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secondly

secondly

secondly Sentence Examples

  • Secondly, I realized when we began this venture; it would have its run and then be over.

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  • This was shown first by the fact that there were no entrenchments there by the twenty fifth and that those begun on the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth were not completed, and secondly, by the position of the Shevardino Redoubt.

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  • Thus Ludwig was of opinion that the lymph-flow is dependent upon two factors, first, difference in pressure of the blood in the capillaries and the liquid in the plasma spaces outside; and, secondly, chemical interchanges setting up osmotic currents through the vessel-walls.

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  • Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.

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  • "Secondly," he continued after a short pause, again rising and again pacing the room, "tomorrow you must get out of Moscow."

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  • First, the army under Barclay de Tolly, secondly, the army under Bagration, and thirdly, the one commanded by Tormasov.

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  • In the first place, I tell you we have no right to question the Emperor about that, and secondly, if the Russian nobility had that right, the Emperor could not answer such a question.

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  • Secondly, the external evidence does not bear examination.

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  • 388417), secondly by L.

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  • Rostov looked inimically at Pierre, first because Pierre appeared to his hussar eyes as a rich civilian, the husband of a beauty, and in a word--an old woman; and secondly because Pierre in his preoccupation and absent-mindedness had not recognized Rostov and had not responded to his greeting.

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  • Secondly, "You must give up your ill-gotten wealth."

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  • The increase in surface of the cell wall is thus duefirstly to the stretching caused by turgidity, and secondly to the formation and deposition of new substance upon the old.

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  • The increase in surface of the cell wall is thus duefirstly to the stretching caused by turgidity, and secondly to the formation and deposition of new substance upon the old.

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  • The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.

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  • The reforming party cordially welcomed and courted him, in the first place because he was reputed to be clever and very well read, and secondly because by liberating his serfs he had obtained the reputation of being a liberal.

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  • The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.

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  • The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.

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  • Let him who has work to do recollect that the object of clothing is, first, to retain the vital heat, and secondly, in this state of society, to cover nakedness, and he may judge how much of any necessary or important work may be accomplished without adding to his wardrobe.

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  • Secondly it was attained by the guerrilla warfare which was destroying the French, and thirdly by the fact that a large Russian army was following the French, ready to use its strength in case their movement stopped.

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  • With all its defective psychology, its barren logic, its immature technique, it emphasized two great and necessary truths, firstly, the absolute responsibility of the individual as the moral unit, and, secondly, the autocracy of the will.

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  • Secondly, besides the plagiarist Tudebod, there are the artistic redacteurs of the Gesta, who confess their indebtedness, but plead the bad style of their original - Guibert of Nogent, Balderich of Dol, Robert of Reims (all c. 1120-1130), and Fulco, the author of a Virgilian poem on the Crusades, continued by Gilo (ob.

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  • These are the adjective vigadabhi applied to the stone, and rendered in our translation "flawless"; and secondly, the last word, rendered in our translation "one-eighth part (of the crop)."

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  • Secondly, we have in the Ideen a general account of the process of human evolution.

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  • Secondly, we have in the Ideen a general account of the process of human evolution.

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  • Secondly, it must be able to maintain the train at a given speed against the total resistances of the level or up a gradient of given inclination.

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  • His idea was, first, to concentrate all the artillery in the center, and secondly, to withdraw the cavalry to the other side of the dip.

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  • Secondly because, as far as I know, that girl is not the kind of girl who could please Prince Andrew.

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  • The campaign of 1812 may, therefore, be considered as resulting, fi-stly, from the complex and cramping effects of the Continental System on a northern land which could not deprive itself of colonial goods; secondly, from Napoleon's refusal to mitigate the anxiety of Alexander on the Polish question; and thirdly, from tie annoyance felt by the tsar at the family matters noticed above.

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  • According to him, the Ego posits first itself (thesis); secondly, the non-Ego, the other, opposite to itself (antithesis); and, thirdly, this non-Ego within itself (synthesis), so that all reality is in consciousness.

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  • but the two which met with violent opposition were, firstly, the edict suppressing the corvees, and secondly, that suppressing the jurandes and maitrises, the privileged trade corporations.

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  • Secondly, the prefect is not only the general representative of the government, but the representative of the department in the management of its local interests.

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  • Secondly, identity of structure in two organisms does not necessarily indicate that the identical structure has been inherited from an ancestor common to the two organisms compared (homogeny), but may be due to independent development of a like structure in two different lines of descent (homoplasy).

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  • Broadly speaking, there have been in Hungary since 1867 two parties: those who accept the compromise with Austria, and affirm that under it Hungary, so far from having surrendered any of her rights, has acquired an influence which she previously did not actually possess, and secondly, those who see in the compromise an abandonment of the essentials of independence and aim at the restoration of the conditions established in 1848.

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  • William Murray, a native of the place, was made earl of Dysart in 1643, and his eldest child and heir, a daughter, Elizabeth, obtained in 1670 a regrant of the title, which passed to the descendants of her first marriage with Sir Lionel Tollemache, Bart., of Helmingham; she married secondly the 1st duke of Lauderdale, but had no children by him, and died in 1698.

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  • Or, secondly, the concordat may result from two identical separate acts, one emanating from the pope and the other from the sovereign; this was the form of the first true concordat, that of Worms, in 1122.

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  • It consists of, first, a strip of mainland along the Bay of Bengal, extending from the An pass, across the main range, to the Ma-i River, and, secondly, the large islands of Ramree and Cheduba, with many others to the south, lying off the coast of Sandoway.

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  • Secondly: from the discrepancy between the pure abstract law of self-consistent reason and the pleasuretinged nature of man, we infer or postulate Immortality.

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  • Secondly, there is the evidence from the development, namely, the presence of the entocodon in the medusa-bud, a structure which, as explained above, can only be accounted for satisfactorily by derivation from a medusan type of organization.

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  • Secondly, he knew that the greater the proportion of the Athenians who were prosperously at work in the country and therefore did not trouble to interfere in the work of government the less would be the danger of sedition, whose seeds are in a crowded city.

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  • Secondly, he established deme law-courts to prevent people from having recourse to the city tribunals; it is said that he himself occasionally "went on circuit," and on one of these occasions was so struck by the plaints of an old farmer on Hymettus, that he remitted all taxation on his land.

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  • But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.

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  • The remark overlooks two facts - firstly that the main objects of theology and philosophy are identical, though the td°f ogyod method of treatment is different, and secondly that logical discussion commonly leads up to metaphysical problems, and that this was pre-eminently the case with the logic of the Schoolmen.

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  • It is, however, to be noted, in the first place, that the imitation of the parent by the young possibly accounts for some part of these complicated actions, and, secondly, that there are cases in which curiously elaborate actions are performed by animals as a characteristic of the species, and as subserving the general advantage of the race or species, which, nevertheless, can not be explained as resulting from the transmission of acquired experience, and must be supposed to be due to the natural selection of a fortuitously developed habit which, like fortuitous.

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  • Secondly, there is the evidence from the development, namely, the presence of the entocodon in the medusa-bud, a structure which, as explained above, can only be accounted for satisfactorily by derivation from a medusan type of organization.

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  • In this way we may distinguish, first, vegetative reproduction, the result of discontinuous growth of the tissues and cell-layers of the body as a whole, leading to (I) fission, (2) autotomy, or (3) vegetative budding; secondly, germinal reproduction, the result of the reproductive activity of the archaeocytes or germinal tissue.

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  • In general terms the Mahrattas, in the wider sense, may be described under two main heads: first the Brahmans, and secondly the low-caste men.

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  • As to artistic representations of the goddess, we have first the rude figure which seems to be a copy of the Palladium; secondly, the still rude, but otherwise more interesting, figures of her, as e.g.

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  • dz, by the hydranths, each with dactylozoid; gz, gastrozoid; b, mouth and tentacles; and, blastostyle; gon, gonophores; secondly, the " coenosarc," or rh, hydrorhiza.

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  • They led firstly to the addition of degree lines to maps, and secondly to the compilation of new maps of those countries which had been inadequately represented by Ptolemy.

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  • The population of India comprises at least three strata: firstly, uncivilized aborigines, such as the Kols and Santhals, and secondly, the Dravidians (Tamils, Kanarese, &c.), who perhaps represent the earliest northern invaders, and appear to have attained some degree of culture on their own account.

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  • Its importance was due, first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus.

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  • His object was not to make the state religious but the church political, and the clergy must first be officials of the king, and secondly members of an ecclesiastical order.

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  • They are, first, plutonic rocks, especially granite; secondly, volcanic rocks, chiefly trachyte and dolerite; and thirdly, palaeozoic schists.

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  • There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.

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  • Analysis showed that all the required sounds could be conveyed with 47 syllables, and having selected the ideographs that corresponded .to those sounds, they reduced them, first, to forms called hiragana, and, secondly, to still more simplified forms called katakana.

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  • In explanation of the fact that he did not essay this route in former times, it may be noted, first, that he had only a limited acquaintance with the wares in question; secondly, that Japanese connoisseurs never attached any value to their countrymens imitation of Chinese porcelains so long as the originals were obtainable; thirdly, that the ceramic art of China not having fallen into, its present state of decadence, the idea of competing with it did not occur to outsiders; and fourthly, that Europe and America had not developed their present keen appreciation of Chinese masterpieces.

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  • Two faults, however, marred the workfirst, the shapes were clumsy and unpleasing, being copied from bronzes whose solidity justified forms unsuited to thin enamelled vessels; secondly, the colors, sombre and somewhat impure, lacked the glow and mellowness that give decorative superiority to the technically inferior Chinese enamels of the later Ming and early Tsing eras.

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  • The quadrate is indirectly articulated with the skull, first by the horizontal, movable squamosal, secondly by the columella auris.

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  • We find then two prominent notes of the state influence, firstly, the adaptation of the old ideas of the household and agricultural cults to the broader needs of the community, especially to the new necessities of internal justice between citizens and war against external enemies, and secondly the organization of more or less casual worship into something like a consistent system.

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  • (b) Secondly, in war and peace Rome formed relations with her neighbours of Latium, and, as a sign of the Latin league which resulted, the cult of Diana was brought from Aricia and established on the Aventine in the "commune Latinorum Dianae templum" (Varro, Ling.

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  • In this period, then, we find first a legitimate extension of cults corresponding to the needs of the growing community, and secondly a religious restlessness and a consequent tendency to more dramatic forms of worship.

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  • He was twice married, first to Anna Barton, a sister of John Sterling's wife, secondly to a half-sister of his friend Archdeacon Hare.

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  • This movement is characterized firstly by its magnitude; secondly, by the fact that the emigrant changes his political allegiance, for by far the greater part of modern emigration is to independent countries, and even where it is to colonies the colonies are largely self-governing and self-regarding; and thirdly, it is a movement of individuals seeking their own good, without state direction or aid.

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  • By the method of empirical psychology, he examined man first as a unit in himself and secondly in his wider relations to the larger units of society and the universe of mankind.

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  • The first object was the locating of the agora, or public square, first because Pausanias says that most of the important monuments of the city were either on or near the agora; and secondly because, beginning with the agora, he mentions, sometimes with a brief description, the principal monuments in order along three of the principal thoroughfares radiating from it.

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  • Secondly, planets.

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  • Secondly, the trumpet source of the time of Caligula (circa 40),-vii.

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  • Tirpitz advances two contentions; first, that he would have sent the navy into decisive action at an earlier stage of the war; secondly, that he would have made an earlier and more ruthless use of the German U-boats; but his opponents traverse both these claims, and in particular assert that as Secretary of State he had neglected the construction of submarines, so that Germany entered the war with a comparatively small supply of these vessels.

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  • 1630) and secondly Charles Henry de Clermont-Tonnerre (d.

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  • There are, however, several suspicious circumstances which tell against them as documents of the first importa nce, notably these: first that Talleyrand is known to have destroyed many of his most important papers, and secondly that M.

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  • Secondly, there was the great question, how far the lands and other property of the clergy should be subject to taxation.

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  • (in which the order of the book has been much broken up, and a good deal has been omitted); (ii.) the Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles, usually called the Apostolic Church Order, a book which presents a parallel to the Teaching, in so far as it consists first of a form of The Two Ways, and secondly of a number of church ordinances (here, however, as in the Syriac Didascalia, which gives about the same amount of The Two Ways, various sections are ascribed to individual apostles, e.g.

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  • Secondly, there is a philosophical usage (e.g.

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  • Efforts have been almost unceasingly made since 1872 by statistical experts in periodical conference to bring about a general understanding, first, as to the subjects which may be considered most likely to be ascertained with approximate accuracy at a census, and secondly - a point of scarcely less importance - as to the form in which the results of the inquiry should be compiled in order to render comparison possible between the facts recorded in the different areas.

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  • The law divided the subjects of census inquiry into two parts - first, those of primary importance, requiring the aid of the enumerator; and, secondly, those of subsidiary importance, capable of production without the aid of the enumerator.

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  • " Secondly, to have the Sacraments ministered purely, only and altogether according to the institution and good worde of the Lord Jesus, without any tradition or invention of man.

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  • Secondly, a medium now existed for drawing closer the bonds between English and American Congregationalists.

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  • Now the transfer of momentum across a surface occurs in two ways, firstly by the carriage of moving matter through the surface, and secondly by the force acting between the matter on one side of the surface and the matter on the other side.

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  • The transfer of angular momentum through A is of two kinds - first, that due to the passage of rotating matter, and, secondly, that due to the couple with which matter to the right of A acts upon matter to the left of A.

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  • Secondly, John George himself had concluded a similar treaty with Julius Francis in 1671.

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  • Secondly, it means that the actual development of ecclesiastical doctrine began, not from the Apostolic consciousness itself, but from a far lower level, that of the inadequate consciousness of the subapostolic Church, even when face to face with their written words.

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  • The funeral in London on the 1st and 2nd of February, including first the passage of the coffin from the Isle of Wight to Gosport between lines of warships, and secondly a military procession from London to Windsor, was a memorable solemnity: the greatest of English sovereigns, whose name would in history mark an age, had gone to her rest.

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  • Their presence is largely the result, firstly of a colonization which was favoured by the Bohemian kings and princes of the 12th and 13th centuries, and secondly of a policy of Germanization pursued by the Habsburg rulers from the date of the battle of the White Mountain in 1620 (when the Czechs lost their independence) up till the very close of the World War.

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  • 47, and, secondly, that between their commencement and the end of the two years' imprisonment at Caesarea not less than eleven full years must have elapsed.

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  • 1854), daughter of George Junkin, president of Washington College, Virginia, and secondly in 1857 to Mary Anna Morrison, daughter of a North Carolina clergyman.

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  • Secondly, it is founded on scepticism; for it has neither interest in, nor reliance upon, empirical knowledge.

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  • Next in order come manufactures; then wholesale trade - first the home trade, secondly the foreign trade of consumption, last the carrying trade.

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  • By his second wife Walsingham had a daughter who married firstly Sir Philip Sidney, secondly Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, and thirdly Richard de Burgh, earl of Clanricarde.

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  • And,, secondly, with a laborious zeal then less common than now among, n 2 (I - K 2) = 2 n 2 = n 2 = I historians, he sought to bring to light fresh historical material by patient search for letters, diaries and other manuscripts of value which had escaped the notice of previous students.

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  • The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.

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  • The Acts of Thomas, secondly, ch.

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  • The superintendent of the Ninth Census, 1870, presented a computation 01 the effects of this causefirst, through direct losses, by wounds or disease, either in actual service of the army or navy, or in a brief term following discharge; secondly, through the retardation of the rate of increase in the colored element, due to the privations, exposures and excesses attendant upon emancipation; thirdly, through the check given to immigration by the existence of war, the fear of conscription, and the apprehension abroad of results prejudicial to the national welfare.

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  • And secondly, whereas in earlier days the constitutions were seldom changed, they are now frequently recast or amended.

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  • These three are: first, to influence governmental~ policy; secondly, to form opinion; and thirdly, to win elections.

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  • In the first place, there were in early days far more bishops in proportion to the number of believers than is the custom now; and, secondly, it was the rule (except in cases of emergency) to baptize only in the season from Easter to Pentecost, and the bishop was always present and laid his hands on the newly baptized.

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  • Secondly, since different scribes are prone to different kinds of error, we must ever bear in mind the particular failings of the scribes responsible for the transmission of our text as these failings are revealed in the apparatus criticus.

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  • The philosophy of Plato is dialogue trying to become science; that of Aristotle science retaining traces of dialectic. Secondly as regards subjectmatter, even in his early writings Aristotle tends to widen the scope of philosophic inquiry, so as not only to embrace metaphysics and politics, but also to encourage rhetoric and poetics, which Plato tended to discourage or limit.

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  • Secondly, in the same dialogue (Fragm.

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  • 673); and secondly, in the Hymn in memory of Hermias, beginning " Virtue, difficult to the human race, noblest pursuit in life " (ib.

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  • Secondly, the Eudemian Ethics, while not agreeing with Plato's Republic that the just can be happy by justice alone, does not assign to the external goods of good fortune (Eutu X ia) the prominence accorded to them in the Nicomachean Ethics as the necessary conditions of all virtue, and the instruments of moral virtue.

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  • We have therefore to ask, first who was the author, and secondly what is the relation of the Rhetoric to Alexander to the Rhetoric, which nowadays alone passes for genuine.

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  • Secondly, the traditional order, which for nearly 2000 years has descended from the edition of Andronicus to the Berlin edition, is satisfactory in details, but unsatisfactory in system.

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  • Secondly, he made no division of logic. In the Categories he distinguished names and propositions for the sake of the classification of names; in the De Interpretatione he distinguished nouns and verbs from sentences with a view to the enunciative sentence: in the Analytics he analysed the syllogism into premisses and premisses into terms and copula, for the purpose of syllogism.

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  • In The Arrangement Of The Civil Year, Two Objects Are Sought To Be Accomplished, First, The Equable Distribution Of The Days Among Twelve Months; And Secondly, The Preservation Of The Beginning Of The Year At The Same Distance From The Solstices Or Equinoxes.

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  • The alimentary tube consists of three regions: firstly, the anterior buccal mass with the oesophagus, of ectodermic origin, and therefore bearing cuticular structures, namely the jaws and radula; secondly, the mid-gut, of endodermic origin and including the stomach and liver; and, thirdly, the hind-gut or intestine.

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  • Federigo much strengthened his position, first by his own marriage with Battista, one of the powerful Sforza family, and secondly by marrying his daughter to Giovanni della Rovere, the favourite nephew of Pope Sixtus IV., who in return conferred upon Federigo the title of duke.

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  • The name Hanover (Hohenufer = high bank), originally confined to the town which became the capital of the duchy of Luneburg-Calenberg, came gradually into use to designate, first, the duchy itself, and secondly, the electorate of Brunswick-Luneburg; and it was officially recognized as the name of the state when in 1814 the electorate was raised to the rank of a kingdom.

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  • Secondly, in case of serious disagreement, diplomacy having failed, they agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly powers.

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  • The old town has a threefold interest: first as a very ancient seat of Jain worship; secondly for its example of palace architecture of the best Hindu period (1486-1516); and thirdly as an historic fortress.

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  • The characteristics of Pappus's Collection are that it contains an account, systematically arranged, of the most important results obtained by his predecessors, and, secondly, notes explanatory of, or extending, previous discoveries.

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  • At the same time he admits, firstly, that to mark the barrier between unconscious and conscious is difficult; secondly, that it is impossible to trace the first beginning of consciousness in the lower animals; and, thirdly, that " however certain we are of the fact of this natural evolution of consciousness, we are, unfortunately, not yet in a position to enter more deeply into the question " (Riddle of the Universe, 191).

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  • He supposes that evolution is primarily integration, from the incoherent to the coherent, exemplified in the solar nebula evolving into the solar system; secondly differentiation, from the more homogeneous to the more heterogeneous, exemplified by the solar system evolving into different bodies; thirdly determination, from the indefinite to the definite, exemplified by the solar system with different bodies evolving into an order.

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  • According to him, the Ego posits first itself (thesis); secondly, the non-Ego, the other, opposite to itself (antithesis); and, thirdly, this non-Ego within itself (synthesis), so that all reality is in consciousness.

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  • Secondly, he accepted the Leibnitzian hypothesis of immaterial elements without accepting their self-action.

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  • It retains some relics of Fechner's influence; first, the theory of identity, according to which the difference between the physical and psychical is not a dualism, but everything is at once both; and secondly, the substitution of mathematical dependence for physical causality, except that, whereas Fechner only denied causality between physical and psychical, Mach rejects the entire distinction between causality and dependence, on the ground that " the law of causality simply asserts that the phenomena of Nature are dependent on one another."

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  • Secondly, his theory of inference contains the admission that we infer beyond sensations: he remarks that the space of the geometer is beyond space-sensations, and the time of the physicist does not coincide with time-sensations, because it uses measurements such as the rotation of the earth and the vibrations of the pendulum.

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  • Secondly, when Wundt comes to the psychical, he naturally infers from his narrow Kantian definition of substance that there is no proof of a substrate over and above all mental operations, and falsely thinks that he has proved that there is no substance mentally operating in the Aristotelian sense.

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  • Thus, according to him, in the first place reason forms a cosmological " ideal " of a multitude of simple units related; secondly, it forms a psychological " ideal " of a multitude of wills, or substance-generating activities, which communicate with one another by ideas so that will causes ideas in will, while together they constitute a collective will, and it goes on to form the moral ideal of humanity (das sittliche Menschheitsideal); and, thirdly, it forms an ontological " ideal " of God as ground of this moral " ideal," and therewith of all being as means to this end, and an " ideal " of God as world-will, of which the world is development, and in which individual wills participate each in its sphere.

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  • He supposes first, that we falsely conclude from the sun being independent of each to being independent of all; secondly, that by " introjection " we falsely conclude that another's experience is in him and therefore one's own in oneself, while the sun remains outside; and thirdly, that by " reification " of abstractions, natural science having abstracted the object and psychology the subject, each falsely believes that its own abstract, the sun or the subject, is an independent thing.

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  • Secondly, there are so-called " subjective sensations," without any external object as stimulus, most commonly in vision, but also in touch, which is liable to formication, or the feeling of creeping in the skin, and to horripilation, or the feeling of bristling in the hair; yet, even in " subjective sensations," we perceive something sensible, which, however, must be within, and not outside, the organism.

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  • Secondly, though causality requires alternatives in the material cause, e.g.

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  • Secondly, there is the so-called " Vallum," in reality no vallum at all, but a broad flat-bottomed ditch out of which the earth has been cast up on either side into g Bremen (Rochester) ijffabilasrciu.n

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  • His object was twofold: first, to obtain the control of the great German rivers the Elbe and the Weser, as a means of securing his dominion of the northern seas; and secondly, to acquire the secularized German bishoprics of Bremen and Werden as appanages for his younger sons.

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  • Hence Du Cange divides the medieval nobility of France and Spain into three classes: first, barons or ricos hombres; secondly, chevaliers or caballeros; and thirdly, ecuyers or infanzons; and to the first, who with their several special titles constituted the greater nobility of either country, he limits the designation of banneret and the right of leading their followers to war under a banner, otherwise a " drapeau quarre " or square flag.

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  • It remains to be seen how knowledge can be explained on such a basis; but, before proceeding to sketch Hume's answer to this question, it is necessary to draw attention, first, to the peculiar device invariably resorted to by him when any exception to his general principle that ideas are secondary copies of impressions presents itself, and, secondly, to the nature of the substitute offered by him for that perception of relations or synthesis which even in Locke's confused statements had appeared as the essence of cognition.

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  • It is almost superfluous to remark, first, that Hume here deliberately gives up his fundamental principle that ideas are but the fainter copies of impressions, for it can never be maintained that order of disposition is an impression, and, secondly, that he fails to offer any explanation of the mode in which coexistence and succession are possible elements, of cognition in a conscious experience made up of isolated presentations and representations.

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  • We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

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  • Two positions on which he repeatedly insisted have taken a firm hold - first, that it is of the essence of a church to be comprehensive of various views and tendencies, and that a national church especially should seek to represent all the elements of the life of the nation; secondly, that subscription to a creed can bind no one to all its details, but only to the sum and substance, or the spirit, of the symbol.

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  • Parliament was dissolved in the summer, and Taaffe, by private negotiations, first of all persuaded the Bohemian feudal proprietors to give the Feudalists, who had long been excluded, a certain number of seats; secondly, he succeeded where Potocki had failed, and came to an agreement with the Czechs; they had already, in 1878, taken their seats in the diet at Prague, and now gave up the policy of " passive resistance," and consented to take their seats also in the parliament at Vienna.

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  • It will be convenient to state first the law as regards foreigners, and secondly the law which concerns Egyptians.

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  • The Bedouins, or the Arabs of the desert, are of two different classes: first, Arabic-speaking tribes who range the deserts as far south as 26 N.; secondly, the tribes inhabiting the desert from Kosseir to Suakin, namely the Hadendoa, Bisharin and the Ababda tribes.

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  • demotic), secondly the hieratic employed by the sacred scribes, and finally the hieroevil, worthless- glyphic (Strom.

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  • These are easily calculated on the assumption first that the observations were correctly made, secondly that the calendrical dates are in the year of 365 days beginning on.

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  • B&~ing At that moment the situation was singularly like that appointed which had existed on two previous occasions: firstly, consulwhen Ismail was deposed; and secondly, when the Dual Control had undermined the existing authority without having any power to enforce its own.

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  • Secondly, it contains no polemic against Christianity, to the doctrines of which, in fact, there is no allusion.

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  • As regards the jus vetus, therefore, the judges and practitioners of Justinian's time had two terrible difficulties to contend with - first, the bulk of the law, which made it impossible for any one to be sure that he possessed anything like the whole of the authorities bearing on the point in question, so that he was always liable to find his opponent quoting against him some authority for which he could not be prepared; and, secondly, the uncertainty of the law, there being a great many important points on which differing opinions of equal legal validity might be cited, so that the practising counsel could not advise, nor the judge decide, with any confidence that he was right, or that a superior court would uphold his view.

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  • But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.

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  • The excessive size of the properties may to some extent be accounted for by the fact that most of the surface is so mountainous and unproductive as to be unsuitable for division into smaller estates, but two other causes have also co-operated, namely, first, the wide territorial authority of such Lowland families as the Scotts and Douglases, and such Highland clans as the Campbells of Argyll and Breadalbane, and the Murrays of Athol and the duke of Sutherland; and secondly, the stricter law of entail introduced in 1685.

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  • Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."

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  • Secondly, the scent of the hare is weaker than that of any other animal we hunt, and, unlike some, it is always the worse the nearer she is to her end."

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  • Finally, in 1850, in an article published in the Edinburgh Review in defence of the " Gorham judgment" he asserted two principles which he maintained to the end of his life - first, " that the so-called supremacy of the Crown in religious matters was in reality nothing else than the supremacy of law," and, secondly, "that the Church of England, by the very condition of its being, was not High or Low, but Broad, and had always included and been meant to include, opposite and contradictory opinions on points even more important than those at present under discussion."

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  • His History is a gigantic unfinished introduction, of which the plan was, first to state the general principles of the author's method and the general laws which govern the course of human progress; and secondly, to exemplify these principles and laws through the histories of certain nations characterized by prominent and peculiar features, - Spain and Scotland, the United States and Germany.

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  • But, secondly, the general source of the doctrine that life is higher than all its incidents is of interest.

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  • Under the head of notion are considered, firstly, the subjective forms of conception, judgment and syllogism; secondly, their realization in objects as mechanically, chemically or teleologically constituted; and thirdly, the idea first of life, and next of science, as the complete interpenetration of thought and objectivity.

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  • In section the isle is seen to possess a threefold character: there is first a basement of tufa, from which rise, secondly, colonnades of basalt in pillars forming the faces and walls of the principal caves, and these in turn are overlaid, thirdly, by a mass of amorphous basalt.

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  • First, he ascertained that there are no axolotls at all in the Lago de Texcoco, thus disposing at once of the Weismannian explanation; secondly, he confirmed A.

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  • Secondly, for the sake of novelty they extended their range, including scientific and technical subjects, but handling them, and teaching their pupils to handle them, in a popular way.

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  • First, he sought to acquire the substance, though not the name, of territorial power, by using the authority of the Mogul emperor for so much as he wished, and for no more; and, secondly, he desired to purify the company's service by prohibiting illicit gains, and at the same time guaranteeing a reasonable remuneration from honest sources.

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  • Two results only appear throughout his writings - first, the accentuation of belief; and secondly, the transference of many philosophical difficulties to language.

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  • Secondly, all independent proprietary rights were denied to the villein as against his lord, and the legal rule " quicquid servo acquiritur domino acquiritur " was extended to villeins.

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  • Secondly, the conclusion in which it ends is not the general idea of a class, but the belief that a class, represented by a general idea, exists, and is (or is not) otherwise determined (e.g.

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  • But, in the first place, primary judgments signify this existence never by the copula, but sometimes by the predicate, and sometimes by the subject; and, secondly, it does not follow that all judgments whatever signify existence.

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  • Secondly, it is much more a misrepresentation of categorical judgments of non-existence.

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  • Different as they are, the three kinds have something in common: first, they are all processes from similar to similar; secondly, they all consist in combining two judgments so as to cause a third, whether expressed in so many propositions or not; thirdly, as a judgment is a belief in being, they all proceed from premises which are beliefs in being to a conclusion which is a belief in being.

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  • Secondly, a subordinate point in Bradley's logic is that there are inferences which are not syllogisms; and this is true.

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  • Secondly they made it necessary.

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  • Starting from the obvious antithesis of thought and that of which it is the thought, it is possible to view the ultimate relation of its term as that of mutual indifference or, secondly, as that of a correspondence such that while they retain their distinct character modification of the one implies modification of the other, or thirdly and lastly, as that of a mergence of one in the other of such a nature that the merged term, whichever it be, is fully accounted for in a complete theory of that in which it is merged.

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  • His father died in 1105, and his mother married secondly Leopold III., margrave of Austria; but little is known of his early life until 1115 when his uncle the emperor Henry V.

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  • In every natural existence there are, therefore, two principles to be distinguished - first, the dark principle, through which this is separated from God, and exists, as it were, in the mere ground; and, secondly, the Divine principle of understanding.

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  • Secondly, whenever the emperor held a curia generalis 1 F.

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  • Nevertheless energetic efforts are being made to check any loss of importance - first, in 1898, by a determined attempt to make Danzig an industrial centre, manufacturing on a large scale; and secondly, by the construction and opening in 1899 of a free harbour at Neufahrwasser at the mouth of the Vistula.

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  • The uses of an electroscope are, first, to ascertain if any body is in a state of electrification, and secondly, to indicate the sign of that charge.

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  • The complete figures obtained by drawing first the force-diagrams of a system of forces in equilibrium with two distinct poles 0, 0, and secondly the corresponding funiculars, have various interesting relations.

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  • Now suppose that a body receives first a positive rotation a about OA, and secondly a positive rotation e3 about OB; and let A, B be the intersections of these axes with a sphere described about 0 as centre.

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  • Secondly, we have an angular momentum whose components are ~{m(y~z3)}, ~lm(z~xb)1, ~{m(xi?yi~)}, (2) these being the sums of the moments of the momenta of the several particles about the respective axes.

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  • These may be divided into two categories; we have first, the extraneous forces exerted on the various particles from without, and, secondly, the mutual or internal forces between the various pairs of particles.

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  • Stability, Stiffness and Strength.A structure may be damaged or destroyed in three ways:first, by displacement of its pieces from their proper positions relatively to each other or to the earth; secondly by disfigurement of one or more of those pieces, owing to their being unable to preserve their proper shapes under the pressures to which they are subjected; thirdly, by breaking of one or more o~ those pieces.

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  • Secondly.

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  • It is required to find, first, how many pairs of teeth must pass the line of contact of the pitch-surfaces before I and T work together again (let this number be called a); and, secondly, with how many different teeth of the larger wheel the tooth t will work at different times (let this number be called b); thirdly, with how many different teeth of the smaller wheel the tooth T will work at different times (let this be called c)

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  • First, its dorsal wall (which is grooved to form the hyperpharyngeal groove) is closely adherent to the sheath of the notochord; and secondly, the pharynx is attached through the intermediation of the primary bars.

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  • The mechanism of the development of the secondary bouquet appears to be dependent firstly on purely chemical processes, principally that of oxidation, and secondly on the life activity of certain micro-organisms. L.

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  • Secondly, within the domain of science itself, properly so called, there were two " kind of rovers " who must be dismissed.

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  • For words introduce a fallacious mode of looking at things in two ways: first, there are some words that are really merely names for non-existent things, which are yet supposed to exist simply because they have received a name; secondly, there are names hastily and unskilfully abstracted from a few objects and applied recklessly to all that has the faintest analogy with these objects, thus causing the grossest confusion.

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  • Secondly, notions are all drawn from the impressions of the sense, and are indefinite and confused, whereas they should be definite and distinctly bounded.

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  • Secondly, we must have instances in which the nature is absent; only as such cases might be infinite, attention should be limited to such of them as are most akin to the instances of presence.'

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  • Secondly, the prerogatives of instances, and the mode of experimenting upon experiments of light (which I shall hereafter explain), will diminish the multitude of them very much.

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  • Robertson Smith has made clear in his Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, 18 sqq., ritual is in fact primary for primitive religion, whilst dogma and myth are secondary); secondly, that the outlook of such belief and practice is not exclusively towards the spiritual, unless this term be widened until it mean next to nothing, but is likewise towards the quasimaterial, as will be shown presently.

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  • From the foregoing facts and observations we may conclude, firstly, that some plants and many animals are not constitutionally adapted to the climate of their native country only, but are capable of enduring and flourishing under a more or less extensive range of temperature and other climatic conditions; and, secondly, that most plants and some animals are, more or less closely, adapted to climates similar to those of their native habitats.

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  • He was twice married, first, in 1849, to Olga von Velten (by whom he had two children, a son and daughter), and secondly, in 1861, to Anna von Mohl, of a Wurtemberg family of high social position.

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  • If then two experiments are made, first with the upper plate connected to earth, and secondly, connected to the object being tested, we get an expression for the potential V of this conductor in the form V=A(d' - d), where d and d' are the distances of the fixed and movable plates from one another in the two cases, and A is some constant.

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  • Secondly, to the west of this mountain wilderness, stretching upwards from the sea in a wedge form between the Brahui highlands and the group of towering peaks which enclose the Hingol river and abut on the sea at Malan, are the alluvial flats and delta of the Purali, forming the little province of Las Bela, the home of the Las Rajput.

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  • In the first place, the ancient question of " spontaneous generation " received fresh impetus from the difficulty of keeping such minute organisms as bacteria from reaching and developing in organic infusions; and, secondly, the long-suspected analogies between the phenomena of fermentation and those of certain diseases again made themselves felt, as both became better understood.

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  • Secondly, it is frequently designated "The Little Genesis," X€ rrri or MCKpoyb)co-ir, Heb.

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  • Secondly, many passages must be retranslated into Greek before we can discover the source of the various corruptions.

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  • Now the older school also held, in the first place, that, when a man had, in this life, attained to Arahatship, his karma would not pass on to any other individual in another life - or in other words, that after Arahatship there would be no rebirth; and, secondly, that four thousand years after the Buddha had proclaimed the Dhamma or doctrine of Arahatship, his teaching would have died away, and another Buddha would be required to bring mankind once more to a knowledge of the truth.

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  • In the long wars between the different Macedonian chiefs which followed, Ptolemy's first object is to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to possess the Cyrenaica, Cyprus and Palestine (Coele-Syria).

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  • Perhaps the chief things lacking in his attitude are, in the first place, reverence, of which, however, from a few passages, it is clear he was by no means totally devoid, and secondly, an appreciation of passion and poetry.

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  • As an author Petrarch must be considered from two points of view - first as a writer of Latin verse and prose, secondly as an Italian lyrist.

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  • longitude from Greenwich; secondly, the eastern Diomede island in Bering Strait, and all islands in Bering Sea and the Aleutian chain lying E.

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  • Secondly, we must take into account the institution of polygamy, with the low status assigned to woman and the many restraints put upon her.

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  • of Germany; and secondly, a daughter of Raymond of Antioch.

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  • This whole prophecy, which is perhaps the most interesting in the Book of Daniel, presents problems which can never be thoroughly understood, first because the author must have been ignorant of both history and chronology, and secondly, because, in his effort to be as mystical as possible, he purposely made use of indefinite and vague expressions which render the criticism of the passage a most unsatisfactory task.

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  • These may be divided into three classes: first, the sprig of rue in silver, with sundry emblems attached to it, all of which refer to the worship of Diana, whose shrine at Capua was of considerable importance; secondly, the serpent charms, which formed part of the worship of Aesculapius, and were no doubt derived largely from the ancient eastern ophiolatry; and lastly charms derived from the legends of the Sirens.

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  • the " determinants " or ideas; secondly, mat hematical numbers, the abstractions of mathematics; and thirdly sensible numbers, numbers embodied in things - Speusippus rejected the ideal numbers, and consequently the ideas; (3) Speusippus traced number, magnitude and soul each to a distinct principle of its own.

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  • In default of direct evidence, it remains for us to compare these scattered notices of Speusippus's teaching with what we know of its original, the teaching of Plato, in the hope of obtaining at least a general notion, firstly, of Speusippus's system, and, secondly, of its relations to the systems of Plato, of contemporary Platonists, such as Aristotle, and of the later Academy.

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  • It is to be observed, however, firstly, that the scientific element occupied a larger place in Plato's later system than is generally supposed,' and, secondly, that other Academics who came into competition with Speusippus agreed with him in his rejection of the theory of ideas.

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  • Secondly, in using them out of level, with the goods end of the machine lower than the weights end.

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  • To each separate action there is a particular end, namely the pleasure which actually results from it Secondly, pleasure is not merely the negation of pain, inasmuch as death ends all pain and yet cannot be regarded as pleasure.

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  • As thus defined, the collection contains the following documents: firstly, the eighty-five Apostolic Canons, the Constitutions having been put aside as having suffered heretical alterations; secondly, the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, Constantinople (381), Ephesus (the disciplinary canons of this council deal with the reception of the Nestorians, and were not communicated to the West), Chalcedon, Sardica, Carthage (that of 4 19, according to Dionysius), Constantinople (394); thirdly, the series of canonical letters of the following great bishops - Dionysius of Alexandria, Peter of Alexandria (the Martyr), Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochus of Iconium, Timotheus of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gennadius of Constantinople; the canon of Cyprian of Carthage (the Martyr) is also mentioned, but with the note that it is only valid for Africa.

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  • Secondly, whereas it has been argued 'above that " Opinion " is necessarily included in the system, Zeller, supposing Parmenides to deny the Nonent even as a matter of opinion, regards that part of the poem which has opinion for its subject as no more than a revised and improved statement of the views of opponents, introduced in order that the reader, having before him the false doctrine as well as the true one, may be led the more certainly to embrace the latter.

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  • Secondly, in the reflective stage, mind has become an object to itself.

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  • This is one among many flaws in the Hegelian dialectic, and it paralyzes the whole of the Logic. Secondly, the conditions of intelligence, which Cousin allows, necessarily exclude the possibility of knowledge of the absolute - they are held to be incompatible with its unity.

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  • First, as already mentioned, it outlines the general features of the Dipleurula; secondly, it indicates the way in which this free-moving form became fixed, and how its internal organs were modified in consequence; but when we seek, thirdly, for light on the relations of the classes, we find the features of the adult coming in so rapidly that such intermediate stages as may have existed are either squeezed out or profoundly modified.

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  • Secondly, where the nature of the offence admits of it, the sinner is to acknowledge his wrongdoing to the neighbour he has aggrieved.

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  • Secondly, the definite disappearance of the medieval ideas of a cosmopolitan world and the emergence of national states begat diplomacy, and with it an ever-swelling mass of diplomatic material.

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  • The singularities (I) and (3) have been termed proper singularities, and (2) and (4) improper; in each of the first-mentioned cases there is a real singularity, or peculiarity in the motion; in the other two cases there is not; in (2) there is not when the point is first at the node, or when it is secondly at the node, any peculiarity in the motion; the singularity consists in the point coming twice into the same position; and so in (4) the singularity is in the line coming twice into the same position.

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  • Secondly, as to the inflections, the process is a similar one; it can be shown that the inflections are the intersections of the curve by a derivative curve called (after Ludwig Otto Hesse who first considered it) the Hessian, defined geometrically as the locus of a point such that its conic polar (§ 8 below) in regard to the curve breaks up into a pair of lines, and which has an equation H = o, where H is the determinant formed with the second differential coefficients of u in regard to the variables (x, y, z); H= o is thus a curve of the order 3 (m - 2), and the number of inflections is =3m(m-2).

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  • Secondly, if two of the intersections coincide, say if the line infinity meets the curve in a onefold point and a twofold point, both of them real, then there is always one asymptote: the line infinity may at the twofold point touch the curve, and we have the parabolic hyperbolas; or the twofold point may be a singular point, - viz., a crunode giving the hyperbolisms of the hyperbola; an acnode, giving the hyperbolisms of the ellipse; or a cusp, giving the hyperbolisms of the parabola.

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  • The main facts at the present day are, firstly, the restriction of the Prosimiae, or lemurs, to the warmer parts of the Old World, and their special abundance in Madagascar (where other Primates are wanting); and, secondly, the wide structural distinction between the monkeys of tropical America (Platyrrhina), and the Old World monkeys and apes, or Catarrhina.

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  • The fundamental objections to oil gas for the enrichment of coal gas are, first, that its manufacture is a slow process, requiring as much plant and space for retorting as coal gas; and, secondly, that although on a small scale it can be made to mix perfectly with coal gas and water gas, great difficulties are found in doing this on the large scale, because in spite of the fact that theoretically gases of such widely different specific gravities ought to form a perfect mixture by diffusion, layering of the gas is very apt to take place in the holder, and thus there is an increased liability to wide variations in the illuminating value of the gas sent out.

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  • It seeks to prove its case by asserting first the divinity of Christ, and secondly the personality of the Holy Spirit.

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  • But if it be presupposed that the purpose of Christ's mission was to deify men by bestowing physical immortality, then we must assume, first, Christ's essential Godhead, and, secondly, the fusion of His divine and human natures.

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  • Secondly there is a strong side-current in the mystical tradition, which we may perhaps treat as the modified form under which the philosophical theology of the Greek Church maintained its life in the medieval West.

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  • - Constantinople is famous in history, first as the capital of the Roman empire in the East for more than eleven centuries (330-1453), and secondly as the capital of the Ottoman empire since 1453.

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  • The Left had three objects of enmity: first, the king, the queen and the royal family; secondly, the emigres; and thirdly, the clergy.

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  • On love depends the " fulfilling of the law," and the sole moral value of Christian duty - that is, on love to God, in the first place, which in its fullest development must spring from Christian faith; and, secondly, love to all mankind, as the objects of divine love and sharers in the humanity ennobled by the incarnation.

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  • He is scarcely aware that his Aristotelianized Christianity inevitably combines two different difficulties in dealing with this question: first, the old pagan difficulty of reconciling the proposition that will is a rational desire always directed towards apparent good, with the freedom of choice between good and evil that the jural view of morality seems to require; and, secondly, the Christian difficulty of harmonizing this latter notion with the absolute dependence on divine grace which the religious consciousness affirms.

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  • On the contrary, he is careful to point out, first, that immoderate social affections defeat themselves, miss their proper end, and are therefore bad; secondly, that as an individual's good is part of the good of the whole " self-affections " existing in a duly limited degree are morally good.

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  • Secondly, the emotional element of the moral consciousness, on which attention had been concentrated by Shaftesbury and his followers, though distinctly recognized as accompanying the intellectual intuition, is carefully subordinated to it.

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  • Salvian sets himself to prove God's constant guidance, first by the facts of Scripture history, and secondly by the enumeration of special texts declaring this truth.

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  • Secondly, the law of conservation of areas.

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  • It consisted, first, in the identification, by strict numerical comparisons, of terrestrial gravity with the mutual attraction of the heavenly bodies; secondly, in the following out of its mechanical consequences throughout the solar system.

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  • After this the chief matters worth notice in Dom Henry's life are, first, the progress of discovery and colonization in the Azores - where Terceira was discovered before 1450, perhaps in 1445, and apparently by a Fleming, called "Jacques de Bruges" in the prince's charter of the 2nd of March 1450 (by this charter Jacques receives the captaincy of this isle as its intending colonizer); secondly, the rapid progress of civilization in Madeira, evidenced by its timber trade to Portugal, by its sugar, corn and honey, and above all by its wine, produced from the Malvoisie or Malmsey grape, introduced from Crete; and thirdly, the explorations o Cadamosto and Diogo Gomez.

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  • The main drains of the country are - first, Wadi el `Ayun, rising north of Jebel Jarmuk, and running north-west as an open valley; and secondly, Wadi el Ahjar, a rugged precipitous gorge running north to join the Leontes.

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  • It was the active hostility between the amir of Kabul (who claimed sovereignty of the same districts) and Umra Khan that led, firstly to the demarcation agreement of 1893 which fixed the boundary of Afghanistan in Kunar; and, secondly, to the invasion of Chitral by Umra Khan (who was no party to the boundary settlement) and the siege of the Chitral fort in 1895.

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  • Secondly, it can hardly be questioned that, by withstanding the hot-headed patriots at this juncture, Demosthenes did heroic service to Athens.

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  • The two most important points of contrast between the geology of Ireland and that of England are, firstly, the great exposure of `Carboniferous rocks in Ireland, Mesozoic strata being almost absent; and, secondly, the presence of volcanic rocks in place of the marine Eocene of England.

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  • In the first place, the department had to train teachers of agricultural subjects; and secondly, it had to demonstrate to farmers all over Ireland by a system of itinerant instruction some of the advantages of such technical instruction, in order to induce them to make some sacrifice to obtain a suitable education for their sons and daughters.

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  • In the state two things are requisite: first, common submission to the ruler, which can be secured or given only when the state is Christian, for God alone is the trua ruler of men; and, secondly, inequality of rank, without which there can be no organization.

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  • First (as Arnobius and Eusebius reminded their heathen opponents), the allegorical explanations are purely arbitrary, depend upon the fancy of their author, and are all equally plausible and equally unsupported by evidence.6 Secondly, there is no proof at all that, in the distant age when the myths were developed, men entertained the moral notions and physical philosophies which are supposed to be " wrapped up, " as Cicero says, " in impious fables."

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  • Arsenic is found in almost every part of the body, but is retained in largest amount by the liver, secondly by the kidneys.

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  • He left a fortune of some two millions sterling to his daughter, who married first a son of the Marquis di Rudini, and secondly Prince Gyalma Odescalchi.

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  • And so, little by little, this man of insatiable energy was possessed by the ambition of restoring the Empire of the West in his own favor, There were, however, two serious obstacles in the way: first, the supremacy of the emperor of the East, which though nominal Charle- rather than real was upheld by peoples, princes, and magne even by popes; secondly, the rivalry of the bishops emperor of Rome, who since the early years of Adrians (800).

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  • Secondly, the form may be looked at as the similarity evolved by a process of comparison, as the work of mental reflection, and in that way as essentially expressing a relation.

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  • The discussion, which lasted for three days, Augustine and Aurelius of Carthage being the chief speakers on the one side, and Primian and Petilian on the other, turned exclusively upon the two questions that had given rise to the schism - first, the question of fact, whether Felix of Aptunga who consecrated Caecilian had been a traditor; and secondly, the question of doctrine, whether a church by tolerance of unworthy members within its pale lost the essential attributes of purity and catholicity.

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  • These two processes are I~a firstly, the christianization of Spain, a very different thing from its reconquest from Moslem mastersand, secondly, not its unification, for that is hardly attained even now, but its progress towards unification.

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  • The main objects that he set before himself were, firstly, the maintenance of order; secondly, the reform of local government, so as to destroy the power of the Caciques and educate the people in their privileges and responsibilities.

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  • Secondly, although the one thing necessary in religion was a personal relation of the human soul to its maker, Jansen held that that relation was only possible in and through the Roman Church.

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  • But while his enemies taunted him with having twice wrecked his party - first the Radical party under Mr Gladstone, and secondly the Unionist party under Mr Balfour - no well-informed critic doubted his sincerity, or failed to recognize that in leaving the cabinet and embarking on his fiscal campaign he showed real devotion to an idea.

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  • The Darley Arabian's line is represented in a twofold degreefirst, through his son Flying Childers, his grandsons Blaze and Snip, and his great-grandson Snap, and, secondly, through his other son Bartlett's Childers and his great-great-grandson Eclipse.

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  • "Satan appears in Scripture under four leading characters: - first as the tempter of freedom, who desires to bring to decision, secondly as the accuser, who by virtue of the law retorts criminality on man; thirdly as the instrument of the Divine, which brings evil and death upon men; fourthly and lastly he is described, especially in the New Testament, as the enemy of God and man."

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  • C. Lodge (New York, 9 vols., 1885-1886, and 12 vols., 1904); all references above are first to the latter edition, secondly (in brackets) to the former.

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  • The town suffered severely during the Civil Wars, undergoing two sieges, firstly in 1644 when the parliamentarian, Colonel Laugharne, took the place by storm, and secondly in 1648 when it capitulated to Colonel Horton.

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  • He married, firstly in 1866 Leopoldine Boivin, and secondly in 1871 Virginie St Denis.

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  • The glycerides occurring in natural oils and fats differ, therefore, in the first instance by the different fatty acids contained in them, and secondly, even if they do contain the same fatty acids, by different proportions of the several simple and mixed glycerides.

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  • 2) makes history intelligible by explaining the how and the why; and, secondly, it is only when so written that history can perform its true function of instructing and guiding those who study it.

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  • The Almagest has a dual interest: first, being the work of one primarily a commentator, it presents a crystallized epitome of all earlier knowledge; and secondly, it has served as a basis of subsequent star-catalogues.'

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  • By Bertrada de Montfort he had three children: Philip, count of Montes; Fleury or Florus, who married the heiress of Nangis; and Cecilia, who married, first Tancred, prince of Galilee and Antioch, and secondly Pons de Saint Gilles, count of Tripoli.

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  • Secondly, it is necessary in view of this fact to preserve an attitude of intellectual suspense (broxii), or, as Timon expressed it, 015,36), uaXXov (i.e.

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  • Secondly, I realized when we began this venture; it would have its run and then be over.

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  • Secondly, they introduce some Principles of Good Practice that must be applied if control of exposure is to be deemed adequate.

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  • Secondly the clouds, which have a high albedo, can create a negative feedback helping to cool the forest area.

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  • Secondly, ACCEPTANCE at the brazen altar within the court.

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  • Secondly, there is the question of the Olympic Games, mentioned by the noble baroness, Lady Strange, and others.

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  • Secondly, that ' the dog's bollocks ' comes from ' box deluxe ' .

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  • Secondly the property deal is not necessarily a cash bonanza.

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  • Secondly, innocent bystanders will play a huge part in Hell's Highway.

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  • Secondly, we again have the cavalcade of plot devices.

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  • Secondly, viking colonists who settled in north-western France created an independent duchy of the Northmen, or Normandy, as it became known.

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  • Secondly, they seem to believe that their content is sufficiently compelling that people will want to pay to hear it.

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  • Secondly, their control group consisted of people working with equipment known to cause eye damage.

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  • As individuals, there are things we can do to improve the situation, firstly as informed consumers, and secondly as campaigners.

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  • Secondly, I will describe our multilingual corpus, and our analytical procedure.

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  • Secondly if the seedlings were of genuine cress (L. sativum) they would have lobed cotyledons and taste " hot " .

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  • Secondly, there is the more complex technique of presenting counterarguments to the thesis propounded, and then offering arguments which defeat those counterarguments.

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  • Secondly, with such a vast force, where would all the landing craft come from?

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  • And secondly the DUP see alleged criminality, at local level within the nationalist community, as a major issue for them.

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  • Secondly, Because we are charged to withdraw from those that walk disorderly.

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  • Secondly, Viking colonists who settled in north-western France created an independent duchy of the Northmen, or Normandy, as it became known.

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  • Secondly, He appeareth to his own sometimes in a garment dyed in blood, according to that word, Isa. lxiii.

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  • Secondly it should be enforceable, Thirdly, it does not mark the end of the road.

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  • Secondly, unlike advertising, the tacit endorsement of the publication conveys instant credibility and positions you as an authority on property sales.

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  • Secondly to develop a polymer that can be used to produce a primer that will prevent discoloration due to water soluble wood extractives.

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  • Secondly, the argument that paying for higher education out of general taxation would be unfair is an entirely false one.

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  • Secondly, reserved matters: it should not be possible to use the fast track for constitutional, important or controversial changes.

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  • Secondly, they support that federalism is the solution for the Kurdish issue.

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  • Secondly, no homeowner could claim private right to a location value enhanced by public administrative fiat.

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  • food court locations and secondly, stand alone units.

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  • Secondly, the way to make cooking easy is to have some forethought.

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  • Secondly, since the removal of most hereditary peers in 1999, party whips have become more forthright.

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  • Secondly, there are a number of potential new funders willing to take a stake in the project.

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  • Secondly the soils are normally well graded giving a even spread of coarse gravel through to fine sands.

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  • Secondly he had a quality of combativeness, of always being actively engaged in combat against all that negated the Truth and disrupted harmony.

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  • Secondly, wisdom requires the humility to listen and to learn.

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  • Secondly, there is the more general, almost impressionistic, message given to all road users by the treatment of offenders.

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  • First Secondly, the devil tempts you to financial indiscipline.

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  • Secondly, if so, did that maladministration cause an unremedied injustice to Professor Hayward and to others like him?

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  • inspiration of the spirit, takes special care in enumerating them " first apostles; secondly prophets; thirdly teachers.

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  • Secondly, it decreases the open flux by increasing the length of the polarity inversion line where flux cancelation occurs.

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  • Secondly, the supposedly involuntary processes should somehow or other be encouraged to do their job properly.

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  • Secondly, you also asked the very good question about what can be done about the Balkan powder keg?

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  • Secondly, I decided to make the kilt my platform dress " .

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  • First a spherical boss without lettering; secondly a ring with embossed lettering, the text of which is shown in the table.

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  • I rejected them firstly due to what I saw as limited take up and then secondly because of the sales pitch.

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  • Secondly, she didn't wear makeup, cheap jewelry or high heels.

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  • marryry Townshend married secondly in 1887 Catherine Clara Paget (née Cradock) who had children by her first husband.

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  • Secondly, we have a very broad department, encompassing pure, applied and discrete maths, stats, computing and even astronomy.

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  • The Reagan government had two maxims: firstly, always have a bad guy, and secondly, when in trouble change the subject.

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  • Secondly, don't try to use too much weight or always try to increase your training weights.

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  • Secondly, the result marked the nadir (so far) in the long-term decline of the Labor party.

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  • Secondly, the blue and yellow doors on this map were unmarked, which I consider a no-no.

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  • Secondly, you have a legal obligation to complete the purchase contract.

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  • Secondly, on measures to be taken to help Russia to resist the hideous onslaught which Hitler has made upon her; thirdly.

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  • Secondly he has added oodles of back story and added at least half a dozen new characters.

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  • Secondly, the nuclear industry has recently launched a carefully orchestrated PR campaign.

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  • Secondly, folk music consisted of simple short forms, a basically pentatonic scale, and simple language.

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  • philosophic thought is for Hegel: firstly, concept; secondly, universal; thirdly, concrete.

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  • Secondly, a spectrometer will measure the energies of incoming gamma-ray photons.

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  • Secondly, we'll assess the natural progression of hair loss over time.

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  • Secondly, cross-word pronunciation variation was modeled using two different approaches.

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  • Secondly, those solids that pass through the pump will be liquidized by the pump impeller, making efficient removal of solids almost impossible.

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  • Secondly, raster layers can be combined to create new raster layers can be combined to create new raster layers.

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  • Secondly, the output voltage from this 6-pulse rectifier only falls to 86% between peaks.

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  • Secondly, an annual report should be given to Parliament on the work of the HA traffic officers.

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  • And secondly there are the shallow riffles, which are easy to fish but rarely hold anything worth catching.

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  • Secondly, two benches will be installed within sight of the old priory ruins.

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  • Secondly, there must be adequate safeguards at the first hearing.

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  • If we want to please God, then our lives will be marked first by self-sacrifice, and secondly by faithful service.

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  • Secondly, it implies a separation of persons from their corruptions.

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  • Secondly, we need higher fines, heavier license endorsements and bans for persistent speeders.

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  • Secondly, Dr. Will reported that he was now aware of five cases of apparently sporadic CJD in young people.

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    0
  • Secondly, we should not be quite so starry eyed about Cymdeithas as Richard is.

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  • Secondly, they will need to find ways to loosen the financial straitjacket.

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  • Secondly, that the polymer tantalum type has higher leakage currents than traditional capacitors.

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  • Secondly, on account of its large taproot; it is this latter feature which suggests the link with Turbinicarpus.

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  • Secondly, the priests had " caused many to stumble " by their false teaching (2.8 ).

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  • Secondly to the Commission: will the Commission commit to engaging in joined-up thinking on the issues of alternatives to oil?

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  • Secondly, by mapping the output of a focussed ultrasound transducer at various distances from the focus.

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  • Secondly an increased gut transit time means that toxins normally confined to the small bowel can irritate and inflame the more sensitive colonic mucosa.

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  • Secondly, we learn lessons about authority from the incident of the fig tree.

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  • Secondly, we administer trusts worth hundreds of millions of pounds, dealing with investment advisers on a daily basis.

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  • Secondly, an unhealthy dualism that exalts " spirituality " over concrete action and practice is not only profoundly unchristian, but also dangerous.

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  • Secondly, Jesus prays not for institutional unity but for doctrinal unity - verses 20-21: My prayer is not for them alone.

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  • Secondly, cross-word pronunciation variation was modeled using two different approaches.

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  • secondly verify that the printable side of the paper is face up, and check the type of paper being used.

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  • Secondly, Janice Nice has a nice videotape of the entire episode with the robot.

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  • Secondly, he argues that the NHS is extremely wasteful.

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  • Secondly, the creations also whet the appetite for further large-scale works from the composer.

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  • Secondly, the assessment provides a yardstick with which to measure any change.

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  • Then, secondly, there arose the question whether the methods of exact science sufficed to explain the connexion of phenomena, or whether for the explanation of this the thinking mind was forced to resort to some hypothesis not immediately verifiable by observation, but dictated by higher aspirations and interests.

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  • the existence in our mind of certain laws and forms according to which we connect the material supplied to us by our senses, and, secondly, the fact that logical thought cannot be usefully employed without the assumption of a further set of connexions, not logically necessary, but assumed to exist between the data of experience and observation.

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  • In each department we shall have to aim first of all at views clear and consistent within themselves, but, secondly, we shall in the end wish to form some general idea or to risk an opinion how laws, facts and standards of value may be combined in one comprehensive view.

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  • Or, secondly, the concordat may result from two identical separate acts, one emanating from the pope and the other from the sovereign; this was the form of the first true concordat, that of Worms, in 1122.

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  • It consists of, first, a strip of mainland along the Bay of Bengal, extending from the An pass, across the main range, to the Ma-i River, and, secondly, the large islands of Ramree and Cheduba, with many others to the south, lying off the coast of Sandoway.

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  • First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.

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  • That there are defects in the logical process as here outlined to account for the curious rite constitutes no valid objection to the theory advanced, for, in the first place, primitive logic in matters of belief is inherently defective and even contradictory, and, secondly, the strong desire to pierce the mysterious future, forming an impelling factor in all religions - even in the most advanced of our own day - would tend to obscure the weakness of any theory developed to explain a rite which represents merely one endeavour among many to divine the intention and plans of the gods, upon the knowledge of which so much of man's happiness and welfare depended.

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  • Of these Bridget was the wife successively of Ireton and Fleetwood, Elizabeth married John Claypole, Mary was wife of Thomas Belasyse, Lord Fauconberg; and Frances was the wife of Sir Robert Rich, and secondly of Sir John Russell.

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  • But, secondly, the pneumatic utterances technically known as speaking with tongues failed to reach this level of intelligibility; for Paul compares "a tongue" to a material object which should merely make a noise, to a pipe or harp twanged or blown at random without tune or time, to a trumpet blaring idly and not according to a code of signal notes.

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  • These various movements proved in the first place that the masses were by no means ripe for revolution, and that the idea of unity, although now advocated by a few revolutionary leaders, was far from being generally accepted even by the Liberals; and, secondly, that, in spite of the indifference of the masses, the despotic governments were unable to hold their own without the assistance of foreign bayonets.

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  • Firstly, he doubted whether the allies were strong enough to attack the Quadrilateral, for he saw the defects of his own armys organization; secondly, he began to fear intervention by Prussia, whose attitude appeared menacing; thirdly, although really anxious to expel the Austrians from Italy, he did not wish to create a too powerful Italian state at the foot of the Alps, which, besides constituting a potential danger to France, might threaten the popes temporal power, and Napoleon believed that he could not stand without the clerical vote; fourthly, the war had been declared against the wishes of the great majority of Frenchmen and was even now far from popular.

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  • Secondly: the " forms " of time and space, not referable to any sensation, and presupposed in every experience, come from the mind (" Transcendental Aesthetic ").

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  • Secondly: from the discrepancy between the pure abstract law of self-consistent reason and the pleasuretinged nature of man, we infer or postulate Immortality.

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  • - Two sets of writers have been considered: - first, the greater philosophers, who have incidentally furthered theism (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, Descartes, Locke, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Lotze), or opposed it (Epicurus, Spinoza, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Mill, Spencer); and, secondly, the deliberate champions of theism - Cicero (especially in the De Natura Deorum), Philo, Raymond of Sabunde (in a sense), Wolff, Butler (in a sense), Paley, and a host of English and German 18th-century authors, who chiefly handle the Design argument; then recent writers like R.

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  • dz, by the hydranths, each with dactylozoid; gz, gastrozoid; b, mouth and tentacles; and, blastostyle; gon, gonophores; secondly, the " coenosarc," or rh, hydrorhiza.

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  • The tentacles also vary considerably in other ways than in number: first, in form, being usually simple, with a basal bulb, but in Cladonemidae they are branched, often in complicated fashion; secondly, in grouping, being usually given off singly, and at regular intervals from the margin of the umbrella, but in Margelidae and in some Trachomedusae they are given off in tufts or bunches (fig.

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  • 29); secondly, organs commonly termed otocysts, on account of their resemblance to the audi tory vesicles of higher After 0.

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  • In this way we may distinguish, first, vegetative reproduction, the result of discontinuous growth of the tissues and cell-layers of the body as a whole, leading to (I) fission, (2) autotomy, or (3) vegetative budding; secondly, germinal reproduction, the result of the reproductive activity of the archaeocytes or germinal tissue.

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  • an opening to the exterior S From a comparison of the two embryological types there can be no doubt on two points; first, that the pneumatophore and the protocodon are strictly homologous, and, therefore if the nectocalyx is comparable to the umbrella of a medusa, as seems obvious, the pneumatophore must be so too; secondly, that the coenosarcal axis arises from the ex-umbrella of the medusa and cannot be compared to a manubrium, but is strictly comparable to the " bud-spike " of a Narcomedusan.

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  • Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.

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  • Secondly, the histology of fossil plants, particularly woody plants of the carboniferous period, has been placed on a sound basis, assimilated with general histological doctrine, and has considerably enlarged our conceptions of plant anatomy as a whole, though again.

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  • The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.

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  • The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.

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  • It follows, first, that the absence of this muscle does not always indicate relationship; secondly that we can derive birds that are without it from a group which still possess it, but not vice versa.

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  • With all its defective psychology, its barren logic, its immature technique, it emphasized two great and necessary truths, firstly, the absolute responsibility of the individual as the moral unit, and, secondly, the autocracy of the will.

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  • Secondly they fell into the natural error of emphasizing the purely animal side of the "nature," which was their ethical criterion.

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  • Secondly, he knew that the greater the proportion of the Athenians who were prosperously at work in the country and therefore did not trouble to interfere in the work of government the less would be the danger of sedition, whose seeds are in a crowded city.

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  • Secondly, he established deme law-courts to prevent people from having recourse to the city tribunals; it is said that he himself occasionally "went on circuit," and on one of these occasions was so struck by the plaints of an old farmer on Hymettus, that he remitted all taxation on his land.

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  • Secondly, it must be able to maintain the train at a given speed against the total resistances of the level or up a gradient of given inclination.

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  • The population of India comprises at least three strata: firstly, uncivilized aborigines, such as the Kols and Santhals, and secondly, the Dravidians (Tamils, Kanarese, &c.), who perhaps represent the earliest northern invaders, and appear to have attained some degree of culture on their own account.

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  • European influence on Asia has been specially strong at two epochs, firstly after the conquests of Alexander the Great, and secondly from the r6th century onwards.

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  • In general terms the Mahrattas, in the wider sense, may be described under two main heads: first the Brahmans, and secondly the low-caste men.

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  • but the two which met with violent opposition were, firstly, the edict suppressing the corvees, and secondly, that suppressing the jurandes and maitrises, the privileged trade corporations.

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  • The campaign of 1812 may, therefore, be considered as resulting, fi-stly, from the complex and cramping effects of the Continental System on a northern land which could not deprive itself of colonial goods; secondly, from Napoleon's refusal to mitigate the anxiety of Alexander on the Polish question; and thirdly, from tie annoyance felt by the tsar at the family matters noticed above.

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  • First he failed to see the great structural difference between the penguins (which Illiger had placed as a group, Impennes, of equal rank to his other families) and the auks, divers and grebes, Pygopodes - combining all of them to form a "Typus " (to use his term) Urinatores; and secondly he admitted among the Natatores, though as a distinct " Typus " Podoidae, the genera Podoa and Fulica, which are now known to belong to the Rallidae - the latter indeed (see Cool') being but very slightly removed from the moorhen (q.v.).

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  • Two causes have been assigned of this migration: first, the instinct of finding a suitable locality for propagating their species; and, secondly, the search and pursuit of food, which in the warmer season is more abundant in the neighbourhood of land than in the open sea.

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  • Secondly, besides the plagiarist Tudebod, there are the artistic redacteurs of the Gesta, who confess their indebtedness, but plead the bad style of their original - Guibert of Nogent, Balderich of Dol, Robert of Reims (all c. 1120-1130), and Fulco, the author of a Virgilian poem on the Crusades, continued by Gilo (ob.

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  • Secondly, lie simulated thunder and lightning, the latter by flashing in Zeno's eyes an intolerable light from a slightly hollowed mirror.

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  • Debussy has this in common with Strauss, that he too regards harmonies as pure physical sensations; but he differs from Strauss firstly in systematically refusing to regard them as anything else, and secondly in his extreme sensibility to harshness.

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  • They led firstly to the addition of degree lines to maps, and secondly to the compilation of new maps of those countries which had been inadequately represented by Ptolemy.

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  • But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.

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  • These are the adjective vigadabhi applied to the stone, and rendered in our translation "flawless"; and secondly, the last word, rendered in our translation "one-eighth part (of the crop)."

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  • Secondly, the prefect is not only the general representative of the government, but the representative of the department in the management of its local interests.

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  • As to artistic representations of the goddess, we have first the rude figure which seems to be a copy of the Palladium; secondly, the still rude, but otherwise more interesting, figures of her, as e.g.

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  • The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).

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  • Secondly, identity of structure in two organisms does not necessarily indicate that the identical structure has been inherited from an ancestor common to the two organisms compared (homogeny), but may be due to independent development of a like structure in two different lines of descent (homoplasy).

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  • " God," he says, " hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helps, governments, (divers) kinds of tongues."

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  • The remark overlooks two facts - firstly that the main objects of theology and philosophy are identical, though the td°f ogyod method of treatment is different, and secondly that logical discussion commonly leads up to metaphysical problems, and that this was pre-eminently the case with the logic of the Schoolmen.

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  • Broadly speaking, there have been in Hungary since 1867 two parties: those who accept the compromise with Austria, and affirm that under it Hungary, so far from having surrendered any of her rights, has acquired an influence which she previously did not actually possess, and secondly, those who see in the compromise an abandonment of the essentials of independence and aim at the restoration of the conditions established in 1848.

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  • It is, however, to be noted, in the first place, that the imitation of the parent by the young possibly accounts for some part of these complicated actions, and, secondly, that there are cases in which curiously elaborate actions are performed by animals as a characteristic of the species, and as subserving the general advantage of the race or species, which, nevertheless, can not be explained as resulting from the transmission of acquired experience, and must be supposed to be due to the natural selection of a fortuitously developed habit which, like fortuitous.

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  • 388417), secondly by L.

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  • Secondly, the application of extraneous matter to the body, as painting and tattooing, and the raising of ornamental scars often by the introduction of foreign matter into flesh-wounds (this practice belongs partly to the first category also).

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  • Secondly, the external evidence does not bear examination.

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  • But, while he thus stood aloof from philosophy, Xenophanes influenced its development in two ways: first, his theological henism led the way to the philosophical henism of Parmenides and Zeno; secondly, his assertion that so-called knowledge was in reality no more than opinion taught his successors to distinguish knowledge and opinion, and to assign to each a separate province.

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  • William Murray, a native of the place, was made earl of Dysart in 1643, and his eldest child and heir, a daughter, Elizabeth, obtained in 1670 a regrant of the title, which passed to the descendants of her first marriage with Sir Lionel Tollemache, Bart., of Helmingham; she married secondly the 1st duke of Lauderdale, but had no children by him, and died in 1698.

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  • Thus Ludwig was of opinion that the lymph-flow is dependent upon two factors, first, difference in pressure of the blood in the capillaries and the liquid in the plasma spaces outside; and, secondly, chemical interchanges setting up osmotic currents through the vessel-walls.

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  • Heidenhain recognizes two classes, first, such substances as peptone, leech extract and crayfish extract; and, secondly, crystalloids such as sugar, salt, &c. Starling sees no reason to believe that members of either class act otherwise than by increasing the pressure in the capillaries or by injuring the endothelial wall.

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  • There may first be mentioned the zealots such as the Akalis, who, though generally quite illiterate, aim at observing the injunctions of Sikhism Guru Govind Singh; secondly, the true Sikhs or Singhs who observe his ordinances, such as the prohibi tions of cutting the hair and the use of tobacco; and, thirdly, those Sikhs who while professing devotion to the tenets of the gurus are almost indistinguishable from ordinary Hindus.

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  • in the Southern states, owing to the harsh Reconstruction laws and the robberies committed by the carpet-bag governments which those laws kept in power; secondly, the scandals at.

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  • Secondly, "You must give up your ill-gotten wealth."

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  • Its importance was due, first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus.

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  • His object was not to make the state religious but the church political, and the clergy must first be officials of the king, and secondly members of an ecclesiastical order.

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  • They are, first, plutonic rocks, especially granite; secondly, volcanic rocks, chiefly trachyte and dolerite; and thirdly, palaeozoic schists.

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  • There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.

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  • Analysis showed that all the required sounds could be conveyed with 47 syllables, and having selected the ideographs that corresponded .to those sounds, they reduced them, first, to forms called hiragana, and, secondly, to still more simplified forms called katakana.

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  • In explanation of the fact that he did not essay this route in former times, it may be noted, first, that he had only a limited acquaintance with the wares in question; secondly, that Japanese connoisseurs never attached any value to their countrymens imitation of Chinese porcelains so long as the originals were obtainable; thirdly, that the ceramic art of China not having fallen into, its present state of decadence, the idea of competing with it did not occur to outsiders; and fourthly, that Europe and America had not developed their present keen appreciation of Chinese masterpieces.

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  • Two faults, however, marred the workfirst, the shapes were clumsy and unpleasing, being copied from bronzes whose solidity justified forms unsuited to thin enamelled vessels; secondly, the colors, sombre and somewhat impure, lacked the glow and mellowness that give decorative superiority to the technically inferior Chinese enamels of the later Ming and early Tsing eras.

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  • The quadrate is indirectly articulated with the skull, first by the horizontal, movable squamosal, secondly by the columella auris.

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  • They can easily be divided into 4 genera: Crotalus and Sistrurus with a rattle at the end of the tail and restricted to America (see Rattlesnake); secondly, pit-vipers without a rattle: Ancistrodon, with large shields covering the upper surface of the head; with about to species, e.g.

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  • We find then two prominent notes of the state influence, firstly, the adaptation of the old ideas of the household and agricultural cults to the broader needs of the community, especially to the new necessities of internal justice between citizens and war against external enemies, and secondly the organization of more or less casual worship into something like a consistent system.

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  • (b) Secondly, in war and peace Rome formed relations with her neighbours of Latium, and, as a sign of the Latin league which resulted, the cult of Diana was brought from Aricia and established on the Aventine in the "commune Latinorum Dianae templum" (Varro, Ling.

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  • In this period, then, we find first a legitimate extension of cults corresponding to the needs of the growing community, and secondly a religious restlessness and a consequent tendency to more dramatic forms of worship.

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  • He was twice married, first to Anna Barton, a sister of John Sterling's wife, secondly to a half-sister of his friend Archdeacon Hare.

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  • This movement is characterized firstly by its magnitude; secondly, by the fact that the emigrant changes his political allegiance, for by far the greater part of modern emigration is to independent countries, and even where it is to colonies the colonies are largely self-governing and self-regarding; and thirdly, it is a movement of individuals seeking their own good, without state direction or aid.

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  • By the method of empirical psychology, he examined man first as a unit in himself and secondly in his wider relations to the larger units of society and the universe of mankind.

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  • The first object was the locating of the agora, or public square, first because Pausanias says that most of the important monuments of the city were either on or near the agora; and secondly because, beginning with the agora, he mentions, sometimes with a brief description, the principal monuments in order along three of the principal thoroughfares radiating from it.

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  • Secondly, planets.

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  • Secondly, the trumpet source of the time of Caligula (circa 40),-vii.

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  • Tirpitz advances two contentions; first, that he would have sent the navy into decisive action at an earlier stage of the war; secondly, that he would have made an earlier and more ruthless use of the German U-boats; but his opponents traverse both these claims, and in particular assert that as Secretary of State he had neglected the construction of submarines, so that Germany entered the war with a comparatively small supply of these vessels.

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  • 1630) and secondly Charles Henry de Clermont-Tonnerre (d.

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  • The council, however, showed itself inaccessible to all his arguments and explanations, and its final resolution, as announced by Pierre d'Ailly, was threefold: first, that Huss should humbly declare that he had erred in all the articles cited against him; secondly, that he should promise on oath neither to hold nor teach them in the future; thirdly, that he should publicly recant them.

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  • There are, however, several suspicious circumstances which tell against them as documents of the first importa nce, notably these: first that Talleyrand is known to have destroyed many of his most important papers, and secondly that M.

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  • Secondly, there was the great question, how far the lands and other property of the clergy should be subject to taxation.

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  • Secondly, when it was proposed to admonish them from the Holy Scriptures they said, ` It beseems no one but the pope to interpret the Scriptures,' and, thirdly, when they were threatened with a council, they invented the idea that no one but the pope can call a council.

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  • (in which the order of the book has been much broken up, and a good deal has been omitted); (ii.) the Ecclesiastical Canons of the Holy Apostles, usually called the Apostolic Church Order, a book which presents a parallel to the Teaching, in so far as it consists first of a form of The Two Ways, and secondly of a number of church ordinances (here, however, as in the Syriac Didascalia, which gives about the same amount of The Two Ways, various sections are ascribed to individual apostles, e.g.

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  • Secondly, there is a philosophical usage (e.g.

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  • Efforts have been almost unceasingly made since 1872 by statistical experts in periodical conference to bring about a general understanding, first, as to the subjects which may be considered most likely to be ascertained with approximate accuracy at a census, and secondly - a point of scarcely less importance - as to the form in which the results of the inquiry should be compiled in order to render comparison possible between the facts recorded in the different areas.

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  • The law divided the subjects of census inquiry into two parts - first, those of primary importance, requiring the aid of the enumerator; and, secondly, those of subsidiary importance, capable of production without the aid of the enumerator.

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  • " Secondly, to have the Sacraments ministered purely, only and altogether according to the institution and good worde of the Lord Jesus, without any tradition or invention of man.

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  • Secondly, a medium now existed for drawing closer the bonds between English and American Congregationalists.

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  • Now the transfer of momentum across a surface occurs in two ways, firstly by the carriage of moving matter through the surface, and secondly by the force acting between the matter on one side of the surface and the matter on the other side.

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  • The transfer of angular momentum through A is of two kinds - first, that due to the passage of rotating matter, and, secondly, that due to the couple with which matter to the right of A acts upon matter to the left of A.

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  • To understand clearly his career as a public man, and to appreciate the forces at work which caused both the popularity and the enmity, two facts must be kept distinctly in mind: first, that at twenty-two years of age he deliberately decided to make politics his life-work at a time when in the United States the word "politics" had a sinister sound in the ears of almost all of the so-called cultivated classes; and secondly, that in making this deliberate choice he recognized that the government of the United States is primarily a party government.

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  • Secondly, John George himself had concluded a similar treaty with Julius Francis in 1671.

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  • Secondly, it means that the actual development of ecclesiastical doctrine began, not from the Apostolic consciousness itself, but from a far lower level, that of the inadequate consciousness of the subapostolic Church, even when face to face with their written words.

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  • The funeral in London on the 1st and 2nd of February, including first the passage of the coffin from the Isle of Wight to Gosport between lines of warships, and secondly a military procession from London to Windsor, was a memorable solemnity: the greatest of English sovereigns, whose name would in history mark an age, had gone to her rest.

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  • Their presence is largely the result, firstly of a colonization which was favoured by the Bohemian kings and princes of the 12th and 13th centuries, and secondly of a policy of Germanization pursued by the Habsburg rulers from the date of the battle of the White Mountain in 1620 (when the Czechs lost their independence) up till the very close of the World War.

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  • These are formed each from the preceding ones; thus, to form the partitions of 6 we take first 6; secondly, 5 prefixed to each of the partitions of 1 (that is, 51); thirdly, 4 prefixed to each of the partitions of 2 (that is, 42, 411); fourthly, 3 prefixed to each of the partitions of 3 (that is, 321, 3111); fifthly, 2 prefixed, not to each of the partitions of 4, but only to those partitions which begin with a number not exceeding 2 (that is, 222, 2211, 21111); and lastly, 1 prefixed to all the partitions of 5 which begin with a number not exceeding 1 (that is, 11111 I); and so in other cases.

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  • 47, and, secondly, that between their commencement and the end of the two years' imprisonment at Caesarea not less than eleven full years must have elapsed.

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  • 1854), daughter of George Junkin, president of Washington College, Virginia, and secondly in 1857 to Mary Anna Morrison, daughter of a North Carolina clergyman.

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  • 1839), and secondly in 1846 to Katherine Mary Barter (d.

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  • Secondly, it is founded on scepticism; for it has neither interest in, nor reliance upon, empirical knowledge.

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  • Next in order come manufactures; then wholesale trade - first the home trade, secondly the foreign trade of consumption, last the carrying trade.

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  • By his second wife Walsingham had a daughter who married firstly Sir Philip Sidney, secondly Robert Devereux, second earl of Essex, and thirdly Richard de Burgh, earl of Clanricarde.

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  • And,, secondly, with a laborious zeal then less common than now among, n 2 (I - K 2) = 2 n 2 = n 2 = I historians, he sought to bring to light fresh historical material by patient search for letters, diaries and other manuscripts of value which had escaped the notice of previous students.

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  • The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.

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  • The Acts of Thomas, secondly, ch.

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  • The superintendent of the Ninth Census, 1870, presented a computation 01 the effects of this causefirst, through direct losses, by wounds or disease, either in actual service of the army or navy, or in a brief term following discharge; secondly, through the retardation of the rate of increase in the colored element, due to the privations, exposures and excesses attendant upon emancipation; thirdly, through the check given to immigration by the existence of war, the fear of conscription, and the apprehension abroad of results prejudicial to the national welfare.

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  • And secondly, whereas in earlier days the constitutions were seldom changed, they are now frequently recast or amended.

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  • These three are: first, to influence governmental~ policy; secondly, to form opinion; and thirdly, to win elections.

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  • Besides these works he wrote A Letter to Mr Dodwell, arguing that it is conceivable that the soul may be material, and, secondly, that if the soul be immaterial it does not follow, as Clarke had contended, that it is immortal; Vindication of the Divine Attributes (1710); Priestcraft in Perfection (1709), in which he asserts that the clause "the Church.

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  • In the first place, there were in early days far more bishops in proportion to the number of believers than is the custom now; and, secondly, it was the rule (except in cases of emergency) to baptize only in the season from Easter to Pentecost, and the bishop was always present and laid his hands on the newly baptized.

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  • Secondly, since different scribes are prone to different kinds of error, we must ever bear in mind the particular failings of the scribes responsible for the transmission of our text as these failings are revealed in the apparatus criticus.

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  • The philosophy of Plato is dialogue trying to become science; that of Aristotle science retaining traces of dialectic. Secondly as regards subjectmatter, even in his early writings Aristotle tends to widen the scope of philosophic inquiry, so as not only to embrace metaphysics and politics, but also to encourage rhetoric and poetics, which Plato tended to discourage or limit.

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  • Secondly, in the same dialogue (Fragm.

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  • 673); and secondly, in the Hymn in memory of Hermias, beginning " Virtue, difficult to the human race, noblest pursuit in life " (ib.

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  • Secondly, the Eudemian Ethics, while not agreeing with Plato's Republic that the just can be happy by justice alone, does not assign to the external goods of good fortune (Eutu X ia) the prominence accorded to them in the Nicomachean Ethics as the necessary conditions of all virtue, and the instruments of moral virtue.

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  • Secondly, some modern commentators, starting from the false conclusion that the definition of pleasure as activity (E.N.

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  • We have therefore to ask, first who was the author, and secondly what is the relation of the Rhetoric to Alexander to the Rhetoric, which nowadays alone passes for genuine.

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  • Secondly, the traditional order, which for nearly 2000 years has descended from the edition of Andronicus to the Berlin edition, is satisfactory in details, but unsatisfactory in system.

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  • Secondly, he made no division of logic. In the Categories he distinguished names and propositions for the sake of the classification of names; in the De Interpretatione he distinguished nouns and verbs from sentences with a view to the enunciative sentence: in the Analytics he analysed the syllogism into premisses and premisses into terms and copula, for the purpose of syllogism.

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  • In The Arrangement Of The Civil Year, Two Objects Are Sought To Be Accomplished, First, The Equable Distribution Of The Days Among Twelve Months; And Secondly, The Preservation Of The Beginning Of The Year At The Same Distance From The Solstices Or Equinoxes.

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  • The alimentary tube consists of three regions: firstly, the anterior buccal mass with the oesophagus, of ectodermic origin, and therefore bearing cuticular structures, namely the jaws and radula; secondly, the mid-gut, of endodermic origin and including the stomach and liver; and, thirdly, the hind-gut or intestine.

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  • Federigo much strengthened his position, first by his own marriage with Battista, one of the powerful Sforza family, and secondly by marrying his daughter to Giovanni della Rovere, the favourite nephew of Pope Sixtus IV., who in return conferred upon Federigo the title of duke.

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  • The name Hanover (Hohenufer = high bank), originally confined to the town which became the capital of the duchy of Luneburg-Calenberg, came gradually into use to designate, first, the duchy itself, and secondly, the electorate of Brunswick-Luneburg; and it was officially recognized as the name of the state when in 1814 the electorate was raised to the rank of a kingdom.

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  • Secondly, in case of serious disagreement, diplomacy having failed, they agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly powers.

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  • The old town has a threefold interest: first as a very ancient seat of Jain worship; secondly for its example of palace architecture of the best Hindu period (1486-1516); and thirdly as an historic fortress.

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  • The characteristics of Pappus's Collection are that it contains an account, systematically arranged, of the most important results obtained by his predecessors, and, secondly, notes explanatory of, or extending, previous discoveries.

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  • At the same time he admits, firstly, that to mark the barrier between unconscious and conscious is difficult; secondly, that it is impossible to trace the first beginning of consciousness in the lower animals; and, thirdly, that " however certain we are of the fact of this natural evolution of consciousness, we are, unfortunately, not yet in a position to enter more deeply into the question " (Riddle of the Universe, 191).

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  • He supposes that evolution is primarily integration, from the incoherent to the coherent, exemplified in the solar nebula evolving into the solar system; secondly differentiation, from the more homogeneous to the more heterogeneous, exemplified by the solar system evolving into different bodies; thirdly determination, from the indefinite to the definite, exemplified by the solar system with different bodies evolving into an order.

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  • Secondly, he accepted the Leibnitzian hypothesis of immaterial elements without accepting their self-action.

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  • It retains some relics of Fechner's influence; first, the theory of identity, according to which the difference between the physical and psychical is not a dualism, but everything is at once both; and secondly, the substitution of mathematical dependence for physical causality, except that, whereas Fechner only denied causality between physical and psychical, Mach rejects the entire distinction between causality and dependence, on the ground that " the law of causality simply asserts that the phenomena of Nature are dependent on one another."

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  • Secondly, his theory of inference contains the admission that we infer beyond sensations: he remarks that the space of the geometer is beyond space-sensations, and the time of the physicist does not coincide with time-sensations, because it uses measurements such as the rotation of the earth and the vibrations of the pendulum.

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  • Secondly, when Wundt comes to the psychical, he naturally infers from his narrow Kantian definition of substance that there is no proof of a substrate over and above all mental operations, and falsely thinks that he has proved that there is no substance mentally operating in the Aristotelian sense.

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  • Thus, according to him, in the first place reason forms a cosmological " ideal " of a multitude of simple units related; secondly, it forms a psychological " ideal " of a multitude of wills, or substance-generating activities, which communicate with one another by ideas so that will causes ideas in will, while together they constitute a collective will, and it goes on to form the moral ideal of humanity (das sittliche Menschheitsideal); and, thirdly, it forms an ontological " ideal " of God as ground of this moral " ideal," and therewith of all being as means to this end, and an " ideal " of God as world-will, of which the world is development, and in which individual wills participate each in its sphere.

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  • He supposes first, that we falsely conclude from the sun being independent of each to being independent of all; secondly, that by " introjection " we falsely conclude that another's experience is in him and therefore one's own in oneself, while the sun remains outside; and thirdly, that by " reification " of abstractions, natural science having abstracted the object and psychology the subject, each falsely believes that its own abstract, the sun or the subject, is an independent thing.

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  • Secondly, there are so-called " subjective sensations," without any external object as stimulus, most commonly in vision, but also in touch, which is liable to formication, or the feeling of creeping in the skin, and to horripilation, or the feeling of bristling in the hair; yet, even in " subjective sensations," we perceive something sensible, which, however, must be within, and not outside, the organism.

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  • Secondly, though causality requires alternatives in the material cause, e.g.

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  • Secondly, there is the so-called " Vallum," in reality no vallum at all, but a broad flat-bottomed ditch out of which the earth has been cast up on either side into g Bremen (Rochester) ijffabilasrciu.n

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  • Secondly, it is certain that the old navigators only coasted it along, which I impute to their want of this instrument to guide and instruct them in the middle of the ocean..

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  • His object was twofold: first, to obtain the control of the great German rivers the Elbe and the Weser, as a means of securing his dominion of the northern seas; and secondly, to acquire the secularized German bishoprics of Bremen and Werden as appanages for his younger sons.

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  • Hence Du Cange divides the medieval nobility of France and Spain into three classes: first, barons or ricos hombres; secondly, chevaliers or caballeros; and thirdly, ecuyers or infanzons; and to the first, who with their several special titles constituted the greater nobility of either country, he limits the designation of banneret and the right of leading their followers to war under a banner, otherwise a " drapeau quarre " or square flag.

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  • It remains to be seen how knowledge can be explained on such a basis; but, before proceeding to sketch Hume's answer to this question, it is necessary to draw attention, first, to the peculiar device invariably resorted to by him when any exception to his general principle that ideas are secondary copies of impressions presents itself, and, secondly, to the nature of the substitute offered by him for that perception of relations or synthesis which even in Locke's confused statements had appeared as the essence of cognition.

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  • It is almost superfluous to remark, first, that Hume here deliberately gives up his fundamental principle that ideas are but the fainter copies of impressions, for it can never be maintained that order of disposition is an impression, and, secondly, that he fails to offer any explanation of the mode in which coexistence and succession are possible elements, of cognition in a conscious experience made up of isolated presentations and representations.

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  • We are therefore to understand, first, that he wrote the earliest draft of his political theory some years before the outbreak of the Civil War, and, secondly, that this earliest draft was not written till, in accordance with his philosophical conception, he had established the grounds of polity in human nature.

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  • Two positions on which he repeatedly insisted have taken a firm hold - first, that it is of the essence of a church to be comprehensive of various views and tendencies, and that a national church especially should seek to represent all the elements of the life of the nation; secondly, that subscription to a creed can bind no one to all its details, but only to the sum and substance, or the spirit, of the symbol.

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  • Parliament was dissolved in the summer, and Taaffe, by private negotiations, first of all persuaded the Bohemian feudal proprietors to give the Feudalists, who had long been excluded, a certain number of seats; secondly, he succeeded where Potocki had failed, and came to an agreement with the Czechs; they had already, in 1878, taken their seats in the diet at Prague, and now gave up the policy of " passive resistance," and consented to take their seats also in the parliament at Vienna.

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  • It will be convenient to state first the law as regards foreigners, and secondly the law which concerns Egyptians.

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  • The Bedouins, or the Arabs of the desert, are of two different classes: first, Arabic-speaking tribes who range the deserts as far south as 26 N.; secondly, the tribes inhabiting the desert from Kosseir to Suakin, namely the Hadendoa, Bisharin and the Ababda tribes.

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  • demotic), secondly the hieratic employed by the sacred scribes, and finally the hieroevil, worthless- glyphic (Strom.

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  • These are easily calculated on the assumption first that the observations were correctly made, secondly that the calendrical dates are in the year of 365 days beginning on.

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  • B&~ing At that moment the situation was singularly like that appointed which had existed on two previous occasions: firstly, consulwhen Ismail was deposed; and secondly, when the Dual Control had undermined the existing authority without having any power to enforce its own.

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  • Secondly, it contains no polemic against Christianity, to the doctrines of which, in fact, there is no allusion.

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  • As regards the jus vetus, therefore, the judges and practitioners of Justinian's time had two terrible difficulties to contend with - first, the bulk of the law, which made it impossible for any one to be sure that he possessed anything like the whole of the authorities bearing on the point in question, so that he was always liable to find his opponent quoting against him some authority for which he could not be prepared; and, secondly, the uncertainty of the law, there being a great many important points on which differing opinions of equal legal validity might be cited, so that the practising counsel could not advise, nor the judge decide, with any confidence that he was right, or that a superior court would uphold his view.

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  • But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.

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  • The excessive size of the properties may to some extent be accounted for by the fact that most of the surface is so mountainous and unproductive as to be unsuitable for division into smaller estates, but two other causes have also co-operated, namely, first, the wide territorial authority of such Lowland families as the Scotts and Douglases, and such Highland clans as the Campbells of Argyll and Breadalbane, and the Murrays of Athol and the duke of Sutherland; and secondly, the stricter law of entail introduced in 1685.

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  • Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."

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  • Secondly, the scent of the hare is weaker than that of any other animal we hunt, and, unlike some, it is always the worse the nearer she is to her end."

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  • Finally, in 1850, in an article published in the Edinburgh Review in defence of the " Gorham judgment" he asserted two principles which he maintained to the end of his life - first, " that the so-called supremacy of the Crown in religious matters was in reality nothing else than the supremacy of law," and, secondly, "that the Church of England, by the very condition of its being, was not High or Low, but Broad, and had always included and been meant to include, opposite and contradictory opinions on points even more important than those at present under discussion."

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  • His History is a gigantic unfinished introduction, of which the plan was, first to state the general principles of the author's method and the general laws which govern the course of human progress; and secondly, to exemplify these principles and laws through the histories of certain nations characterized by prominent and peculiar features, - Spain and Scotland, the United States and Germany.

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