The whole of this surface appears to be active in the secretion of a mucous-like substance.
To the right (in the figure) of the rectal peduncle is seen the deeply invaginated shell-gland ss, with a secretion sh protruding from it.
It has been proved that the secretion contains a digestive ferment capable of rendering proteid matter soluble.
The lid is especially attractive to insects from its bright colour and honey secretion; three wings lead up to the mouth of the pitcher, on the inside of which a row of sharp spines points downwards, and below this a circular ridge (r, fig.
The musky odour from which it derives its name is due to the secretion of a large gland situated in the inguinal region, and present in both sexes.
Sodium salicylate escapes from the blood mainly by the kidneys, in the secretion of which sodium salicylate and salicyluric acid can be detected within fifteen minutes of its administration.
The musky odour from which the animal takes its name does not appear to be due to the secretion of any gland.
Heidenhain, on the other hand, rejected entirely the filtration view of lymph-formation, believing that the passage of lymph across the capillary wall is a true secretion brought about by the secretory function of the endothelial plates.
They are said to diminish the secretion of the bronchial mucous membrane.
This everyday shampoo eliminates them, regulating sebum secretion and easing discomfort.
Some of what is called amber and copal in perfumery today is the resinous secretion of fossil conifers.
The proteins synthesized on ribosomes attached to the ER, are then transported to the Golgi, and packaged for secretion.
It also suppresses secretion of glucagon, a hormone which boosts plasma sugar levels.
During lactation, the secretion of prolactin can entail a poor prognosis to ovarian stimulation.
Body temperature and the secretion of the hormone melatonin follow the daily cycle.
This stimulation of immune cells results in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFa, IL-1 or -6).
Cushing 's Syndrome results from an excess secretion of the hormone cortisol.
Reduced secretion of mucus in the lungs predisposes to irritation and infection throughout the upper and lower respiratory tract.
The somatostatin analog octreotide may help control hormone secretion and stabilize tumor growth.
LH acts on stroma and theca interna cells of the ovaries to stimulate testosterone secretion.
Correlated with their life in dry situations, the bulk of the tissue is succulent, forming a water-store, which is protected from loss by evaporation by a thickly cuticularized epidermis covered with a waxy secretion which gives a glaucous appearance to the plant.
It is probable that these vesicles are not reservoirs, as was at one time thought, but form some special secretion which mixes with that of the testes.
other species the glands are confined to the lower portion of the cavity surface, while the upper part bear a smooth waxy secretion on which it is impossible, or at any rate extremely difficult, for insects to secure a foothold.
The simple form of ocellus described in the foregoing paragraph may become folded into a pit or cup, the interior of which becomes filled with a clear gelatinous secretion forming a sort of vitreous Modified after Linko, Travaux Soc. Imp. Nat., St.
In both these cases the stimulation is followed, not only by movement, but by the secretion of an acid liquid containing a digestive juice, by virtue of which the insect is digested after being killed.
Whether the formation of the starch grain is due to a secretion from the plastid (Meyer, 1895) or to a direct transformation of the proteid of the plastid (Timberlake, 1901) has not been definitely established.
closed in a viscid secretion at the point where the albuminiparous gland opens into the duct intertwined with it; and on reaching the pcint where the spermathecal duct debouches they are impregnated by the spermatozoa which escape now from the spermatheca and meet the ova.
long; it is found in New England and the milder parts of Canada, and is frequently planted in Britain; its growth is extremely rapid in moist land; the buds are covered with a balsamic secretion.
Under side of the uplifted genital or first opisthosomatic somite of the female; g, genital aperture; p, pitted plate, probably a gland for the secretion of adhesive material for the eggs; 1, the edges of the lamellae of the lung-books of the first pair.
Society, 1869, p. 146), the curious bloody secretion ejected from the mouth of the flamingo may have given rise to the belief, through that bird having been mistaken for the "Pelican of the wilderness."
These substances may be formed in the cells and given out as a secretion, or they may be formed by an intercellular transformation.
The desquamated cells containing this jelly-like substance become disorganized and blend with the secretion.
The movements of bones and muscles were referred to the theory of levers; the process of digestion was regarded as essentially a process of trituration; nutrition and secretion were shown to be dependent upon the tension of the vessels, and so forth.
In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.
Thus the defects, whether of this secretion or of that, and again of motor activity, the state of the valvular junctions, the volume of the cavities, and their position in the abdomen, may be ascertained, and dealt with as far as may be; so that, although the fluctuations of chemical digestion are still very obscure, the application of remedies after a mere traditional routine is no longer excusable.
Milk sugar, lactose, lactobiose, C12H22011, found in the milk of mammals, in the amniotic liquid of cows, and as a pathological secretion, is prepared by evaporating whey and purifying the sugar which separates by crystallization.
The stimulation of the liver is said to depend upon the solution of the resin by the intestinal secretion.
(X about 50; after La.caze-Duthiers.) and then, surrounding itself with the secretion of its cystogenous cells, comes to rest.
- One, or a few, of the posterior maxillary teeth have a groove or furrow in front, which conducts the secretion of the enlarged upper labial glands.
Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach.
The materials are bound together by a tough white thread which is formed by a secretion of the kidneys of the male.
There is hardly any increase in the intestinal secretion, the drug being emphatically not a hydragogue cathartic. There is no doubt that its habitual use may be a factor in the formation of haemorrhoids; as in the case of all drugs that act powerfully on the lower part of the intestine, without simultaneously lowering the venous pressure by causing increase of secretion from the bowel.
In connexion with the ovipositor are two poison-glands, one acid and the other alkaline in its secretion.
This latter organ injects a secretion into the plant or After Marlatt, Bull.
The young of many of these insects are green and soft-skinned, protecting themselves by the well-known frothy secretion that is called " cuckoo-spit."
5 (N.S.), cesses through which a waxy secretion is dis- Div.
In the Coccids the forma tion of a protective waxy secretion - present in many genera of Homoptera - reaches its most extreme development.
In some coccids - the " mealy-bugs " (Dactylopius, &c.) for example - the secretion forms a white thread-like or plate-like covering which the insect carries about.
CUCKOO-SPIT, a frothy secretion found upon plants, and produced by the immature nymphal stage of various plant-lice of the familiar Cercopidae and Jassidae, belonging to the homopterous division of the Hemiptera, which in the adult condition are sometimes called frog-hoppers.
not covered by secretion of skeletal or other investment, retains its ciliation throughout life.
So are the tiny Coniopterygidae, which are covered with a white powdery secretion, and have very small hind-wings.
Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.
resina, probably Latinized from Greek prpivri, resin), a secretion formed in special resin canals or passages of plants, from many of which, such as, for example, coniferous trees, it exudes in soft tears, hardening into solid masses in the air.
The thread so ejected forms the silk of commerce, which as wound in the cocoon consists of filaments seriposited from two separate glands (discovered by an Italian naturalist named Filippi) containing a glutinous or resinous secretion which serves a double purpose, viz.
It is frequently armed with spines, hooks or stylets, and is further complicated by the addition of a nutritive secretion (the prostate gland) which may open at its base or pass separately by a special duct to the exterior.
When swallowed it rapidly causes a great increase in the salivary secretion, being one of the most powerful sialogogues known.
The final arrest is due to paralysis of the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata, hastened by a quasi-asthmatic contraction of the non-striped muscular tissue in the bronchial tubes, and by a "water-logging" of the lungs due to an increase in the amount of bronchial secretion.
Thus Karl Christoph Vogt repeated the saying of the French physician Cabanis, " The brain is determined to thought as the stomach is to digestion, or the liver to the secretion of bile," in the form, " Thought stands in the same relation to the brain as the bile to the liver or the urine to the kidneys."
Internally strychnine acts as a bitter, increasing the secretion of gastric juice and the intestinal peristalsis, being a direct stimulant to the muscular coat; in this manner it has a purgative action.
In this tribe are included Orthoptera with a large prothorax, whose eggs are enclosed in a common purse or capsule formed by the hardening of a maternal secretion.
Like these, also, they respire oxygen, and are independent of light; and their various powers of growth, secretion, and general metabolism, irritability, and response to external factors show similar specific variations in both cases.
These papillae give the surface a roughened aspect; the use of their secretion is unknown.
This causes the entire skin to become dry - as in the case of the local action above mentioned; and it arrests the secretion of saliva and mucus in the mouth and throat, causing these parts to become very dry and to feel very uncomfortable.
This latter result is due to paralysis of the chorda tympani nerve, which is mainly responsible for the salivary secretion.
Certain nerve fibres from the sympathetic nervous system, which can also cause the secretion of a (specially viscous) saliva, are entirely unaffected by atropine.
The secretion of mucus by the bronchi and trachea is greatly reduced and their muscular tissue is paralysed - a fact of which much use is made in practical medicine.
The secretion of milk, if occurring in the mammary gland, is much diminished or entirely arrested.
Not only does it relieve the spasm, but it lessens the amount of secretion - often dangerously excessive - which is often associated with it.
A slight change in the structure or activity of a gland, by altering the internal secretion, may produce widespread alterations even in an adult organism; and we have good reason to suppose that, if compatible with viability, such minute changes would have even a greater ultimate effect if they occurred in an embryo.
If, for instance, the testes fail to develop normally, the secretion which they discharge into the blood is abnormal in character and amount, with the result that the characters of the remotest parts of the body are more or less profoundly affected.
All young grubs are at first fed with a specially nutritious food, discharged from the worker's stomach, to which is added a digestive secretion derived from special salivary glands in the worker's head.
In bronchitis with profuse expectoration the use of morphine is particularly dangerous, as it is likely to check the cough so necessary for getting rid of the secretion, but in the converse condition it usefully allays the harassing cough by diminishing the excitability of the respiratory centre.
spadicigera, the large thorn-like stipules are hollow and afford shelter for ants, which feed on a secretion of honey on the leaf-stalk and curious food-bodies at the tips of the leaflets; in return they protect the plant against leaf-cutting insects.
The brown testa contains, in the outer of the four coats into which it is microscopically distinguishable, an abundant secretion of mucilaginous matter; and it has within it a thin layer of albumen, enclosing a pair of large oily cotyledons.
Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, 165), or when uncleanness is removed as if it were a physical secretion by washing, wiping and so forth, it is hard to say whether what we should now call a " material " nature is not ascribed to the sacred, more especially when its transmissibility after the manner of a contagion is the trait that holds the attention.
The civets, being celebrated for their odoriferous secretion, are likely animals to have been naturalized.
The thyroid gland, which is situated in front of the neck, yields a secretion which passes into the blood and there tends to maintain a state of moderate dilatation in the blood-vessels and of oxidization in the tissues, so that the circulation remains good and the body-heat and muscular activity remain well maintained.
When this gland becomes enlarged, and its secretion consequently increases, the vessels dilate, the heart beats more rapidly, the skin becomes too hot, the nervous system becomes irritable, and tremors occur in the limbs.
Thus irritation of the eye causes winking and secretion of tears, by which the irritant is removed; irritation of the nose causes sneezing; of the air-passages, coughing; of the stomach, vomiting; and of the intestines, diarrhoea.
Moreover, the products of microbic secretion tend to produce fever.
In the same way, the reflex act of coughing is useful in removing either foreign bodies or excessive secretion from the air passages; but when the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is irritated and inflamed, it produces a feeling of tickling and a desire to cough sometimes very violently; yet the coughing simply tends to exhaust the patient, because there is really little or nothing to bring up. The same is the case in inflammation of the lung substance itself.
Now we can see the reason for their administration, because the nitrous ether, consisting chiefly of ethyl nitrite, dilates the superficial vessels and thus allows greater escape of heat from the surface; while acetate of ammonia, by acting as a diaphoretic and stimulating the secretion of sweat, increases the loss of heat by evaporation.
These probably lessen fever by their action upon the nerve centres which regulate the temperature of the body, and partly by their peripheral action in causing the secretion of sweat.
In the case of the thyroid the function of the gland appears to be to prepare a secretion which is poured out into the blood and alters tissue-change.
When the thyroid is hypertrophied, as in Graves's disease, the same symptoms are observed, and these are probably due to increased secretion from the thyroid.
At the same time other symptoms, such as exophthalmos, may appear, which have an independent origin and are not due to the secretion of the gland.
The whole of the secretion here is poured into the blood and not at all on to a mucous surface, and herein the thyroid gland differs largely from such glands as the pancreas or peptic and intestinal glands.
But it seems now probable that all glands which have what may be termed an external secretion like the pancreas, stomach, intestine, skin and kidneys have also an internal secretion, so that while they are pouring out one secretion from the ducts into the intestine or external air, they are also pouring into the lymphatics, and thus into the blood, an internal secretion.
In fact, a splitting appears to take place in the process of secretion somewhat resembling that which takes place in the formation of a toxin and anti-toxin.
The secretion of some digestive glands would prove poisonous if absorbed unchanged.
The secretion of trypsin by the pancreas may therefore be looked upon as the formation of a toxin.
This passes to the pancreas and causes increased secretion from that gland.
It is by no means improbable that all glands have a double or even triple function, and that sometimes the external may be even less important than the internal secretion.
At the same time, there are many indications of the importance of an internal secretion in popular treatment.
It is probable that the kidneys also have an internal secretion, and that the great oedema sometimes found in kidney disease is rather due to the action of some proteid body resembling in its effects the streptococcus anti-toxin, than to accumulation of water due to imperfect action of the kidney.
Similarly the beneficial effects of purgation may be due not only to the elimination which takes place through the bowel, but also to the internal secretion from the intestinal glands.
When the secretion of gastric juice is deficient it may be excited by gastric tonics, such as ten grains of bicarbonate of soda and a drachm of compound tincture of gentian in water shortly before meals, and may be supplemented by the administration of pepsin and hydrochloric acid after meals.
When the nervous system is below par, and both secretion and movements are deficient in the stomach, nervine tonics, such as nux vomica or strychnine, are most useful.
Deficient nervous action also leads to defective secretion and movement in the intestine, sometimes with flatulent accumula tion and sometimes with constipation.
The small contracted kidney, which is so common in elderly gouty people, is usually associated with a very large secretion of urine containing only a minute trace of albumin.
It has already been mentioned that water is absolutely necessary for the body: by taking it hot it does not lie like a weight on the stomach, and by taking it an hour before meals it washes out the remnants of the previous meal; and being absorbed into the blood, it probably renders the secretion of gastric juice freer and accelerates digestion, instead of diluting it and interfering with the digestive processes.
Thus as it passes out by the bronchial mucous membrane it increases the amount of secretion and so acts as an expectorant.
C. Bourne, 1887) is always intercalated as a secretion by one or both of them; this is a gelatinoid, primitively structureless lamella, which in the first instance serves merely as a basal support for the cells.
The mesogloea is in itself an inert non-cellular secretion, but the immigration of muscular and other cells into its substance, from both ectoderm and endoderm, gives it in many cases a strong resemblance to the mesoderm of Triploblastica, - a resemblance which, while probably superficial, may yet serve to indicate the path of evolution of the mesoderm.
It often relieves hunger, by arresting the secretion of gastric j uice and the movements of the stomach and bowel,'* and it frequently upsets digestion from the same cause.
This secretion is caused by the puncture of an insect, Coccus manniparus.
The jackal, like the fox, has an offensive odour, due to the secretion of a gland at the base of the tail.
The mid-gut is essentially the digestive and absorptive region of the alimentary canal, and its surface is, in most cases, increased by pouch-like or tubular outgrowths which not only serve as glands for the secretion of the digestive juices, but may also become filled by the more fluid portion of the partially digested food and facilitate its absorption.
In some Amphipoda the secretion of glands on the body and limbs is used in the construction of tubular cases in which the animals live.
In some freshwater Copepoda the secretion of the dermal glands forms a gelatinous envelope, by means of which the animals are able to survive desiccation.
In the Ostracoda and Copepoda the phosphorescence, as already mentioned, is due to glands which produce a luminous secretion, and this is the case also in certain members of the Schizopoda and Decapoda.
A few cases are known in which the developing embryos are nourished by a special secretion while in the brood-chamber of the mother (Cladocera, terrestrial Isopoda).
From the extreme bitterness of the secretion, "gall," like the Lat.
SCALE INSECT, a name given to insects belonging to the family Coccidae of the homopterous division of the Hemiptera and deriving their name from the formation by the females of a waxy secretion which often hardens into a protective scale beneath which the insects live.
This induces a reflex secretion from the salivary and gastric glands, which is followed or accompanied by increased vascularity of the gastric mucous membrane, and by some degree of activity on the part of the muscular wall of the stomach.
Like all spiders, the tarantula possesses poison glands in its jaws, but there is not a particle of trustworthy evidence that the secretion of these glands is more virulent than that of other spiders of the same size, and the medieval belief that the bite of the spider gave rise to tarantism has long been abandoned.
Just as the stomach and intestines receive food and digest it, so the brain receives impressions, digests them, and has as its organic secretion, thought.
The tongue is generally short and not deeply divided at its extremity, nor is its base retracted into a sheath; it is always moist and covered with a glutinous secretion.
The order Coenothecalia is represented by a single living species, Heliopora coerulea, which differs from all recent Alcyonaria in the fact that its skeleton is not composed of spicules, but is formed as a secretion from a layer of cells called calicoblasts, which originate from the ectoderm.
It is formed, not from fused spicules, but as a secretion of a special layer of cells derived from the basal ectoderm, and known as calicoblasts.
From both birds and reptiles the class is distinguished, so far at any rate as existing forms are concerned, by the following features: the absence of a nucleus in the red corpuscles of the blood, which are nearly always circular in outline; the free suspension of the lungs in a thoracic cavity, separated from the abdominal cavity by a muscular partition, or diaphragm, which is the chief agent in inflating the lungs in respiration; the aorta, or main artery, forming but a single arch after leaving the heart, which curves over the left terminal division of the windpipe, or bronchus; the presence of more or fewer hairs on the skin and the absence of feathers; the greater development of the bridge, or commissure, connecting the two halves of the brain, which usually forms a complete corpus callosum, or displays an unusually large size of its anterior portion; the presence of a fully developed larynx at the upper end of the trachea or windpipe, accompanied by the absence of a syrinx, or expansion, near the lower end of the same; the circumstance that each half of the lower jaw (except perhaps at a very early stage of development) consists of a single piece articulating posteriorly with the squamosal element of the skull without the intervention of a separate quadrate bone; the absence of prefrontal bones in the skull; the presence of a pair of lateral knobs, or condyles (in place of a single median one), on the occipital aspect of the skull for articulation with the first vertebra; and, lastly, the very obvious character of the female being provided with milk-glands, by the secretion of which the young (produced, except in the very lowest group, alive and not by means of externally hatched eggs) are nourished for some time after birth.
The position of such glands on the lower portions of the limbs is plainly favourable to a recognitiontaint being left in the tracks of terrestrial animals; and antelopes have been observed deliberately to rub the secretion from their face-glands on tree-trunks.
When glands are confined to the male, their function is no doubt sexual; the secretion forming part of the attraction, or stimulus, to the other sex.
No kind of evidence can be adduced sufficient to prove that consciousness is a secretion of the brain, an effect or even a consequent of material processes or modes of motion.
The detection of arsenic in criminal cases is effected either by Reinsch's test or by Marsh's test, the urine being the secretion analysed when available.
The opening of the mouth is small, and from it the echidna puts forth its long slender tongue, lubricated with a viscous secretion, by means of which it seizes the ants and other insects on which it feeds.
In common with the other monotremes, the male echidna has its heel provided with a sharp hollow spur, connected with a secreting gland, and with muscles capable of pressing the secretion from the gland into the spur.
These spurs, tubes and sacs serve as receptacles for the secretion or containing of nectar.
Pollination having been effected, and the pollen-grain having reached the stigma in angio sperms or the summit of the nucellus in mnos erms P gY P it is detained there, and the viscid secretion from the glands of the stigma in the former case, or from the nucellus in the latter, induce the protrusion of the intine as a pollen-tube through the pores of the grain.
"plant-lice," "blight," and "green-fly," belonging to the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera, with long antennae and legs, two-jointed, two-clawed tarsi, and usually a pair of abdominal tubes through which a waxy secretion is exuded.
The integument of tailed and tailless batrachians is remarkable for the great abundance of follicular glands, of which there may be two kinds, each having a special secretion, which is always more or less acrid and irritating, and affords a means of defence against the attacks of many carnivorous animals.
published on the poisonous secretion of batrachians (34), which is utilized by the Indians of South America for poisoning their arrows.
Boulenger, "The Poisonous Secretion of Batrachians," Nat.
When they are taken internally in small amounts they neutralize the acids in the stomach and other parts of the alimentary canal, and at the same time they increase the normal acid secretion of the stomach.
Iodine has a special interest, as it is a necessary constituent of food, and is present in the secretion of the thyroid gland.
They also markedly increase the secretion of urine by stimulating the secreting cells of the kidneys.
- In large doses the action of picrotoxin is exerted chiefly on the medullary nerve centres, whereby irregular tonic-clonic convulsions are produced; in minute doses it stops the secretion of sweat.
They all act as local irritants in the alimentary canal, and after absorption are more or less depressing to the muscular and nervous systems. They produce slight nausea and increased secretion of mucus.
yiiXa, milk) increase the secretion of milk, while antigalactogogues (e.g.
1.5p6n, sweat) diminish the secretion of sweat.
Hemp is grown for three products - (r) the fibre of its stem; (2) the resinous secretion which is developed in hot countries upon its leaves and flowering heads; (3) its oily seeds.
Salicylate appears to competitively inhibit plasma protein binding of acetazolamide and simultaneously to inhibit acetazolamide renal secretion that may produce serious metabolic acidosis.
aldosterone secretion may result in altered acid secretion.
The excess secretion of the hormone aldosterone into the blood is from an abnormal adrenal gland or glands.
If simple antacids are insufficient to control the symptoms, then tablets to reduce acid secretion will usually be tried.
bile secretion, which is linked closely to control of toxins.
catecholamine secretion or a direct action of tetanus toxin on the myocardium.
decreased secretion or activity of the parathyroid hormone in the body.
Vitamin A prompts the secretion of gastric juices necessary for proper digestion of proteins.
expectorant in chronic bronchitis, with much secretion.
gastric acid secretion.
gastrin secretion is also triggered whenever food is present in the stomach.
Other effects related to acid inhibition During treatment with antisecretory drugs, serum gastrin increases in response to the decreased acid secretion.
glandular cells of the anterior pituitary to regulate their secretion.
glucagon secretion has been removed.
Saizen is indicated in the treatment of: - growth failure in children caused by decreased or absent secretion of endogenous growth hormone.
Insulin secretion results from calcium influx across the beta-cell plasma membrane through voltage-gated calcium channels.
inhibition of insulin secretion.
This arises from defects in insulin secretion, insulin secretion, insulin action or both.
internal secretion of the pancreas.
melatonin secretion blocker, given in the morning helped lift SAD symptoms by shifting the circadian rhythm.
Potassium - Adaptive processes increase potassium secretion in the distal nephron (collecting tubules) and also in the gut.
nephron segments and are necessary for both K secretion and Na absorption.
oestrogennt for PMS, menopause symptoms, and period problems as promotes estrogen secretion.
oily secretion can be oxidized by the air and turned black.
C: Molds of the type penicillium The mold Penicillium chrysogenum is the responsible for the secretion of the antibiotic Penicillin.
pepsin content of the secretion.
prandial glucose regulators (repaglinide) also increase beta-cell insulin secretion.
preganglionic fibers by transforming the neural impulses into hormonal secretion.
prolactin secretion indirectly, by interfering with the action of dopamine.
Gastroesophageal reflux of the role of acid secretion of the stomach.
regulateveryday shampoo eliminates them, regulating sebum secretion and easing discomfort.
Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were related to vitamin D status in depleted but not replete subjects.
resinous secretion of fossil conifers.
Injury causes an inflammatory response, which induces the secretion of a variety of cytokines including TNF- a and IL-6.
ribosomes attached to the ER, are then transported to the Golgi, and packaged for secretion.
salivary secretion stimulated by neurotransmitters.
sebum secretion from the sebaceous glands in response to the production of sex hormones in adolescence.
secretion of glucagon, a hormone which boosts plasma sugar levels.
secretion of prolactin can entail a poor prognosis to ovarian stimulation.
secretion of the hormone melatonin follow the daily cycle.
secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFa, IL-1 or -6 ).
secretion of the hormone cortisol.
secretion of mucus in the lungs predisposes to irritation and infection throughout the upper and lower respiratory tract.
secretion from the pancreas.
These inhibit insulin secretion from the pancreas and stimulate the liver to increase glucose output, bringing a recovery.
No metabolite has been found to have any effect on gastric acid secretion.
In addition, renal tubular secretion of creatinine is increased at higher serum levels.
These findings will be useful to clarify the mechanism of salivary secretion stimulated by neurotransmitters.
Thus, changes in aldosterone secretion may result in altered acid secretion.
Domperidone increases prolactin secretion indirectly, by interfering with the action of dopamine.
They do not increase insulin secretion from the pancreas.
This test checks the body's control of cortisol secretion.
A hot soup or hot curry can encourage mucus secretion.
These are: - A rise in sebum secretion from the sebaceous glands in response to the production of sex hormones in adolescence.
somatostatin analog octreotide may help control hormone secretion and stabilize tumor growth.
Abnormal secretion of estrogen and high serum levels of free testosterone are also present.
theca interna cells of the ovaries to stimulate testosterone secretion.
Low GI diets also reduce mean blood glucose concentrations, insulin secretion and serum triglycerides.
tubular secretion of creatinine is increased at higher serum levels.
vesicle transport and secretion.
watery secretion similar human perspiration.
Both genera are characterized by their habit of secreting a tubular gelatinoid investment, the "coenoecium," composed of a number of superposed lamellae, doubtless the result of its intermittent secretion, mainly though perhaps not exclusively, by the proboscides of the zooids.
The secretion wets an insect very rapidly, but, so far as is known, seems to be completely destitute of digestive power - indeed, rather to accelerate decomposition.
The processes of putrefaction may be alluded to as affording an instance of such a power in the vegetable organisms. At the same time it must be remembered that the secretion of enzymes by Bacteria is of widespread occurrence.
The action of colchicum or colchicine upon the kidneys has been minutely studied, and it is asserted on the one hand that the urinary solids are much diminished and, on the other hand, that they are markedly increased, the specific gravity of the secretion being much raised.
But when the male secretion of the ovo-testis is active, the seminal fluid passes from the genital pore along the spermatic groove (fig.
For example, the egg may be raised above the surface on which it is laid by an elongate stalk; the eggs may be protected by a secretion, which in some cases forms a hard protective capsule or " purse "; or they may be covered with shed hairs of the mother, while among waterinsects a gelatinous envelope, often of rope-like form, is common.
Some saw-fly larvae are protected by a slimy secretion (fig.
But in most members of the family, the secretion, united with cast cuticles and excrement, forms a firm " scale," closely attached by its edges to the surface of the plant on which the insect lives, and serving as a shield beneath which the female coccid, with her eggs (fig.
The secretion with which the sac is filled is dark brown or chocolate in colour, and when fresh of the consistence of "moist gingerbread," but becoming dry and granular after keeping (see Musk).
As the vas deferens approaches the prostate it enlarges and becomes slightly sacculated to act as a reservoir for the secretion of the testis; this part is the ampulla (see fig.
Beneath the anterior parts of the radula where it emerges from the caecum are a pair of cartilages, and attached to these a number of special muscles by which the radula is moved backwards and forwards to act as a rasp. The secretion of the radula at the closed end of the caecum is continuous, so that it is constantly growing forward as fast as its exposed anterior portion is worn away by use, just as a fingernail is pushed forward by constant growth at its posterior end, and is worn away or has to be cut short from time to time at its outer end.
It acts similarly, though less markedly, upon the nerves which determine the secretion of the perspiration, and is therefore a local anaesthetic or anodyne and an anhidrotic. Being rapidly absorbed into the blood, it exercises a long and highly important series of actions on nearly every part and function of the nervous system.
In the latter they accumulate, being held together and fastened to the gills by a white viscid secretion.
For example, there are many people who feel very much better after profuse perspiration, and as sweat appears to contain little but water and a few salts, it is not improbable that the improvement in their condition is due rather to the internal secretion from the skin than to the elimination effected by the sweat.
fel; possibly connected with "yellow," with reference to the colour of bile), the secretion of the liver known as "bile," the term being also used of the pear-shaped diverticulum of the bile-duct, which forms a reservoir for the bile, more generally known as the "gall-bladder" (see LIVER).
Next in constancy are the " sublingual," closely associated with the last-named, at all events in the locality in which the secretion is poured out; and the " zygomatic," found only in some mammals in the cheek, just under cover of the anterior part of the zygomatic arch, the duct entering the mouth-cavity near that of the parotid.
The attachment is probably effected (Masterman) by the secretion of the lophophoral organs (fig.
When considerably diluted they are only slightly irritating; externally applied and in the stomach they have an antiseptic action; they increase the secretion of saliva, and thus assuage thirst.
xoXi, bile, I ycoyos, leading) are purgatives which act by increasing the flow of bile, either by causing an increased secretion (e.g.
Our aim is to use these virus-host cell interactions to investigate fundamental aspects of cell biology, such as vesicle transport and secretion.
The eccrine glands in the pads of the paws do produce a watery secretion similar human perspiration.
Oxytocin secretion is also nature's way of causing a woman's uterus to contract after birth to control postpartum bleeding and assist in uterine involution.
Lactogenesis-The initiation of milk secretion.
Antihistamine-A drug used to treat allergic conditions that blocks the effects of histamine, a substance in the body that causes itching, vascular changes, and mucus secretion when released by cells.
In the pancreas, clogged passageways prevent secretion of digestive enzymes into the intestine, causing serious impairment of digestion-especially of fat-which may lead to malnutrition.
When blood glucose levels fall, GHRH triggers the secretion of stored hGH.
As blood glucose levels rise, hGH secretion is turned off by GHIH activity.
However, due to variable secretion of hGH, as well as hGH production in response to stress, exercise, or other factors, random assays are not an adequate determination of hGH deficiency.
The test involves creating a condition of insulin-induced hypoglycemia (via intravenous injection of insulin) to stimulate production of hGH and corticotropin secretion as well.
Normally, a glucose load such as this will suppress hGH secretion.
Taking certain drugs such as amphetamines, dopamine, corticosteroids, and phenothiazines may increase or decrease growth hormone secretion.
Other factors that may influence hGH secretion include stress, exercise, diet, and abnormal glucose levels.
Hyperandrogenism-The excessive secretion of androgens.
Specifically, acetylcholine, a chemical in the body that transmits nerve signals, is released from nerve endings and stimulates secretion of sweat.
Allergic conjunctivitis-Inflammation of the membrane lining the eyelid and covering the eyeball; congestion of the conjunctiva, with mucus secretion.
Antidiarrheal drugs that decrease excessive secretion of fluid by the intestinal tract is another approach for some diseases.
Autonomic nervous system-The part of the nervous system that controls so-called involuntary functions, such as heart rate, salivary gland secretion, respiratory function, and pupil dilation.
Symptoms may include fatigue, reduced secretion of digestive acids, confusion, and forgetfulness.
Toxic levels of iodine inhibit the secretion of thyroid hormone, resulting in lower levels of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
Reflux-The backward flow of a body fluid or secretion.
Seventh cranial nerve endings control neck, eyelid, and forehead muscles; are responsible for facial expression, the secretion of saliva, the volume at which sound is perceived; and a myriad of other functions.
Shigella also produce a number of toxins (Shiga toxin and others) that increase the amount of fluid secretion by the intestinal tract.
This fluid secretion is a major cause of the diarrhea symptoms.
Moist rales is a bubbling sound heard with a stethoscope that is caused by fluid secretion in the bronchial tubes.
The child sneezes often, the eyes are sore, and nasal secretion becomes purulent.
They work by counteracting leukotrienes, substances released by white blood cells in the lung that cause the air passages to constrict and promote mucus secretion.
Inside the membrane, the bacteria produce an exotoxin, which is a poisonous secretion that causes the life-threatening symptoms of diphtheria.
Exotoxin-A poisonous secretion produced by bacilli that is carried in the bloodstream to other parts of the body.
Since elevated levels of insulin may be associated with increased myopia; a diet low in those foods that increase insulin secretion, such as refined carbohydrates, may help decrease myopia.
In diabetes type 2, which is characterized by insulin resistance, enhanced glucose production in the liver and decreased insulin secretion can be aggravated by low physical activity and/or a high-calorie, high-fat diet.
Individuals with MEN 1 can show symptoms of excessive parathyroid secretion by age five, and almost all individuals with MEN 1 show parathyroid symptoms by age 40.
The most frequent symptom of MEN 1 is hyperparathyroidism, which is excessive growth of the parathyroid gland and excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone.
Excessive secretion of gastrin (a hormone secreted into the stomach to aid in digestion) by these tumors can cause upper gastrointestinal ulcers.
Pheochromocytoma is usually a benign (noncancerous) tumor that causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones.
Prenatal therapy, in which a pregnant woman at risk for a second CAH child is given dexamethasone to decrease secretion of androgens by the adrenal glands of the female fetus, has been in use since 1994.
This particular type of vaginal secretion ensures that the sperm has a greater chance of survival on its long journey to meet the egg.Observing vaginal secretions is a complex but highly accurate aid to the timing of peak fertility.
The secretion of LH is what causes the most mature follicle in the ovary to burst and release a egg that is ready to be fertilized.
It inhibits the secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid gland.
This includes redness, swelling and the secretion of lymph, a clear or yellowish fluid that removes waste from the piercing.
Both programs are designed to increase secretion of hormones after meals that suppress hunger.
The acids present in acid foods may inhibit the secretion of digestive acids necessary for protein digestion.
Many adults first experience a change in their skin's chemistry during adolescence, which is where an increase in oil secretion is most abundant.
It has been ascertained that in many cases this decomposition is effected by the secretion of an enzyme, which has been termed zymase.
This is evident from the consideration that the growth of the cells is attended by the growth in surface of the cell wall, and as the latter is a secretion from the protoplasm, such a decomposition cannot readily take place unless oxygen is admitted to it.
The stretching of the cell wall by the hydrostatic pressure is fixed by a secretion of new particles and their deposition upon the original wall, which as it becomes slightly thicker is capable of still greater extension, much in the same way as a thick band of indiarubber is capable of undergoing greater stretching than a thin one.
In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.
The presence of these threads between all the cells of tfie plant shows that the plant body must be regarded as a connected whole; the threads themselves probably play an important part in the growth of the cell-wall, the conduction of food and water, the process of secretion and the transmission of impulses.
But there are several subfamilies of ants whose females have the lancets of the sting useless for piercing, although the poison-glands are functional, their secretion being ejected by the insect, when occasion may arise, from the greatly enlarged reservoir, the reduced sting acting as a squirt.
Biisgen that the sweet secretion (honey-dew) of the aphids is not derived, as generally believed, from the paired cornicles on the fifth abdominal segment, but from the intestine, whence it exudes in drops and is swallowed by the ants.
Vezhdovsky has lately seen reasons for regarding the blood system as originating entirely from the hypoblast by the secretion of fluid, the blood, from particular intestinal cells and the consequent formation of spaces through pressure, which become lined with these cells.
Salivary glands are present, and in some carnivorous forms (Dolium) these secrete free sulphuric acid (as much as 2% is present in the secretion), which assists the animal in boring holes by means of its FIG.
Fusus, Pyrula, Purpura, Murex, Nassa, Trophon, Voluta, &c. The float of the pelagic Janthina, to which the egg-capsules are attached, probably is also formed by the secretion of the pedal gland.
To the right of Spengel's osphradium is the opening of a peculiar gland which has, when dissected out, the form of a bunch of grapes; its secretion is said to be poisonous.
On the under side of the free edge of the mantle are situated the numerous small cutaneous glands which, in the large A plysia camelus (not in other species), form the purple secretion which was known to s the ancients.
depilans; it is firm to the touch, and contracts forcibly when irritated; the secretion of the mantle-glands is not abundant, and is milky white in appearance.
Several facts point to the conclusion that the primary use of this secretion was the formation of egg-cases or cocoons by the female, for this is the only constant use for which the silk is employed, without exception, by all species.
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