digested and transformed into soluble nitrogenous compounds which are conducted to the developing roots and seeds.
The method of using them most frequently adopted consists in applying them to the seeds of leguminous plants before sowing, the seed being dipped for a time in a liquid containing the bacteria.
The new warp is allowed to lie fallow during the winter after being laid out in four-yard " lands " and becomes dry enough to be sown with oats and grass and clover seeds in the following spring.
By the French ambassador to Portugal, Jean Nicot, seeds were sent from the Peninsula to the queen, Catherine de' Medici.
The seeds are brown in colour, with a rough surface, of minute size, and exceedingly numerous; as many as 1,000,000 may be produced by a single plant.
Tobacco seeds are very small, and it is estimated that about 300,000 to 400,000 seeds go to the ounce.
To destroy the seeds, &c., of weeds, and the larvae of insect pests, a fire is often lighted, kept from the ground itself by intervening wood logs, or the seed-bed is thoroughly steamed.
After this treatment the upper 2 or 3 in, of soil are well pulverized, and fertilizers added, usually, to prevent reintroduction of seeds of weeds, in the form of guano or chemical manures.
Another favourable feature is the fact that a single capsule contains from 4000 to 8000 seeds, and one tobacco plant may easily produce from 500,000 to 1,000,000 seeds.
When ripe the seeds are much esteemed as a delicacy, while in France much oil of fine quality is extracted from them by pressure.
It is propagated by seeds, and occasionally by budding, grafting or inarching for the perpetuation of special varieties.
The seeds are provided with a long membranous wing.
But although the use of the potters wheel had long been understood, the objects produced were simple utensils tc contain offerings of rice, fruit and fish at the austere ceremonials of the Shinto faith, jars for storing seeds, and vessels for commor domestic use.
When ripe the two carpels separate in the form of two valves and liberate a large number of seeds, each provided at the base with a tuft of silky hairs, and containing a straight embryo without any investing albumen.
Their chief food is grass and seeds, but they also consume roots.
In spite of his own wonderful genius the seeds of weakness were sown in his lifetime.
Their food is various, consisting of berries, seeds and insects.
The chief exports consist of rice, rattans, torches, dried fish, areca-nuts, sesamum seeds, molasses, sea-slugs, edible birds' nests and tin.
He was an idealist; but in this very fact lay the seeds of his failure.
Where the temperature allowed, vegetable diet increased, and fruits, seeds and roots were laid under tribute.
Plots of ground were burned over, trees were girdled, and seeds were planted by means of sharpened sticks.
The first year the crop would be free from weeds, the second year only those grew whose seeds were wafted or carried by birds, the third year the crop required hoeing, which was done with sticks, and then the space was abandoned for new ground.
The sepals and petals are free or more or less united, the stamens as many or twice as many as the petals; the carpels, usually free, are equal to the petals in number, and form in the fruit follicles with two or more seeds.
Saxony owes its unusual wealth in fruit partly to the care of the elector Augustus I., who is said never to have stirred abroad without fruit seeds for distribution among the peasants and farmers.
A considerable acreage is under beans, and in Thanet mustard, spinach, canary seed and a variety of other seeds are raised.
The conclusion at which he arrives is that the pollen is not in all flowering plants necessary for impregnation, for fertile seeds can be produced without its influence.
The structure of the flower represents the simple type of monocotyledons, consisting of two whorls of petals, of three free parts each, six free stamens, and a consolidated pistil of three carpels, ripening into a three-valved capsule containing many winged seeds.
Tulips are readily raised from seeds, and the seedlings when they first flower (after about 7 years cultivation) are of one colour - that is, they are self-coloured.
The legislatures of Massachusetts and Connecticut approved of these proposed amendments and sent commissioners to Washington to urge their adoption, but before their arrival the war had closed, and not only did the amendments fail to receive the approval of any other state, but the legislatures of nine states expressed their disapproval of the Hartford Convention itself, some charging it with sowing "seeds of dissension and disunion."
The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.
Those plants which are widely distributed are generally found to be propagated from seeds which can easily be carried by the wind or by ocean currents, or form the food of migratory birds.
The enlarged spiny scales scattered over the back look as if it were sprinkled with the dried husks of seeds.
But "the terrible power in the universal church, the great riches and the extraordinary prestige" of the Society, which Palafox complained had raised it "above all dignities, laws, councils and apostolic constitutions," carried with them the seeds of rapid and inevitable decay.
In spring the chaffinch is destructive to early flowers, and to young radishes and turnips just as they appear above the surface; in summer, however, it feeds principally on insects and their larvae, while in autumn and winter its food consists of grain and other seeds.
Suitable machinery for cleaning the grain is everywhere in general use, so that weed seeds are removed before the wheat is ground.
The seed branch of the department of agriculture was established in 1900 for the purpose of encouraging the production and use of seeds of superior quality, thereby improving all kinds of field and garden crops grown in Canada.
Seeds are tested in the laboratory for purity and germination on behalf of farmers and seed merchants, and scientific investigations relating to seeds are conducted and reported upon.
In the year 1906-1907 -6676 samples of seeds were tested.
Collections of weed seeds are issued to merchants and others to enable them readily to identify noxious weed seeds.
The Seed Control Act of 1905 brings under strict regulations the trade in agricultural seeds, prohibiting the sale for seeding of cereals, grasses, clovers or forage plants unless free from weeds specified, and imposing severe penalties for infringements.
The Garton artificial fertilization experiments have shown endless deviations from the ordinary type, ranging from minute seeds with a closely adhering husk to big berries almost as large as sloes and about as worthless.
Seeds should be sown in spring in a cold frame, and the young plants should be put out into beds when large enough, and should flower the following May.
They are as a rule of a very hardy character, thriving best in northern latitudes - the trees having round, slender branches, and serrate, deciduous leaves, with barren and fertile catkins on the same tree, and winged fruits, the so-called seeds.
It flourishes in light soils and is one of the few trees that will grow amongst heather; owing to the large number of "winged seeds" which are readily scattered by the wind, it spreads rapidly, springing up where the soil is dry and covering clearings or waste places.
The chief exports are rice, indigo, linseed and other seeds, saltpetre and tobacco.
The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.
The tree flowers in April or May, and the winged seeds are shed the following autumn.
The seeds are sown in April, on rich ground, which should not be too highly manured; the young larches are planted out when two years old, or sometimes transferred to a nursery bed to attain a larger size; but, like all conifers, they succeed best when planted young; on the mountains, the seedlings are usually put into a mere slit made in the ground by a spade with a triangular blade, the place being first cleared of any heath, bracken, or tall herbage that might smother the young tree; the plants should be from 3 to 4 ft.
Gram is largely cultivated in the East, where the seeds are eaten raw or cooked in various ways, both in their ripe and unripe condition, and when roasted and ground subserve the same purposes as ordinary flour.
In Europe the seeds are used as an ingredient in soups.
The liquid which exudes from the glandular hairs clothing the leaves and stems of the plant, more especially during the cold season when the seeds ripen, contains a notable proportion of oxalic acid.
It is suggested that these teeth may have been employed for cracking nuts or hard seeds; although also used for grinding.
According to Stanislas Julien a ceremonial ordinance was established in China by the emperor Chin-nung 2800 years B.C., in accordance with which the emperor sows the rice himself while the seeds of four other kinds may be sown by the princes of his family.
The movement had the seeds of great vitality in it.
The seed pods, which contain two or three seeds or beans, are 6 or 7 in.
Both sexes delight in adorning themselves with garlands (leis) of flowers and necklaces of coloured seeds.
To obtain a crop of bulbs for pickling, seed should be sown thickly in March, in rather poor soil, the seeds being very thinly covered, and the surface well rolled; these are not to be thinned, but should be pulled and harvested when ripe.
Onions may be forced like mustard and cress if required for winter salads, the seeds being sown thickly in boxes which are to be placed in a warm house or frame.
They sowed the seeds of a rich religious popular literature in the East as well as in the West.
Taken as a whole, the finches, concerning which no reasonable doubt can exist, are not only little birds with a hard bill, adapted in most cases for shelling and eating the various seeds that form the chief portion of their diet when adult, but they appear to be mainly forms which predominate in and are highly characteristic of the Palaearctic Region; moreover, though some are found elsewhere on the globe, the existence of but very few in the Notogaean hemisphere can as yet be regarded as certain.
It rarely happens, however, that the change is quite complete throughout the flower, and so a few seeds may be formed, some of which may be expected to reproduce the double-blossomed plants.
Having crossed yellow and green seeded peas both ways, he found that the progeny resulted in all yellow coloured seeds.
In the third generation the yellows from the second generation gave the proportion of one pure yellow, two impure yellows, and one green; while the green seed of the second generation threw only green seeds in the third, fourth and fifth generations.
The length of the period during which seeds remain dormant after their formation is very variable.
Some seeds require prolonged immersion in water to soften their shells; others are of so delicate a texture that they would dry up and perish if not kept constantly in a moist atmosphere.
Seeds buried too deeply receive a deficient supply of air.
As a rule, seeds require to be sown more deeply in proportion to their size and the lightness of the soil.
The time required for germination in the most favourable circumstances varies very greatly, even in the same species, and in seeds taken from one pod.
Thus the seeds of Primula japonica, though sown under precisely similar conditions, yet come up at very irregular intervals of time.
Large and well-formed seeds are to be preferred for harvesting.
The seeds should be kept in sacks or bags in a dry place, and if from plants which are rare, or liable to lose their vitality, they are advantageously packed for transmission to a distance in hermetically sealed bottles or jars filled with earth or moss, without the addition of moisture.
It will have been gathered from what has been said that seeds cannot always be depended on to reproduce exactly the characteristics of the plant which yielded them; for instance, seeds of the greengage plum or of the Ribston pippin will produce a plum or an apple, but not these particular varieties, to perpetuate which grafts or buds must be employed.
When weeds are thrown to the pigs, this fermentation becomes specially desirable to kill their seeds.
Many seeds will grow freely if sown in a partially ripened state; but as a general rule seeds have to be kept for some weeks or months in store, and hence they should be thoroughly ripened before being gathered.
In the case of outdoor crops, if the soil is inclined to be heavy, it is a good plan to cover all the smaller seeds with a light compost.
Somewhat larger seeds sown indoors may be covered to the depth of one-eighth or;,one-fourth of an inch, according to their size.
Outdoor crops require to be sown, the smaller seeds from z to i in., and the larger ones from 2 to 4 in.
Many seeds grow well when raked in; that is, the surface on which they are scattered is raked backwards and forwards until most of them are covered.
Whatever the seeds, the ground should be made tolerably firm both beneath and above them; this may be done by treading in the case of most kitchen garden crops, which are also better sown in drills, this admitting the more readily of the ground being kept clear from weeds by hoeing.
All seeds require a certain degree of heat to induce germination.
It is very important that seeds should be sown when the ground is in a good working condition, and not clammy with moisture.
It is of the utmost importance that a good selection of grasses be made, and that pure seeds should be obtained (see Grass And Grassland).
Handsome climbing herbs, increased by seeds or division.
The last-named, however, is best raised from seeds every year, and treated like the biennial kinds.
In the early stages seeds of carrots and radishes are sown simultaneously on the same beds, and over them young lettuces that have been raised in advance are planted.
Sow seeds of greenhouse and hothouse plants; also the different sorts of tender annuals; pot off those sown last month; sow cineraria for the earliest bloom; also Chinese primulas.
Sow in the second and the last week, on a warm border of a light sandy soil, with an east aspect, any free-flowering hardy annuals as Silene pendula, Nemophila, &c., for planting in spring; and auricula and primula seeds in pots and boxes.
Flower Garden, &c. - Sow in the beginning of this month all halfhardy annuals required for early flowering; also mignonette in pots, thinning the plants at an early stage; the different species of primula; and the seeds of such plants as, if sown in spring, seldom come up the same season, but if sown in September and October, vegetate readily the succeeding spring.
But little can be done in the northern states except to prepare manure, and get sashes, tools, &c., in working order; but in sections of the country where there is little or no frost the hardier kinds of seeds and plants may be sown and planted, such as asparagus, cabbage, cauliflower, carrot, leek, lettuce, onion, parsnip, peas, spinach, turnip, &c. In any section where these seeds can be sown in open ground, it is an indication that hotbeds may be started for the sowing of such tender vegetables as tomatoes, egg and pepper plants, &c.; though, unless in the extreme southern states, hotbeds should not be started before the beginning or middle of February.
Cabbage, lettuce and cauliflower seeds, if sown early this month in hotbed or greenhouse, will make fine plants if transplanted into hotbed in March.
In localities where the frost is out of the ground, if it is not wet, seeds of the hardier vegetables can be sown.
In March flower seeds and vegetable seeds may be sown in boxes or flats in the greenhouse, or in residence windows, or near the kitchen stove.
Unless one has space under glass, or in hotbeds, in which the plants may be transplanted before they are set in the open ground, it is well not to start the seeds too early, inasmuch as the plants are likely to become too large or to be pot-bound, or to become drawn.
Hardier sorts of vegetable seeds and plants, such as beets, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, lettuce, onions, parsley, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, spinach, turnip, &c., should all be sown or planted by the middle of the month if the soil is dry and warm, and in all cases, where practicable, before the end of the month.
It is essential, in sowing seeds now, that they be well firmed in the soil.
Annuals that have been sown in the greenhouse or hotbed may be planted out, and seeds of such sorts as mignonette, sweet alyssum, Phlox Drummondii, portulaca, &c., may be sown in the beds or borders.
Sow seeds of sweet alyssum, candytuft, daisies, mignonette, pansies, &c. Visit the roadsides and woods for interesting plants to put in the hardy borders.
In the south of England, with the habit of an annual, it ripens its seeds in favourable seasons; and it has been known to come to maturity as far north as Christiania in Norway.
The seeds of the different cultivated varieties, of which there are a great number, differ much in size and in external markings; but average seeds are of an oval laterally compressed form, with their longest diameter about four lines.
The seeds contain a toxic substance, which makes them actively poisonous; so much so that three have been known to kill an adult.
The oil is obtained from the seeds by two principal methods - expression and decoction - the latter process being largely used in India, where the oil, on account of its cheapness and abundance is extensively employed for illuminating as well as for other domestic and medicinal purposes.
The oil exported from Calcutta to Europe is prepared by shelling and crushing the seeds between rollers.
By this method loo lb of good seeds yield about 5 gallons of pure oil.
Disputes had been constantly recurring between Dutch and English traders in the East Indies and elsewhere, and the seeds were already sown of that stern rivalry which was to issue in a series of fiercely contested wars.
Ericaceae, Pyrolaceae, Gentianaceae, Orchidaceae, ferns, &c. Recent experiments have shown that the difficulties of getting orchid seeds to germinate are due to the absence of the necessary fungus, which must be in readiness to infect the young seedling immediately it emerges from the seed.
It is an important entrepot for grain, seeds and timber.
The staple diet of the Paraguayans is still, as when the Spaniards first came, maize and mandioca (the chief ingredient in the excellent chipa or, Paraguayan bread), varied, it may be, with the seeds of the Victoria regia, whose magnificent blossoms are the great feature of several of the lakes and rivers.
The mixture of seeds for sowing a water-meadow demands much consideration, and must be modified according to local circumstances of soil, aspect, climate and drainage.
From the peculiar use which is made of the produce of an irrigated meadow, and from the conditions to which it is subjected, it is necessary to include in our mixture of seeds some that produce an early crop, some that give an abundant growth, and some that impart sweetness and good flavour, while all the kinds sown must be capable of flourishing on irrigated soil.
The following mixtures of seeds (stated in pounds per acre) have been recommended for sowing on water-meadows, Messrs Sutton of Reading, after considerable experience, regarding No.
After the new land has been left for a year or two in seeds and clover, it produces great crops of wheat and potatoes.
Ulm, Nuremberg, Quedlinburg, Erfurt, Strassburg and Guben are famed for their vegetables and garden seeds.
The The claim of the Papacy to political supremacy received domestic in his time its death-blow, and the popes themselves policy of sowed the seeds of the alienation from Rome which Louis.
The seeds of the.Reformation were laid during the time of the great conflict between the Papacy and the Empire.
Meal derived from leguminous seeds makes the flesh firm and improves the quality.
In dry weather the valves open, and the small seeds are ejected through the pores when the capsule is shaken by the wind on its long stiff slender stalk.
Without being very plentiful anywhere, it is generally distributed in suitable localities throughout its range - those localities being such as afford it a sufficient supply of food, consisting during the greater part of the year of insects, which it diligently seeks on the boles and larger limbs of old trees; but in autumn and winter it feeds on nuts, beech-mast, the stones of yew-berries and hard seeds.
The vase-stamps often state the name of the contents (always seeds or fruits), probably not to show what was in them, but to show for what kind of seed the vessel was a true measure.
In 1707 the Sheik al-Bamad, Qgsim Iywa.z, is found at the head of one of two Mameluke factions, the Qasimites and the Fiqarites, between whom the seeds of enmity were sown by the pasha of the time, with the result that a fight took place between the factions outside Cairo, lasting eighty days.
From Holberg's college of Sorb, two learned professors, Jens Schelderup Sneedorff (1724-1764) and Jens Kraft (1720-1765), disseminated the seeds of a wider culture.
Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown had established in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants.
Seeds in which endosperm or perisperm or both exist are commonly called albuminous or endospermic, those in which neither is found are termed exalbuminous or exendospermic. These terms, extensively used by systematists, only refer, however, to the grosser features of the seed, and indicate the more or less evident.
In Gymnosperms we have seeds, and the carpels may become modified and close around these, as in Pinus, during the process of ripening to form an imitation of a box-like fruit which subsequently opening allows the seeds to escape; but there is never in them the closed ovary investing from the outset the ovules, and ultimately forming the ground-work of the fruit.
Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds upon a suitable nidus for germination, the primary essential of which is a sufficiency of moisture, and the duration of vitality of the embryo is a point of interest.
Some vitality seeds retain vita for period of many years, though s e e of Y P Y Y ?
Jutland; exports pork and meat, butter, eggs, fish, cattle and sheep, skins, lard and agricultural seeds, and has regular communication with Harwich and Grimsby in England.
Fruit cut across showing the petals and the stigmas have three chambers containing been removed, leaving the seeds.
The seeds must be from ripe fruit, and if fresh gathered should be freed from pulp by maceration in water.
Every movement for reform carries within it the seeds of revolution, and Luther's was no exception to the rule.
To prepare the nutmegs for use, the seed enclosing the kernel is dried at a gentle heat in a drying-house over a smouldering fire for about two months, the seeds being turned every second or third day.
The process of liming, which originated at the time when the Dutch held a monopoly of the trade, was with the view of preventing the germination of the seeds, which were formerly immersed for three months in milk of lime for this purpose, and a preference is still manifested in some countries for nutmegs so prepared.
The name nutmeg is also applied to other fruits or seeds in different countries.
Telesio was the head of the great South Italian movement which protested against the accepted authority of abstract reason, and sowed the seeds from which sprang the scientific methods of Campanella and Bruno, of Bacon and Descartes, with their widely divergent results.
When abroad he sought out varieties of grasses, trees, rice and olives for American experiment, and after his return from France received yearly for twenty-three years, from his old friend the superintendent of the Jardin des plantes, a box of seeds, which he distributed to public and private gardens throughout the United States.
These seeds are for the most part pressed in India either in bullock presses or in oil-mills.
But a very large quantity of the seeds is exported.
Apart from this, the chief meaning, the word is used of the malt refuse of brewing and distilling, and of many hard rounded small particles, resembling the seeds of plants, such as "grains" of sand, salt, gold, gunpowder, &c. "Grain" is also the name of the smallest unit of weight, both in the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
The introduction of secular books and papers, more or less surreptitiously, helped to spread the seeds of sedition.
The principal crops are millet, rice, other food grains, pulse, oil seeds and cotton.
The jhils supply the villages with wild rice, the roots and seeds of the lotus, and the singhara water-nut.
The priest ties the cord around the waist as he pronounces the benediction upon the child, throwing upon his head at each sentence slices of fruit, seeds, perfumes and spices.
At first sight this singular structure appears so like a deformity that writers have not been wanting to account it such, 2 ignorant of its being a piece of mechanism most beautifully adapted to the habits of the bird, enabling it to extract with the greatest ease, from fir-cones or fleshy fruits, the seeds which form its usual and almost invariable food.
Depending mainly for food on the seeds of conifers, the movements of crossbills are irregular beyond those of most birds, and they would seem to rove in any direction and at any season in quest of their staple sustenance.
The seeds of Acacia niopo are roasted and used as snuff in South America.
Such art as continued was almost wholly religious; for in the wilderness of the times the churches formed oases of comparative prosperity and peace, and, even in the darkest times, wherever such oases existed there the seeds of art took root.
They also usually wear, like all Vaishnavas, a necklace of tulasi, or basil wood, and a rosary of seeds of the same shrub or of the lotus.
These seeds, the linseed of commerce, are of a lustrous brown colour externally, and a compressed and elongated oval form, with a slight beak or projection at one extremity.
The seeds when placed in water for some time become coated with glutinous matter from the exudation of the mucilage in the external layer of the epidermis; and by boiling in sixteen parts of water they exude sufficient mucilage to form with the water a thick pasty decoction.
Linseed is subject to extensive and detrimental adulterations, resulting not only from careless harvesting and cleaning, whereby seeds of the flax dodder, and other weeds and grasses are mixed with it, but also from the direct admixture of cheaper and inferior oil-seeds, such as wild rape, mustard, sesame, poppy, &c., the latter adulterations being known in trade under the generic name of " buffum."
Linseed oil, the most valuable drying oil, is obtained by expression from the seeds, with or without the aid of heat.
Preliminary to the operation of pressing, the seeds are crushed and ground to a fine meal.
Cold pressing of the seeds yields a golden-yellow oil, which is often used as an edible oil.
It was a busy and stirring time, and events occurred during it which carried within them the seeds of much future dissension.
The seeds of the flax plant, well known as linseed, are heavy, smooth, glossy and of a bright greenish-brown colour.
On the smooth surface the seed is sown broadcast by hand or machine, at the rate of 3 bushels per acre, and covered in the same manner as clover seeds.
The two valuable commercial products of the flax plant, the seeds and the stalk, are separated at this point.
Zera`im (" seeds "), the first Order, on agriculture, is introduced by (I) Berakath (" blessings "), on daily and other prayers and blessings.
Alphonse de Candolle (Geographic botanique, p. 798) informs us that several botanists of Paris, Geneva, and especially of Montpellier, have sown the seeds of many hundreds of species of exotic hardy plants, in what appeared to be the most favourable situations, but that in hardly a single case has any one of them become naturalized.
Tobacco in Sweden, raised from home-grown seed, ripens its seeds a month earlier than plants grown from foreign seed.
The same species can thus endure a great difference of temperature; but the important fact is, that the individuals have become acclimatized to the altitude at which they grow, so that seeds gathered near the upper limit of the range of a species will be more hardy than those gathered near the lower limit.
Propagation is also readily effected by seeds for raising new varieties.
Some kinds are made close and dense in texture, for carrying such seed as poppy or rape and sugar; others less close are used for rice, pulses, and seeds of like size, and coarser and opener kinds again are woven for the outer cover of packages and for the sails of country boats.
This is soon impregnated with the seeds of the Saccharum spontaneum and other grasses that have been partly brought by the winds and partly deposited by the water.
Communications were opened with China with a view to obtain fresh plants and seeds, and a deputation, composed of gentlemen versed in botanical studies, was despatched to Assam.
Some seeds were obtained from China; but they proved to be of small importance, as it was clearly ascertained by the members of the Assam deputation that both the black and the green tea plants were indigenous here, and might be multiplied to any extent; another result of the Chinese mission, that of procuring persons skilled in the cultivation and manufacture of black tea, was of more material benefit.
Parrots are found as far south as Tierra del Fuego, where Darwin saw them feeding on seeds of the Winter's bark.
The numerous male catkins are generally arranged in dense whorls around the bases of the young shoots; the anther-scales, surmounted by a crest-like appendage, shed their abundant pollen by longitudinal slits; the two ovules at the base of the inner side of each fertile cone-scale develop into a pair of winged seeds, which drop from the opening scales when mature - as in the allied genera.
The leaves are rather short, curved, and often twisted; the male catkins, in dense cylindrical whorls, fill the air of the forest with their sulphur-like pollen in May or June, and fecundate the purple female flowers, which, at first sessile and erect, then become recurved on a lengthening stalk; the ovate cones, about the length of the leaves, do not reach maturity until the autumn of the following year, and the seeds are seldom scattered until the third spring; the cone-scales terminate in a pyramidal FIG.
The tree is not at present indigenous in southern Britain, but when planted in suitable ground multiplies rapidly by the wind-sown seeds; on many of the sandy moors and commons natural pine woods of large extent have been thus formed during the last fifty years.
On the drift-sands of France, especially in the Gironde, forests have been formed mainly of this pine; the seeds, sown at first under proper shelter and protected by a thick growth of broom sown simultaneously, vegetate rapidly in the sea-sand, and the trees thus raised have, by their wind-drifted seed, covered much of the former desert of the Landes with an evergreen wood.
The beautiful reddish-brown shining cones, roundly ovate in shape, with pyramidal scale apices, have been prized from the ancient days of Rome for their edible nut-like seeds, which are still used as an article of food or dessert.
P. Gerardiana, a north-west Himalayan species, is a medium-sized tree with a conical head, growing on the more elevated parts of the mountain range; it furnishes edible seeds.
It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.
Many members of the group occur on the Mexican isthmus, one of which, P. cembroides, produces edible seeds; another, P. Montezumae, is a valuable timber tree.
Quedlinburg is famous for its nurseries and market gardens, and exports vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America.
Where the stomach and bowels are irritable, all food likely to cause mechanical irritation should be avoided, such as skins, bones, fibres and seeds.
Minor products are benni seeds, pepper and piassava.
It produces abundance of seeds, and is easily raised, but it requires good and tolerably dry soil; it will not thrive on stiff clays nor on dry sands or chalks.
If, on the other hand, the true seeds of any of our cultivated varieties are sown, the seedlings show very wide variations from one another and from the parents.
It has roundish cones, with numerous scales and wingless seeds.
The important part that these bacteria play in agriculture led to the introduction in Germany of a commercial product (the socalled " nitragin ") consisting of a pure culture of the bacteria, which is to be sprayed over the soil or applied to the seeds before sowing.
The fruit is ripe in or shortly before the first week in October, when it falls to the ground, and the three-valved thorny capsule divides, disclosing the brown and at first beautifully glossy seeds, the so-called nuts, having a resemblance to sweet chestnuts, and commonly three or else two in number.
For propagation of the tree, the seeds may be sown either when fresh, or, if preserved'in sand or earth, in spring.
From the seeds have been obtained starch (about 14%), gum, mucilage, a non-drying oil, phosphoric acid, salts of calcium, saponin, by boiling which with dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid aesculic acid is obtained, quercitrin, present also in the fully developed leaves, aescigenin, C12H2n02, and aesculetin, C 9 H 6 O 4, which is procurable also, but in small quantity only, from the bark.
The flowers are usually of a purplish colour, but are sometimes white, and the seeds, like the petals, vary in tint from dark violet to white.
Four varieties of poppy are distinguished - two with white flowers, large oval capsules without holes under their " combs " (stigmas) and bearing respectively yellow and white seed, and the other two having red or purple flowers and seeds of the same colour, one bearing small capsules, perforated at the top, and the other larger oval capsules not perforated.
It is produced in the districts of Kustendil,, Lowtscha and Halitz, and is made into lumps weighing about 4 oz., of a light-brown colour internally and containing a few seeds; it is covered with leaves which have not been identified.
The poppy grown in India is usually the white-flowered variety, but in the Himalayas a red-flowered poppy with dark seeds is cultivated.
Queen Isabella reigned from 1843 to 1868, and that period was one long succession of palace intrigues, back-stairs and antechamber influences, barrack conspiracies, military pronunciamientos to further the ends of the political parties - Moderados, who ruled from 1846 to 1854, Progressists from 1854 to 1856, Union Liberal from 1856 to 1863; Moderados and Union Liberal quickly succeeding each other and keeping out the Progressists so steadily that the seeds were sown which budded into the revolution of 1868.
The expedition was well provided with seeds of all descriptions.
The narrow, pointed leaves are spirally arranged and persist for four or five years; the cones are small, globose and borne at the ends of the branchlets, the scales are thickened at the extremity and divided into sharply pointed lobes, three to five seeds are borne on each scale.
There are many coco-nut palms, bread-fruit trees (Artocarpus incisa), various kinds of bananas, yams and taro, and pandanus, of which the natives eat the seeds.
Jahns (Ber., 1885, 18, p. 2518), and is found in the seeds of Trigonella and Strophanthus hispidus.
They occur as glycerides in rape-seed oil, in the fatty oil of mustard, and in the oil of grape seeds.
The soil of the Hawash valley proved particularly suitable for raising this crop. In the high plateaus the planting of seeds begins in May, in the lower plateaus and the plains in June, but in certain parts where the summer is long and rain abundant sowing and reaping are going on at the same time.
Although these are the most obvious characters of life, they cannot be detected in quiescent seeds, which we know to be alive, and they are displayed in a fashion very like life by inorganic foams brought in contact with liquids of different composition.
Instability, again, which lies at the root of Spencer's definition "continuous adjustment of internal relations to external relations" is displayed by living matter in very varying degrees from the apparent absolute quiescence of frozen seeds to the activity of the central nervous system, whilst there is a similar range amongst inorganic substances.
The capacity of plant seeds to remain dry and inactive for very long periods is still better known.
As in the leaf-insects, to which the stick-insects are closely allied, the egg-cases are very similar to seeds.
Recent discoveries have, however, established the fact that there existed in the Palaeozoic era fernlike plants which produced true seeds of a highly specialized type; this group, for which Oliver and Scott proposed the term Pteridospermae in 1904, must also be included in the Spermophyta.
Seeds albuminous, with one integument; the single embryo, usually bearing two partially fused cotyledons, is attached to a long tangled suspensor.
From the lower part of a carpel are produced several laterally placed ovules, which become bright red or orange on ripening; the bright fleshy seeds, which in some species are as large as a goose's egg, and the tawny spreading carpels produce a pleasing combination of colour in the midst of the long dark-green fronds, which curve gracefully upwards and outwards from the summit of the columnar stem.
A thorough examination of cycadean seeds has recently been made by Miss Stopes, more particularly with a view to a comparison of their vascular supply with that in Palaeozoic gymnospermous seeds (Flora, 1904).
A papery remnant of nucellus lines the inner face of the woody shell, and, as in cycadean seeds, the apical portion is readily separated as a cap covering the summit of the endosperm.
Among Palaeozoic genera there are some which bear a close resemblance to the recent type in Geological the form of the leaves; and petrified Palaeozoic seeds, almost identical with those of the maidenhair tree, have been described from French and English localities.
Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.
The Cupressineae have cones composed of a few scales arranged in alternate whorls; each scale bears two or more seeds, and shows no external sign of being composed of two distinct portions.
In the junipers the scales become fleshy as the seeds ripen, and the individual scales fuse together in the form of a berry.
Finally in the yew, as a type of the family Taxeae, the ovules occur singly at the apex of a lateral branch, enclosed when ripe by a conspicuous red or yellow fleshy arillus, which serves as an attraction to animals, and thus aids in the dispersal of the seeds.
In Araucaria Cookii and some allied species each scale has a small pointed projection from its upper face near the distal end, the scales of Cunninghamia (China) are characterized by a somewhat ragged membranous projection extending across the upper face between the seeds and the distal end of the scale; in the scales of Athrotaxis (Tasmania) a prominent rounded ridge occupies a corresponding position.
The seeds of some genera depend on animals for dispersal, the carpellary scale (Microcachrys) or the outer integument being brightly coloured and attractive.
But the seeds of distrust had already been sown among the members of his own family, and in 1478 his brother Clarence was put to death - secretly, indeed, within the Tower, but still by his authority and that of parliament - as a traitor.
The fruit of Butomus is of interest in having the seeds borne over the inner face of the wall of the leathery pod (follicle).
Aleurites moluccana, or triloba, is widely cultivated throughout the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world for its fruit, which is about the size of a walnut, and contains several seeds which are rich in oil.
Another palm of much economic importance in Colombia is the "tagua" (Phytelephas macrocarpa),which grows abundantly in the valleys of the Magdalena, Atrato and Patia, and produces a large melon-shaped fruit in which are found the extremely hard, fine-grained nuts or seeds known in the commercial world as vegetable ivory.
For years he had looked at all earthly good through the medium of a philosophy which taught him that it,, without exception, contained within itself the seeds of bitterness, and was altogether worthless and impermanent; but now to his wavering faith the sweet delights of home and love, the charms of wealth and power, began to show themselves in a different light, and glow again with attractive colours.
They feed on seeds, fruits, insects, lizards, &c.; and while some of the species are largely terrestrial, the Barbary ape is wholly so.
Edward left Spain with a discontented and unpaid army, and had himself contracted the seeds of a disease which was to leave him an invalid for the rest of his life.
The unfortunate persons driven from their holdings and forced to seek a refuge in the towns, in England, orwhen they could afford itin the United States, carried with them everywhere the seeds of disease, the constant handmaid of famine.
The seeds are usually three in number, sometimes fewer (1), rarely more (8), and have the surface near the middle or base marked with large glands containing oil.
The people, he contended, were no worse off under the old monarchy than they will be in the long run under assemblies that are bound by the necessity of feeding one part of the community at the grievous charge of other parts, as necessitous as those who are so fed; that are obliged to flatter those who have their lives at their disposal by tolerating acts of doubtful influence on commerce and agriculture, and for the sake of precarious relief to sow the seeds of lasting want; that will be driven to be the instruments of the violence of others from a sense of their own weakness, and, by want of authority to assess equal and proportioned charges upon all, will be compelled to lay a strong hand upon the possessions of a part.
Alphonse de Candolle, who has collected the evidence on this point, draws attention to the fact that no traces of this cereal have hitherto been found in Egyptian monuments, or in the earlier Swiss dwellings, though seeds have been found in association with weapons of the Bronze period at Olmiitz.
The most important positive evidence on this point indicates that the most ancient Gymnosperms were derived from the Filicales rather than from any other phylum of the Vascular Cryptogams. Extinct forms are known intermediate between the Ferns and the Cycads, and a number of these have been shown to bear seeds and must be classed as Pteridospermae.
These seeds are richer A, Epidermal cells.
The Polish wheat, rarely if ever cultivated in the United Kingdom, has very large lanceolate glumes, longer than the spikelet, and elongated glassy seeds.
The bearded varieties are supposed to be hardier; at any rate they defy the ravages of predatory birds more completely than the unarmed varieties, and they are preferable in countries liable to storms of wind, as less likely to have their seeds detached.
If seeds of tio of these "sporting" plants be taken and grown in another season, they may (or may not) reproduce the particular variation.
The wheat used for this purpose is carefully selected after the harvest of the previous year, and is thoroughly cleaned of foreign seeds.
A few years ago the wheat received from the north-west was very clean indeed, but since the new land has all been cultivated the fields are growing more weedy, with the result that the wheat brought in is becoming mixed with oats and seeds of weeds, requiring more careful separating and inspection.
The capsule opens transversely by a convex lid and contains numerous seeds.
The Mahommedan doctors of India are accustomed to prescribe the seeds.
The smoking of the seeds and capsules of henbane is noted in books as a somewhat dangerous remedy adopted by country people for toothache.