Seed sentence example
For the sowing of seed see Sowing.
Farmers need to have supplies of seed, fertilizer, tractors, and fuel.
But when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought), Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated with her.
A seed of a thought that emerged yesterday returned stronger.
Thus in the end of the 17th century the seed was sown which has at intervals brought forth recurrent crops of evolutional hypotheses, based, more or less completely, on general reasonings.Advertisement
Computers can determine when to plant seed and even what to plant.
The earth in the kitchen garden looked wet and black and glistened like poppy seed and at a short distance merged into the dull, moist veil of mist.
To the temple came the poor farmer to borrow seed corn or supplies for harvesters, &c. - advances which he repaid without interest.
If he stole the seed, rations or fodder, the Code enacted that his fingers should be cut off.
The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.Advertisement
Institutions possessing a special character are the monti frumentarii, public grain deposits, founded for the purpose of supplying peasant proprietors with seed corn, debts being paid in kind with interest after harvest.
Then, make them all soak their fingers in ice water so they are numb and work even slower, creating another thirty jobs for cold-fingered, blindfolded cotton seed removers.
It doesn't matter who planted the seed.
Sheerness has some trade in corn and seed,, and there is steamboat connexion with Port Victoria, on the opposite side of the Medway; with Southend, on the opposite side of the Thames; and with Chatham and London, and the town is in some favour as a seaside resort.
The " nardoo " seed, on which the aborigines sometimes contrived to exist, is a creeping plant, growing plentifully in swamps and shallow pools, and belongs to the natural order of Marsileaceae.Advertisement
Another who " got the seed " and " grew the flower " was Herbert Spencer.
Aquatic plants occur among seed plants but these are readaptations of land plants to an aquatic environment.
Its nutritive pabulum is supplied to it in the shape of certain complex organic substances which have been stored in some part or other of the seed, sometimes even in its own tissues, by the parent plant from which it springs.
He basically followed old agriculture; he planted a lot of seed and hoped for rain.
The terms of agrarian contracts and leases (except in districts where mezzadria prevails in its essential form), are in many regions disadvantageous to the laborers, who suffer from the obligation to provide guarantees for payment of rent, for repayment of seed corn and for the division of products.Advertisement
The seed is a new structure characteristic of this group, which is therefore often referred to as the Seed-plants.
The seed is enclosed when ripe in the fruit, a development of the ovary as a result of fertilization of the egg-cell.
We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.
On germination of the seed the radicle first grows out, increasing in size as a whole, and soon adding to its tissues by cell division at its apical growing-point.
Cotton seed hulls constitute about half the weight of the ginned seed.Advertisement
While you are planting the seed, he cries--"Drop it, drop it--cover it up, cover it up--pull it up, pull it up, pull it up."
In the genus Abies, the silver firs, the cones are erect, and their scales drop off when the seed ripens; the leaves spread in distinct rows on each side of the shoot.
Introduced into Britain at the beginning of the 17th century, the silver fir has become common there as a planted tree, though, like the Norway spruce, it rarely comes up from seed scattered naturally.
An active trade is carried on with Austria, especially through the Isakovets and Gusyatin custom-houses, corn, cattle, horses, skins, wool, linseed and hemp seed being exported, in exchange for wooden wares, linen, woollen stuffs, cotton, glass and agricultural implements.
Towards the city the red soil is intersected by creeks and morasses, whose margins yield crops of rice, mustard and til seed; while to the east of the town, a broad, alluvial, well-cultivated plain reaches as far as the junction of the Dhaleswari and Lakshmia rivers.Advertisement
The general rule with regard to " waygoing crops " on arable farms is that the tenant is entitled to reap the crop sown before the term of removal (whether or not that be the natural termination of the lease), the right of exclusive possession being his during seed time.
Each fibre is formed by the outgrowth of a single epidermal cell of the testa or outer coat of the seed.
There remains one other important group, the so-called " kidney " cottons in which there are only long hairs, and the seed easily comes away clean as with " Sea Island," but, instead of each seed being separate, the whole group in each of the three compartments of the capsule is firmly united together in a more or less kidney-shaped mass.
By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.
During April (when the seed is usually sown) and May frequent light showers, which keep the ground sufficiently moist to assist germination and the growth of the young plants, are desired.Advertisement
The seed is dropped from a planter, five or six seeds in a single line, at regular intervals i o to 1 2 in.
A narrow deep furrow is usually run immediately in advance of the planter, to break up the soil under the seed.
When this has been accomplished the weight of the crop is reduced to about one-third, each 100 lb of seed cotton as picked yielding after ginning some 33 lb of lint and 66 lb of cotton seed.
The separation of lint from seed is accomplished in various ways.
The most primitive is hand-picking, the fibre being laboriously pulled from off each seed, as still practised in parts of Africa.Advertisement
It consists essentially of two rollers either both of wood, or one of wood and one of iron, geared to revolve in contact in opposite directions; the seed cotton is fed to the rollers, the lint is drawn through, and the seed being unable to pass between the rollers is rejected.
Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.
The history of no agricultural product contains more of interest and instruction for the student of economics than does that of cotton seed in the United States.
Cotton seed in those days was the object of so much aversion that the planter burned it or threw it into running streams, as was most convenient.
If the seed were allowed to lie about, it rotted, and hogs and other animals, eating it, often died.Advertisement
Although used in the early days to a limited extent as a food for milch cows and other stock, and to a larger extent as a manure, no systematic efforts were made anywhere in the South to manufacture the seed until the later 'fifties, when the first cotton seed mills were established.
Experience shows that 1000 lb of seed are produced for every 50o lb of cotton brought to market.
On the basis, therefore, of a cotton crop of io,000,000 bales of 500 lb each, there are produced 5,000,000 tons of cotton seed.
If about 3,000,000 tons only are pressed, there remain to be utilized on the farm 2,000,000 tons of cotton seed, which, if manufactured, would produce a total of $100,000,000 from cotton seed.
In contrast with the farmers of the 'sixties, the southern planter of the 10th century appreciates the value of his cotton seed, and farmers, too remote from the mills to get it pressed, now feed to their stock all the cotton seed they conveniently can, and use the residue either in compost or directly as manure.Advertisement
Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.
Compared with the commercial fertilizer which the farmer has to buy, cotton seed possesses, therefore, a distinct value.
The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.
The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard, which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.
In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.
Cotton seed meal, in the absence of sufficient stock to consume it, is also used extensively as a fertilizer, and for this purpose it is worth, determining the price on the same basis as used above for the seed, from $19 to $20 per ton.
Though it is probably destined to be used even more extensively as a fertilizer before the demand for it as a feeding stuff becomes equal to the supply, practically all the cotton seed meal of the south will ultimately be used for feeding.
With the consideration of cotton seed oil and meal we have not, however, exhausted its possibilities.
After the seed of Upland cotton has been passed through a fine gin, which takes off the short lint or linters left upon it by the farmer, it is passed through what is called a sheller, consisting of a revolving cylinder, armed with numerous knives, which cut the seed in two and force the kernels or meats from the shells.
It was not long, however, before the stock-feeder in the South found that cotton seed hulls were an excellent substitute for hay.
Careful attention is now given to the employment of the seed in new cotton countries, and oil expression is practised in the West Indies.
Hull is the principal seat of the industry in Great Britain, and enormous quantities of Indian and Egyptian cotton seed are imported and worked up.
It is easily transported from place to place in seed-cotton, and for this reason the Egyptian government in 1904 prohibited the importation of American cotton seed.
The Egyptian cotton seed bug or cotton stainer belongs to another genus, being Oxycarenus hyalinipennis.
They do considerable damage to cotton seed.
The seed was saved and gave rise to a row of plants all of which grew healthily in an infected field, whereas 95% of ordinary Sea Island cotton plants from seed from a non-infected field planted alongside as a control were killed.
These pickers go carefully over the field, usually just before the second picking, and gather ripe cotton from the best plants only; this selected seed cotton is ginned separately, and the seed used for sowing the next year's crop.
The cotton from each is collected and kept separately, and at the end of the season carefully examined and weighed, and a final selection is then made which reduces the number to perhaps five; the cotton from each of these plants is gained separately and the seed preserved for sowing.
Carolina; but, through the selection of seed from early maturing individual plants, the cotton has been rendered much earlier, until now it is thoroughly adapted to the existing conditions.
The custom of carefully selecting the seed has grown with the industry and may be said to be inseparable from it.
In some instances a slight difference in the shape, mode of opening, &c., of the boll prevents this, and accordingly seed is selected from bolls which suffer least under the particular adverse conditions.
Attention has been paid in the West Indies to seed selection, by the officers of the imperial Department of Agriculture, with the object of retaining for West Indian Sea Island cotton its place as the most valuable cotton on the British market.
Since about 1875 the Russians have fostered the industry, introducing American Upland varieties, distributing seed free, importing gins, providing instruction, and guaranteeing the purchase of the crops.
Financial assistance and assurances as to sales and prices have been given liberally by the association where they are needed; ginning and buying centres have been established; experts have been engaged to distribute seed and afford instruction; and some land has been acquired for working under the direct management of the association.
It is noticeable that it was on French soil that the seed had been sown.3 Preached on French soil by a pope of French descent, the Crusades began - and they continued - as essentially a French (or perhaps better Norman-French) enterprise; and the kingdom which they established in the East was essentially a French kingdom, in its speech and its customs, its virtues and its vices.
The Eastern mission had been begun by St Francis, who had visited and attempted to convert the sultan of Egypt during the Fifth Crusade (1220); within a hundred years the little seed had grown into a great tree.
Tobacco culture, which declined after 1860 on account of the competition of Cuba and Sumatra, has revived since 1885 through the introduction of Cuban and Sumatran seed; the product of 1907 (6,937,500 lb) was more than six times that of 1899, the product in 1899 (1,125,600 lb) being more than twice that of 1889 (470,443 lb), which in turn was more than twenty times that for 1880 (21,182 lb)-the smallest production recorded for many decades.
It is famed, as in ancient times, for kitchen-gardens, especially for its cucumbers and seed for canaries.
Friends have always held that war is contrary to the precepts and spirit of the Gospel, believing that it springs from the lower impulses of human nature, and not from the seed of divine life with its infinite capacity of response to the Spirit of God.
The last things and the end of the world are relegated to the close of a long period of time (3000 years after Zoroaster), when a new Saoshyant is to be born of the seed of the prophet, the dead are to come to life, and a new incorruptible world to begin.
It is convenient to place in a small envelope gummed to an upper corner of the sheet any flowers, seeds or leaves needed for dissection or microscopical examination, especially where from the fixation of the specimen it is impossible to examine the leaves for oilreceptacles and where seed is apt to escape from ripe capsules and be lost.
Of all the cane grown, an amount between one-sixth and one-quarter - and that the best - must be reserved for seed every other year, and this is a great handicap to the state in competing with other cane regions and with the sugar beet.
Many species are rich in gums and resins; the calambac, mastic, copal, cedar, &c. Many others are oleaginous, among them, peanuts, sun-flowers, the bene seed (sesame), corozo, almond and palmachristi.
After the Ten Year's War seed of Mexican and United States tobaccos was in great demand to re-seed the ruined vegas, and was introduced in great quantities; and although by a later law the destruction of these exotic species was ordered, that destruction was in fact quite impossible.
Ordinary commercial Cuban seed of to-day is largely, and often altogether, Mexican tobacco."
Machinery was lent to the farmers, and free grants of seed were made.
Seed is distributed, and agricultural machinery lent, by the government.
It may, however, well be that both peach and almond are derived from some pre-existing and now extinct form whose descendants have spread over the whole geographic area mentioned; but this is a mere speculation, though indirect evidence in its support might be obtained from the nectarine, of which no mention is made in ancient literature, and which, as we have seen, originates from the peach and reproduces itself by seed, thus offering the characteristics of a species in the act of developing itself.
The vegetable kingdom is the original source of albuminous substances, the albumins being found in greatest quantity in the seed.
The fruit is oblong, fleshy and contains one very hard seed which is deeply furrowed on the inside.
The white potato, known as " batata inglez " (English potato), is grown in elevated localities, but it deteriorates so greatly after the first planting that fresh imported seed is necessary every second or third year.
It has dull pink flowers, succeeded by seed vessels, each of which is crowned by two scarlet-coloured leafy lobes.
In this way was sown the seed of future trouble between the two races.
Embryo taken out of seed.
Seed cut lengthwise showing ment of flower.
Then some remedy had to be introduced which should be antagonistic, not to the disease in a physical sense, but to the spiritual seed of the disease.
All are sprung from the seed of Brahm.
When Prithi Chand represented that he ought to have received the turban bound on Guru Arjan's head in token of succession to his father, Arjan meekly handed it to him, without, however, bestowing on him the guruship. The Sikhs themselves soon revolted against the exactions of Prithi Chand, and prayed Arjan to assert himself else the seed of the True Name would perish.
This ripens into the berry and seed.
On the inner or central side of the seed is a ridge bounded on either side by a shallow groove.
In endeavouring to trace the filiation and affinities of the vine, the characters afforded by the seed are specially valuable, because they have not been wittingly interfered with by human agency.
At first these are marked only by small brown spots; but the spots spread and fuse together, the skin of the grape is destroyed, and the flesh decays, the seed only remaining apparently untouched.
This continues until the grape is reduced to a black hard mass, with the folds of skin pressed closely against the seed.
Production of flowers is uncertain under cultivation and seed is formed very rarely.
At the present day, thanks to the careful study of many years, the improvements of cultivation, the careful selection of seed and suitable manuring, especially with nitrate of soda, the average beet worked up contains 7% of fibre and 93% of juice, and yields in Germany 12.79% and in France 11.6% of its weight in sugar.
The method of using them most frequently adopted consists in applying them to the seeds of leguminous plants before sowing, the seed being dipped for a time in a liquid containing the bacteria.
In this manner organisms obtained from red clover can be grown and applied to the seed of red clover; and similar inoculation can be arranged for other species, so that an application of the bacteria most suited to the particular crop to be cultivated can be assured.
In many cases it has been found that inoculation, whether of the soil or of the seed, has not made any appreciable difference to the growth of the crop, a result no doubt due to the fact that the soil had already contained within it an abundant supply of suitable organisms. But in other instances greatly increased yields have been obtained where inoculation has been practised.
The seed is sown in nursery beds, and the plants set out in the field later.
Allowing for those which fail to germinate (perhaps 25%), loss in transplanting, weak and backward plants, &c., one ounce of seed should yield about 40,000 plants.
The greatest possible care is bestowed on the preparation of the seed bed - it must have good, very rich soil in fine tilth, be protected from winds, and yet well exposed to sunlight; the southern or south-eastern slope of an open place in a forest is often selected.
When the plants show signs of flowering they are topped " to prevent seed formation, the terminal buds being removed, and only a certain number of leaves left on each plant to ripen.
When Cuban tobaccos were first introduced into Florida, the type broke up, but by carefully selecting the best plants and using them only as sources of seed for later crops, a good type was obtained.
No attempt should ever be made to raise large crops of tobacco from imported seed, but only a small crop, and the seed of the selected plants should be used for future propagation.
The successful production of cigar tobaccos from Cuban and Sumatran seed was a development of the late 19th century.
Grecian tobacco is grown from Turkish seed and closely resembles Turkish tobacco in character and uses.
South Africa, and to maintain the standard of the produce fresh supplies of seed were obtained annually from Turkey.
To guard against this competition, the export of tobacco seed from Turkey was prohibited in 1907.
The solitary seed has no perisperm or albumen, but has two large and curiously crumpled cotyledons concealing the plumule, the leaves of which, even at this early stage, show traces of pinnae.
Plants raised from the seed seldom become productive till they are twenty years old.
The value of trade probably exceeds 2,000,000, principal exports being rice, raw silk, dry fruit, fish, sheep and cattle, wool and cotton, and cocoons, the principal imports sugar, cotton goods, silkworm "seed" or eggs (70,160 worth in 1906-7), petroleum, glass and china., The trade in dried silkworm cocoons has increased remarkably since 1893, when only 76,150 lb valued at 6475 were exported; during the year 1906-7 ending 10th March, 2,717,540 lb valued at 238,000 were exported.
On the other hand the democratic tone which distinguishes Micah from Isaiah, and his announcement of the impending fall of the capital (the deliverance of which from the Assyrian appears to Isaiah as the necessary condition for the preservation of the seed of a new and better kingdom), are explained by the fact that, while Isaiah lived in the centre of affairs, Micah, a provincial prophet, sees the capital and the aristocracy entirely from the side of a man of the oppressed people, and foretells the utter ruin of both.
It is easily raised from seed and can also be propagated.
He planted the seed of the modern Liberal party as opposed to the pure Whigs.
In other species of the genus the seed germinates on a branch, and the seedling produces clasping roots, and roots which grow downwards hanging like stout cords, and ultimately reaching the ground.
The tuft of hairs at the base facilitates rapid dispersion of the seed, early germination of which is rendered desirable owing to its tenuity.
Seed separated from the nut.
The principal exports of local produce are potatoes, cumin seed, vegetables, oranges, goats and sheep, cotton goods and stone.
Representatives of all the new creeds hastened from the Continent to England, where they hoped to find a safe and fertile field for the particular seed they had to plant.
They are readily propagated by offsets or by seed.
The horse-drawn hoe is steered by means of handles in the rear, but its successful working depends on accurate drilling of the seed, because unless the rows are parallel the roots of the plants are liable to be cut and the foliage injured.
The seed, which should be plump, light in colour, with a thin skin covered by fine wrinkles, is sown in March and early April at the rate of from 8 to 2 pecks to the acre and lightly harrowed in.
All men have the same seed of evil in them that Adam had; they sin and die, like him.
Commercial cubebs consist of the dried berries, usually with their stalks attached; the pericarp is greyish-brown, or blackish and wrinkled; and the seed, when present, is hard, white and oily.
In its output of flax, grown almost entirely for the seed, the state held second rank with a product of 5,640,000 bush.
A considerable acreage is under beans, and in Thanet mustard, spinach, canary seed and a variety of other seeds are raised.
The flax is cultivated for the seed, and only slightly for the fibre.
In 1703 Samuel Morland, in a paper read before the Royal Society, stated that the farina (pollen) is a congeries of seminal plants, one of which must be conveyed into every ovum or seed before it can become prolific. In this remarkable statement he seems to anticipate in part the discoveries afterwards made as to pollen tubes, and more particularly the peculiar views promulgated by Schleiden.
He states that the germ is never to be seen in the seed till the apices (anthers) shed their dust; and that if the stamina be cut out before the apices open, the seed will either not ripen, or be barren if it ripens.
Botanists were for a long time content to know that the scattering of the pollen from the anther, and its application to the stigma, were necessary for the production of perfect seed, but the stages of the process of fertilization remained unexplored.
These are taken off and sown in drills, like seed.
Some varieties produce offsets sparingly and must be increased by seed - a slow and uncertain method.
New varieties are raised from seed.
Unless seed is required, the young capsules should be removed as.
Esparto may be raised from seed, but cannot be harvested for twelve or fifteen years after sowing.
Experiment showed that legitimate unions yield a larger quantity of seed than illegitimate.
The mention of Israel on the stele of Merenptah, discovered by Petrie in 1896 (" Israel [Ysirael] is desolated; its seed [or] is not "), is too vague and indefinite in its terms to throw any light on the question of the Exodus.
During spring, autumn, and winter in particular, the blue-grass (Poa compressa and Poa pratensis) spreads a mat, green, thick, fine and soft, over much of the country, and it is a good winter pasture; about the middle of June it blooms, and, owing to the hue of its seed vessels, gives the landscape a bluish hue.
If Israel alone among nations can meet the Assyrian with the boast "with us is God," the reason is that in Zion the true God is known' - not indeed to the mass, but to the prophet, and that the "holy seed" 2 or "remnant" (contained in the name Shear yashubh) which forms the salt of the nation.
The fruit is about the size of a small hen's egg, and within its fibrous rind is the seed or so-called nut, the albumen of which is very hard and has a prettily mottled grey and brown appearance.
Maize or Indian corn was cultivated on patches of ground where, as in the Hindu jam, the trees and bushes were burnt and the seed planted in the soil manured by the ashes.
The fruits are free in clusters, and each is drawn out into a long wing with the seed in the middle.
Flowering plants bear a seed containing an embryo, with usually one or two cotyledons, or seed-leaves; while in flowerless plants there is no seed and therefore no true cotyledon.
Both bear their round or ovoid male catkins at the ends of the slender terminal branchlets; the ovoid cones, either terminal or on short lateral twigs, have thick woody scales dilated at the extremity, with a broad disk depressed in the centre and usually furnished with a short spine; at the base of the scales are from three to seven ovules, which become reversed or partially so by compression, ripening into small angular seed with a narrow wing-like expansion.
The foliage may be eaten down by sheep early in autumn, without injuring it for the production of a crop of seed.
There is a "summer" variety of colza which is sown in April and ripens its seed in the same year.
The wild form Brassica campestris, the wild coleseed, colza or kohlsaat, of the fields of England and many parts of Europe, is sometimes cultivated on the European continent for its seed, which, however, is inferior in value to rape as an oil-yielding product.
The seed branch of the department of agriculture was established in 1900 for the purpose of encouraging the production and use of seeds of superior quality, thereby improving all kinds of field and garden crops grown in Canada.
Seeds are tested in the laboratory for purity and germination on behalf of farmers and seed merchants, and scientific investigations relating to seeds are conducted and reported upon.
Encouragement to seedgrowing is given by the holding of seed fairs, and bulletins are issued on weeds, the methods of treating seed-wheat against smut and on other subjects.
The Seed Control Act of 1905 brings under strict regulations the trade in agricultural seeds, prohibiting the sale for seeding of cereals, grasses, clovers or forage plants unless free from weeds specified, and imposing severe penalties for infringements.
Robertson, led to the Macdonald-Robertson Seed Growers' Association.
It is by no means, however, the wheat which yields the greatest number of bushels per acre which is the most valuable from a miller's standpoint, for the thinness of the bran and the fineness and strength of the flour are with him important considerations, too often overlooked by the farmer when buying his seed.
The larch is raised from seed in immense numbers in British nurseries; that obtained from Germany is preferred, being more perfectly ripened than the cones of home growth usually are.
Thou didst choose David as king over Israel, and swarest unto him concerning his seed for ever that his kingship should never fail before Thee.
On cutting across a grain of rice and examining it under the microscope, first the flattened and dried cells of the husk are seen, and then one or two layers of cells elongated in a direction parallel to the length of the seed, which contain the gluten or nitrogenous matter.
Within these, and forming by far the largest part of the seed, are large polygonal cells filled with very numerous and very minute angular starch grains.
The Alabama is an important carrier of cotton, cotton seed, fertilizer, cereals, lumber, naval stores, &c.; and in the fiscal year 1906-1907 the freight tonnage was 417,041 tons.
The seed pods, which contain two or three seeds or beans, are 6 or 7 in.
Although thus highly poisonous, the bean has nothing in external aspect, taste or smell to distinguish it from any harmless leguminous seed, and very disastrous effects have resulted from its being incautiously left in the way of children.
The seed should be sown in shallow drills, 10 in.
To obtain a crop of bulbs for pickling, seed should be sown thickly in March, in rather poor soil, the seeds being very thinly covered, and the surface well rolled; these are not to be thinned, but should be pulled and harvested when ripe.
The embryo generally fills the seed, and the cotyledons are rolled or folded on each other.
Some parables (the leaven, the mustard seed) suggest a gradual progressive realization of His kingdom.
The reproduction of the higher plants takes place either asexually by the formation of buds or organs answering thereto, or sexually by the production of an embryo plant within the seed.
Their functions in annual, biennial and herbaceous perennial plants cease after the ripening of the seed, whilst in plants of longer duration layer after layer of strong woody tissue is formed, which enables them to bear the strains which the weight of foliage and the exposure to wind entail.
Flowers, whether for their own sake or as the necessary precursors of the fruit and seed, are objects of the greatest concern to the gardener.
By continuous selection of seed from the best varieties, and " roguing ' or eliminating plants of the ordinary type, a " strain " or race of double flowers is gradually produced.
In the third generation the yellows from the second generation gave the proportion of one pure yellow, two impure yellows, and one green; while the green seed of the second generation threw only green seeds in the third, fourth and fifth generations.
The temperature necessary varies according to the nature and source of the seed.
When the disturbance of the roots incidental to all transplanting is sought to be avoided, the seed or plant is started in some cases in squares of turf (used grassy-side downwards), which can when ready be transferred to the place the plant is to occupy.
Some of the more popular annuals, hardy and half-hardy, have been very much varied as regards habit and the colour of the flowers, and purchases may be made in the seed shops of such things as China asters, stocks, Chinese and Indian pinks, larkspurs, phloxes and others, amongst which some of the most beautiful of the summer flowers may be found.
The spores should be sown in well-drained pots or seed pans on the surface of a mixture of fibrous sifted peat and small broken crocks or sandstone; this soil should be firmly pressed and well-watered, and the spores scattered over it, and at once covered with propagating glasses or pieces of sheet glass, to prevent water or dry air getting to the surface.
Sow seed of herbaceous calceolarias; shift heaths, if they require it; cut down pelargoniums past flowering, and plant the cuttings.
If the lawn is thin in spots, these places may be raked over heavily and new grass seed sown.
The seed may be sown in the north as late as the middle of May, or even the first of June, with good results for fall blooming.
If cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce are wanted to plant in cold frames, the seed should be sown from about the 10th to the 20th of this month; but judgment should be exercised, for, if sown too early, cabbage and cauliflower are apt to run to seed.
All vegetable roots not designed to be left in the ground during the winter should be dug up, such as beets, carrots, parsnips, sweet potatoes, &c. The cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce plants grown from seed sown last month should be pricked out in cold frames.
It was the age of the new-born missionary enterprise, and Bogue's academy was in a very large measure the seed from which the London Missionary Society took its growth.
Nevertheless, the Romans cultivated large numbers of plums. The cultivated forms are extremely numerous, some of the groups, such as the greengages, the damsons, and the egg plums being very distinct, and sometimes reproducing themselves from seed.
Plants are readily grown from seed, which should be sown singly in small pots and placed in heat early in March.
The fruit consists of a three-celled capsule, covered externally with soft yielding prickles, and each cell develops a single seed.
In other species the infection occurs through the style of the flower, but the fungus after reaching the ovule develops no further during that year but remains dormant in the embryo of the seed.
Ericaceae, Pyrolaceae, Gentianaceae, Orchidaceae, ferns, &c. Recent experiments have shown that the difficulties of getting orchid seeds to germinate are due to the absence of the necessary fungus, which must be in readiness to infect the young seedling immediately it emerges from the seed.
The exports are wool, cotton, madder, cummin seed, asafoetida, fruit, silk and horses.
The first leaves developed are known as seed leaves or cotyledons.
The empty fruits (after germination of the seed) are found floating in the Indian Ocean, and were known long before the palm was discovered, giving rise to various stories as to their origin.
In the meantime a committee had been formed by Lord William Bentinck, the governor-general, for the introduction of tea culture into India, and an official had already been sent to the tea districts of China to procure seed and skilled Chinese workmen to conduct operations in the Himalayan regions.
The introduction of Chinese seed and Chinese methods was a mistake, and there seems little reason to doubt that, in clearing jungle for tea planting, fine indigenous tea was frequently destroyed unwittingly in order to plant the inferior China variety.
The fruit is a woody capsule of three cells, each containing one large nearly spherical seed, which consists mainly of two large hemispherical cotyledons.
The latter is a tree attaining in its natural conditions, or where allowed to grow unpruned in a seed garden, a height of from 30 to 40 ft.
A radical difference exists in connexion with the method of growth, in that the plants are never grown from seed, but are always propagated from layerings.
Propagation is from seed only.
The seed is rather larger than a hazel nut, with a thicker and darker shell and per- Planting fectly spherical shape.
Flax and hemp are cultivated, though not so much as formerly, for manufacture into linen and canvas, and also rape seed for the production of oil.
The nation now plucked bitter fruit from the seed planted by Otto the Great in assuming the imperial crown and by a long line of kings and emperors in lavishing worldly power upon tile church.
Returning to Boston in July 1832, he began receiving a few blind children at his father's house in Pleasant Street, and thus sowed the seed which grew into the famous Perkins Institution.
The seed is sown at the end of February or beginning of March and the crop is picked in September and October.
The vase-stamps often state the name of the contents (always seeds or fruits), probably not to show what was in them, but to show for what kind of seed the vessel was a true measure.
The flower is a shoot (stem bearing leaves) which has a special form associated with the special function of ensuring the fertilization of the egg and the development of fruit containing seed.
The result of fertilization is the development of the ovule into the seed.
It may be wholly absorbed by the progressive growth of the embryo within the embryo-sac, or it may persist as a definite and more or less conspicuous constituent of the seed.
When it persists as a massive element of the seed its nutritive function is usually apparent, for there is accumulated within its cells reserve-food, and according to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or rich in cellulose, mucilage or proteid.
In cases where the embryo has stored reserve food within itself and thus provided for self-nutrition, such endosperm as remains in the seed may take on other functions, for instance, that of water-absorption.
Seeds in which endosperm or perisperm or both exist are commonly called albuminous or endospermic, those in which neither is found are termed exalbuminous or exendospermic. These terms, extensively used by systematists, only refer, however, to the grosser features of the seed, and indicate the more or less evident.
Meanwhile the ovary wall has developed to form the fruit or pericarp, the structure of which is closely associated with the manner of distribution of the seed.
If the fruit is a dehiscent one and the seed is therefore soon exposed, the seed-coat has to provide for the protection of the embryo and may also have to secure dissemination.
In the feature of fruit and seed, by which the distribution of Angiosperms is effected, we have a distinctive character of the class.
Further, the older the seed the more slow as a general rule will germination be in starting, but there are notable exceptions.
This pause, often of so long duration, in the growth of the embryo between the time of its perfect development within the seed and the moment of germination, is one of the remarkable and distinctive features of the life of Spermatophytes.
In essentials such a bud resembles a seed.
Where there is free formation of buds there is little flower and commonly no seed, and the converse is also the case.
We should expect the albuminous state of the seed to be an antecedent one to the exalbuminous condition, and the recent discoveries in fertilization tend to confirm this view.
The seven series of Monocotyledons represent a sequence beginning with the most complicated epigynous orders, such as Orchideae and Scitamineae, and passing through the petaloid hypogynous orders (series Coronarieae) of which Liliaceae is the representative to Juncaceae and the palms (series Calycinae) where the perianth Ioses its petaloid character and thence to the Aroids, screw-pines and albuminous Dicotyledons the cotyledons act as the absorbents of the reserve-food of the seed and are commonly brought above ground (epigeal), either withdrawn from the seed-coat or carrying it upon them, and then they serve as the first green organs of the plant.
In albuminous Monocotyledons the cotyledon itself, probably in consequence of its terminal position, is commonly the agent by which the embryo is thrust out of the seed, and it may function solely as a feeder, its extremity developing as a sucker through which the endosperm is absorbed, or it may become the first green organ, the terminal sucker dropping off with the seed-coat when the endosperm is exhausted.
Distribution by seed appears to satisfy so well the requirements of Angiosperms that distribution by vegetative buds is only an occasional process.
The Insemineae include forms in which the nucellus is not developed, and therefore there can be no seed.
Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the seed (Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago, 1903).
Many nobles whose lands had been wasted received corn for seed; his war horses were within a few months to be found on farms all over Prussia; and money was freely spent in the re-erection of houses which had been destroyed.
While starch occurs commonly as a cell-content in the majority of the Green Algae no trace of it occurs in Vaucheria and some of been distinguished, relatively few have been traced from spore to spore, as the flowering plants have been observed from seed to seed.
An excellent example of structures differentiated according to position is given by the appendages borne on the stem of an ordinary flowering plant-the one or two seed leaves; the stem leaves, which may or may not be differentiated into secondary sets; and the various floral organs borne at the apex of the stem or its lateral branches.
Another parable compared the kingdom of God to seed which, when once planted, must inevitably germinate; the process was secret and slow, but the harvest was certain.
The order is divided into five tribes by characters based on differences in position of the ovules - which are generally semianatropous so that the seed is peltate with the hilum in the centre on one side (or ventral), but sometimes, as in Hottonia and (From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik.) FIG.
For example, the seed of the plant is an initial unity of life, which when placed in its proper soil suffers disintegration into its constitutents, and yet in virtue of its vital unity keeps these divergent elements together, and reappears as the plant with its members in organic union.
It may be propagated from seed or from cuttings.
Fruit after removal of one-half of the pericarp, showing the dark brown seed surrounded by the ruptured arillus.
The seed consists of a thin, hard testa or shell, enclosing a wrinkled kernel, which, when dried, is the nutmeg.
To prepare the nutmegs for use, the seed enclosing the kernel is dried at a gentle heat in a drying-house over a smouldering fire for about two months, the seeds being turned every second or third day.
The seed thus sown rapidly germinated and multiplied.
The four chief varieties grown are mustard or rape seed, linseed, til or gingelly (sesamum), and castor-oil.
The only hope of rescuing the industry from total disappearance lies in the fact that the natural indigo gives a faster dye than the manufactured product, while an effort has also been made to introduce the Java-Natal seed into India, which gives a much heavier yield, and so may be better able to compete in price with synthetic indigo.
Land is held from the proprietors on the terms of receiving seed from them and returning half the produce, the landlord paying the taxes.
In the forcing atmosphere, however, of that age of controversy, seed such as that sown in the master's treatment of the uttered X6yos 4 quickly germinated.
Each seed is contained in a separate cavity by the folding inwards of thewalls of the legume at equal intervals; the legume, when ripe,separates transversely into single-seeded portions.
There is nowhere any considerable young growth from seed, although this mode of reproduction is not (as often stated) unknown; the tree will reproduce itself more than once from the stump (hence its name).
Its principal products are cotton, wheat and opium - the anti-opium decrees of 1906 had little effect on the province up to 1910 - and these it exchanges with the neighbouring provinces for coal, iron, salt, &c. Kao-liang, pulse, millet, maize, groundnut, barley, beans, pease, lucerne, and rape seed are also grown.
Through this is to come the victory which is denied to his life, as the seed cast into the ground and dead brings forth fruit.
The Church in its completed form was the outcome of a long development; if the seed was Jewish the environment was Gentile.
Linseed grown in tropical countries is much larger and more plump than that obtained in temperate climes, but the seed from the colder countries yields a finer quality of oil.
The yield of oil from different classes of seed varies, but from 23 to 28% of the weight of the seed operated on should be obtained.
The fruit or boll is round, containing five cells, each of which is again divided into two, thus forming ten divisions, each of which contains a single seed.
On the smooth surface the seed is sown broadcast by hand or machine, at the rate of 3 bushels per acre, and covered in the same manner as clover seeds.
The best rippler, or apparatus for separating the seed capsules from the branches, consists of a kind of comb having, set in a wooden frame, iron teeth made of round-rod iron i ths of an inch asunder at the bottom, and half an inch at the top, and 18 in.
That the seed can be saved, and is of first quality.
By rippling he separated 1946 lb of bolls which yielded 910 lb of seed.
Tobacco in Sweden, raised from home-grown seed, ripens its seeds a month earlier than plants grown from foreign seed.
In Italy, as long as orange trees were propagated by grafts, they were tender; but after many of the trees were destroyed by the severe frosts of 1709 and 1763, plants were raised from seed, and these were found to be hardier and more productive than the former kinds.
Where plants are raised from seed in large quantities, varieties always occur differing in constitution, as well as others differing in form or colour; but the former cannot be perceived by us unless marked out by their behaviour under exceptional conditions, as in the following cases.
Sweet-peas raised in Calcutta from seed imported from England rarely blossom, and never yield seed; plants from French seed flower better, but are still sterile; but those raised from Darjeeling seed (originally imported from England) both flower and seed profusely.
This was proved by Hooker to be the case with Himalayan conifers and rhododendrons, raised in Britain from seed gathered at different altitudes.
The first step would be, to obtain seed from healthy trees growing in the coldest climate and at the greatest altitude in its native country, sowing these very largely, and in a variety of soils and situations, in a part of France where the climate is somewhat but not much more extreme.
As soon as these produced seed, it should be sown in the same district and farther north in a climate a little more severe.
After an exceptionally cold season, seed should be collected from the trees that suffered least, and should be sown in various districts all over France.
The seed is then sown broadcast as in the case of flax.
It is only within quite recent years that any attention has been paid to the selection of the seed.
The object of these experiments is, of course, to obtain a better class of jute seed by growing plants, especially for no other purpose than to obtain their seed.
The agricultural department has about 300 maunds (25,000 lb) of selected seed for distribution this year.
The crop is said to be ready for gathering when the flowers appear; if gathered before, the fibre is weak, while if left until the seed is ripe, the fibre is stronger, but is coarser and lacks the characteristic lustre.
Some kinds are made close and dense in texture, for carrying such seed as poppy or rape and sugar; others less close are used for rice, pulses, and seeds of like size, and coarser and opener kinds again are woven for the outer cover of packages and for the sails of country boats.
They are shrubs or low trees with evergreen or nearly evergreen opposite entire leaves, and dense clusters of small, white, tubular four-parted flowers, enclosing two stamens and succeeded by small, globular, usually black berries, each with a single pendulous seed.
But war with this monarchy shortly afterwards broke out, and a brother of the first discoverer, happening to be appointed to the command of a division of gunboats employed in some part of the operations, followed up the pursuit of the subject, and obtained several hundred plants and a considerable quantity of seed.
The products of the Han valley are exclusively agricultural, consisting of cotton, wheat, rape seed, tobacco and various kinds of beans.
Vast numbers of Scotch firs are raised in nurseries for artificial planting; the seed is sown in the spring, being just covered with earth, and the seedlings transplanted in the second year into rows for further culture, or taken direct from the seed-bed for final planting; sometimes the seed is sown where the trees are intended to grow.
On the drift-sands of France, especially in the Gironde, forests have been formed mainly of this pine; the seeds, sown at first under proper shelter and protected by a thick growth of broom sown simultaneously, vegetate rapidly in the sea-sand, and the trees thus raised have, by their wind-drifted seed, covered much of the former desert of the Landes with an evergreen wood.
At present the oyster is one of the cheapest articles of diet in the United States; and, though it can hardly be expected that the price of American oysters will always remain so low, still, taking into consideration the great wealth of the natural beds along the entire Atlantic coast, it seems certain that a moderate amount of protection would keep the price of seed oysters far below European rates, and that the immense stretches of submerged land especially suited for oyster planting may be utilized and made to produce an abundant harvest at much less cost than that which accompanies the complicated system of culture in vogue in France and Holland.
Upon this, in fact, depends the whole future of the industry, since it is not probable that any system of artificial breeding can be devised which will render it possible to keep up a supply without at least occasional recourse to seed oysters produced under natural conditions.
It has also been demonstrated that under proper restriction great quantities of mature oysters, and seed oysters as well, may be taken from any region of natural oyster-beds without injurious effects.
Such property right should undoubtedly be extended to natural beds, or else an area of natural spawning territory, should be kept under constant control and surveillance by government, for the purpose of maintaining an adequate supply of seed oysters.
Iron foundries, breweries, oil-cake and seed mills also exist side by side with such immense engineering and shipbuilding works as the Britannia Works, Canada Works, and, above all, Laird's shipbuilding works, where several early iron vessels were built, and many cruisers and battleships have been launched.
The manufactures include lumber and cotton seed products, and sugar.
The determining cause of the formation of the tubers is not certainly known, but Professor Bernard has suggested that it is the presence of a fungus, Fusarium solani, which, growing in the underground shoots, irritates them and causes the swelling; the result is that an efficient method of propagation is secured independently of the seed.
Starch and other matters are stored up in the tubers, as in a seed, and are rendered available for the nutrition of the young shoots.
In this connexion it is very interesting to observe that Messrs Sutton of Reading find that the seedlings of many of the varieties of potato that occur spontaneously in different parts of America come quite true to type from seed.
Thomas Dickson of Edinburgh long ago observed that the most healthy and productive crop was to be obtained by planting unripe tubers, and proposed this as a preventive of the disease called the "curl," which sometimes attacks the young stems, causing them and also the leaves to become crumpled, and few or no tubers to be produced; in this connexion it is interesting to note that Scottish and Irish seed potatoes give a larger yield than English, probably on account of their being less matured.
Similar spots are produced on potatoes in America by the fungus Oospora scabies, and in both cases, if affected "seed" potatoes are steeped in a solution of 2 pint formalin in 15 gallons of water for two hours before planting, the attack on the resulting crop is materially lessened.
Until about 1725 the belief was very prevalent that cochineal was the seed of a plant, but Dr Martin Lister in 1672 conjectured it to be a kind of kermes, and in 1703 Antony van Leeuwenhoek ascertained its true nature by aid of the microscope.
After ripening of the seed, the leafless flowering culms always die down.
The grains of the bamboo are available for food, and the Chinese have a proverb that it produces seed more abundantly in years when the rice crop fails, which means, probably, that in times of dearth the natives look more after such a source of food.
They may be propagated by seed (though owing to the rare occurrence of fruit, this method is seldom applicable), by division and by cuttings.
Here, too, the reason of things - that which accounts for them - is no longer some external end to which they are tending; it is something acting within them, " a spirit deeply interfused," germinating and developing as from a seed in the heart of each separate thing that exists (X6yos cr repyartK6s).
Yet while the seed they sowed was taking deep root in France and in Germany, the English deists, the most notable men of their time, were soon forgotten, or at least ceased to be a prominent factor in the intellectual life of the century.
On an average, £3,000,000 to £4,000,000 worth of wheat, about £i,000,000 worth of rye, and over £1,500,000 worth of barley are exported annually, besides oats, flax, linseed, rape seed, oilcake, bran, flour, vegetable oils, raw wool and caviare.
The hard, indigestible seed swallowed by the guacharo are found in quantities on the floor and the ledges of the caverns it frequents, where many of them for a time vegetate, the plants thus growing being etiolated from want of light, and, according to travellers, forming a singular feature of the gloomy scene which these places present.
The flower-stalk becomes recurved in the fruiting stage, and the fruit bears a number of hooks which enable it to cling to rough objects, such as the coat of an animal, thus ensuring distribution of the seed.
In localities where there is hoar frost in autumn and spring the seed is sown in September or at latest in the beginning of October, and the yield of opium and seed is then greater than if sown later.
The seed, which yields 35 to 42% of oil, is worth about two-thirds of the value of the opium.
In Macedonia opium culture was begun in 1865 at Istip with seed obtained from Karahissar in Asia Minor, and extended subsequently to the adjacent districts of Kotchava, Stroumnitza, Tikvish and Kinprulu-veles, most of the produce being exported under the name of Salonica opium.
Four varieties of poppy are distinguished - two with white flowers, large oval capsules without holes under their " combs " (stigmas) and bearing respectively yellow and white seed, and the other two having red or purple flowers and seeds of the same colour, one bearing small capsules, perforated at the top, and the other larger oval capsules not perforated.
The yellow seed is said to yield the best oil; that obtained by hot pressure is used for lamps and for paint, and the cold-pressed oil for culinary purposes.
The seed is sown between the 1st and 15th of November, acid germinates in ten or fifteen days.
Cutting through the poppy-head caused the shrivelling up of the young fruit, but the heads which had been carefully incised yielded more seed than those which had not been cut at all.
This manna occurs in the form of small, roundish, hard, dry tears, varying from the size of a mustard seed to that of a coriander, of a lightbrown colour, sweet taste, and senna-like odour.
Many of them devour seed, as the corn weevils, Calandra granaria and C. oryzae, and in this way vegetation is severely injured, and its spread seriously checked.
At Viborg the seed sown by Tausen fell upon good soil.
Wallace (Natural Selection), " when the first skin was used as a covering, when the first rude spear was formed to assist in the chase, when fire was first used to cook his food, when the first seed was sown or shoot planted, a grand revolution was effected in nature, a revolution which in all the previous ages of the earth's history had had no parallel; for a being had arisen who was no longer necessarily subject to change with the changing universe, - a being who was in some degree superior to nature, inasmuch as he knew how to control and regulate her action, and could keep himself in harmony with her, not by a change in body, but by an advance of mind."
The ovary ripens into a usually small ovoid or rounded fruit, which is entirely occupied by the single large seed, from which it is not to be distinguished, the thin pericarp being completely united to its surface.
The testa is thin and membranous but occasionally coloured, and the embryo small, the great bulk of the seed being occupied by the hard farinaceous endosperm (albumen) on which the nutritive value of the grain depends.
Fruit ofSporo- bolus, showing the dehiscent pericarp and seed.
Sporobolus, a large genus in the warmer parts of both hemispheres, but chiefly America, derives its name from the fact that the seed is ultimately expelled from the fruit.
Evidence of the antiquity of the belief in "maternal impressions" we have in Jacob placing peeled rods before Laban's cattle to induce them to bring forth "ring-straked speckled and spotted" offspring; evidence of the antiquity of the "infection" doctrine we have, according to some writers, in the practice amongst the Israelites of requiring the childless widow to marry her deceased husband's brother, that he might "raise up seed to his brother."
In the ripe seed the integument assumes the form of a fleshy envelope, succeeded internally by a hard woody shell, internal to which is a thin papery membrane - the apical portion of the nucellus - which is easily dissected out as a conical cap covering the apex of the endosperm.
The ripe seed, which grows as large as a rather small plum, is enclosed by a thick, fleshy envelope covering a hard woody shell with two or rarely three longitudinal keels.
The structure of the seed, the presence of two neck-cells in the archegonia, the late development of the embryo, the partially-fused cotyledons and certain anatomical characters, are features common to Ginkgo and the cycads.
Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.
The ripe albuminous seed contains a single embryo with two or more cotyledons.
The fleshy outer portion of the seed is formed from the outer perianth, the woody shell being derived from the inner perianth.
In May, after the first fall of rain, a nursery ground is ploughed three times, and the seed scattered broadcast.
The field is ploughed when the early rains set in, ten or twelve times over, till the soil is reduced nearly to dust, the seed being sown broadcast in April or May.
With all these precautions the best seed time is often missed, and this usually proves the prelude to a scanty crop, or to a late and disastrous harvest.
The seed sown by Wesley had grown to be a great tree.
He reduced the duties on the raw materialswhich the farmers used, such as seed and maize, and in return he called on them to give up the duties on cattle and meat, to reduce largely the duties on butter, cheese and hops, and to diminish the duty on corn-by gradual stages to IS.
It has about ioo,000 inhabitants, and comprises four kazas (cantons), namely, (1) Maitos, noted for its excellent cotton; (2) Keshan, lying inland north of Gallipoli, noted for its cattle-market, and producing grain, linseed and canary seed; (3) Myriofyto; and (4) Sharkeui or Shar-Koi (Peristeri) on the coast of the Sea of Marmora.
Wheat and maize are exported to the Aegean islands and to Turkish ports on the mainland; barley, oats and linseed to Great Britain; canary seed chiefly to Australia; beans to France and Spain.
As "adventurer" he should have done so; yet he neglected the cultivation of that paying art for the wisdom that looks to the long future, and bears its fruit, perchance, when no one cares to remember who sowed the seed.
The ovary adheres firmly to the seed in the interior, so that on examining a longitudinal section of the grain by the microscope the outer layer is seen to consist of epidermal cells, of which the uppermost are prolonged into short hairs to cover the apex of the grain.
Two or three layers of cells inside the epidermis constitute the tissue of the ovary, and overlie somewhat similar layers which form the coats of the seed.
Within these is the albumen or endosperm, constituting the flowery part of the seed.
The remaining central mass of the seed is composed of numerous cells of irregular form and size containing many starch grains as well as gluten granules.
The seed is sown very thickly at the beginning of winter and pulled, not cut, about the end of May, before the ear is ripe.
In the common wheats the chaffscales are boat-shaped, ovoid, of the consistence of parchment, and shorter than the spikelet; the seed is usually floury, opaque, white, and easily broken.
In the turgid wheats the glumes have long awns, and the seed is turgid and floury, as in the common wheats.
In the hard wheats the outer glumes are keeled, sharply pointed, awned, and the seed is elongated and of hard glassy texture, somewhat translucent, and difficult to FIG.
A good selection of seed, according to the nature of the soil, demands, says De Vilmorin, intelligence and accurate knowledge on the part of the farmer.