The interval of secession was perhaps the happiest in his life.
He repudiated the doctrine of secession, and pleaded for compromise and conciliation.
On the 10th of January 1861 an ordinance of secession, which declared Florida to be a " sovereign and independent nation," was adopted by a state convention, and Florida became one of the Confederate States of America.
Newman's secession in 1845 placed Manning in a position of greater responsibility, as one of the High Church leaders, along with Pusey and Keble and Marriott; but it was with Gladstone and James Hope (afterwards Hope-Scott) that he was at this time most closely associated.
For an account of the Virginia convention of 1861, which adopted the Ordinance of Secession, see Virginia.
See his Memoirs; with Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War (New York, 1906), edited by W.
In 1865 President Johnson appointed as provisional governor William Lewis Sharkey (1797-1873), who had been chief justice of the state in 1832-1850, and a convention which assembled on the 14th of August recognized the "destruction" of slavery and declared the ordinance of secession null and void.
The secession of the blacks from the white churches was aided and encouraged by the bureau.
But for the tactics of Rattazzi, leader of the Left, who, by basing his opposition on party considerations, impeded the secession of Minghetti and a part of the Right from the ministerial majority, Sella would have been defeated.
An early secession from the general body of Dunkers was that of the Seventh Day Dunkers, whose distinctive principle was that the seventh day was the true Sabbath.
The " Second Wheeling Convention" met according to agreement (11th June), and declared that, since the Secession Convention had been called without the consent of the people, all its acts were void, and that all who adhered to it had vacated their offices.
At the same time he practically told the Senate that the South would secede in the event of the election of a radical Republican to the presidency; and on the 10th of January 1861, not long after the election of Lincoln, he argued before that body the constitutional right of secession and declared that the treatment of the South had become such that it could no longer remain in the Union without being degraded.
By an ordinance of secession passed on the 26th of January 1861, Louisiana joined the Confederate States.
An ordinance of secession was adopted February 1, 1861, and Governor Houston was deposed from office on March 16th.
CHRISTIAN CONNECTION, a denomination of Christians in North America formed by secession, under James O'Kelly (1735-1826), of members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in North Carolina in 1793.
In the election of 1860 he voted for the fusion ticket in New York which was opposed to Abraham Lincoln, but he could not approve of President Buchanan's course in dealing with secession, and later supported Lincoln.
Before the Georgia legislature in November 1860, and again in that state's secession convention in January 1861, he strongly opposed secession, but when Georgia seceded he "followed his state," assisted in forming the new government, and was elected vice-president of the Confederate States.
On the secession of 1843 he was offered many different parishes, and having finally settled at Dalkeith, devoted himself to parish work and to questions affecting the Church as a whole.
The indolent Ionians had seen the result of secession at Naxos and rebellion at Thasos; the Athenian fleet was perpetually on guard in the Aegean.
The enslavement of creditors, overwhelmed with usury in consequence of losses by hostile raids or their own absence on military service, led to the secession to the Mons Sacer (493 B.C.).
Aaron Burr was tried for treason and then for misdemeanour in this building in 1807, the Virginia secession convention met here in 1861, and during the Civil War the sessions of the Confederate Congress were held here.
headed the first secession of the Welsh Marchers from the party of the opposition (1263), and was amongst the captives whom the Montfortians took at Lewes.
In the campaign he held, in opposition to the wishes of the more radical members of his party, that although secession might be resorted to as a last alternative the circumstances were not yet such as to justify it.
Between 1918 and 1921 about 1,000,000 persons left the Roman Church, the most conspicuous secession being that which resulted in the formation of a national " Czechoslovak Church."
This was the commencement of the excommunication or secession of the Montanists in Asia Minor.
North Carolina has been governed under the charters of 1663 and 1665 (1663-1729), under commissions and instructions from the crown (1729-1776), and under the state constitutions of the 18th of December 1776 (amended in 1835, in 1856, and in the Secession Convention of 1861) and of April 1868 (amended in 1872-1873, 1875, 2 1819 i 1888 and 1899).
In 1861 he was a member of the Texas secession convention, served in the Confederate provisional Congress, and on the 6th of March was appointed postmaster-general in President Davis's cabinet.
This question was settled after 1662 by the secession of the Nonconformist clergy, and no more was heard of the matter until the "Oxford movement" in the 10th century.
Immediately after South Carolina's secession, Blair, believing that the southern leaders were planning to carry Missouri into the movement, began active efforts to prevent it and personally organized and equipped a secret body of l000 men to be ready for the emergency.
The first step in clarifying the situation is to come to a full realization that the medieval Church was essentially an international state, and that the character of the Protestant secession from it was largely determined by this fact.
Hunter did not regard Lincoln's election as being of itself a sufficient cause for secession, and on the 11th of January 1861 he proposed an elaborate but impracticable scheme for the adjustment of differences between the North and the South, but when this and several other efforts to the same end had failed he quietly urged his own state to pass the ordinance of secession.
He fought against the threatening secession of Virginia, but acquiesced in the decision of the state and became presiding bishop of the Southern Church.
In 1847 the synod of the Free Presbyterian Church was formed by the anti-slavery secession of the presbytery of Ripley, O.
Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), which at the beginning of the 19th century, at the time of the Continental blockade, and again during the American War of Secession, was largely cultivated, is now grown only in parts of Sicily and in a few southern provinces.
In concert with his friend Bunsen he laboured to bring about a rapprochement between the Lutheran and Anglican churches, the first-fruits of which was the establishment of the Jerusalem bishopric under the joint patronage of Great Britain and Prussia; but the only result of his efforts was to precipitate the secession of J.
From 1871 to 1873 he edited the Atlanta Daily Sun, and he published A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States (2 vols., 1868-1870), perhaps the best statement of the southern position with reference to state sovereignty and secession; The Reviewers Reviewed (1872), a supplement to the preceding work; and A Compendium of the History of the United States (1875; new ed., 1883).
When his state had passed the ordinance of secession he resigned his seat, and his speech on the 21st of January was a clear and able statement of the position taken by his state, and a most pathetic farewell to his associates.
In 1552 they were further weakened by a large secession known as "the Chaldeans" arising out of a dispute about the succession to the patriarchate.
At the secession of the northern kingdom under Jeroboam, Bethel became a royal residence and a national shrine (i Kings xii.
The alliance of England and the Scottish Protestants against the French, and the common secession from the papal monarchy, was in a sense the foundation and beginning of Great Britain.
The effects of the Protestant secession on the doctrines, organization and practices of the Roman Catholic Church are difficult to estimate, still more so to substantiate.
When it refused to discuss points of doctrine a secession took place under the name of the Union des eglises evangeliques de France.
He believed that the Union could be saved without a war, and that a policy of delay would prevent the secession of the border states, which in turn would gradually coax their more southern neighbours back into their proper relations with the Federal government.
The old state capitol, dating from 1839, is of considerable interest; in it were held the secession convention (1861), the "Black and Tan Convention" (1868), and the constitutional convention of 1890, and in it Jefferson Davis made his last speech (1884).
In 1840 the Synod of Ulster and the Secession Synod united to form the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
As viceprincipal of the theological college at Cuddesdon (1854-1859) he wielded considerable influence, and, on returning to Oxford as vice-principal of St Edmund's Hall, became a growing force among the undergraduates, exercising his influence in strong opposition to the liberal reaction against Tractarianism, which had set in after Newman's secession in 1845.
The remainder of his life may be divided into four portions - his opposition to Pitt during the session of 1784; his parliamentary activity till his secession in 1797; his retirement till 1800; his return to activity and his short tenure of office before his death in 1806.
He strongly advocated the secession of the southern states; signed the South Carolina ordinance of secession; protested against Major Robert Anderson's removal from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter; sanctioned the firing upon the "Star of the West" (Jan.
Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable the immediate abolition of the grist tax, and to frame a bill for the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar to that which he himself had formerly undertaken against the Right.
He resigned in 1851, but was again elected in 1857, and continued as a member from that year until the secession of his state in 1861.
He entered the Presbyterian Secession Hall in 1840, and in 1843 wrote an article in the Secession Magazine on the Free Church movement, which aroused the interest of Thomas Chalmers.
In conformity with President Johnson's plan of reconstruction, a constitution recognizing the abolition of slavery, renouncing the right of secession, and repudiating the war debt was adopted in 1864, and J.
In May 1860 he was appointed instructor of cavalry at West Point, but resigned on the secession of Virginia.
He was the only Southern member of Congress who opposed secession and refused to " go with his state " when it withdrew from the Union in 1861.
United Secession (afterwards United Presbyterian) Foreign Missions.
Assertions of the right and necessity of secession were frequent from the beginning; separatist conspiracies were rife in the West until 1812; various leaders in New England made threats of secession in1790-1796and 1800-18r5 - especially in 1803 on account of the purchase of Louisiana, in 1811 on account of the proposed admission of Louisiana as a state, and during the troubles ending in the War of 1812.
These being refused, he appealed to the people, started an order of his own, and gained over 500 of the Buddha's community to join in the secession.
The call issued by the South Carolina legislature just after the election of Lincoln for a state convention to decide upon the advisability of secession brought forward the most serious question of Buchanan's administration.
Having taken the arts curriculum at Glasgow University, he studied for the ministry at the Divinity Hall of the Secession Church, a dissenting body which, on its union a few years later with the Relief Church, adopted the title United Presbyterian.
In 1835 he became minister of the Cambridge Street Secession church in Glasgow, and for many years he was generally regarded as the leading representative of his denomination in Glasgow.
The oldest secession from the Orthodox Church is that of the Remonstrants, who still represent the most liberal thought in the country, and have their own training college at Leiden.
Though her secession, therefore, meant very little loss of strength, there were not wanting signs that the league was not destined to remain a power in the land.
These state laws were one of the grievances officially referred to by South Carolina (in Dec. 1860) as justifying her secession from the Union.
The league was further weakened by the secession of Corcyra, and by 355 was reduced to Athens, Euboea and a few islands.
Although it was a slave state, the majority of the people of Delaware opposed secession in 1861, and the legislature promptly answered President Lincoln's call to arms; yet, while 14,000 of the 40,000 males between the ages of fourteen and sixty served in the Union army, there were many sympathizers with the Confederacy in the southern part of the state.
the Reformed Presbyterian Church, with thirty-six; the Eastern Reformed, with six; and the Secession.
There was a brief reaction: Henry Stuart Foote (1800-1880), Unionist, was elected governor in 1851 over Davis, the States' Rights candidate, and in the same year a Constitutional Convention had declared almost unanimously that "the asserted right of secession".
A constitution of 1868 gave suffrage to the blacks, and disfranchised all whites made ineligible to office under the proposed Fourteenth Amendment to the national Constitution, and also (practically) those who had by word, pen or vote defended secession.
On the 10th of January 1861 a state convention adopted at Tallahassee an Ordinance of Secession.
Fox in his temporary secession.
The General Council, a secession from the General Synod, was organized in 1867, and accepts the "unaltered" (invariata) Augsburg Confession in its original sense, and the other Lutheran symbols as explanatory of the Augsburg Confession.
In 495 he was consul, and his cruel enforcement of the laws of debtor and creditor, in opposition to his milder colleague, P. Servilius Priscus, was one of the chief causes of the "secession" of the plebs to the Sacred Mount.
He strongly opposed secession, but finally voted for the Virginia ordinance, was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate army and served throughout the war.
In 1861 Maryland as a whole was opposed to secession but also opposed to coercing the seceded states.
The loss of revenue consequent upon the secession of Lithuania placed John Albert at the mercy of the Polish Sejmiki or local diets, where the szlachta, or country gentry, made their subsidies dependent upon the king's subservience.
The "resumption" by the seceding states of the coast defences (built on land ceded by the various states to the Federal government, and, it was argued, withdrawn therefore by the act of secession) brought on the war.
P. Blair, and of Nathaniel Lyon, the Unionist military commander, prevailed over the party of secession.
This part of the state, strongly Unionist, had striven to prevent secession, and soon became itself a state of the Union (1863).
about 332 B.C. It is possible that he is correct in placing the building of the temple at the later date, but probably he errs in connecting it with the secession of Manasseh, which, according to Nehemiah, occurred a century earlier; it has been suggested that he has confused Darius Codomannus with his predecessor, Darius Nothus.
The aristocratic influences in both states have always been on the Southern and Democratic side, but while they were strong enough in Virginia to lead the state into secession they were unable to do so in Kentucky., 1 Most of the early settlers of Kentucky made their way thither either by the Ohio river (from Fort Pitt) or - the far larger number - by way of the Cumberland Gap and the " ` Wilderness Road."
This body, composed mostly of Kentucky men who had joined the Confederate army, passed an ordinance of secession, elected state officers, and sent commissioners to the Confederate Congress, which body voted on the 9th of December to admit Kentucky into the Confederacy.
No proper statistical basis for estimating the quotas existed, and the device gave each state a plausible reason for attempting secession on occasion.
On the 12th of December 1859 the M`Lean-Juarez treaty was concluded, which gave the United States a sort of disguised protectorate over Mexico, with certain rights of way for railroads over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and between the Rio Grande and Pacific. The American Senate, however, did not ratify the treaty, and a motion for its reconsideration late in 1860 came to nothing, owing to the approach of the War of Secession.
During the War of Secession, when each governor was responsible for organizing troops from his state, much turned upon his energy, popularity and loyalty.
The second cause is the Civil War of 186f65, which practically negatived the far-reaching claims of state sovereignty and the right of secession made by statesmen of the type of Calhoun, and showed that the nation was really much stronger than any group of states.
True to his free trade principles he and a number of followers left the National Liberal party and formed the so-called " Secession "in 1880.
His most important works are those on the currency, on the French war-indemnity, his criticism of socialism and his apology for the Secession.
This caused a disagreement between Alabama and the United States authorities; although it was amicably settled, it engendered a feeling that the pulicy of the national government might not be in harmony wD.h the interests of the state - a feeling which, intensified by the slavery agitation, did much to cause secession in 1861.
The State's Rights party, joined by many Democrats, founded the Southern Rights party, which demanded the repeal of the Compromise, advocated resistance to future encroachments and prepared for secession, while the Whigs, joined by the remaining Democrats, formed the party known as the "Unionists," which unwillingly accepted the Compromise and denied the "constitutional" right of secession.
After long debate this convention adopted on the i 1 th of January an ordinance of secession, and Alabama became one of the Confederate states of America, whose government was organized at Montgomery on the 4th of February 1861.
Yet secession was opposed by many prominent men, and in North Alabama an attempt was made to organize a neutral state to be called Nickajack; but with President Lincoln's call to arms all opposition to secession ended.
According to the presidential plan of reorganization, a provisional governor for Alabama was appointed in June 1865; a state convention met in September of the same year, and declared the ordinance of secession null and void and slavery abolished; a legislature and a governor were elected in November, the legislature was at once recognized by the National government, and the inauguration of the governor-elect was permitted after the legislature had, in December, ratified the thirteenth amendment.
Popular opinion at first opposed the Compromise of 1850, and some politicians demanded immediate secession from the Union; and the legislature had approved the Alabama Platform of 1848.
The Kansas question and the attitude of the North toward the decision in the Dred Scott case were arousing the South when he was inaugurated the first time, and in his inaugural address he clearly indicated that he would favour secession in the event of any further encroachment on the part of the North.
On the 7th of November following the election of President Lincoln the governor, in a special message to the legislature, recommended the calling of a convention to decide the question of secession, and Alexander H.
On the 19th this body passed an ordinance of secession by a vote of 208 to 89.
In accord with President Andrew Johnson's plan for reorganizing the Southern States, a provisional governor, James Johnson, was appointed on the 17th of June 1865, and a state convention reformed the constitution to meet the new conditions, rescinding the ordinance of secession, abolishing slavery and formally repudiating the state debt incurred in the prosecution of the war.
A lifelong Southern Democrat, he was forced to lead (nominally at least) a party of Northern Republicans, with whom he had no bond of sympathy save a common opposition to secession; and his ardent, aggressive convictions and character, above all his complete lack of tact, unfitted him to deal successfully with the passionate partisanship of Congress.
But the last named were just the most important; in fact the only ones which counted at all, since the monophysite secession had reduced the number of the orthodox in Syria and Egypt practically to nothing.
Protestantism was successfully eradicated in Italy; but the pope failed to prevent the secession of England.
He favoured immediatism, but he differed sharply from the Garrisonian abolitionists, who abhorred the federal Constitution and favoured secession.
In December 1860, when South Carolina adopted its ordinance of secession, Tyler, though sympathizing with the state, took': firm ground against disunion and exerted himself in behalf of peace.
In the convention he advocated immediate secession as the only proper course under the circumstances.
The original Secession church - the kirk of the Auld Lichts - was founded in 1806 and rebuilt in 1893.
ADAM GIB (1714-1788), Scottish divine and leader of the Antiburgher section of the Scottish Secession Church, was born on the 14th of April 1714 in the parish of Muckhart, Perthshire, and, on the completion of his literary and theological studies at Edinburgh and Perth, was licensed as a preacher in 1740.
In 1741 he was ordained minister of the large Secession congregation of Bristo Street, Edinburgh.
In 1765 he made a vigorous and able reply to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which had stigmatized the Secession as "threatening the peace of the country."
Principal publications: Tables for the Four Evangelists (1770, and with author's name, 1800); The Present Truth, a Display of the Secession Testimony (2 vols., 1 774); Vindiciae dominicae (Edin., 1780).
A conservative secession "on account of Hopkinsian errors" in 1822 of six ministers (five then under suspension) organized a General Synod and the classes of Hackensack and Union (central New York) in 1824; it united with the Christian Reformed Church, established by immigrants from Holland after 1835, to which there was added a fresh American secession in 1882 due to opposition (on the part of the seceders) to secret societies.
The Christian Reformed Church, an "old school" secession, had in 1906, 174 organizations, 181 churches and a membership of 26,669, I In 1832 the articles of Church government were rearranged and in 1872-74 they were amended.
of which more than one-half (14.,779) was in Michigan, where many of the immigrants who came after 1835 belonged to the secession church in Holland.
WILLIAM BRUCE ROBERTSON (1820-1886), Scottish divine, was born at Greenhill, St Ninians, Stirlingshire, on the 24th of May 1820, and was educated at Glasgow University and at the Secession Theological Hall, Edinburgh, where he made the acquaintance of Thomas de Quincey, and on his recommendation went to Halle and studied under Tholuck.
After travelling in Italy and Switzerland he was licensed to preach by the presbytery of Stirling and Falkirk in 1843, and was soon after ordained at the Secession (after 1847, the United Presbyterian) Church in Irvine, Ayrshire.
SECESSION, a term used in political science to signify the withdrawal of a state from a confederacy or composite state, of which it had previously been a part; and the resumption of all powers formerly delegated by it to the federal government, and of its status as an independent state.
To secede is a sovereign right; secession, therefore, is based on the theory that the sovereignty of the individual states forming a confederacy or federal union has not been absorbed into a single new sovereignty.
Secession is a right claimed or exercised by weaker states of a union whose rights are threatened by the stronger states, which seldom acknowledge such a principle.
War generally follows the secession of a member of a union, and the seceding state, being weaker, is usually conquered and the union more firmly consolidated.
But secession in theory and practice is best exhibited in the history of the United States.
Most of the original states, and many of the later ones, at some period when rights were in jeopardy proclaimed that their sovereignty might be exercised in secession.
The right to secede was based, the secessionists claimed, upon the fact that each state was sovereign, becoming so by successful revolution against England; there had been no political connexion between the colonies; the treaty of 1783 recognized them "as free, sovereign and independent states"; this sovereignty was recognized in the Articles of Confederation, and not surrendered, they asserted, under the Constitution; the Union of 1787 was really formed by a secession from the Union of 1776-1787.
In1832-1833the "Union" party of South Carolina was composed of those who rejected nullification, holding to secession as the only remedy; and from 1830 to 1860 certain radical abolitionists advocated a division of the Union.
But as the North grew stronger and the South in comparison grew weaker, as slavery came to be more and more the dominant political issue, and as the South made demands concerning that "peculiar institution" to which the North was unwilling to accede, less was heard of secession in the North and more in the South.
Between 1845 and 1860 secession came to be generally accepted by the South as the only means of preserving her institutions from the interference of the North.
The first general movement toward secession was in 1850.
So, in the United States, secession along with state sovereignty is of the past.
ended with the secession of Virginia in the following month.
Of the Pietists of the second class one of the leaders was Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), born in Dillenburg, Nassau, whose system of class-meetings was the basis of a secession from which grew the United Brethren in Christ, commonly called the "New Reformed Church," organized in 1800.
He served as a Democrat in the National House of Representatives from December 18J9 to March 1861, and was re-elected for the succeeding term, but owing to the secession of Virginia did not take his seat.
On the 18th of April 1861, the day after Virginia passed her ordinance of secession, when a considerable force of Virginia militia under General Kenton Harper approached the town - an attack having been planned in Richmond two days before - the Federal garrison of 45 men under Lieutenant Roger Jones set fire to the arsenal and fled.
Most of the states claimed at one time or another that sovereignty was one of the reserved rights of the states and on this theory the Southern states acted in the secession in 1861.
Cicero pondered over the fact; Arcesilaus explained the secession to the Epicurean camp, compared with the fact that no Epicurean was ever known to have abandoned his school, by saying that, though it was possible for a man to be turned into a eunuch, no eunuch could ever become a man.
Lincoln's inaugural address declared the Union perpetual and acts of secession void, and announced the determinatiojl of the government to defend its authority, and to hold forts and places yet in its possession.
The citizens of Regensburg accepted their doctrines, which also made considerable progress in the Palatinate and in Austria, while the archbishop of Cologne, Hermann von Wied, and William, duke of Gelderland, Cleves and Juliers, announced their secession from the Roman religion.
The cultivation of cotton, which spread during the American War of Secession, is now rare, since it has not been able to withstand the competition of more favoured countries.
Soon after the secession movement began the Southern members of the cabinet resigned, and the president gradually came under the influence of Black, Stanton, Dix, and other Northern leaders.
He was a Liberal Democrat, and advised the calling of a constitutional convention as preferable to nullification or secession.
The Marrow men put in protests, and were clearly on the way to secession from the kirk.
The policy of Illinois in the early period of secession was one of marked loyalty to the Union; even in the S.
Stokes (1814-1890) of Chicago transferred a large amount of munitions of war from St Louis, where the secession sentiment was strong, to Alton.
In February 1861 he was a delegate to the Peace Conference in Washington; he opposed secession, but was loyal to his state when it seceded, and was one of its representatives in the Confederate Congress during the Civil War.
The ecclesiastical rivalries have left their mark in the Pentateuch and (the later) Chronicles, and the Samaritan secession appears to have coloured even the book of Kings.
A clause in the state constitution prohibited any justice of the Supreme Court from holding any other post save that of delegate to Congress on a "special occasion," but in November 1778 the legislature pronounced the secession of what is now the state of Vermont from the jurisdiction of New Hampshire and New York to be such an occasion, and sent Jay to Congress charged with the duty of securing a settlement of the territorial claims of his state.
Secession resolutions were defeated, and it was voted to submit to the people the question whether there should be " co-operation " through the Lincoln government, or " secession."
The convention reassembled on call of the governor, and on the 6th of May, with a single dissentient voice, passed an ordinance of secession.
It then repealed its former vote submitting the question of secession to the people.
But meanwhile, a convention of delegates chosen mainly at polls opened at the army posts, assembled in January 1864, abolished slavery, repudiated secession and the secession war debt, and revised in minor details the constitution of 1836, restricting the suffrage to whites.
Larkin (1802-1858), was instructed to work for the secession of California from Mexico, without overt aid from the United States, but with their good-will and sympathy.
There .was a secession from the Democratic party of conservatives who called themselves the National Democratic party, who were commonly called Gold Democrats, and who nominated John M.
The union of the Burgher and Anti-burgher sections of the Secession Church in 1820 was largely due to his exertions.
But these leaders restrained their followers sharply whenever the suggestion of secession was made, and the question of what was meant by arresting the course of Federal legislation was left in doubt.
Although the West was not pleased, the leaders of the slave-holding counties threatened secession.
In the national elections of 1860 Virginia returned a majority of unionist electors as against the secession candidates, Breckinridge and Lane, many of the large planters voting for the continuance of the Union, and many of the smaller slave-owners supporting the secessionists.
The majority of this body consisted of Unionists, but the Convention passed the ordinance of secession when the Federal government (April 17) called upon the state to supply its quota of armed men to suppress "insurrection" in the lower Southern states.
No other public event ever affected Keble so deeply as the secession of Newman to the Church of Rome in 1845.
In 1860, however, he ceased to be a Unionist, and became a leader of the secession movement.
As a remedy for such a breach of compact the state might resort to nullification, or, as a last resort, to secession from the Union.
Secession, he contended, was the only final remedy left to the weaker.
His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%.
By the new policy inaugurated by Dr William Robertson (1721-1793), which led to the second secession, the assembly compelled presbyteries to give effect to presentations, and in a long series of disputed settlements the " call," though still held essential to a settlement, was less and less regarded, until it was declared that it was not necessary, and that the church courts were bound to induct any qualified presentee.
The union of the Burgher and the Antiburgher bodies in 1820 in the United Secession - both having previously come to hold Voluntary principles - added to the influence of these principles in the country, while the political excitement of the period disposed men's minds to such discussions.
The original Secession Church has 5 presbyteries and 26 congregations; and the remnant of the Reformed Presbyterian Church which did not join the Free Church in 1876, 2 presbyteries and 11 congregations.
On the United Presbyterian Church see McKerrow, History of the United Secession Church (1841); Struthers, History of the Relief Church (1$43); McKelvie, Annals and Statistics of the United Presbyterian Church (1873).
Thus between the year 1811 (the date of the Methodist secession) and 1832 (the year of the great Reform Bill), the number of dissenting chapels had risen from 945 to 1428: a truly marvellous increase even allowing for the speedy growth of population, since every chapel so built had of necessity to be well attended in order to render it self-supporting.
In December 1860 he retired from the cabinet when the president refused to take a firmer attitude against secession by reinforcing Fort Sumter, and he remained in retirement until his death at Detroit, Michigan, on the 17th of June 1866.
The Secession Ordinance of Louisiana was passed on the 26th of January 1861 by a convention that met at Baton Rouge.
The curious Chapman (or Asbury Harpending) case of 1863 was a Confederate scheme involving piracy on Federal vessels in the Pacific and an effort to gain the secession of the state.
A few years after the establishment of the "Abode of Love," a peculiarly gross scandal, in which Prince and one of his female followers were involved, led to the secession of some of his most faithful friends, who were unable any longer to endure what they regarded as the amazing mixture of blasphemy and immorality offered for their acceptance.
But the secession of the greater part of his church to Monophysitism [[[Coptic Church]]], and the Mahommedan conquest of Egypt, have left him but the shadow of his former greatness; and at the present time he has only the bishop of Libya under him, and rules over some 20,000 people at the outside, most of whom are settlers from elsewhere.
Forschungen, ii.) has clearly shown that this is what has happened in his relation of the legal proceedings against the elder Africanus in book xxxviii.; and in the story of the first secession, as he tells it, the older version which represented it as due to political and the later which explained it by economical grievances are found side by side.
The secession to the Church of Rome of his brother-in-law, Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) Manning, and then of his brothers, as well as his only daughter and his son-in-law, Mr and Mrs J.
He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in1826-1827and 1828-1831, of the state Constitutional Convention of 1829, of the National House of Representatives (1837-1839), of the United States Senate from 1847 until July 1861 (when, with other Southern senators he was formally expelled - he had previously withdrawn), and of the Virginia Secession Convention in April 1861.
After Lincoln's election as President he was one of the strongest advocates of secession in Virginia.
In addition to these four constitutional conventions, mention should be made of the special body chosen in 1861 to decide the question of secession, which retained supreme though irregular control of the state during the Civil War, and some of whose acts had all the force of promulgated constitutional amendments.
Benton and others prepared a plan for educating the slaves and gradually emancipating them under state law; and undoubtedly a considerable party would have supported such a project, for the Whigs and Democrats were not then divided along party lines on the slavery issue; but nothing took organized form in 1849, when Senator Benton repudiated certain ultra pro-slavery instructions, breathing a secession spirit, passed by the General Assembly for the guidance of the representatives of the state in Congress.
Such secession, it was supposed, would carry the other border states out also.
The election showed that popular sentiment was overwhelmingly hostile to secession; and the convention, by a vote of 80 to 1, resolved (March 4, 1861) that Missouri had "no adequate cause" therefor.
The state convention, after voting against secession, had adjourned, and after various sessions was dissolved in October 1863.
In October 1861 a rump of the deposed Assembly passed an act of secession, which the Confederate States saw fit to regard as legitimate, and under which they admitted Missouri to their union by declaration of the 28th of November.
The boundary with Costa Rica was settled in 1900 by an award of the President of France, but the secession of Panama in 1903 gave Colombia another unsettled line on the north-west.
Territorial Divisions and Towns.-Previously to 1903 the republic was divided into nine departments, which were then reduced to eight by the secession of Panama.
In the autumn of that same year Colombia, exhausted and half ruined, was to suffer a further severe loss in the secession of Panama.
Perhaps the most influential of President Buchanan's official advisers, he denied the constitutionality of secession, and urged that Fort Sumter be properly reinforced and defended.
In 1741, on the invitation of Ralph and Ebenezer Erskine, he paid a visit to Scotland, commencing his labours in the Secession meeting-house, Dunfermline.
The Tractarian movement was ultimately terminated by the secession of Newman and many of his associates from the Church of England, and,their admission to the Church of Rome.
For the first time since their secession from Sir Robert Peel the Conservatives commanded more than three hundred votes in the House of Commons, but this increased strength was not sufficient to ensure them a majority.
James Guthrie (1612-1661), the martyr, and Ebenezer Erskine (1680-1794), founder of the Scottish Secession Church, were two of the most distinguished ministers.
Besides the New Abbey church, the United Free church in Queen Anne Street founded by Ralph Erskine, and the Gillespie church, named after Thomas Gillespie (1708-1774), another leader of the Secession movement, possess some historical importance.
It was the birthplace of Dr John Brown, author of Rab and his Friends, whose father was secession minister in the town.
The formation of a distinct Unitarian denomination dates from the secession (1 773) of Theophilus Lindsey (1723-1808) from the Anglican Church, on the failure of the Feathers petition to parliament (1772) for relief from subscription.
Lindsey's secession had been preceded in Ireland by that of William Robertson, D.
The only congregation of old foundation is at Edinburgh, founded in 1776 by a secession from one of the "fellowship societies" formed by James Fraser, of Brea (1639-1699).
Montgomery led a secession which formed (1830) the Remonstrant Synod, comprising three presbyteries.
After various remodellings, and amid much perturbation, secession, violent reproach, the Household Suffrage Bill passed in August 1867.
Though he had openly opposed secession before the election of Lincoln, his conduct after that event, especially after his breach with Buchanan, fell under suspicion, and he was accused of having sent large stores of government arms to Southern arsenals in anticipation of the Civil War.
In the last days of his term he apparently had such an intention, but during the year 1860 the Southern States actually received less than their full quota of arms. After the secession of Virginia he was commissioned a brigadier-general in the Confederate service.
When the war of secession broke out in 1861, he was "waiting orders" at Norfolk.
Accordingly, when in 1845 the civil power in the canton of Vaud interfered with the church's autonomy, he led a secession which took the name of L'Eglise libre.
Next day the secession of the Irish members from their chief began.
Her secession, on the 29th of December 1860, was followed by the formation of the Southern Confederacy, the bombardment of Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861) and the Civil War (1861-65).
The university of Leipzig, founded in 1409 by a secession of four hundred German students from Prague, is one of the most influential universities in the world.
On the outbreak of the Civil War, he denounced secession as criminal, and was one of the strongest advocates of maintaining the integrity of the Union at all hazards.
In September 1868 the squadron at Cadiz under the command of Admiral Topete mutinied, and its action was the signal for a I~evolution general secession.
METHODIST NEW CONNEXION, a Protestant Nonconformist Church, formed in 1797 by secession from the Wesleyan Methodists, and merged in 1907 into the United Methodist Church (q.v.).
The secession was led by Alexander Kilham, and resulted from a dispute regarding the position and rights of the laity, Kilham and his party desiring more power for the members of the Church and less for the ministers.
The vote of the state was given for Bell and Everett in 1860, and the people as a whole were opposed to secession.
The proposition to call a convention to vote on the question of secession was voted down on the 9th of February 1861, but after President Lincoln's call for troops the legislature submitted the question of secession directly to the people, and meanwhile, on the 7th of May 1861, entered into a " Military League " with the Confederacy.
An overwhelming vote was cast on the 8th of June in favour of secession, and on the 24th Governor I.
Tennessee was the first of the Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union (July 24, 1866), after ratifying the Constitution of the United States with amendments, declaring the ordinance of secession void, voting to abolish slavery, and declaring the war debt void.
Fertig, Secession and Reconstruction of Tennessee (Chicago, 1898); and the Report of JointCommittee on Reconstruction (U.S. Pub.
labor back benchers are preoccupied with the death throes of Tony Blair and the dynamics of succession, not the dynamics of Scottish secession.
All have been part of Mr. Basayev's declared goal to establish an Islamic caliphate, uniting the northern Caucasus in secession from Russia.
The threats are more to do with conflicts of secession or competing nationalisms.
In 1989, the Wiener Secession presented a retrospective of his works on paper.
secession of the slave states was truly immoral, than of what possible import was the legal right?
secession of Slovenia by force, but failed.
Is there such perfect identity of interests among the States to compose a new union as to produce harmony only and prevent renewed secession?
The nations of Scotland and Wales have the right of self-determination up to and including secession.
It is that the party advocates secession from Belgium and the establishment of a Republic of Flanders.
On joining the Free secession he was declared no longer a min. of this church 30th June 1843.
He saw the secession of the Methodist Episcopal Church South in 1844.
Far from opposing Slovene secession, Milosevic welcomed it.
The Scottish secession, among whom the movement began, were dissenters in relation to a Presbyterian establishment.
This was resisted and resented by congregations and caused the original secession in 1733.
His settlement gave rise to a large secession called by the name of Relief.
In 1920 he took part in the fall exhibition of the Viennese secession.
The Albanians there are winning the battle of the cradle and already there are increasingly vocal demands for self-determination and possible secession.
secession congregations went in to the Free church in 1852.
secession church building was taken down, a new church being built by October 1885.
secession movements from the Established Church.
These contradictory signals both gave the green light to Belgrade to reject secession and encouraged the secessionists to go ahead with their plans.
Seymour was a conservative on national issues and supported the administrations of Pierce and Buchanan; he advocated compromise to avoid secession in 1860-1861; but when war broke out he supported the maintenance of the Union.
A quarrel between the moderate and the more advanced sections of the Roman Catholic Committee led, in December 17 9 1, to the secession of sixty-eight of the former, led by Lord Kenmare; and the direction of the committee then passed to more violent leaders, of whom the most prominent was John Keogh, a Dublin tradesman.
AGRIPPA MENENIUS LANATUS, Roman patrician and statesman, consul 503 B.C. On the occasion of the first secession of the people to the Sacred Mount, Agrippa, who was known to be a man of moderate views, was one of the commissioners empowered by the senate to treat with the seceders.
It took up, too, the Democratic weapon of states' rights, and in New England carried sectionalism dangerously near secession in 1808, and in 1812-1814,during the movement, in opposition to the war of 1812, which culminated in the Hartford Convention (see Hartford).
An ordinance of secession was passed on the 9th of January 1861, and the constitution was soon amended to conform to the new constitution of the Confederate States.
More important in the history of the modern church was the secession, in the decade between 1880 and 1890,, of the Old Order Brethren, who opposed Sunday Schools and.
In 1829 he furthered the secession of Venezuela from the republic of Colombia, and he became its first president (1830-1834).
It helped to postpone secession and Civil War for a decade, during which time the North-West was growing more wealthy and more populous, and was being brought into closer relations with the North-East.
Moreover, whereas Persia had been for several years aiding Athens against Sparta, the revolt of the Athenian ally Evagoras of Cyprus set them at enmity, and with the secession of Ephesus, Cnidus and Samos in 391 and the civil war in Rhodes, the star of Sparta seemed again to be in the ascendant.
The adoption of this platform was accompanied by a party reorganization, those who approved it organizing the Constitutional Union party, and those who disapproved, mostly Democrats, organizing the Southern Rights party; the approval in other states of the Georgia Platform in preference to the Alabama Platform (see Alabama) caused a reaction in the South against secession.
There the great secession from Rome was brought about by Martin Luther; but, in spite of his striking personality, the upheaval which was destined to shatter the unity of the Western Church was not his undivided work.
The history of Europe furnishes several examples of secession or attempts to secede: in 1309 the Swiss cantons withdrew from the Empire and formed a confederacy from which, in 1843-1847, the Catholic cantons seceded and formed a new confederacy called the Sonderbund, which was crushed in the war that followed; in 1523 Sweden seceded from the Kalmarian Union formed in 1397 of Denmark, Sweden and Norway; and in 1814 Norway seceded and entered into a union with Sweden, from which, in the same year, it attempted to secede but was forcibly prevented; Norway, however, accomplished a peaceful secession from the Union in 1905 and resumed her independent status; in1848-1849Hungary attempted to withdraw from the union with Austria but the attempt was defeated; Prussia and other north German states withdrew in1866-1868from the German Confederation and formed a new one; a late instance of successful secession is that of Panama, which seceded in 1903 from the Republic of Colombia.
Lee (New York, 1886); Fitzhugh Lee was strongly averse to secession, but felt obliged to conform Lee, General Lee (New York, 1894, "Great Commanders" series); to the action of his own state.
The patriarch, who resides at Mardin near Diarbekr on the upper Tigris, is obeyed by from 15,000 to 20,000 people, who represent a secession from the Jacobite Church (see Jacobite Church).
In this connotation the terms "dissenter" and "dissenting," which had acquired a somewhat contemptuous flavour, have tended since the middle of the 19th century to be replaced by "nonconformist," a term which did not originally imply secession, but only refusal to conform in certain particulars (e.g.
With equal blindness the Secessionists favoured, and the Republicans opposed, the calling of a special state convention to decide the issue of secession.
The second and decisive victory followed at the Vatican Council (1870), which, at the cost of a small secession of distinguished men, declared the pope personally infallible (see Infallibility) and irreformable as often as he rules ex cathedra points of faith or morals.
In February 1843 he published, as an advertisement in the Oxford Conservative Journal, an anonymous but otherwise formal retractation of all the hard things he had said against Rome; and in September, after the secession of one of the inmates of the house, he preached his last Anglican sermon at Littlemore and resigned the living of St Mary's.
If the secession of the slave states was truly immoral, than of what possible import was the legal right?
The Serb-dominated Yugoslav Army tried to halt the secession of Slovenia by force, but failed.
On joining the Free Secession he was declared no longer a min. of this church 30th June 1843.
The Scottish Secession, among whom the movement began, were dissenters in relation to a Presbyterian establishment.
This was resisted and resented by congregations and caused the original Secession in 1733.
In 1920 he took part in the fall exhibition of the Viennese Secession.
Most of the Original Secession congregations went in to the Free church in 1852.
The Guild's work was shown at the 1900 Vienna Secession Exhibition.
B. In 1884 the Secession Church building was taken down, a new church being built by October 1885.
During the course of the century, there were various secession movements from the Established Church.
It was after- ' wards sold to the United Secession body.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.