In 1782 the sect forbade slaveholding by its members.
Neither sect was supposed to interfere in mortal affairs, a fact they selectively ignored.
The notorious licentiousness of the sect was the carrying out of their theory into practice.
In the Geonic period there came into prominence the sect of the Karaites (Bene migra, " followers of the Scripture", the Protestants of Judaism, who rejected rabbinical authority, basing their doctrine and practice exclusively on The g P Y ICaraltes.
The name does not indicate a social caste, or a religious sect; it is not even tribal.
He afterwards returned to initiate a new sect called the " Free Church of England," which for a time created further divisions among the people.
They were all-powerful with the people, but Hyrcanus with his mercenaries was independent of the people, and the wealthy belonged to the sect of the Sadducees.
It does not appear, however, that a regularly organized or numerous Orphic sect ever existed, nor that Orphism ever became popular; it was too abstract, too full of symbolism.
The Jews were thrust into a position of isolation, and the Code of Theodosius and other authorities characterize the Jews as a lower order of depraved beings (inferiores and perversi), their community as a godless, dangerous sect (secta nefaria, feralis), their religion a superstition, their assemblies for religious worship a blasphemy (sacrilegi coetus) and a contagion (Scherer, op. cit.
The Caucasian races (except the Gregorians), together with the Turks and Tatars, are Mussulmans of the Sunnite sect (2,021,300), and the Iranian races mostly Mussulmans of the Shiite sect (884, too).
From the 12th century onward the sect gradually declined, being ultimately restricted mainly to the Crimea and Lithuania, learning disappeared and their literature became merely popular and of little interest.
The sect of the New Spirit, or of the Free Spirit as it was afterwards called, spread widely through the north of France and into Switzerland and Germany.
In Silesia they formed a distinct sect, which has lasted until the present time.
He was the mythic founder of a religious school or sect, with a code of rules of life, a mystic eclectic theology, a system of purificatory and expiatory rites, and peculiar mysteries.
Flagellation was occasionally practised as a means of salvation by certain Jansenist convulsionaries in the 18th century, and also, towards the end of the 18th century, by a little Jansenist sect known as the Fareinists, founded by the brothers Bonjour, cures of Fareins, near Trevoux (Ain).
The magistrates in some of the Italian towns, and especially Uberto Pallavicino at Milan, expelled the flagellants with threats, and for a time the sect disappeared.
Finally, a band of loo marched from Basel to Avignon to the court of Pope Clement VI., who, in spite of the sympathy shown them by several of his cardinals, condemned the sect as constituting a menace to the priesthood.
The Jews of the Karaite sect differ entirely from the orthodox Jews both in worship and in mode of life.
Their founder was Johann Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), a native of Eberbach and one of the first emigrants, who, after living as a hermit for several years on Mill Creek, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, founded the sect (1725), then again lived as a hermit in a cave (formerly occupied by another hermit, one Elimelech) on the Cocalico Creek in Pennsylvania, and in 1732-1735 established a semi-monastic community (the "Order of the Solitary") with a convent (the "Sister House") and a monastery (the "Brother House") at Ephrata, in what is now Lancaster county, about 55 m.
Robert Burns, the poet, in a letter dated August 1784, describes the sect as idle and immoral.
The founder of a sect or party, or an inventor, impresses us less when we know how or by what the way was prepared for his activity.
Stephen Girard had devised and bequeathed the residue of his estate for the establishment and maintenance of Girard College, in which no minister of the Gospel of any sect or denomination whatever should be admitted.
Next come the mercantile castes, mostly belonging to the Jain sect; these are followed by the powerful cultivating tribes, such as the Jats and Gujars, and then come the so-called aboriginal tribes, chief of whom are the Minas, Bhils and Meos.
in Italy the Waldenses (without, however, any mystical leaning), in the south of France and elsewhere the numerous sect or sects.
Gichtel (1638-1710), the first editor of his complete works, became the founder of a sect called the Angel-Brethren.
The exhibition of 1844, which was attended by more than a million pilgrims, aroused protests, resulting in the formation of the sect of German Catholics.
Perhaps the most remarkable fact about this sect is that it is secret, and that its members ostensibly belong to the Orthodox Church.
An offshoot of the Khlysti is the more celebrated secret sect of the Skoptsi (skopets, a eunuch), which represents an extreme ascetic reaction from the promiscuous immorality of some (by no means all) of the Khlysti.
The religiosity of the Quakers, with their doctrines of the " inner light " and the influence of, the Spirit, has decided affinities with mysticism; and the autobiography of George Fox (1624-1691), the founder of the sect, proceeds throughout on the assumption of supernatural guidance.
From Pennsylvania the sect spread chiefly westward, and, after various vicissitudes, caused by defections and divisions due to doctrinal differences, in 1908 were most numerous in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas and North Dakota.
Even rood years after this period, the dog was highly esteemed in Egypt for its sagacity and other excellent qualities; for when Pythagoras, after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece, and at Croton in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian philosophers, that at the death of the body the soul entered into that of various animals.
At various periods in the history of the middle ages we encounter sudden outbreaks of millennarianism, sometimes as the tenet of a small sect, sometimes as a far-reaching movement.
They formed no exclusive sect.
At Horeb, the mount of God, was located the dramatic theophany which heralded to Elijah the advent of the sword, and Jehu's supporter in his sanguinary measures belongs to the Rechabites, a sect which felt itself to be the true worshipping community of Yahweh and is closely associated with the Kenites, the kin of Moses.
Public morality was in peril, and in May 183 2 the halls of the new sect were closed by the government, and the father, with some of his followers, appeared before the tribunals.
There is much uncertainty about the early theological history of the sect, but it is probable that Mack and his followers were influenced by both the Greek Catholics and the Waldensians.
(From this practice the sect received the less commonly used nickname "Dompelaers," meaning "tumblers.") They accept implicitly and literally the New Testament as the infallible guide in spiritual matters, holding it to be the inspired word of God, revealed through Jesus Christ and, by inspiration, through the Apostles.
In its earlier history the sect opposed voting or taking any active part in political affairs, but these restrictions have quite generally disappeared.
As this prince belonged, like Firdousi, to the Shiah sect, while Mahmud and Maimandi were Sunnites, and as he was also politically opposed to the sultan, Hasan Maimandi did not fail to make the most of this incident, and accused the poet of disloyalty to his sovereign and patron, as well as of heresy.
He invented a religious system founded on the speculative mysticism of the Neoplatonists, and founded a sect, the members of which believed that the new creed would supersede all existing forms of belief.
The sect was founded by 'Anan in the 8th century, and, after many vicissitudes, still exists.
In spite of his own leaning towards mysticism he was a strong opponent of the IIasidim, a mystical sect founded by Israel Ba'al Shem Tobh (Besht) and promoted by Baer of Meseritz.
A great religious difference divided the Fatimite caliph of Cairo, the head of the Shiite sect, from the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad, who was the head of the Sunnites.
He goes so far as to say that "the writings of ancient men, who were the founders of the sect" referred to by Philo, may very well have been the Gospels and Epistles (which were not yet written).
The imams do not form a priestly sect; they generally have other occupations, such as teaching in a school or keeping a shop, and may at any time be dismissed by the warden, in which case they lose the title of imam.
PECULIAR PEOPLE, a small sect of Christian faith-healers founded in London in 1838 by John Banyard.
The Meletian schism was complicated, moreover, by the presence in the city of another anti-Arian sect, stricter adherents of the Homousian formula, maintaining the tradition of the deposed bishop Eustathius and governed at this time by the presbyter Paulinus.
ELSPETH BUCHAN (1738-1791), founder of a Scottish religious sect known as the Buchanites, was the daughter of John Simpson, proprietor of an inn near Banff.
In 1785 White and Mrs Buchan published a Divine Dictionary, but the sect broke up on the death of its founder in spite of White's attempts 1 In August 1908, during some excavations at Dunkeld, remains were found which are supposed to be those of Alexander Stewart, the "wolf of Badenoch."
The Hawiya, with numerous sub-groups, such as the HabrJalet, Habr-Gader, Rer-Dollol, Daji, Karanle, Badbadan, Kunli, Bajimal and Ugass-Elmi; mostly fanatical Mahommedans forming the powerful Tarika sect, whose influence is felt throughout all the central and eastern parts of Somaliland.
This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
MOPLAH (Malayalam mappila), a fanatical Mahommedan sect found in Malabar.
A Gnostic sect of the 2nd century was known by the name of Cainites.
Schwenkfeld, whose gentle birth and courtly manners won him many friends in high circles, left behind him a sect (who were called subsequently by others Schwenkfeldians, but who called themselves "Confessors of the Glory of Christ") and numerous writings to perpetuate his ideas.
The sect was the outcome of one of the many Pietistic movements of the 17th century, and was founded in 1708 by Alexander Mack of Schwarzenau, Germany, and seven of his followers, upon the general issue that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the literal teachings of the Scriptures.
22) and Epiphanius (Haer., xvii.), or with the sect of disciples of John who remained apart from Christianity.
The first Christians were regarded, even by themselves, as a Jewish sect.
Fleming, 1906, sect.
On the other hand, his divine substratum, the impersonal Brahma, the world-spirit, the one and only reality, remains to this day the ultimate element of the religious belief of intelligent India of whatever sect.
Yet Hobbes appears (as Clarke points out) to have vaguely felt the difficulty; and in a passage of his Physics (chap. 25, sect.
He was cited three times, in the canonical manner, and upon not appearing was threatened in the third session with anathema (Hefele, Councils, sect.
In the seventh session it accepted the suggestion of Justinian, merely to order the name of Vigilius to be removed from the liturgical prayers, at the same time expressing its desire to maintain unity with the see of Old Rome (Hefele, sect.
Vitale (for plan see Architecture, sect.
Here in 1743 Christopher Sauer, one of the sect's first pastors, and a printer by trade, printed the first Bible (a few copies of which are still in existence) published in a European language in America.
MANDAEANS, also known as Sabians, Nasoraeans, or St John's Christians,' an Oriental sect of great antiquity, interesting to the theologian as almost the only surviving example of a ' The first of these names (not Mendaeans or Mandaites) is that given by themselves, and means yvcvvTucot, followers of Gnosis (m, , 111e2, from ml.lxn, Hebr.
Like the Arabic Nasara, it is originally identical with the name of the half heathen half Jewish-Christian Ncq-copaioc, and indicates an early connexion with that sect.
trans., p. 72, note) as forming the basis of the article " Passerinae " which he contributed to Ersch and Gruber's Encyklopadie (sect.
In 1903 a new cemetery with frescoes came to light on the Via Latina, considered by Marucchi to have belonged to a heretical sect.
The Hauran is one of the principal habitations of the sect of the Druses.
sect of Persia, in his dominions, where it threatened to extend.
On the same side of the river, lower down, is the shrine of Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (of Pan), founder of the Qadirite (Kadaria) sect of dervishes, also a noted place of pilgrimage.
A Mu`tazilite in his religious beliefs, he developed a system of his own and founded a sect named after him.
Basing their views on the synoptic Gospels, and tracing descent from the obscure sect of the Alogi, the Adoptianists under Theodotus of Byzantium tried to found a school at Rome c. 185, asserting that Jesus was a man, filled with the Holy Spirit's inspiration from his baptism, and so attaining such a perfection of holiness that he was adopted by God and exalted to divine dignity.
At an early age he entered into a close friendship both with Nizgm-ul-mulk and his schoolfellow IJassan ibn Sabbgh, who founded afterwards the terrible sect of the Assassins.
Now it is true that those who take their view of the history from Chronicles, where the kingdom of Ephraim is always treated as a sect outside the true religion, can reconcile this fact with an early date.
In November of the same year, when Enfantin preached the enfranchisement of women and the functions of the couple-pretre, Leroux separated himself from the sect.
Long settled in Jidda, the head of the family removed to the Sudan about 1800 and founded the Morgani sect.
In Bosnia the persistent attempts of the Magyar princes to root out the stubborn, crazy and poisonous sect of the Bogomils had alienated the originally amicable Bosnians, and in 1353 Louis was compelled to buy the friendship of their Bar Tvrtko by acknowledging him as king of Bosnia.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
ARABICI, a religious sect originating about the beginning of the 3rd century, which is mentioned by Augustine (De Haeres.
1397), a prominent member of the Beghard community, who travelled widely as a missionary and propagated the teachings of his sect.
(c. 728) 2 states that Nerses, his predecessor, had chastised the sect, but ineffectually; and that after his death (c. 554) they had continued to lurk in Armenia, where, reinforced by Iconoclasts driven out of Albania of the Caucasus, they had settled in the region of Djirka, probably near Lake Van.
His victim's death so impressed him that he was converted, became head of the sect, and was martyred in 690 by Justinian II.
Early in the 9th century Sergius, greatest of the leaders, profiting by the tolerance of the emperor Nicephorus, began that ministry which, in one of the epistles canonized by the sect, but lost, he describes thus: "I have run from east to west, and from north to south, till my knees were weary, preaching the gospel of Christ."
The iconoclast emperor Leo V., an Armenian, persecuted the sect afresh, and provoked a rising at Cynoschora, whence many fled into Saracen territory to Argaeum near Melitene.
Their sect however continued to spread in Bulgaria, where in 969 John Zimiskes settled a new colony of them at Philippopolis.
In 1837 we read of how an elect one of the Thonraki sect in Russian Armenia addressed his followers thus: "Lo, I am the cross: on my two hands light tapers, and give me adoration.
In modern Russia also survives a sect of Bogomils called Christowschtschina,' because one member of it is adored by the rest as Christ.
in 1215 was intended to prevent Jews from being mistaken for Christians, and similarly in Mahommedan lands they were compelled to wear some distinctive indication of their sect.
In the 2nd century the school became closely connected with the philosophical sect of the Sceptics, whose leader, Sextus (200 B.C.), was an empirical physician.
It is clear that the knowledge of function (physiology) did not by any means keep pace with the knowledge of structure, and this was probably the reason why the important sect of the empirics were able entirely to dispense with anatomical knowledge.
But his avowed followers formed a small and discredited sect, which, in England at least, can be clearly traced in the latter part of the century.
They have been regarded as a fiction invented later by the enemies of Epicureanism, with the view of discrediting the most powerful work ever produced by any disciple of that sect.
A new taste for philosophy had developed among members of the governing class during the youth of Lucretius, and eminent Greek teachers of the Epicurean sect settled at Rome at the same time, and lived on terms of intimacy with them.
Petrie, Tell-el-Amarna, Egypt Exploration Fund (1894); " Egypt," sect.
Arjan saw clearly that it was impossible to preserve his sect without force of arms, and one of his last injunctions to his son Har Govind was to sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the best of his ability.
Hitherto they had been merely an insignificant religious sect; now, stimulated by persecution, they became a militant and political power, inimical to the Mahommedan rulers of the country.
As all the guru's sons predeceased him, and as he was disappointed in his envoy Banda, he left no human successor, but vested the guruship in the Granth Sahib and his sect.
ASCITANS (or Ascitae; from avrcos, the Greek for a wine-skin), a peculiar sect of 2nd-century Christians (Montanists), who introduced the practice of dancing round a wine-skin at their meetings.
' These three dynasties are usually known as the First Dynasty of Babylon, the Dynasty of Sisku or Uruku, and the Kassite Dynasty; _see sect.
There is no distinction of sect.
Among his first acts were the deposition of Cyrus, the orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, in favour of John, a member of his own sect, and the summoning of a conciliabulum of Eastern bishops, which abolished the canons of the sixth general council.
The mission continued its march, passing Dhamar, the seat of a university of the Zedi sect, then frequented by 500 students.
In the year 880 Yemen was listening to the propaganda of the new sect of the Carmathians (q.v.) or followers of Hamdan Qarmat.
About the beginning of the 17th century he became a preacher among a sect called the "Seekers," and appears to have held unorthodox opinions about the divinity of Jesus Christ.
For the authorship see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE, sect.
1860), the founder of an important sect of Filipino Independent Catholics.
The population, 2500 in 1881, when the Russians seized it, was 19,428 in 1897, onethird Persians, many of them belonging to the Babi sect.
Farther south there is still the great complex of buildings which form the chief seat of the Mevlevi dervishes, a sect widely spread over Anatolia.
This form of mansion underwent little modification until the 12th century, when the introduction of the Zen sect of Buddhism with its contemplative practice called for greater privacy.
As a theologian Swedenborg never attempted to preach or to found a sect.
HERODIANS (`HpwStavoi), a sect or party mentioned in Scripture as having on two occasions - once in Galilee, and again in Jerusalem - manifested an unfriendly disposition towards Jesus (Mark iii.
The sect was called by the Rabbis Boethusians as being friendly to the family of Boethus, whose daughter Mariamne was one of Herod the Great's wives.
HERESY, the English equivalent of the Greek word aipEVCs which is used in the Septuagint for "free choice," in later classical literature for a philosophical school or sect as "chosen" by those who belong to it, in Philo for religion, in Josephus for a religious party (the Sadducees, the Pharisees and the Essenes).
It was first enacted in 1855 that methylated spirit, a specific mixture of pure alcohol and wood naphtha, should be duty-free; the present law is to be found in the Customs and Inland Revenue Act of 1890, and the Finance Act (sect.
In accepting, with slight reservations, the results of the development which the Church had undergone during the fifty years from 1640 to 210 it reduced itself to the level of a sect.
In Carthage there existed down to the year 400 a sect called Tertullianists; and in their survival we have a striking testimony to the influence of the great Carthaginian teacher.
Other influences tending to diversity were the rise of later prophets and visionaries, the personality of prominent members of the sect (like Tertullian himself, who gave to Montanism much more than he received from it), and the power of local environment.
Their form of church government is Congregational; they take the Bible as the sole rule of faith and practice, and while adopting immersion as the proper mode of baptism, freely welcome Christians of every sect to their communion.
According to Clement of Alexandria this was written prophetically to apply to the Carpocratians, an antinomian Gnostic sect of c. 150; but hyper-Paulinists had given occasion to similar complaints already in Rev. ii.
At an early age he entered the order of Observantine Friars, the strictest sect of the Franciscans, and rose to be its general, but, craving a yet stricter rule, transferred himself in 1534 to the newly founded order of Capuchins, of which in 1538 he was elected vicar-general.
See Bible (sect.
Menno repudiated the formation of a sect; those who had experienced the "new birth" were to him the true Christian church, which was limited by no decree of reprobation.
Prophecies current among the Christians in Syria of the destruction of Mahomet's sect after six centuries of duration added to the excitement attending these rumours.
The Harrari are Mahommedans of the Shafa'i or Persian sect, and they employ the solar year and the Persian calendar.
Under the statesman Cleisthenes, the issue of this union, the Alcmaeonids became supreme in Athens about 5r B.C. To them was generally attributed (though Herodotus disbelieves the story - see Greece, Ancient History, sect.
He proposed founding a new sect with the help of Franklin, who after leaving his shop ridiculed him for his long square beard and for keeping the seventh day.
A small sect, which adopted his opinion on good works, was called after him; but it is now of mere historical interest.
Had the German princes not found it to their interests to enforce his principles, he might never have been more than the leader of an obscure mystic sect.
The terror inspired by the Peasant War led to a new alliance, the League of Dessau, formed by some of the leading rulers of central and northern Germany, to stamp out the accursed Lutheran sect."
Permanency of occupation, however, dates from the voyage of the " Mayflower," which brought about a hundred men, women and children who had mostly belonged to an English sect of Separatists, originating in Yorkshire, but who had passed a period of exile for religion's sake in Holland.
350), surnamed "the Atheist," founder of an extreme sect of Arians, was a native of Coele-Syria.
The Anomoean sect of the Arians, of whom he was the leader, are sometimes called after him Aetians.
Osaka owes its origin to Rennio Shonin, the eighth head of the Shin-Shu sect, who in1495-1496built, on the site now occupied by the castle, a temple which afterwards became the principal residence of his successors.
YEZIDIS, a sect of devil-worshippers, calling themselves Dasni, who are found in Kurdistan, Armenia and the Caucasus.
The name Waldenses was given to the members of an heretical Christian sect which arose in the south of France about 1170.
In later times the apologists of each sect reversed the process, and cleared that in which they were interested at the expense of others.
This discovery did away with the ingenious attempts to account for the name of Waldenses from some other source than from the historical founder of the sect, Peter Waldo or Valdez.
In France, at Embrun, Peter de Bruys founded a sect known as Petrobrusians, who denied infant baptism, the need of consecrated churches, transubstantiation, 2 Bradshaw, in Transactions of Cambridge Antiquarian Society (1842).
The Lombard sect went farther in (3) and (4), holding that no one in mortal sin could consecrate the sacrament, and that the Roman Church was the scarlet woman of the Apocalypse, whose precepts ought not to be obeyed, especially those appointing fast-days.
At times attempts were made to suppress the sect of the Vaudois, but the nature of the country which they inhabited, their obscurity and their isolation made the difficulties of their suppression greater than the advantages to be gained from it.
The schedule adopted contains in addition to the standard subjects of sex, age, civil condition, birthplace, occupation and infirmities, columns for mother-tongue, religion and sect, and caste and sub-caste.
de Gournay (1712-1759), who was also an earnest inquirer in the economic field; and round these two distinguished men was gradually formed the philosophic sect of the Economistes, or, as for distinction's sake they were afterwards called, the Physiocrates.
Four years later its population was about 15,000, and a large Mormon temple had been built, but internal dissensions arose, "gentile" hostility was aroused, the charter of Nauvoo was revoked in 1845, two of the leaders, Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum, were killed at Carthage, the county-seat, by a mob, and in 1846 the sect was driven from the state.
Newark was settled in 1666 by about thirty Puritans from Milford, Connecticut, who were followed in the next year by about the same number of their sect from Branford and Guilford.
wins, "snake"), known also as Naasenes, an early sect of Gnostics described by Hippolytus (Philosoph.
1), and did not think of founding a new sect, or of separating from the household of Israel (cf.
Those Jewish Christians who refused to go with the rest of the Church in this matter lived their separate life, and were regarded as an heretical sect known as the Ebionites.
To put down the Zealots he favoured an even more violent sect, the Sicarii ("Dagger-men"), by whose aid he contrived the murder of the high-priest Jonathan.
By his able policy Odo succeeded in arresting their progress for some years; but a new vali, Abdur Rahman, a member of an extremely fanatical sect, resumed the attack, reached Poitiers, and advanced on Tours, the holy town of Gaul.
The edict of Wielun (1424), remarkable as the first anti-heretical decree issued in Poland, crushed the new sect in its infancy.
Another sect, which ultimately found even more favour in Poland than the Calvinists, was that of the Bohemian Brethren.
In this he attacked the immoralities of the Maharajas or hereditary high priests of the Vallabhacharya sect of Vaishnavism to which the Bhatias belong.
See History of the Sect of Maharajas or Wallabhacharyas of Western India (1865).
A Gnostic sect took the name Sethians.
Among causes for absolute divorce are adultery, desertion for one year, habitual drunkenness for one year, cruelty, ungovernable temper, physical incapacity at time of marriage, and the joining by either party of any religious sect which regards marriage as unlawful.
"Chapel" was early and still is in England the general name of places of worship other than those of the established Church, but the application of "church" to all places of worship without distinction of sect is becoming more and more common.
Ahamoth) among the Gnostics (Ophites) in the narrower sense of the word, the Simoniani (the figure of Helena), the Barbelognostics, and in the system of the PistisSophia or the Primal Man, among the Naasseni and the sect, related to them, as described by Hippolytus.'
The sect of the Barbelognostics takes its name from the female figure of the Barbelo (perhaps a corruption of IIapO vos; cf.
Even the so-called Judaeo-Christian Gnostics (Cerinthus), the Ebionite (Essenian) sect of the PseudoClementine writings (the Elkesaites), take up an inconsistent attitude towards Jewish antiquity and the Old Testament.
Thanks to the noble simplicity and specifically religious character of his ideas, Marcion was able to found not only schools, but a community, a church of his own, which gave trouble to the Church longer than any other Gnostic sect.
As we have already intimated, Gnosticism had such a power 1 For the disciples of Valentinus, especially Marcus, after whom was named a separate sect, the Marcosians, with their Pythagorean theories of numbers and their strong tincture of the mystical, magic, and sacramental, see Valentinus And Valentinians.
Among the grounds for a divorce are adultery, impotency, extreme cruelty, conviction of a crime punishable in the state with imprisonment for more than a year and actual imprisonment under such conviction, treatment seriously injuring the health or endangering the reason, wilful desertion for three years, or joining a religious sect or society which professes to believe the relation of husband and wife unlawful, and conduct in accordance therewith for six months.
It cannot be proved that the expansions have been made in the interests of any sect or heresy.
He joined the sect of the "Orphans," and had a prominent part in the discussions and conferences of the ten years from 1420 to 1430.
By the end of that century or the beginning of the 19th their doctrine had become so clearly defined, and the number of their members had so greatly increased, that the Russian government and Church, considering this sect to be peculiarly obnoxious, started an energetic campaign against it.
UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST, 1 an American religious sect which originated in the last part of the 18th century under the leadership of Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), pastor of the Second Reformed Church in Baltimore, and Martin Boehm (1725-1812), a Pennsylvanian Mennonite of Swiss descent.
There are some 30,000 Sikhs in the Indian army, and the sect is cherished by the military authorities, who insist on all recruits taking the pahul or Sikh baptism.
As the father connected himself at a later period with the confession of the Moghtasilah, or "Baptists," in southern Babylonia, the son also was brought up in the religious doctrines and exercises of this sect.
It is probable that this Babylonian sect had absorbed Christian elements.
If we may take the edict of Diocletian against the Manichaeans as genuine, the system must have gained a firm footing in the West by the beginning of the 4th century, but we know that as late as about the year 325 Eusebius had not any accurate knowledge of the sect.
Eusebius gives a short account of the sect (H.
Six years later appeared his chief work, A Discourse of Freethinking, occasioned by the Rise and Growth of a Sect called Freethinkers (1713).
This extraordinary man, associated by tradition with Omar Khayyam, the well-known mathematician and free-thinking poet, and with Hassan (ibn) Sabbah, afterwards the founder of the sect of the Assassins (q.v.), was a renowned author and statesman of the first rank, and immortalized his name by the foundation of several universities (the Nizamiyah at Bagdad), observatories, mosques, hospitals and other institutions of public utility.
Before his "manifestation " (zuhur), of which he gives in the Persian Bayan a date corresponding to 23rd May 1844, he was a disciple of Sayyid Kazim of Rasht, the leader of the Shaykhis, a sect of extreme Shiites characterized by the doctrine (called by them Rukn-irabi`, " the fourth support ") that at all times there must exist an intermediary between the twelfth Imam and his faithful followers.
In the hands of Baha the aims of the sect became much more practical and ethical, and the wilder pantheistic tendencies and metaphysical hair-splittings of the early Balls almost disappeared.
- The literature of the sect is very voluminous, but mostly in manuscript.
The licentious practices of this sect were exposed in a lawsuit before the high court at Bombay in 1862.
GLASITES, or Sandemanians, 1 a Christian sect, founded in Scotland by John Glas.
Many Glasites joined the general body of Scottish Congregationalists, and the sect may now be considered extinct.
His pantheism had an antinomian drift; for himself and his officials he claimed impeccability; but, whatever truth there may be in the charge that among his followers were those who interpreted "love" as licence, no such charge can be sustained against the morals of Niclaes and the other leaders of the sect.
A sect of Abelitae, who seem to have lived in North Africa, is mentioned by Augustine (De Haeresibus, lxxxvi.).
He has also interesting accounts of the prophetic powers possessed by three individual members of the sect - Judas (B.J.
Josephus himself made trial of the sect of Essenes in his youth; but from his own statement it appears that he must have been a very short time with them, and therefore could not have been initiated into the inner mysteries of the society (De vita sua, 2).
They had in common with that sect their veneration for Moses and the Law, their Sabbatarianism, their striving after ceremonial purity, and their tendency towards fatalism.
It is difficult to ascertain whether the name was taken from the reputed founder of that sect, a certain pope Bogumil or Bogomil, or whether he assumed that name after it had been given to the whole sect.
The word is a direct translation into Slavonic of Massaliani, the Syrian name of the sect corresponding to the Greek Euchites.
It is a complicated task to determine the true character and the tenets of any ancient sect, considering that almost all the information that has reached us has come from the opponents.
According to Slavonic documents the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968).
The parents of Faraday belonged to the very small and isolated Christian sect which is commonly called after Robert Sandeman.
that developed the Mu`tazilite (Motazilite) sect.
HESYCHASTS (i)avXacrrai or iluvX& ovens, from ajavxos, quiet, also called 6µ0aX61,GvXot, Umbilicanimi, and sometimes referred to as Euchites, Massalians or Palamites), a quietistic sect which arose, during the later period of the Byzantine empire, among the monks of the Greek church, especially at Mount Athos, then at the height of its fame and influence under the reign of Andronicus the younger and the abbacy of Symeon.
Owing to various adventitious circumstances the sect came into great prominence politically and ecclesiastically for a few years about the middle of the 14th century.
The name Ambrosians is also given to a 16th-century Anabaptist sect, which laid claim to immediate communication with God through the Holy Ghost.
His De veritote religionis Christianae (1627), a presentment of the evidences, is so written as to form a code of common Christianity, irrespective of sect.
Under her rule the sect of the Labadists settled for some time in Herford.
At the beginning of the Acts the Christian Church is a little Jewish sect; long before the end is reached it has become a world-conquering spiritual force.
He taught the existence of the Supreme God and founded the sect of the Smarta Brahmins.
During the next eight years the progress of the sect was rapid, and communities were founded in many of the principal towns in England.
Their empire, which during the reign of Abdurrahman (761-784) and his son Abdul Wahab (784-823) extended over the greater part of the modern Algeria, was known as the Ibadite Empire from Abdallah ibn Ibad, the founder of the heretical sect to which Abdurrahman belonged.
Its governing conception is that noble character may be associated with the most diverse creeds, and that there can, therefore, be no good reason why the holders of one sect of religious principles should not tolerate those who maintain wholly different doctrines.
The Ronsdorf sect, the members of which called themselves Zionites, is now extinct.
Matters came to a climax at the council of Vienne in 1311 under Pope Clement V., where the "sect of Beguines and Beghards" were accused of being the main instruments of the spread of heresy, and decrees were passed suppressing their organization and demanding their severe punishment.
includes many Jews, the Karaite sect having here their principal synagogue.
Here too resides the spiritual head (gakhan) of the sect.
The sect maintained a separate existence for some time, but gradually fell away owing to internal divisions.
They were not a sect, for we find the practice widely in vogue at an early time, even among the orthodox.
Theodosius, in his persecuting edict of 382, classes them as a special sect with the Manicheans, who also eschewed wine.
The surplus proceeds of the property were further to be applied to maintain a yearly offering in commemoration of his departed father, mother and brothers, to pay the expenses incurred in celebrating his own birthday every year on the 7th of the month Gamelion, and for a social gathering of the sect on the 10th of every month in honour of himself and Metrodorus.
Neither sect, it may be added, advocated sensuality pure and unfeigned - the Epicurean least of all.
MELETIUS OF LYCOPOLIS (4th century), founder of the sect known after him as the "Meletians," or as the "Church of the Martyrs," in the district of Thebes in Egypt.
His followers, however, took part with the Arians in the controversy with Athanasius and existed as a separate sect till the 5th century.
CATHARS (CATHARI or Catharists), a widespread heretical sect of the middle ages.
All adherents of the sect seem to have kept three Lents in the year, as also to have fasted Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays of each week; in these fasts a diet of bread and water was usual.
(Fn3) The Cathar rites, which remain to us in a manual of the sect, "recall," says the Abbe Guiraud, no too favourable a witness, "those of the primitive church with a truth and precision the more striking the nearer we go back to the apostolic age."
RANTERS, an antinomian and spiritualistic English sect in the time of the Commonwealth, who may be described as the dregs of the Seeker movement.
The sect of the Essenes probably shows an intermingling of the Greek with other lines of tradition among the Jews of Palestine.
The grand cadi, who must belong to the sect of the Hanifis, sits at Cairo, and is aided by a council of Ulema or learned men.
This council consists of the sheikh or religious chief of each of the four orthodox sects, the sheikh of the mosque of Azhar, who is of the sect of the Shafiis, the chief (nakib) of the Sherifs, or descendants of Mahomet, and others.
The former, called by the Arabs Mukaukis (Muqauqis) from his Coptic name Pkauchios, had for ten years before the arrival of Amr maintained a fierce persecution of the Jacobite sect, to which the bulk of the Copts belonged.
He was assassinated in October 1129 by some members of the sect who believed in the claims of Nizgr, son of Mostansir.
In 1260 theSyrian kingdom of alNa~ir was destroyed by Hulaku (Hulagu), the great Mongol chief, founder of the Ilkhan Dynasty (see MoNGOLS), who, having finally overthrown the caliph of Bagdad (see CALIPhATE, sect.
6.yvow, to be ignorant of), a monophysite sect who maintained that Christ's human nature was like other men's in all respects, including limited knowledge.
The sect was anathematized by Gregory the Great.
PHARISEES, a sect of the Jews first mentioned by Josephus, in his account (Ant.
They contain denunciations attributed to our Lord and assigned - with obvious injustice in some cases - to the scribes of this sect.
It is to be remembered that the Pharisees were the only sect of the Jews who survived in Christian times and that the Pharisees were never a homogeneous body possessed of a definite policy or body of doctrine.
Again the third gospel in particular betrays relations between the Pharisees and Jesus very different from those of the common Christian view, which conjures up an impossible picture of an absolute breach between the Prophet of Nazareth and the whole corporation of the Pharisees as a result of a quarrel with certain members of that dissident sect of independent thinkers.
He had joined a sect of seceders from the kirk, and had all the characteristics of the typical Scottish Calvinist.
In 1684, while Perth, and his brother, Melfort, who went over to Rome, were in power, Renwick emitted an " Apologetical Declaration," in which the active enemies of his sect were threatened with secret trials and with assassination (October), and a " curate," with some soldiers, was murdered.
Here the sect had gained considerable influence, through the adhesion of Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, and several prominent citizens; and the leaders, Johann Matthyszoon or Matthiesen, a baker of Haarlem, and Johann Bockholdt, a tailor of Leiden, had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town and deposing the magistrates.
It is difficult to trace the subsequent history of the sect as a religious body.
The enforced adoption of new names makes it easy to lose the historical identity of many who really belonged to the Minster Anabaptists, and, on the other hand, has led to the classification of many with the Munster sect who had no real connexion with it.
But the continuity of a sect is to be traced in its principles, and not in its adherents, and it must be remembered that Menno and his followers expressly repudiated the distinctive doctrines of the Munster Anabaptists.
In English history frequent reference is made to the Anabaptists during the 16th and 17th centuries, but there is no evidence that any considerable number of native Englishmen ever adopted the principles of the Munster sect.
For they run to suffer punishments, no matter how horrible, as if to a banquet; so that if you take that as a test either of the truth of doctrine or of their certitude of grace, you would easily conclude that in no other sect is to be found a faith so true or grace so certain.
It would appear from the way in which Anabaptism sprang up everywhere independently, as if more than one ancient sect took in and through it a new lease of life.
Rost related be true, namely that they called themselves A postolici, and went barefooted healing the sick, they must have at least absorbed into themselves a sect of whom we hear in the 12th century in the north of Europe as deferring baptism to the age of 30, and rejecting oaths, prayers for the dead, relics and invocation of saints.
xliii., a valuable history of the sect from their own early documents); Ritschl, Geschichte des Pietismus, vol.
And as the Mahavastu was a standard work of a particular sect, or rather school, called the Maha-sanghikas, it has thus preserved for us the theory of the Buddha as held outside the followers of the canon, by those whose views developed, in after centuries, into the Mahayana or modern form of Buddhism in India.
And in India the problem still remains to trace, in the literature, the gradual growth of the system - the gradual formation of new sections among the people, the gradual extension of the institution to the families of people engaged in certain trades, belonging to the same group, or sect, or tribe, tracing their ancestry, whether rightly or wrongly, to the same source.
In Church history a sect founded by Patricius (c. 387), teacher of Symmachus the Marcionite, are known as the Patricians; they believed that all flesh was made by the devil.
Political intrigue, claims of independence from the state, as well as charges of polygamy and lawless conduct, aroused such intense opposition to the sect that in 1844 a civil war broke out in Hancock county which resulted in the murder of Joseph Smith and the removal of the Mormons from Illinois in 1846.
Of these the narrowest, most puritanical, and most bigoted was the Dopper sect, to which Kruger belonged.
John Glas, founder of the sect known as Glassites or Sandemanians, was a native of the town.
The most interesting of all the non-Arab communities in the country, however, is without doubt the Samaritan sect in Nablus (Shechem); a gradually disappearing body, which has maintained an independent existence from the time when they were first settled by the Assyrians to occupy the land left waste by the captivity of the kingdom of Israel.
But the Adamsites suffered from disease and poverty, and lost heart in a couple of years: returning to America, they sold their property to a German community, the Tempelgemeinde, a Unitarian sect led by Messrs Hoffmann and Hardegg who established themselves in Jaffa in 1868.
" The sophists," says Grote, " are spoken of as a new class of men, or sometimes in language which implies a new doctrinal sect or school, as if they then sprang up in Greece for the first time - ostentatious impostors, flattering and duping the rich youth for their own personal gain, undermining the morality of Athens, public and private, and encouraging their pupils to the unscrupulous prosecution of ambition and cupidity.
That the persons styled sophists " were not a sect or school, with common doctrines or method," is clear.
In a word, the present writer agrees with Grote that the sophists were not a sect or school with common doctrine or method; that their theoretical and practical morality was neither above nor below that of their age, being, in fact, determined by it; and that Plato and his followers are not to be regarded as the authorized teachers of the Greek nation, nor the sophists as the dissenters, but vice versa.
Each of these profess a peculiar form of religion, the former being Vishnuvites of the Vallabhachari sect, the latter Jains.
The one was Chin Kulich Khan, also called Asaf Jah, and still more commonly Nizam-ul-Mulk, who was of Turkoman origin, and belonged to the Sunni sect.
6); siparali (shield-shaped, worn by the Shia sect); murassa, or nastalikh (ornately bound), latpati (carelessly bound) (Plate I.
The foregoing rules are now only observed by the ultra-orthodox, such as the Wahabi sect and by ulemas, or learned elderly men.
Caste and sect marks also distinguish Hindus from each other.
There is a small sect of Sikh known as Akali or Nihang.
COMENIUS (or [[Komensky), Johann Amos]] (1592-1671), a famous writer on education, and the last bishop of the old church of the Moravian and Bohemian Brethren, was born at Comna, or, according to another account, at Niwnitz, in Moravia, of poor parents belonging to the sect of the Moravian Brethren.
belonged to the sect of the Qadaris who rejected the doctrine of predestination.
In the same year the real chief of the sect, whose abode had been discovered by the caliph, fled from Salamia in Syria, where he lived, to Africa, and hid himself at Sijilmasa (in Tafilalt) in the far west, whence he reappeared ten years later at Kairawan as the Mandi, the first caliph of the Fatimites.4 Motadid died in Rabia II.
Cheribon has been for many centuries the centre of Islamism in western Java, and is also the seat of a fanatical Mahommedan sect controlled from Mecca.
ABRAXAS, or Abrasax, a word engraved on certain antique stones, called on that account Abraxas stones, which were used as amulets or charms. The Basilidians, a Gnostic sect, attached importance to the word, if, indeed, they did not bring it into use.
also Lane's account of the " Saadeeyeh " sect who charm away serpents from houses (Modern Egyptians).
The symbol of the Bacchic orgies was a consecrated serpent, and the snakes kept in the sacred cistae of the cult of Dionysus find a parallel among the sect of the Ophites where, at the sacramental rites, bread was offered to the living serpent and afterwards distributed among the worshippers.
The same sect that erected these buildings, the Moravians, or United Brethren, maintain here the Moravian College and Theological Seminary, and a well-known school for girls (the Moravian Seminary), founded as a church boarding school in 1749 and reorganized in 1785, for girls of all denominations.
Bethlehem was founded by the Moravians, led by Count Nikolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf, shortly before Christmas in 1741, and the season of the year suggested its name; for the first century of its existence it was almost exclusively a settlement of that sect, and it is still their American headquarters.
The connubial relations of the deities may thus be considered" to typify the mystical union of the two eternal principles, spirit and matter, for the production and reproduction of the universe."But whilst this privilege of divine worship was claimed for the consorts of all the gods, it is principally to Siva's consort, in one or other of her numerous forms, that adoration on an extensive scale came to be offered by a special sect of votaries, the Saktas.
The practical result of his labours was the foundation of a new sect, the Smartas, i.e.
12); the Ganesa-caturthi, or 4th day of the light fortnight of Bhadra (August - September), considered the birthday of Ganesa, the god of wisdom; and the Holi, the Indian Saturnalia in the month of Phalguna (February to March) - have nothing of a sectarian tendency about them; others again, which are of a distinctly sectarian character - such as the Krishna janmashtami, the birthday of Krishna on the 8th day of the dark half of Bhadra, or (in the south) of Sravana (July-August), the Durgapuja and the Dipavali, or lamp feast, celebrating Krishna's victory over the demon Narakasura, on the last two days of Asvina (September-October) - are likewise observed and heartily joined in by the whole community irrespective of sect.
Though there is hardly a sect which has not contributed its share to the element of religious mendicancy and asceticism so prevalent in India, it is in connexion with the Siva-cult that these tendencies have been most extensively cultivated.
This sect counts numerous adherents in southern India; the Census Report of 1901 recording nearly a million and a half, including some 70 or 80 different, mostly endogamous, castes.
The reputed founder, or rather reformer, of the sect was Basava (or Basaba), a Brahman of the Belgaum district who seems to have lived in the 11th or 12th century.
Ramanuja's doctrine, which is especially directed against the Linga-worship, is essentially based on the tenets of an old Vaishnava sect, the Bhagavatas or Pancharatras, who worshipped the Supreme Being under the name of Vasudeva (subsequently identified with Krishna, as the son of Vasudeva, who indeed is credited by some scholars with the foundation of that monotheistic creed).
In point of doctrine, they differ in their view of the relation between God Vishnu and the human soul; whilst the former sect define it by the ape theory, which makes the soul cling to God as the young ape does to its mother, the latter explain it by the cat theory, by which Vishnu himself seizes and rescues the souls as the mother cat does her young ones.
Madh y a Acharya, another distinguished Vedanta teacher and founder of a Vaishnava sect, born in Kanara in A.D.
The Ramanandis or Ramavats (popularly Ramats) are a numerous northern sect of similar tenets to those of the Ramanujas.
The sectarial mark of his sect differs but slightly from that of the parent stock.
Their mendicant members, usually known as Vairagis, are, like the general body of the sect, drawn from all castes without distinction.
Ramananda's teaching was thus of a distinctly levelling and popular character; and, in accordance therewith, the Bhakta-mala and other authoritative writings of the sect are composed, not in Sanskrit, but in the popular dialects.
The story goes that, having been deeply impressed by Ramananda's teaching, he sought to attach himself to him; and, one day at Benares, in stepping down the ghat at daybreak to bathe in the Ganges, and putting himself in the way of the teacher, the latter, having inadvertently struck him with his foot, uttered his customary exclamation" Ram Ram,"which, being also the initiatory formula of the sect, was claimed by Kabir as such, making him Ramananda's disciple.
(Sanskr.) sishya, disciples, whose guru, or teacher, he called himself - a peaceful sect at first until, in consequence of Mahommedan persecution, a martial spirit was infused into it by the tenth, and last, guru, Govind Shah, changing it into a political organization.
Whilst originally more akin in its principles to the Moslem faith, the sect seems latterly to have shown tendencies towards drifting back to the Hindu pale.
The most important of these, the Dadu Panthi sect, founded by Dadu about the year 1600, has a numerous following in Ajmir and Marwar, one section of whom, the Nagas, engage largely in military service, whilst the others are either householders or mendicants.
"the sun of the Nimba tree"), a teacher of uncertain date, said to have been a Telugu Brahman who subsequently established himself at Mathura (Muttra) on the Yamuna, where the headquarters of his sect have remained ever since.
As the chief authority of their tenets, the Nimavats recognize the Bhagavata-purana; though several works, ascribed to Nimbarka - partly of a devotional character and partly expository of Vedanta topics - are still extant, Adherents of this sect are fairly numerous in northern India, their frontal mark consisting of the usual two perpendicular white lines, with, however, a circular black spot between them.
Of greater importance than the sect just noticed, because of their far larger following, are the two sects founded early in the 16th century by Vallabha (Ballabha) Acharya and Chaitanya.
In this sect, children are solemnly admitted to full membership at the early age of four, and even two, years of age, when a rosary, or necklace, of 108 beads of basil (tulsi) wood is passed round their necks, and they are taught the use of the octo-syllabic formula Sri-Krishnah saranam mama, " Holy Krishna is my refuge."
Another special feature of this sect is that their spiritual heads, the Gosains, also called Maharajas, so far from submitting themselves to self-discipline and austere practices, adorn themselves in splendid garments, and allow themselves to be habitually regaled by their adherents with choice kinds of food; and being regarded as the living representatives of the "lord of the Gopis" himself, they claim and receive in their own persons all acts of attachment and worship due to the deity, even, it is alleged, to the extent of complete self-surrender.
Having entered on his missionary labours at Ahmadabad, and afterwards removed to Jetalpur, where he had a meeting with Bishop Heber, he subsequently settled at the village of Wartal, to the north-west of Baroda, and erected a temple to LakshmiNarayana, which, with another at Ahmadabad, forms the two chief centres of the sect, each being presided over by a Maharaja.
The sect is said to be gaining ground in Gujarat.
Chaitanya, the founder of the great Vaishnava sect of Bengal, was the son of a high-caste Brahman of Nadiya, the famous Bengal seat of Sanskrit learning, where he was born in 1485, two years after the birth of Martin Luther, the German reformer.
Just as this festival was, and continues to be, attended by people from all parts of India, without distinction of caste or sex, so also were all classes, even Mahommedans, admitted by Chaitanya as members of his sect.
By the followers of this sect, also, an extravagant degree of reverence is habitually paid to their gurus or spiritual heads.
In the words of Saint-Simon, the Huguenots were " a sect that had become a state within the state, dependent on the king no more than it chose, and ready on the slightest pretext to embroil the whole country by an appeal to arms."
ABRAHAMITES, a sect of deists in Bohemia in the 18th century, who professed to be followers of the pre-circumcised Abraham.
17) were a semi-Christian sect of Babylonia, the Elkesaites, closely resembling the Mandaeans or so-called "Christians of St John the Baptist," but not identical with them.
They did not form a sect, but represented an impulse felt everywhere.
The Cameronites (not to be confused with the Scottish sect called Cameronians) are moderate Calvinists, and approach to the opinion of the Arminians.
It chanced, however - according to a legend, the details of which are quite uncertain - that three of the fanatic sect of the Kharijites had made an agreement to assassinate Ali, Moawiya and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful.
In 1698 he obtained admission as a member of the Baptist Church, and used to preach at Wapping; but in 1701, as the result of a financial scandal, he was formally expelled from the sect.
A sect of Sabbataeans - the Dormeh of Salonica - survived him, and for many a long year the controversy for and against his claims left an echo in Jewish life.
Nearly every existing sect is represented in Wales, including Swedenborgians and Moravians.
Although primary education was largely supplied by the many Church schools in all parts of Wales, yet it was in the three most important denominations - the Congregationalists, the Baptists and the Calvinistic Methodists (that new-born sect of which the Church herself was the unwilling parent) - that almost all Welsh spiritual development was to be found during the first half of the 19th century.
there appeared the weekly Times of Wales (Amserau Cymry), founded and edited by the able William Rees, who may be styled the father of the Welsh political press; and the success of Rees's venture was so marked that other journals, arranged to suit the special tenets of each sect, speedily sprang into existence.
The adherents of this sect, unlike the Pharisees and Sadducees, were never denounced by Christ, who seems on the contrary to have had real sympathy with the voluntary celibacy of an exceptional few (Matt.
Moreover, in proportion as the clergy, no longer mere ringleaders of a despised and persecuted sect, became beneficiaries and administrators of rich endowments - and this at a time when the external safeguards against embezzlement were comparatively weak - a strong feeling grew up among the laity that church revenues should not go to support the priest's family.
The adherents of Arnold do not appear actually to have formed, either before or after his death, a heretical sect.
The town of Dehra grew up round the temple built in 1699 by the heretical Sikh Guru, Ram Rai, the founder of the Udasi sect of Ascetics.
Here, again, the theology was further developed, and an attempt made to annul the old dualism by envisaging both Ormuzd and Ahriman as emanations of an original principle of infinite time (Zervan), a doctrine which long enjoyed official validity under the Sassanids till, in the reign of Chosroes I., the sect of Zervanites was pronounced heretical.i But, above all, the ritual and the doctrine of purity were elaborated and expanded, and there was evolved a complete and detailed system of casuistry, dealing with all things allowed and forbidden, the forms of pollution and the expiation for each, &c., which, in its arid and spiritles1 monotony vividly recalls the similar prescriptions in the Pentateuch.
Like him he had little inclination to the orthodox church, and favored Mazdak, the founder of a communistic sect which had made headway among the people and might be used as a weapon against the nobles, of whom Mazdak demanded that they should cut down their luxury and distribute their superfluous wealth.
He thus paved the way for the publication of one of the earliest textbooks of the whole sect, the Ijadiltalulizai~ikat, or Garden of Truth (1130; 525 A.H.), by UakIm SanaI of Ghazni, to whom all the later 5ufic poets refer as their unrivalled master in spiritual knowledge.
For three generations they remained Hindus; since then there has arisen amongst them a strange new sect called Zikari, with exceedingly loose notions of morality.
The sect, however, appears to be fast merging into orthodox Mahomrnedanism.
Books of direction were written by Sextius in Greek (as afterwards by Seneca in Latin), almost the only Roman who had the ambition to found a sect, though in ethics he mainly followed Stoicism.
In his History he betrays great sympathy with that body, has gone with exactness into its history in Constantinople and Phrygia, and is indebted for much of the material of his work to Novatianist tradition and to his intercourse with prominent members of the sect.
"The Republic," sect.
(2) It was written before 96 B.C. or some years earlier in the reign of John Hyrcanus; for since our author is of the strictest sect a Pharisee and at the same time an upholder of the Maccabean pontificate, Jubilees cannot have been written after 96 when the Pharisees and Alexander Jannaeus came to open strife.
Our author was a Pharisee of the straitest sect.
Gregoras subsequently took an important part in the Hesychast controversy, in which he violently opposed Gregorius Palamas, the chief supporter of the sect.
The origin of the Nazarenes or Ebionites as a distinct sect is very obscure, but may be dated with much likelihood from the edict of Hadrian which in 135 finally scattered the old church of Jerusalem.
But the great bulk of the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of the later forms of Indian Buddhism.
The " orange-hoods," as his followers were called, rapidly gained in numbers and influence, until they so overshadowed the " red-hoods," as the followers of the older sect were called, that in the middle of the r 5th century the emperor of China acknowledged the two leaders of the new sect at that time as the titular overlords of the church and tributary rulers over the realm of Tibet.
d roTarcr6, set apart), a sect of early Christians, who renounced all their worldly possessions.
This sect, based upon the theories of various German religious mystics, and having for its primary object the spiritualization of the matrimonial state, was founded in 1846 by the Rev. Henry James Prince, a clergyman of the Church of England (1811-1899).
SmythPigott, pastor of the "Ark," became the acknowledged head of the sect.
For five years after this he was not heard of outside his own sect.
Pigott's claim was at once admitted by the members of his sect, including even his own wife, as the fulfilment of the promise of Christ to appear in due time in the "Ark."
Pigott retired to the headquarters of the sect, the "Abode of Love" in Somerset, and all efforts to interview him or to obtain details of the life of the community were abortive.
Bread Company, was requested by his fellow-directors to resign, on the ground that his connexion with the sect was damaging the business of the company.
Animated by an intense love of truth and devotion to public duty, he waged war on such ecclesiastical systems as seemed to him to favour obscurantism, and to put the claims of sect above those of human society.
CERDONIANS, a Gnostic sect, founded by Cerdo, a Syrian, who came to Rome about 137, but concerning whose history little is known.
SADDUCEES, a sect or party of the Jews mentioned in the historical books of the New Testament (with the exception of the fourth Gospel), by Josephus, and in the Talmud.
In the New Testament there is already a tendency to ignore the Sadducees and to transfer to the surviving and active sect of the Pharisees denunciations addressed to hypocrites.
The capital town of Bahrein is Manameh, a long, straggling, narrow town of about 8000 inhabitants, chiefly of the Wahabi sect.
Origen also mentions that some of the sect were called Heleniani (v.
But they were still extant in his time, and there is no sect of whom he speaks in such unmeasured terms of vituperation.'
But on the death of the master he was away in Egypt for the practice of magic, and one Dositheus, by spreading a false report of Simon's death, succeeded in installing himself as head of the sect.
He is mentioned by Hegesippus as the founder of a sect (Eus.
'SCHISM, a division, especially used of a formal separation from a church or religious body, a sect, or church formed by such separation.
The Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) are far more numerous than any other sect, this church having a membership in 1906 of 151,525 (of these 493 were of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) out of a total of 172,814 in all denominations; there were 479 members of this denomination to every 1000 of the population in the state, and the next largest sect, the Roman Catholics, had only 26 per 1000 of population and no Protestant body more than 6 per 1000.
Duchesne, Bulletin critique, 1889, pp. 41-48; for the Epistles see Apocryphal Literature, sect.
ADAMITES, or Adamians, a sect of heretics that flourished in North Africa in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
Basing itself probably on a union of certain gnostic and ascetic doctrines, this sect pretended that its members were re-established in Adam's state of original innocency.
During the middle ages the doctrines of this obscure sect, which did not itself exist long, were revived in Europe by the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit.
In all cases, except some species of Araucaria (sect.
In the leaves of Araucaria imbricata, in which palisade-tissue occurs in both the upper and lower part of the mesophyll, the resin-canals are placed between the veins; in some species of Podocarpus (sect.
The Faraizis or Puritan sect of Mahommedans are exceedingly numerous in the district.
Russians of the Lipovan sect live in exile in Bucharest and other cities, earning a livelihood as cab-drivers, and wearing the long coats and round caps of their countrymen.
The five years thereafter were marked by plunder and abuse of the sect.
Bunyan had also a dispute with some of the chiefs of the sect to which he belonged.
the distinguishing tenet of that sect, but he did not consider that tenet as one of high importance, and willingly joined in communion with pious Presbyterians and Independents.
The account of the manner in which the Buddha is said to have overcome the wicked devices of this apostate cousin and his parricide protector is quite legendary; but the general fact of Ajatasattu's opposition to the new sect and of his subsequent conversion may be accepted.
The sect, however, had begun to grow, and before the end of 1828, had meetings not only in Paris but in many provincial towns.
Before long, however, dissensions began to arise in the sect.
Shortly after the chiefs were tried and condemned for proceedings prejudicial to the social order; and the sect was entirely broken up (1832).
An excellent edition of the works of Saint-Simon and Enfantin was published by the survivors of the sect (47 vols., Paris, 1865-1878).
In this publication he made six proposals as the best means of restoring the life of the Church: (1) the earnest and thorough study of the Bible in private meetings, ecclesiolae in ecclesia; 1 Labadie had formed the ascetic and mystic sect of "The Regenerati" in the Church of Holland (c. 1660), and then in other parts of the Reformed Church.
The name Docetae is first used by Theodoret (Ep. 82) as a general description, and by Clement of Alexandria as the designation of a distinct sect,' of which he says that Julius Cassianus was the founder.
Docetic tendencies ' Not a distinct sect, but a continuous type of Christology.
Roman Catholics are the most numerous religious sect in the state (in 1906 out of a total of 120,229 communicants of all religious bodies, they numbered 35,317).
c. 42) " disestablished " the Irish Church, sect.
The university has always been absolutely non-sectarian; its charter prescribes that " persons of every religious denomination, or of no religious denomination, shall be equally eligible to all offices and appointments " and that " at no time shall a majority of the board (of trustees) be of one religious sect or of no religious sect."
In Libri primi Sect.
In Libri secundi Sect.
But, as he refused to limit his ministrations to one sect, the Seceders and he parted company, and without their countenance he made a tour through the principal towns of Scotland, the authorities of which in most instances presented him with the freedom of the burgh, in token of their estimate of the benefits to the community resulting from his preaching.
JAINS, the most numerous and influential sect of heretics, or nonconformists to the Brahmanical system of Hinduism, in India.
Devaddhi Ganin, who occupies among the Jains a position very similar to that occupied among the Buddhists by Buddhaghosa, collected the then existing traditions and teachings of the sect into these forty-five Agamas.
The sect of the Svetambaras has preserved the oldest literatures.
the sect in the Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1898.
Professor Jacobi, who is the best authority on the history of this sect, thus sums up the distinction between the Maha-vira and the Buddha: "Maha-vira was rather of the ordinary class of religious men in India.
Biihler On the Indian Sect of the Jainas, edited by J.
They ceased to support him, and his followers became a sect rather than a political party.
fact that the sect still lingered on.
The sect spread in a few years to London, Oxford and other centres of intellectual life, but for many years its followers were not numerous; like the old Lollardy, Protestantism took root only in certain places and among certain classesnotably the lesser clergy and the merchants of the great towns.
ASSIDEANS (the Anglicized form, derived through the Greek, of the Hebrew Hasidim, " the pious"), the name of a party or sect which stood out against the Hellenization of the Jews in the 2nd century B.C. After the massacre of those who fled from the forces of Antiochus Epiphanes and would not resist on the sabbath, Mattathias (or Judas) decided to set aside the law and was joined by a company of Assideans, brave men of Israel every one, who offered themselves willingly for the law (1 Macc. ii.
Darazi, who had acted independently in his apostolate, was branded by Hamza as a heretic, and thus, by a curious anomaly, he is actually held in detestation by the very sect which perhaps bears his name.
The population is estimated at 12,000 (Moslems 6000, Christians 4000, Jews 1500, Germans Soo; the last belong for the greater part to the Unitarian sect of the "Templars," who have colonies also at Jaffa and Jerusalem).
On the other hand, in 1621 a new sect arose, the Sabbatarii, with strong Judaic tendencies; though excluded from toleration they maintained an existence till 5848.
The letters allude to toleration in the state and comprehension in the church, while they show an indifference to theological dogma hardly consistent with an exclusive connexion with any sect.
Puritans like Owen and Goodwin, whose idea of ecclesiastical comprehension was dogmatic and narrow, were ready to accept sectarian variety, because it was their duty to allow many religions in the nation, but only one form of theology within their own sect.
Yet he did not, like many Puritans, mean Scripture as interpreted by himself or by his sect.
See Bible, sect.
Rewbell was an able, although unscrupulous, man of action, Barras a dissolute and shameless adventurer, La Revelliere Lepeaux the chief of a new sect, the Theophilanthropists, and therefore a bitter foe to other religions, especially the Catholic. Severe integrity and memorable public services raised Carnot far above his colleagues, but he was not a statesman and was hampered by his past.
Under the pretext that a true believer could commit no sin, the Amalricians indulged in every excess, and the sect does not appear to have long survived the death of its founder.
In the case of Pythagoras, conspicuous among pre-Socratic philosophers as the founder not merely of a school, but of a sect or order bound by a common rule of life, there is a closer connexion between moral and metaphysical speculation.
The Epicureans, again, from their unquestioning acceptance of the " dogmas " 2 of their founder, almost deserve to be called a sect rather than a school.
This view extends far beyond the limits of Comte's special school or sect, and has been widely accepted.
There are about 4000 Jews and perhaps 6000 Christians, among whom are reckoned the remains of the curious sect of Sabaeans or Mandaeans, whose headquarters are in the neighbourhood of Suk esh-Sheiukh.
In the same year (May 1797) he married Barbara Ann Spooner and took a house at Clapham, where he became one of the leaders of what was known as the "Clapham Sect" of Evangelicals, including Henry Thornton, Charles Grant, E.
NAZARENES (Naq'copaIoc), an obscure Jewish-Christian sect, existing at the time of Epiphanius (fl.
5) and geographical position of the sect, lead to the conclusion that the Nazarenes of the 4th century are, in spite of Epiphanius's distinction, to be identified with the Ebionites.
The eighth canon of the council of Nice provides in a liberal spirit for the readmission of the clergy of the Ka() apoi to the Catholic Church, and the sect finally disappeared some two centuries after its origin.
6 and 8 of the act; (3) estates in which the offers of the Land Commission to purchase under sect.
Probably these are relics, not of the necropolis of the ancient Zone, but of a monastic community of Dervishes, of the Dede sect, which was established here in the 15th century, shortly after the Turkish conquest, and gave to the place its name.
The same order of ideas produced the persecution of the Jansenists, as much a political as a religious sect.
DONATISTS, a powerful sect which arose in the Christian church of northern Africa at the beginning of the 4th century.'
The name of the sect was derived from the second of these.
The attempt to destroy the sect by force had the result of intensifying its fanaticism.
This wise policy, to which he consistently adhered to the close of his reign, was not followed by his son and successor Constans, who, after repeated attempts to win over the sect by bribes, resorted to persecution.
It was not, however, until the commencement of the 5th century that the sect began to decline, owing largely to the rise among them of a group of moderate and scholarly men like the grammarian Tychonius, who vainly strove to overcome the more fanatical section.
She is remembered by her connexion with the sect known as Shakers.
The later sect of the Zervanites held that both were visible manifestations of the primeval principle Zruvan akarana (Infinite Time).
In Andalusia the downfall of the Almorvides had War with opened the way to the Almohdes, or followers of theAlmothe Mabdi, an even more bigoted religious sect than hades, the other.
He became leader of the so-called sect of the Hieracites, an ascetic society from which married persons were excluded, and of which one of the leading tenets was that only the celibate could enter the kingdom of heaven.
Even as late as 1846 The Divine Looking-Glass was reprinted by members of the then almost extinct sect.
They refused to admit into their sect those Christians whom the fear of martyrdom had once restored to paganism.
But in 12 9 1 the sect reappeared, sensibly increased, and Pope Nicholas IV.
They had had close relations with the dissident Franciscans, but the Spirituals often disavowed them, especially when the sect, which in Segarelli's time had had no very precise doctrinal character, became with Dolcino frankly heterodox.
He taught almost the same principles of devotion as Segarelli, but the Messianic character which he attributed to himself, the announcement of a communistic millennial kingdom, and, besides, an aggressive anti-sacerdotalism, gave to Dolcino's sect a clearly marked character, analogous only to the theocratic community of the Anabaptists of Minster in the 16th century.
The term Fraticelli was used contemptuously to denote, not any particular sect, but the members of orders formed on the fringe of the church.
Some historians, in their zeal for rigid classification, have regarded the Fraticelli as a distinct sect, and have attempted to discover its dogmas and its founder.
After being excommunicated as "schismatics and rebels, founders of a superstitious sect, and propagators of false and pestiferous doctrines," they proceeded to elect a general (for Michael of Cesena had disavowed them) and then a pope called Celestine (L.
The sect gradually died out after losing the protection of the common people, whose sympathy was now transferred to the austere Observants and their miracle-worker Capistrano.
Amsterdam, 2e Sect.
Several were discovered and put to death at Toulouse in 1022; and the synod of Charroux (dep. of Vienne) in 1028, and that of Toulouse in 1056, condemned the growing sect.
The few isolated successes of the abbot of Clairvaux could not obscure the real results of this mission, and the meeting at Lombers in 1165 of a synod, where Catholic priests had to submit to a discussion with Catharist doctors, well shows the power of the sect in the south of France at that period.
The sect, moreover, was exhausted and could find no more adepts in a district which, by fair means or foul, had arrived at a state of peace and political and religious unity.
It contracts no entangling alliances with any sect of theorists, dreamers or philosophers.
fanatical religious sect and, that can be any of them.
Perhaps, Sanders does not believe that the Mandaeans are really followers of John the Baptist but are followers of a later gnostic sect.
founder of the Yellow sect of tibetan Buddhism, originated the Geat Prayer Festival.
It's not meant in any way to constitute some sort of faction or sect within the more general anarchist milieu.
A few other Pythagorean pseudepigrapha appear in the period (see further below, sect.
At a later date, Torah s were altered to make one sect the original one, and the other renegades.
ringleader of a religious sect in the village.