After several seasons and seventeen children, we discovered the right age for a host.
The wet seasons that set in at the end of the 'seventies led to so much hindrance in the work on the land that the aid of steam was further called for, and it seemed probable that there would be a lessened demand for horse power.
In all of these water of relatively high salinity usually appears for a long distance towards the north on the eastern side of the channel, while on the western side the water is comparatively fresh; but great variations occur at different seasons and in different years.
As a result, however, partly of the usual want of work on the grasslands in certain seasons, there has been a considerable emigration to America.
Labour difficulties, low prices of produce, bad seasons and similar causes provided inducements for leaving the land in grass for two years, or over three years or more, before breaking it up for wheat.
I grew in those seasons like corn in the night, and they were far better than any work of the hands would have been.
The oak in Europe is liable to injury from a great variety of insect enemies: the young wood is attacked by the larvae of the small stag-beetle and several other Coleoptera, and those of the wood-leopard moth, goat moth and other Lepidoptera feed upon it occasionally; the foliage is devoured by innumerable larvae; indeed, it has been stated that half the plant-eating insects of England prey more or less upon the oak, and in some seasons it is difficult to find a leaf perfectly free from their depredations.
The generally wet character of the seasons in 1879 and the two or three years following was mainly responsible for the high prices of meat, so that the supplies of fresh beef and mutton from Australia which now began to arrive found a ready market, and the trade in imported fresh meat which was thus commenced has practically continued to expand ever since.
There was one other with whom I had "solid seasons," long to be remembered, at his house in the village, and who looked in upon me from time to time; but I had no more for society there.
And so the seasons went rolling on into summer, as one rambles into higher and higher grass.
Apart from the coast region, seasons of drought are not uncommon.
The following figures show the average yields per acre of the selected plots at Rothamsted over six 8-yearly periods from 1852 to 1899, and afford evidence that the higher yield of later years is due to the seasons: Bushels (of 60 lb) Average of - per acre.
Even the bison, to some extent, keeps pace with the seasons cropping the pastures of the Colorado only till a greener and sweeter grass awaits him by the Yellowstone.
It was a community where I could see Betsy and me raising children and watching grandchildren while four distinct seasons rolled slowly by, marking the years one by one.
She rarely combed her hair, owned no more than three or four shapeless dresses, which appeared in all seasons, most of which were stained and wrinkled.
Throughout Britain, as a rule, this species is one of the most plentiful birds, and is found at all seasons of the year.
The two most prominent causes assigned for the depression were bad seasons and foreign competition, aggravated by the increased cost of production and the heavy losses of live stock.
There are, in fact, existing forms of Exopterygota that are usually wingless, and that nevertheless appear in certain seasons or localities with wings.
My frustration forced action of some sort so I picked up the phone and dialed Howie and Julie's room at the Four Seasons in Santa Barbara.
Although new-born fawns are spotted, the adults are in the main uniformly coloured; the general tint of the coat at all seasons being reddish tawny with a more or less marked tendency to grey.
There are two wet seasons, the first lasting from March till June, the second from September to November.
At certain seasons the wound bleeds, and the organismssome of which, by the bye, are remarkable and interesting formsmultiply in the nutritious sap and ferment it.
In some localities, however, negative potential gradient is by no means uncommon, at least at some seasons, in the absence of rain.
But after several seasons of heavy rainfall the waters have remained for years beyond their low-water level.
These run in wet seasons, but in every instance for a short distance only, and sooner or later they are lost in sand-hills, where their waters disappear and a line of stunted gum-trees (Eucalyptus rostrata) is all that is present to indicate that there may be even a soakage to mark the abandoned course.
It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.
There are two clearly defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, and a dry season for the remaining months.
Borlaug also promoted the process (which proved wildly successful) of having two wheat-growing seasons in Mexico, one in the highlands, then another in the valley regions.
A ruddy and lusty old dame, who delights in all weathers and seasons, and is likely to outlive all her children yet.
You were part of my school life and the rest of the seasons.
Alice was a geranium Cynthia had lovingly rescued from certain death by frost last September when the rest of the couple's first-year garden succumbed to the advancing seasons.
Alice was a geranium Cynthia had lovingly rescued from certain death by frost last September when the rest of their first year garden succumbed to the advancing seasons.
This part of northwest Arkansas enjoyed four full seasons.
In some tropical stations, at certain seasons of the year, thunder is almost a daily occurrence.
To command a regular supply, however, at all seasons, the use of a mushroom-house will be found very convenient.
The northern part of the Gran Chaco is partly wooded and swampy, and as the slope eastward is very gentle and the rivers much obstructed by sand bars, floating trees and vegetation, large areas are regularly flooded during rainy seasons.
This system is mischievous, since, if a few consecutive bad seasons occur, the farmer moves to some more favoured spot; while, on the other hand, a succession of good years tends to increase rents.
m., and emptying into Upstart Bay; it receives numerous tributaries in its course, and carries a large body of fresh water even in the driest seasons.
This is especially the case with the tributaries of the Darling on its left bank, where in seasons of great rains these rivers overspread their banks and flood the flat country for miles around and thus reach the main stream.
They are flooded of ter rain, and in seasons of drought many of them, especially the tributaries of the Darling, become chains of ponds.
In seasons of drought they are hardly more than swamps and mud flats, which for a time may become a grassy plain, or desolate coast encrusted with salt.
Western Australia has practically only two seasons, the winter or wet season, which commences in April and ends in October, and Western the summer or dry season, which comprises the remainder of the year.
The truth is, pastoralists for the most part carried on their industry trusting very greatly to luck, not making any special provisions against the vicissitudes of the seasons.
The state usually has long and severe winters and cool summers, but sudden changes of temperature are common at all seasons.
Conditions of hyper-turgescence are common in herbaceous plants in wet seasons, or when overcrowded and in situations too moist for them.
He commanded the old " Discovery," and was at work during the seasons of 1792, 1793 and 1 794, wintering at Hawaii.
In the temperate zone, where the seasons are sharply contrasted, but follow each other with regularity, foresight and self-denial were fostered, because if men did not exercise these qualities seed-time or harvest might pass into lost opportunities and the tribes would suffer.
For a long period the city was noted for its commerce with the West Indies, which began to decline about 1876, but the coast trade and commerce with Great Britain are still considerable, especially in the winter, when Portland is the outlet of much of the trade from the Great Lakes that in the other seasons passes through Montreal.
Many trees offer magnificent displays of flowers at certain seasons of the year; perhaps the loveliest effect is derived from the bushes and trailing creepers of the Combretum genus, which, during the "winter" months from December to March, cover the scrub and the forest with mantles of rose colour.
This mask, which furnished abundant opportunities for the decorators, musicians and dancers, in showing forth how the seasons and their delights are successively exhausted by a "wanton darling," Raybright the grandchild of the Sun, is said to have been very popular.
We note (a) that in the worship of Yahweh the sacred seasons of new moon and Sabbath are obviously lunar.
Similarly in the earlier pre-exilian period of Israel's occupation of Canaanite territory the Hebrews were always subject to this tendency to worship the old Baal or `Ashtoreth (the goddess who made the cattle and flocks prolific).3 A few years of drought or of bad seasons would make a Hebrew settler betake himself to the old Canaanite gods.
With the exception of the alkali flats, no portion of the desert is devoid of vegetation, even in the driest seasons.
The melting of the mountain snow-caps in the spring causes severe freshets, which in turn are followed by long seasons of drought at a time when water is most needed for agricultural purposes.
Further inland the year is divided into wet and dry seasons with occasional prolonged droughts.
The sites of some of the old Maya cities are also considered dangerous at certain seasons.
Bellary is subject to disastrous storms and hurricanes, and to famines arising from a series of bad seasons.
The pear-stock, having an inclination to send its roots down deeper into the soil, is the best for light dry soils, as the plants are not then so likely to suffer in dry seasons.
The following are typical passages: " April is a good season for fallowing, if the earth breaks up behind the plough; for second fallowing after St John's Day when the dust rises behind the plough; for seed-ploughing when the earth is well settled and not too cracked; however, the busy man cannot be always waiting on the seasons."
Abundant evidence was forthcoming as to the extent to which agriculture had been injuriously affected " by an unprecedented succession of bad seasons."
Even without manure the average produce over forty-six years, 1852-1897, was nearly thirteen bushels per acre, or about the average yield per acre of 1 The higher yield of wheat in the later years of the 19th century appears to be largely attributable to better grain-growing seasons.
The average results show that, under all conditions of manuring - excepting with farmyard manure - the produce was less over the later than over the earlier periods of the experiments, an effect partly due to the seasons.
The four seasons are distinctly marked, a rarity in South Africa, where the transition from summer to winter is generally very rapid.
The value of the trade depends on regular rains, so that in seasons of drought the exports seriously diminish.
The succession of bad seasons which marked the end of the decade affected the distribution of the principal crops, but with the advent of more prosperous seasons things tend to return to their old level.
Haydn uses a true Straussian discord in The Seasons, in order to imitate the chirping of a cricket; but the harshest realism in Gatterdammerung (the discord produced by the horns of Hagen and his churls in the mustering-scene in the second act) has a harmonic logic which would have convinced Corelli.
The basis of the 6th tablet is the familiar nature-myth of the change of seasons, in which Gilgamesh plays the part of the youthful solar god of the springtime, who is wooed by the goddess of fertility, Ishtar.
Four seasons are recognized - January - April, very dry and great heat; May - June, cooler and the " heavy " rains; July - September, the season of extreme heat and the south-west monsoon; October - December, the " light " rains.
It is known as a winter visitant to Egypt and Abyssinia, and is abundant at all seasons in Barbary, as well as in the Canaries and Madeira.
He provided work for the deserving poor, supplied them with clothes and food in seasons of special distress.
Where the marsh is open and grassy, flooded only at high tides or in rainy seasons, and the ground firm enough to bear cattle, it is used as range.
They are comparatively inactive at all seasons; indeed, the action of the tides and back-waters and the tangle of vegetation in the sombre swamps and forests through which they run, often render their currents almost imperceptible at ordinary water.
In good seasons and exceptional localities the yield may approach a bale per acre, as in Assumption parish, and in the Mississippi valley at the junction of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas.
There are two distinct seasons: a " dry " season from November to April, and a hotter, " wet " season.
Of this enormous output, from 98.3% upward went to the United States;' of whose total importation of all sugars and of cane sugar the proportion of Cuban cane - steadily rising - was respectively 49.8 and 53.7% in the seasons of 1900-1901 and 1904-1905.
A very large amount of local detailed observation in the various sea-areas must be the next important work to be undertaken: this means currentobservations b y direct readings of metres, by the employment of drift-bottles and numerous determinations of temperature and salinity at all seasons.
In the West the custom, long universal, of marking the seasons of the ecclesiastical year and the more prominent fasts and festivals by the colour of the vestments of clergy and altar dates, approximately, from the 12th century: the subject is mentioned (c. 1200) in the treatise of Innocent III., De sacro altaris mysterio (cap. 10), where the rules are laid down which are still essentially those of the Roman Church,' though the liturgical colours were only four, violet belonging to the category of black - as that of mourning.
The Thames is navigable for rowing-boats as far upwards as Cricklade, except in dry seasons, and for barges at all times as far as Lechlade, 18 m.
The works as subsequently maintained by the Thames Conservancy ensure an efficient head of water during the drier seasons of the year, and facilitate the escape of winter floods.
7), so called from the seal-like scars on the rhizome of stems of previous seasons, the hanging flowers of which contain no honey, but are visited by bees for the pollen.
The answer begins with a promise of deliverance from famine, and of fruitful seasons compensating for the ravages of the locusts.
19, that the seasons shall henceforth be fruitful, is given after Yahweh has shown his zeal and pity for Israel, not of course by mere words, but by acts, as appears in verses 20, 21, where the verbs are properly perfects recording that Yahweh hath already done great things, and that vegetation has already revived.
The more northern rivers are subject to periodical variations in volume caused by wet and dry seasons, but the greater distance of the coast range and the more gradual breaking down of the plateau toward the sea, give them longer courses and a greater extent of navigable water.
There is no appreciable change of seasons, except that produced by increased rainfall in the rainy season.
The winds are more variable, and the seasons are more sharply defined.
The flora falls naturally into three great divisions: that of the Amazon basin where exceptional conditions of heat and moisture prevail; that of the coast where heat, varying rainfall, oceanic influences and changing seasons have greatly modified the general character of the vegetation; and that of the elevated interior, or sertao, where dryer conditions, rocky surfaces, higher sun temperatures and large open spaces produce a vegetation widely different from those of the other two regions.
Goats have been found highly profitable in many of the middle Atlantic states, where the long dry seasons render the campos unsuitable for cattle pasturage.
The y ear is divided into two seasons, summer, which begins in October and ends in March, and winter, which fills up the rest of the year.
Horsesickness, a kind of malarial fever, which takes an epidemic form in very wet seasons, causes considerable loss.
The straw of certain varieties of wheat cultivated in that region is, in favourable seasons, possessed of a fine bright colour and due tenacity and strength.
In some seasons the locusts, both red and brown, come in enormous swarms covering an area 5 m.
The year is divided into two seasons, the dry and wet, the latter occurring from April to October, when the temperature is also the highest.
They are apt to occur at all seasons, are common from September to February, and most common in November.
With many this is a practice at all seasons, and the railway companies foster the habit by means of tickets at reduced fares to all parts.
In coal mining the market demand varies in different seasons, and surface storage is sometimes necessary to permit regular work at the mines.
Turtle abound on the coast, and fish, of which some kinds, as the tetrodons (globe-fish), are poisonous, especially at certain seasons.
Without a sufficient supply plants remain stunted and the crop yield is seriously reduced, as we see in dry seasons when the rainfall is much below the average.
This operation requires experienced judgment to decide when it should be done; the number of leaves to be left varies with the variety and vigour of the plant, the nature of the soil, climate, seasons and particular use for which the crop'is intended.
The utility of this is seen in seasons when the shoot produced from the first bud is killed by frost; then one of the supplementary buds starts into growth, and thus replaces the injured shoot.
The seasons are divided into wet and dry, the latter (extending from December to the end of May) being also the cold season.
The country falls naturally into three main divisions, a northern, a central and a southern; the first includes the area between the Midian coast on the west and the head of the Persian Gulf on the east, a desert tract throughout, stony in the north, sandy in the south, but furnishing at certain seasons excellent pasturage; its population is almost entirely nomad and pastoral.
or any continuous watercourse except the Wadi Hauran, which in rainy seasons forms a succession of pools from J.
Though almost waterless, it is in fact better wooded and richer in pasture than any part of the Hamad; the sand-hills are dotted with ghada, a species of tamarisk, and other bushes, and several grasses and succulent plants - among them the adar, on which sheep are said to feed for a month without requiring water - are found in abundance in good seasons.
The greater portion of this region is an open steppe, sandy in places and in others dotted with low volcanic hills, but with occasional ground water and in favourable seasons furnishing support for a considerable pastoral population.
In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet, and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.
At special seasons the number of pilgrims exceeds many times the population of the town.
Lamartine tells us that the Arabs regard the trees as endowed with the principles of continual existence, and with reasoning and prescient powers, which enable them to prepare for the changes of the seasons.
anthaceous plant, whose stems ramify through the sandhills; the other two are a 1M M Iartynia and an Aniseia, which maintain a subterranean existence during many years, and only produce leafy stems in those rare seasons when sufficient moisture penetrates to the roots.
draught can ascend to Puerto Limon at all seasons of the year.
deals with astronomy - the moon, stars, and the zodiac, the sun, the planets, the seasons and the calendar.
deal with medicine both in practice and in theory: they contain practical rules for the preservation of health according to the four seasons of the year, and treat of various diseases from fever to gout.
Wet summers are followed by an acute outbreak of liver-rot amongst sheep and this, together with the effects of other diseases that accompany wet seasons, cause the death of vast numbers of sheep, the numbers from both sources being estimated in bad years at from 12 to 3 millions in England alone.
The water-demon Grendel and the dragon (probably), by whom Beowulf is mortally wounded, have been supposed to represent the powers of autumn and darkness, the floods which at certain seasons overflow the low-lying countries on the coast of the North Sea and sweep away all human habitations; Beowulf is the hero of spring and light who, after overcoming the spirit of the raging waters, finally succumbs to the dragon of approaching winter.
All these grow well in good garden soil, and blossom from March onwards, coming in very early in genial seasons.
Divided strictly according to this motion the year falls into four nearly equal seasons, "spring" (i.e.
There are three wet seasons in Japan: the first, from the middle of April to the beginning of May; the second, from the middle of June to the beginning of July; and the third, from early in September to early in October.
This of course does not apply to shrubs which blossom at their seasons and fall always into the general scheme of the landscape.
The gad-fly (abu), the housefly (hai), the mosquito (ka), the flea (nonzi) and occasionally the bedbug (called by the Japanese kara-mushi because it is believed to be imported from China), are all fully represented, and the dragon-fly (tombO) presents itself in immense numbers at certain seasons.
Flocks of lupa and other species swim in the wake of the tropical fishes which move towards Japan at certain seasons.
Lacquer-making, however, being essentially an art and not a mere handicraft, has its eras of great masters and its seasons of inferior execution.
The climate is mild and healthy, and for the greater part of the year very pleasant, the seasons of spring and autumn being more especially delightful.
In thus looking to the return of the ancient prophet to do the work for which later prophecy is too weak, Malachi unconsciously signalizes the decay of the order of which he was one of the last representatives; and the somewhat mechanical measure which he applies to the people's sins, as for example when he teaches that if the sacred dues were rightly paid prosperous seasons would at once return (iii.
Here we have a series of celebrations representing the occupations of the successive seasons, addressed sometimes to numina who developed later on into the great gods of the state, such as Jupiter, Mars or Ceres, sometimes to vaguer divinities who remained always indefinite and rustic in character, such as Pales and Consus.
Potatoes and onions are grown for exportation at seasons when they are scarce in northern Europe.
Excellent honey is produced in Malta; at certain seasons tunny-fish and young dolphin (lampuca) are abundant; other varieties of fish are caught all the year round.
Two enormous cisterns, maintained by public charitable trusts, supply the town with water in dry seasons.
After political relations began to be established, the necessity of preserving a register of passing seasons and years would soon be felt, and the practice of recording important transactions must have grown up as a necessary consequence of social life.
In their civil affairs the Armenians follow the ancient vague year of the Egyptians; but their ecclesiastical year, which begins on the 1 1th of August, is regulated in the same manner as the Julian year, every fourth year consisting of 366 days, so that Easter and the other festivals are retained at the same place in the seasons as well as in the civil year.
In his hands the history of Florence became a text on which at fitting seasons to deliver lessons in the science he initiated.
Oros, sun, and Ã†Tpov, a measure), an instrument originally designed for measuring the variation of the sun's diameter at different seasons of the year, but applied now to the modern form of the instrument which is capable of much wider use.
In small nearly land-locked basins shut off from one another by bars rising to within a short distance of the surface and affected both by strong tidal currents and by a considerable admixture of land water, the contrasts of vertical distribution of temperature with the seasons are strongly marked, and there are also great unperiodic changes effected mainly by wind, as is shown by the investigations of H.
Travellers and strangers who venture into these jungles run the risk of fever of a severe type at almost all seasons of the year.
Of game birds the most characteristic is the partridge (ruffed grouse), exclusively a woodland bird; the Wilson's snipe and the woodcock are not uncommon in favourable localities, and several species of ducks are found especially in the bays and marshes near the coast during the seasons of migration.
Powell contends that in a proper sense none of the Indian tribes was nomadic, but that, governed by water-supply, bad seasons and superstition (and discomfort from vermin must be added), even the Pueblo tribes often tore down and rebuilt their domiciles.
By this time the truce extended from the Wednesday evening to the Monday morning in every week and also, in most places, lasted during the seasons of Lent and Advent, the three great vigils and feasts of the Blessed Virgin, and those of the twelve apostles and a few other saints.
beautiful old age in his Concord home, the Orchard House,where every comfort was provided by his daughter Louisa, Alcott was gratified at being able to become the nominal, and at times the actual, head of a Concord "Summer School of Philosophy and Literature," which had its first session in 1879, and in which - in a rudely fashioned building next his house - thoughtful listeners were addressed during a part of several successive summer seasons on many themes in philosophy, religion and letters.
Ozone occurs, in an amount supposed to be associated with the development of atmospheric electricity (lightning, &c.); this amount varies with the seasons, being a maximum in spring, and decreasing through summer and autumn to a minimum in winter.
The present climate is not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying winds; its temperature is kept ddwn by the surrounding vast expanse of sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift.
From 1795 onward he resided in the Mariahilf suburb of Vienna, and there wrote his last eight Masses, the last and finest of his chamber works, the Austrian national anthem (1797), the Creation (1799) and the Seasons (1801).
Even the naïf pictorial suggestion, of which free use is made in the Creation and in the Seasons, is closer to the manner of Handel than to that of the 19th century: it is less the precursor of romance than the descendant of an earlier realism.
In conformity with old Semitic usage, pilgrimages were made at definite seasons to certain deities, and the Sabaean pilgrim month, Dhu Hijjatan, is the northern Dhu'l-Hijja.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
'GAMBIA, an important river of West Africa, and the only river of Africa navigable by ocean-going boats at all seasons for over 200 m.
Formerly it was the general belief that the herring inhabits the open ocean close to the Arctic Circle, and that it migrates at certain seasons towards the northern coasts of Europe and America.
The seasons are sharply demarked; both winter and summer come suddenly.
The Meping and Mewang on the W., rising among the loftiest ranges, are rapid and navigable only for small boats, while the Meyom and Menam, the eastern pair, afford passage for large boats at all seasons and for deep draught river-steamers during the flood-time.
In seasons of high rainfall, the river can ascend 50 meters.
The female always hibernates, but the male may be seen abroad at all seasons.
Her Life of David in verse appears tedious, but many of the descriptions in the Seasons are elegant.
If planted in borders and shrubberies, however, they will continue to bear fairly good blossoms in the open air for several seasons.
This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).
The cleistogamous flowers are developed before or after the normal open flowers at seasons less s-- favourable for cross-pollination.
George Cabot lived for many years in Beverly, which he represented in the provincial congress (1779); Nathan Dane (1752-1835) was also a resident; and it was the birthplace of Wilson Flagg (1805-1884), the author of Studies in the Field and Forest (1857), The Woods and By-Ways of New England (1872), The Birds and Seasons of New England (1875), and A Year with the Birds (1881).
Despite bad seasons and ravages of insects, cultivation extended, and in 1895 the vineyards covered 300,000 acres, the produce being 88,000,000 gallons.
(b) The five Megilloth (or " Rolls ") - grouped thus together in later times, on account of the custom which arose of reading them in the synagogues at five sacred seasons - Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther.
Except in the east of the Pacific, the south-east trade is only fully developed during the southern winter; at other seasons the regular trade-belt is cut across from north-west to south-east by a band twenty to thirty degrees wide, in which the trades alternate with winds from north-east and north, and with calms, the calms prevailing chiefly at the boundary of the monsoon region (5° N.-15° S., 160°-185° E.).
In the San Jose plateau (3000-5000 ft.), which is the most densely populated portion of the temperate zone, the average is 68°, with an average variation for all seasons of only 5°.
Speaking generally, the four seasons are clearly marked north of lat.
Long and severe religious fasts were customary at special seasons, and drawing blood from the arms, legs and body, by thrusting in aloe-thorns, and passing sharp sticks through the tongue, was an habitual act of devotion recalling the similar practices of devotees in India.
The schools were extensive buildings attached to the temples, where from an early age boys and girls were taught by the priests to sweep the sanctuaries and keep up the sacred fires, to fast at proper seasons and draw blood for penance, and where they received moral teaching in long and verbose formulas.
By the 13th century, with the final development of the ritual of the Mass, the chasuble became definitely fixed as the vestment of the celebrating priest; though to this day in the Roman Church relics of the earlier general use of the chasuble survive in the planeta plicata worn by deacons and subdeacons in Lent and Advent, and other penitential seasons.
of guano will add to the productiveness of the crop. On good soil and in favourable seasons the yield sometimes reaches to 40 bushels per acre.
The Coast Range is heavily forested in the north, where rainfall is abundant in all seasons; but its lower ranges and valleys have a scanty tree growth in the south, where the rainfall is very light: here grow redwoods (Sequoia semperzirens) and live oaks (Quercus agrifolia).
Next, dependent on the inclination of the earths axis, is the division of the planetary year into the terrestrial seasons, with winter and summer changes of temperature, wind-strength and precipitation: these seasonal changes are not of the restrained measure that is characteristic of the oceanic southern temperate zone, but of the exaggerated measure appropriate to the continental interruptions of ~the northern land-and-water zone, to which the term temperate is so generally inapplicable.
The strong changes of temperature with the seasons are indicated also by the distribution of summer maxima and winter minima; summer temperatures above 112 are known in the south-western deserts, and temperatures of 100 are sometimes carried far northward on the Great Plains by the hot winds nearly to the Canadian boundary; while in winter, temperatures of 40 occur along the mid-northern boundary and freezing winds sometimes sweep down to the border of the Gulf of Mexico.
In 1905 symphony concerts were embarked on, and continued for several seasons.
The precipitation in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta is much more variable than farther east and north, so that in some seasons crops have been a failure through drought, but large areas are now being brought under irrigation to avoid such losses.
The prairie provinces have in most parts a distinctly continental climate with comparatively short, warm summers and long, cold winters, but with much sunshine in both seasons.
In this region cattle and horses can generally winter on the grass of the ranges without being fed, though in hard seasons there may be heavy losses.
Mountain and plain and Arctic hares and rabbits are plentiful or scarce in localities, according to seasons or other circumstances.
Of all the periods marked out by the motions of the celestial bodies, the most conspicuous, and the most intimately connected with the affairs of mankind, are the solar day, which is distinguished by the diurnal revolution of the earth and the alternation of light and darkness, and the solar year, which completes the circle of the seasons.
In all these cases the beginning of the day varies with the seasons at all places not under the equator.
The Greeks divided the natural day and night into twelve equal parts each, and the hours thus formed were denominated temporary hours, from their varying in length according to the seasons of the year.
They made use of no intercalation, and by losing a fourth of a day every year, the commencement of the year went back one day in every period of four years, and consequently made a revolution of the seasons in 1461 years.
When Regard Is Had To The Sun'S Motion Alone, The Regulation Of The Year, And The Distribution Of The Days Into Months, May Be Effected Without Much Trouble; But The Difficulty Is Greatly Increased When It Is Sought To Reconcile Solar And Lunar Periods, Or To Make The Subdivisions Of The Year Depend On The Moon, And At The Same Time To Preserve The Correspondence Between The Whole Year And The Seasons.
If The Commencement Of The Year, Instead Of Being Retained At The Same Place In The Seasons By A Uniform Method Of Intercalation, Were Made To Depend On Astronomical Phenomena, The Intercalations Would Succeed Each Other In An Irregular Manner, Sometimes After Four Years And Sometimes After Five; And It Would Occasionally, Though Rarely Indeed, Happen, That It Would Be Impossible To Determine The Day On Which The Year Ought To Begin.
The Lunar Year, Consisting Of Twelve Lunar Months, Contains Only 354 Days; Its Commencement Consequently Anticipates That Of The Solar Year By Eleven Days, And Passes Through The Whole Circle Of The Seasons In About Thirty Four Lunar Years.
It Is Therefore So Obviously Ill Adapted To The Computation Of Time, That, Excepting The Modern Jews And Mahommedans, Almost All Nations Who Have Regulated Their Months By The Moon Have Employed Some Method Of Intercalation By Means Of Which The Beginning Of The Year Is Retained At Nearly The Same Fixed Place In The Seasons.
It Could Not Therefore Long Continue To Preserve Its Correspondence With The Seasons, Or To Indicate The Days Of The New Moons With The Same Accuracy.
In Order To Restore The Beginning Of The Year To The Same Place In The Seasons That It Had Occupied At The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Gregory Directed The Day Following The Feast Of St Francis, That Is To Say The 5Th Of October, To Be Reckoned The 15Th Of That Month.
The Years Of The Hegira Are Purely Lunar, And Always Consist Of Twelve Lunar Months, Commencing With The Approximate New Moon, Without Any Intercalation To Keep Them To The Same Season With Respect To The Sun, So That They Retrograde Through All The Seasons In About 321 Years.
In Ireland and the southern districts of Sweden it is permanently of a light fulvous grey colour, with black tips to the ears, but in more northerly districts the fur - except the black ear-tips - changes to white in winter, and still farther north the animal appears to be white at all seasons of the year.
N.B.-The difference in the totals is owing to the figures being based on the production in seasons, and that of consumption upon calendar years.
There are two seasons of rainfall over the province: the monsoon season, when supplies of moisture are brought up by the ocean winds from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal; and the winter season, when storms advancing eastwards from Persia and the Caspian districts occasion winds, widespread rain and snowfall.
(I) A bushy plant whose stem is woody and branches out thickly from the ground, not attaining sufficient height to be called a tree; this smallness of vertical growth is natural or is effected by cutting and lopping at an early stage or at stated seasons.
Speaking broadly, red is the colour for feasts of martyrs, white for virgins, violet for penitential seasons, &c.; no less than sixty-three different uses differing in details have been enumerated.
The Boca Grande outlet is the deepest, and is the main navigable entrance to the Orinoco at all seasons, the muddy bar usually maintaining a depth of 16 ft.
Some fancy cloths have descriptive names such as herringbone stripe, and there are many arbitrary trade names, such as Yosemite stripe, which may prevail and become the designation of a regular class or die after a few seasons.
from Nasibin in the north-east, bringing with it the waters of the many streams from the Tar `Abdin highlands; the north 'Awij, which at certain seasons brings much water due south from Mardin, and the main stream of the Khabur, which has come 60 m.
The song and insectivorous birds - thrushes, flycatchers, vireos and woodpeckers - of this latitude, are well represented, and the high plateaus (particularly the Pocono plateau) have especial ornithological interest as the tarrying-places, during the migratory seasons, of many species of birds whose natural breeding ground is much farther north.
Wind is a prevailing feature throughout Tibet at certain seasons of the year, as it is in the Pamirs, in Turkestan, in western Afghanistan and in Persia.
In connexion with their use as food we may observe that of recent years in Scandinavia and Russia an alcoholic spirit has been distilled from Cladonia rangiferina and extensively consumed, especially in seasons when potatoes were scarce and dear.
Many species also prefer growing in moist places by streams, lakes and the sea, though very few are normally and probably none entirely, aquatic, being always at certain seasons exposed for a longer or shorter period to the atmosphere (e.g.
Nearly all the moisture that is precipitated during six or seven months is stored up in the form of snow, and is gradually diffused in the course of the succeeding summer; even in the hottest and driest seasons the reserves accumulated during a long preceding period of years in the form of glaciers are available to maintain the regular flow of the greater streams. Nor is this all; the lakes that fill several of the main valleys on the southern side of the Alps are somewhat above the level of the plains of Lombardy and Venetia, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water, which, from a remote period, has been used for that system of irrigation to which they owe their proverbial fertility.
is considered necessary to produce tolerable wine, but in ordinary seasons this is much exceeded in many of the great valleys of the Alps.
Here snow usually lies for several months, till it gives place to a spring and summer considerably warmer than the average of British seasons.
The occurrence of favourable meteorological conditions during several successive seasons may and does increase the extent of the snow-fields, and lower the limit of seemingly permanent snow; while an opposite state of things may cause the limit to rise higher on the flanks of the mountains.
The importance of the root-fibres, or " feeding roots " justifies the care which is taken by every good gardener to secure their fullest development, and to prevent as far as possible any injury to them in digging, potting and transplanting, such operations being therefore least prejudicial at seasons when the plant is in a state of comparative rest.
Thus the Jerusalem artichoke, though able to produce stems and tubers abundantly, only flowers in exceptionally hot seasons.
Deficiency of light is less injurious than might at first be expected, because the plant to be forced has stored up in its tissues, and available for use, a reserve stock of material formed through the agency of light in former seasons.
It is very probable that the same flower at certain times and seasons is self-fertilizing, and at others not so.
In a particular country or at certain seasons one flower will be self-sterile or nearly so, and another just the opposite.
His success depends not alone on skill and judgment, for some seasons, or days even, are found more propitious than others.
These subordinate divisions furnish, not only shelter but also shade, which, at certain seasons, is peculiarly valuable.
The best seasons for these operations are early spring and midsummer, that is, before the sap begins to flow, and after the first flush of growth has passed off.
One whole summer, sometimes two, must elapse before the layers will be fully rooted in the case of woody plants; but such plants as carnations and picotees, which are usually propagated in this way, in favourable seasons take only a few weeks to root, as they are layered towards the end of the blooming season in July, and are taken off and planted separately early in the autumn.
Forcing is the accelerating, by special treatment, of the growth of certain plants, which are required to be had in leaf, in flower or in fruit before their natural season, - as, for instance, the leaves of mint at Eastertide or the leafstalks of sea-kale and rhubarb at Christmas, the flowers of summer in the depth of winter, or some of the choicest fruits perfected so much before their normal period as to complete, with the retarded crops of winter, the circle of the seasons.
the gorgeous rhododendrons and azaleas, forms one of the grandest features of the establishment during the early summer, while if properly selected the plants are effective as a garden of evergreens at all seasons.
In favourable situations and seasons some of the very hardiest, as Silene pendula, Saponaria, Nemophila, Gilia, &c., may be sown in September or October, and transplanted to the beds or borders for very early spring flowering.
Should it be provided with a central path, requiring shade, Hambro and Sweet-water grapes serve the purpose well, and in favourable seasons afford excellent crops of fruit.
Transplant all kinds of evergreens, this month and September being the proper seasons.
- Attend to the propagation of all sorts of greenhouse plants by cuttings, and to the replacing in the greenhouse and stoves the more tender species, by the end of the month in ordinary seasons, but in wet weather in the second week.
In the south of England, with the habit of an annual, it ripens its seeds in favourable seasons; and it has been known to come to maturity as far north as Christiania in Norway.
As it is impossible that we shall ever discover any new furbearing animals other than those we know, it behoves responsible authorities to enforce close seasons and restrictions, as to the sex and age, in the killing for the purpose of equalizing the numbers of the catches.
The number of seasons for which the leaves last varies in different plants; every season some of the older leaves fall, while new ones are regularly produced.
In dry seasons this will supply 6000 H.P., and for quite ten months in an ordinary year 14,000 H.P. The plant in 1902 consisted of five turbines, having horizontal axles, and each developing woo H.P. when running at 300 revolutions a minute.
- The year in Paraguay is divided into two seasons - " summer," lasting from October to March, and " winter," from April to September.
The terraces can be worked at all seasons, and the material is partly washed out by leading streams on to it.
A fair was granted in the time of Henry II., and fairs in the seasons of Michaelmas and the feasts of St Philip and St James and of Edward the Confessor,.
The proportion of salt in the water of the Caspian, though varying in different parts and at different seasons, is generally much less than the proportion in oceanic water, and even less than the proportion in the water of the Black Sea.
We thus obtain the simple equation k'(de'/dx') - k"(de"/dx") =c (area between curves)/(T - T'), (4) by means of which the average value of the diffusivity klc can be found for any convenient interval of time, at different seasons of the year, in different states of the soil.
Excluding these exceptional cases, however, the variations of the diffusivity appeared to follow the variations of the seasons with considerable regularity in successive years.
Some rivers vary much in their discharge at different seasons.
below it, and their water is at all seasons very free from silt or mud.
Mere making up of necessary water in droughty seasons is one thing, protection against frost is another, while the addition of soil material is a third.
The engineer must not decide upon the plan till he has gauged at different seasons the stream which has to supply the water, and has ascertained the rain-collecting area available, and the rainfall of the district, as well as the proportion of storable to percolating and evaporating water.
Probably nowhere is there an agricultural population so prosperous, and so free from the risks attending seasons of drought or of flood.
Cotton and sugar-cane would fetch far higher prices, but they could only be grown while the Nile was low, and they required water at all seasons.
The work was successfully carried out during the seasons 1896 to 1898.
The ancient system seems simple enough; but in order really to flood the whole Nile Valley during seasons of defective as well as favourable floods, a system of regulating sluices, culverts and syphons is necessary; and for want of such a system it was found, in the feeble flood of 1888, that there was an area of 260,000 acres over which the water never flowed.
in area, so that navigation is possible at all seasons.
was established, and whose works were popular - such an author as Thomson, whose Seasons was in every library, such an author as Fielding, whose Pasquin had had a greater run than any drama since The Beggar's Opera - was sometimes glad to obtain, by pawning his best coat, the means of dining on tripe at a cookshop underground, where he could wipe his hands, after his greasy meal, on the back of a Newfoundland dog.
As regards rainfall, Germany belongs to those regions where precipitation takes place at all seasons, but chiefly in the form of summer rains.
for two or three seasons in pasture.
Indeed, the publication of this little volume bore immediate fruit in introducing its author to various men of letters, among whom was Dante Gabriel Rossetti, through whose offices Patmore became known to Holman Hunt, and was thus drawn into the eddies of the pre-Raphaelite movement, contributing his poem "The Seasons" to the Germ.
In the Catholic Church such letters are also sent out regularly at particular ecclesiastical seasons, particularly at the beginning of fasts.
In the nonepiscopal Protestant churches the name "pastoral letter" is given to any open letter addressed by a pastor to his congregation, but more especially to that customarily issued at certain seasons, e.g.
The Scandinavian data, from the wealth of observations, are probably the most representative, and even in the most northern district of Scandinavia the smallness of the excess of the frequencies in December and January over those in March and October suggests that some influence tending to create maxima at the equinoxes has largely counterbalanced the influence of sunlight and twilight in reducing the frequency at these seasons.
The number seen in the evening is, however, according to Table III., considerably in excess at all seasons.
In the interior four seasons can be distinguished; a comparatively dry and a wet one alternating.
It is divided by the river into East Looe and West Looe; and is sheltered so completely by the surrounding hills that myrtles, geraniums, fuchsias and other delicate plants flourish at all seasons in the open air.
The ploughshare is again in every quarter turning up a soil which had for many seasons never been stirred, except by the hoofs of predatory cavalry."
The eggs, in several layers, are laid near the top. The adults frequently dig long subterranean passages into the banks of streams, and, during dry seasons, they have been found deep in the hardened mud, whence they emerge with the beginning of the rains.
The _______________ water of el-Kerun is ___________ brackish, though de - -~--- 3/4 rived from the Nile, which has at all seasons _~ il amuchhighenlevel.
There are three agricultural seasons: (I) summer (sefi), 1st of April to 3ist of July, when crops are grown only on land under perennial irrigation; (2) flood (Nih), 1st of August to 3oth of November; and (3) winter (shetwi), 1st of December to 31st of March.
The approximate areas under cultivation in the various seasons are, in summer, 2,050,000 acres; in flood, 1,500,000 acres; in winter, 4,300,000 acres.
Day riva or and night, the year, the seasons, eternity, and many to I ~s similar conceptions were each represented by a god by or goddess of their own, who nevertheless possessed cult but a shadowy and doubtful existence.
Such were the calendrical feasts, called ~ the beginnings of the seasons, and including, for example, the monthly and halfmonthly festivals, that of the New Year and that of the rising of Sirius (Sothis).
The months were grouped under three seasons of four months each, and were known respectively as, ~ ~
over the year being outside these seasons and the year itself, according to the Egyptian expression,, and counted either at the beginning or at the end of the year.
In Egypt the agricultural seasons depend more immediately on the Nile than on the solar movements; the first clay of the first month of inundation, i.e.
But the year of 365 days lost one day in four years of the Sothic or Julian year, so that in 121 Egyptian years New Years clay fell a whole month too early according to the seasons, and in 1461 years a whole year was lost.
Whether any earlier attempt was made to adjust the civil to the solar or Sothic year in order to restore the festivals to their proper places in the seasons temporarily or otherwise, is a question of great importance for chronology, but at present it remains unanswered.
Others are grounded on the dates of certain operations which are likely to have taken place at particular seasons of the year so that they can be roughly calculated on the Sothic basis, others on Manethos figures, average lengths of reigns, evidence of the Turin Papyrus, &c.
They suffered, not only from the regular taxes, which were seldom remitted even after bad seasons, but also from monopolies; and Procopius goes so far as to allege that the emperor made a practice of further recruiting his treasury by confiscating on slight or fictitious pretexts the property of persons who had displeased Theodora or himself.
The narrow valleys between the hills are very fertile, having a rich soil and an abundant water-supply even in the driest seasons.
Buckler) in 1910, and were continued actively for five seasons.
Exceptional animals naturally do exceptional things, and a famous hound called Potentate is recorded by the 8th duke of Beaufort to have done notable service in the hunting field for eleven seasons.
The people had a knowledge of the stars, of the rising and setting of the constellations at different seasons of the year; by this means they determined the favourable season for making a voyage and directed their course.
This at any rate is the action of the Burgutai stream during certain seasons of the year, so that the glaciers and snowfields of the Nicolas range may be regarded as the chief fountain-head of at least two of the upper tributaries of the Oxus, namely, the Aksu (or Murghab) and the Pamir river, and as contributing largely to a third, the Ab-i-Panja.
It divides its waters, splitting into many channels, leaving broad central islands; and as the width increases, and the depth during dry seasons diminishes, opportunities for fords become comparatively frequent.
Apart from these the two seasons are sometimes broken by cloudless skies in winter, and a drizzling mist, called the gariia, in summer.
These serve to modify the temperatures of the plateau, which is swept by cold winds at all seasons of the year.
They would be incomplete without a passing word on the non-permanent elements which at certain seasons of the year are in the principal centres the most conspicuous.
Numerous tributaries of the Shari flow through the country, but much of the water is absorbed by swamps and sand-obstructed channels, and seasons of drought are recurrent.
The means of the four seasons are approximately - for December, January, February and successive quarters-23°, 27°, 28° and 26° C. (73.4°, 80.6°, 82.4° and 78.8° F.).
The mean relative humidity is between 75 and 80 for all seasons save spring, when it is least and may be from 65 upward.
The crown was adorned with figures of Graces and the Seasons.
It is commonly cultivated in Canada and northern United States, where the seasons are too short for Dent corn, and has been grown as far north as N.
enclosing within Afghanistan the only approach to Seistan from India which is available during the seasons of Helmund overflow.
It is a waste, elevated, desolate region that the route traverses, and the road itself is only open at certain seasons of the year.
Up or down this plain, at opposite seasons, sweep the monsoon winds, in a direction at right angles to that of their nominal course; and thus vapour which has been brought by winds from the Bay of Bengal is discharged as snow and rain on the peaks and hillsides of the Western Himalayas.
Together with the two parallel valleys of the Nerbudda and Tapti, which drain the flanks of its western half, it gives, at opposite seasons of the year, a decided easterly and westerly direction to the winds of this part of India, and condenses a tolerably copious rainfall during the south-west monsoon.
the delta and the neighbouring part of the province of Pegu, is very heavy; and the climate is mild and equable at all seasons.
The two monsoon periods are divided by the change of temperature, due to solar action' upon the earth's surface, into two separate seasons; and thus the Indian year may be divided into four seasons: the cold season, including the months of January and February; the hot season, comprising the months of March, April and May; the south-west monsoon period, including the months of June, July, August, September and October; and the retreating monsoon period, including the months of November and December.
Snipe (Gallinago coelestis) abound at certain seasons, in such numbers that one gun has been known to make a bag of one hundred brace in a day.
(12) Greater elasticity in the revenue collection, facilitating its adjustment to the variations of the seasons, and the circumstances of the people.
This excessive dependence upon a single industry, which is in its turn dependent upon the accident of the seasons, upon a favourable or unfavourable monsoon, has been held to be one of the main causes of the frequent famines which ravage India.
The rotation of crops is not adopted as a principle of cultivation; but in practice it is well known that a succession of exhausting crops cannot be taken in consecutive seasons from the same field, and the advantage of fallows is widely recognized.
The periodicity of the seasons usually allows two, and sometimes three, harvests in the year, but not necessarily, nor indeed usually, from the same fields.
In ordinary years most of this rice goes either to Europe or to the Farther East; but in famine seasons a large part is diverted to peninsular India, and Burma is the most important of the outside sources from which the deficient crops are supplemented.
The lake is undergoing a process of desiccation, and in some dry seasons (as in 1879 and 1903) the "open water" is reduced to a number of large pools.
Two seasons are distinguished - the cool, from June to September; and the rainy, from October to May.
the drift of the " Deutschland " had turned sharp to the E., but that of Sir Ernest Shackleton's floe continued in the main due N.; the difference may have been due to the opposite seasons or to other causes.
The brief notices of the classical writers inform us that Herculaneum' was a small city of Campania between Neapolis and Pompeii, that it was situated between two streams at the foot of Vesuvius on a hill overlooking the sea, and that its harbour was at all seasons safe.
There are two seasons, the cool and comparatively dry season, from April to November, and the hotter season, during the rest of the year.
In accordance with the monthly variations in temperature at Manila the year is divided into three seasons: temperate (November, December, January and February), hot (April, May and June) and intermediate (March, July, September and October).
The older incantations, associated with Ea, were re-edited so as to give to Marduk the supreme power over demons, witches and sorcerers; the hymns and lamentations composed for the cult of Bel, Shamash and of Adad were transformed into paeans and appeals to Marduk, while the ancient myths arising in the various religious and political centres underwent a similar process of adaptation to changed conditions, and as a consequence their original meaning was obscured by the endeavour to assign all mighty deeds and acts, originally symbolical of the change of seasons or of occurrences in nature, to the patron deity of Babylon - the supreme head of the entire Babylonian pantheon.
Besides the chief deities and their consorts, various minor ones, representing likewise patron gods of less important localities and in most cases of a solar character were added at one time or the other to the court of Marduk, though there is also to be noted a tendency on the part of the chief solar deity, Shamash of Sippara, and for the chief moon-god to absorb the solar and lunar deities of ]ess important sites, leading in the case of the solar gods to the differentiation of the functions of Shamash during the various seasons of the year and the various times of the day among these minor deities.
In another division of the religious literature of Babylonia which is largely represented in Assur-bani-pal's collection - the myths and legends - tales which originally symbolized the change of seasons, or in which historical occurrences are overcast with more or less copious admixture of legend and myth, were transferred to the heavens, and so it happens that creation myths, and the accounts of wanderings and adventures of heroes of the past, are referred to movements among the planets and stars as well as to occurrences or supposed occurrences on earth.
Exceedingly burdensome services were required in the seasons when farming processes are, as it were, at their height - in the seasons of mowing and reaping, when every day is of special value and the working power of the farm hands is strained to the utmost.
There are three seasons.
Confucianism is the official cult, and all officials offer sacrifices and homage at stated seasons in the Confucian temples.
The mean temperatures for the different seasons are normally about 41.6°, 61.1°, 78.8° and 61.9° F.
for the same seasons.
They occur in all seasons, scores of slight tremors being recorded every year by the Weather Bureau; but they are of no importance, and even of these the number affecting any particular locality is small.
In wet seasons it overflows its banks and becomes greatly extended in area, discharging its surplus waters into the San Joaquin; but in dry seasons the evaporation is so great that there is no such discharge.
In the third place, the division of the year into two seasons - a wet one and a dry (and extremely dusty) one - marks this portion of the Pacific Coast in the most decided manner, and this natural climatic area coincides almost exactly in its extension with that of California; being truly characteristic neither of Lower California nor of the greater part of Oregon, though more so of Nevada and Arizona.
and even higher annually, while in extreme seasons as much as 125 in.
The effects of a season of drought on the dry portions of the state need not be adverted to; and as there is no rain or snow of any consequence on the mountains during summer, a succession of dry seasons may almost bare the ranges of the accumulated stock 1 During the interval from 1850 to 1872 the yearly rainfall at San Francisco ranged from 11.37 to 49.27 in.; from 1850 to 1904 the average was 22.74, and the probable annual variation 4 in.
The peculiarities of the climate, especially its division into two seasons, make Californian (and Southern Arizona) agriculture very different from that of the rest of the country.
The dangers of drought in the long dry seasons particularly increase the uncertainties of agriculture in regions naturally arid.
On nearly all lands irrigated some crops will grow in ordinary seasons without irrigation, but it is this that makes possible selection of crops; practically indispensable for all field and orchard culture in the south, save for a few moist coastal areas, it everywhere increases the yield of all crops and is practised generally all over the state.
In summer the climate is often oppressively hot under the influence of winds blowing from the interior, but the proximity of the sea on the one side and of the mountains on the other allows the inhabitants to avoid the excessive heat; at other seasons, however, the climate is mild and pleasant; with a mean annual rainfall of 20 ï¿½ 4 ins.
The difference between the seasons is not rigidly marked.
But elsewhere it is distinctly tropical, with two seasons - wet from May to November on the Pacific slope, and from June to December on the Caribbean, and dry throughout the winter months.
Its one large river is the Guadiana, which traverses the north of the province from east to west, fed by many tributaries; but it is only at certain seasons that the river-beds fill with any considerable volume of water, and the Guadiana may frequently be forded without difficulty.
They are called vernal and autumnal respectively, from the relation of the corresponding times to the seasons of the northern hemisphere.
These crowd at certain seasons in innumerable multitude to certain islands within the tropics, where they breed, and the wonderful assemblage known as " wideawake fair" on the island of Ascension has been more or less fully described from very ancient times.
It breeds abundantly in some seasons on the fells of Lapland, its appearance depending chiefly on the presence of lemmings (Lemmus norvegicus), on which it mainly preys.
The quantity of water in the cavern varies greatly at different seasons.
This practice is almost without exception resorted to with what are known as the " classed growths " and the superior " bourgeois " wines, whilst in seasons in which the wines are of good quality it is continued down to the lower grades.
At one time the position appeared to be desperate, particularly in view of the fact that the farmers refused to believe that the trouble was due to anything other than the continuous drought of successive dry seasons, but at the present time, after much expenditure of energy and capital, the condition of affairs is once more fairly satisfactory.
The wines of the Rhine are grown in the most northerly latitude at which viticulture is successful in Europe, and consequently, when the seasons are not too unpropitious, they display the hardiness and distinction characteristic of northern products.
In the Odyssey, where they are represented as bringing round the seasons in regular order, they are an abstraction rather than a concrete personification.
In later mythology, under Alexandrian influence, the Horae become the four seasons, daughters of Helios and Selene, each represented with the conventional attributes.
26) describes them as placed at equal intervals on the throne of Phoebus, with whom are also associated the four seasons.
Nonnus (5th century A.D.) in the Dionysiaca also unites the twelve Horae as representing the day and the four Horae as the seasons in the palace of Helios.
Among the venomous reptiles and insects are the rattlesnake, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), a poisonous lizard, and the tarantula (Mygale Heintzii), which, however, are common only in certain places and at certain seasons.
2 In early Judaism, chastity was indeed enjoined upon the priests at certain solemn seasons; but there was no attempt to enforce celibacy upon the sacerdotal caste.
They direct the changing seasons, the wind and the rain; and the good and bad fortunes of individuals,.
Tien is intelligent and all-observing, and its " sincerity " or steadfastness, displayed in the courses of the sun and moon and the succession of the seasons, becomes the basis of right human conduct, personal and social.
So Themis became the mother of the seasons; the regular sequence of blossom and fruit was her work; and Good Order, Justice and Peace were her offspring.'
A domesticated animal or a cultivated plant need not necessarily be acclimatized; that is, it need not be capable of enduring the severity of the seasons without protection.
A naturalized animal or plant, on the other hand, must be able to withstand all the vicissitudes of the seasons in its new home, and it may therefore be thought that it must have become acclimatized.
There is indeed little or no evidence to show that any animal to which a new climate is at first prejudicial can be so acclimatized by habit that, after subjection to it for a few or many seasons, it may live as healthily and with as little care as in its native country; yet we may, on general principles, believe that under proper conditions such an acclimatization would take place.
(1802); Euclidis datorum liber (1803); Virgil's Two Seasons of Honey, &c. (1805); and papers in the Philosophical Transactions from 1767 to 1776.
The hibernation of these rodents is only partial, and confined to seasons of intense cold.
The relative length of the seasons shows contrasts similar to those of temperature.
It is stated in the saga that the Swedish kings were believed to have control over the seasons like their ancestor, the god Frey, and traces of this belief seem to have lingered in the country down to the times of Gustavus Vasa.
P. sylvestris in Britain is liable to many insect depredations: the pine-chafer, Hylurgus piniperda, is destructive in some places, the larva of this beetle feeding on the young succulent shoots, especially in young plantations; Hylobius abietis, the fir-weevil, eats away the bark, and numerous lepidopterous larvae devour the leaves; the pine-sawfly is also injurious in some seasons; the removal of all dead branches from the trees and from the ground beneath them is recommended, as most of these insects lay their eggs among the decaying bark and dead leaves.
gate length of less than 900 m., all the roads of the country are mere mule tracks, carriageable in the plains and during the dry season, but totally unfit for continuous wheeled traffic during all seasons, and in the hilly districts often so difficult, as to cause mucF damage to goods and the animals carrying them.
It is not unusual in bad seasons for a single grower to lose 30 per acre in one season.
to the south of the Helmund, entirely shutting off that valley and the approach to Seistan between the Helmund and the Gaud-i-Zirreh (the only approach from the east in seasons of flood) from Baluchistan.
But it leaves a connected line of desert route between Nushki and Seistan, which is open in all ordinary seasons, to the south, and this route has been largely developed, posts or serais having been established at intervals and wells having been dug.
Each class of road was named after the authority responsible for its construction and upkeep. In some of the remoter rural districts there are only bridle-paths, or rough tracks, which become almost impassable in wet seasons, and are never suitable for vehicles less solid than the Portuguese ox-carts.
A calendar of sacred seasons.
The cabezera de valle, as the name indicates, includes the heads of the deep valleys above the valle zone, with elevations ranging from 95 00 to 11,000 ft.; its climate is temperate, is divided into regular seasons, and is favourable to the production of cereals and vegetables.
It has but two seasons, a cold summer or autumn and winter.
EMBER DAYS and Ember Weeks, the four seasons set apart by the Western Church for special prayer and fasting, and the ordination of clergy, known in the medieval Church as quatuor tempora, or jejunia quatuor temporum.
A fourth was subsequently added, for the sake of symmetry, to make them correspond with the four seasons, and they became known as the jejunium vernum, aestivum, autumnale and hiemale, so that, to quote Pope Leo's words, "the law of abstinence might apply to every season of the year."
Long before any clear ideas as to the relations of Schizomycetes to fermentation and disease were possible, various thinkers at different times had suggested that resemblances existed between the phenomena of certain diseases and those of fermentation, and the idea that a virus or contagium might be something of the nature of a minute organism capable of spreading and 1 Cladothrix dichotoma, for example, which is ordinarily a branched, filamentous, sheathed form, at certain seasons breaks up into a number of separate cells which develop a tuft of cilia and escape from the sheath.
Both the state government and the national government have established hatcheries within the state, and state laws protect the industry by regulating the size of mesh in the nets used, prescribing the size of fish that may be taken and kept, establishing close seasons for several kinds of fish, and by other limitations.
Besides Wednesdays and Fridays, there are four fasting seasons, Lent, Pentecost to SS.
The average amount of Turkish opium exported is 7000 chests, but in rare seasons amounts to 12,000 chests, but the yield depends upon fine weather in harvest time, heavy rains washing the opium off the capsules, and lessening the yield to a considerable extent.
He was worshipped not only at Anthedon, but on the coasts of Greece, Sicily and Spain, where fishermen and sailors at certain seasons watched for his arrival during the night in order to consult him (Pausanias ix.
Formerly this method of providing soldiers with shelter was rarely employed on active service, though the normal method in "winter quarters," or at seasons when active military operations were not in progress.
greater in the summer than in the other seasons, which differ among themselves very little in the average amount of rainfall.
In the neighbourhood of the Mall, bordering the river, are the house where Thomson wrote his poem "The Seasons," and Kelmscott House, the residence of William Morris.
There is no difference between the seasons, which, though the islands belong to the northern hemisphere, have the highest' temperature in January and the lowest in July.
The average barometric pressure over England is about 2 9.94 in., and normally diminishes from south-west to north-east at all seasons, the mean pressure on the south coast being 29.97 and that on the northern border 29.88.
The west end of a town receives the wind as it blows in fresh from the country at all seasons, and consequently the west end of an English town is with few exceptions the residential quarter, while smoke-producing industries are usually relegated to the east end.
The western or mountainous division is the wettest at all seasons, each orographic group forming a centre of heavy precipitation.
Hence the term is extended to signify the fall of such drops in a shower, and in the plural, "the rains," it signifies the rainy seasons in India and elsewhere where under normal climatic conditions such seasons are clearly distinguished from the dry.
There is a marked distinction between the wet and dry seasons in the western districts on the lower Congo, where rains fall regularly from October to May, the dry season being from June to September.
But nearer the centre of the continent the seasons are less clearly marked by the amount of precipitation, rain falling more or less regularly at all times of the year.
The seasons of greatest heat and of the heavy rains are thus coincident on the lower river, where fever is much more prevalent than on the higher plateau lands nearer the centre of the continent.
Its title is the Ch'un Ch'iu, or " Spring and Autumn," the events of every year being digested under the heads of the four seasons, two of which are used by synecdoche for the whole.
- Antlers rounded, threetined, with the bezand trez-tines wanting, and the beam simply forked at the summit; coat either uniform or spotted at all seasons.
Formosa possesses a species of its own (C. taevanus), which, in correlation with the perpetual verdure of that island, is spotted at all seasons.
In addition to the variation in climate dependent on elevation, the year may be divided into three seasons.
These figures show that tolerably mild winters (as a whole, apart from the extremes of cold already indicated) are followed by cool summers, both seasons being accompanied by overcast skies, constant and sudden changes from fair to foul weather; while fogs, mists, rains, snows and high winds (prevailing throughout the year) endanger the navigation of the intricate inland channels.
As the god of agriculture and vegetation he is naturally connected with the course of the year and the arrangement of the seasons, so important in farming operations, and becomes the orderer of time (Horomedon, " ruler of the seasons"), and frequently appears on monuments in company with the Horae.
The northern part of this great region has a somewhat lower elevation and gentler slope, and consists of open grassy plains, which are within the zone of alternating wet and dry seasons.
The changes of seasons are no less complicated and confusing.
The alternating wet and dry seasons are likewise to be found on the Pacific coastal plain, though this region is not entirely dry and vegetation never dries up as on the llanos.
Above the lowland plains the seasons vary in character according to geographical position and elevation.
Farther south, at elevations between 800 and 9500 ft., the year is divided into four distinct seasons - two wet and two dry - the former called inviernos (winters) and the latter veranos (summers).
These seasons are governed by the apparent movements of the sun, the winters occurring at the equinoxes and the summers at the solstices.
The largest class, perhaps, is that formed by the astonishing number of water-fowl which throng the shallow lagoons and river beaches at certain seasons of the year.
The raja invited him and his disciples to eat their simple mid-day meal at his house on the following morning; and then presented the Buddha with a garden called Veluvana or Bamboo-grove, afterwards celebrated as the place where the Buddha spent many rainy seasons, and preached many of his most complete discourses.
The division of the year into four seasons is not clearly marked save in the Cape peninsula, where exceptional conditions prevail.
In general the seasons are but two - summer and winter, summer lasting from September to April and winter filling up the rest of the year.
The mosque is at the same time the university hall, where between two pilgrim seasons lectures are delivered on Mahommedan law, doctrine and connected branches of science.
Mountain areas of io,000 acres and upwards, largely covered with moorland, upon nearly imper meable rocks with few water-bearing fissures, yield in temperate climates, towards the end of the driest seasons, and therefore solely from underground, between a fifth and .a quarter of a cubic foot per second per 1000 acres.
Owing, however, to the very variable permeability of the strata, the tributaries of the Thames, when separately gauged in dry seasons, yield the most divergent results.
Empirical rules have grown up assigning to each district, according to its average rainfall, a particular number of days' supply, independently of any inflow, as the contents of the reservoir necessary to secure a given yield throughout the driest seasons.
It must also be remembered that the total capacity of a reservoir must be greater than its net available capacity, in order that in the driest seasons fish life may be maintained and no foul water may be drawn off.
When, as may happen in dry seasons, the puddle wall remains long above the water level, it parts with moisture and contracts.
Yet the hilly parts of the last-named country are rich in magnificent sites at sufficient altitudes for the supply of any parts by gravitation, and capable, if properly laid out, of affording a volume of water, throughout the driest seasons, far in excess of the probable demand for a long future.
Draining can be carried on at all seasons, but is usually best done in autumn or summer.
The great labour and cost incurred in procuring stones in adequate quantities, and the difficulty of carting them in wet seasons, soon led to the substitution of "tiles," and soles of burnt earthenware.
Goose Lake, for example, lies in the Great Basin at some seasons; but at other times it overflows and becomes a part of the drainage system of the Sacramento river.
Among the south-eastern plateaus antelope are found at all seasons, and deer and big-horn (mountain sheep), and occasionally a few elk, in the winter.
from the sea the Nerbudda is at all seasons navigable by small boats, and during the rains by vessels of from 30 to 50 tons burden.
The climate greatly varies according to the seasons of the year.
Here the ordinary processes of nature and progression of the seasons were symbolized under the figure of the death and resuscitation of the god.
Most of the streams maintain a good flow of water in the driest seasons, and in case of heavy rains many of them " underflow " the adjacent bottom lands, saturating the permeable substratum of the country with the surplus water, which in time drains out and feeds the subsiding streams. This feature is particularly true of the Saline, Solomon and Smoky Hill rivers.
The crop is very variable, according to seasons and prospective markets; ranging e.g.
In the 'seventies, after a succession of wet seasons, and again in the 'eighties, settlement was pushed far westward, beyond the limits of safe agriculture, but hundreds of settlers - and indeed many entire communities - were literally starved out by the recurrence of droughts.
Many mammals have a longer hairy coat in winter, which is shed as summer comes on; and some few, which inhabit countries covered in winter with snow, as the Arctic fox, variable hare and ermine, undergo a complete change of colour in the two seasons, being white in winter and grey or brown in summer.
The ducks include the mallard, black duck, canvas-back and red-head; the Canadian goose, the snowy goose and the blue goose also appear during the migrating seasons.
2 Probably, if we leave out of sight the very numerous and obvious cases in which fasting, originally the natural reflex result of grief, fear or other strong emotion, has come to be the usual conventional symbol of these, we shall find that the practice is generally resorted to, either as a means of somehow exalting the higher faculties at the expense of the lower, or as an act of homage to some object of worship. The axiom of the Amazulu, that " the continually stuffed body cannot see secret things," meets even now with pretty general acceptance; and if the notion that it is precisely the food which the worshipper foregoes that makes the deity more vigorous to do battle for his human friend be confined only to a few scattered tribes of savages, the general proposition that " fasting is a work of reverence toward God " may be said to be an article of the Catholic faith.3 Although fasting as a religious rite is to be met with almost everywhere, there are comparatively few religions, and those only of the more developed kind, which appoint definite public fasts, and make them binding at fixed seasons upon all the faithful.
Though the introduction of the four Ember seasons was not entirely due to him, as has sometimes been asserted, it is certain that their widespread observance was due to his influence, and to that of his successors, especially of Gregory the Great.
In many parts of Germany the seasons of Lent and Advent are still marked by the use of emblems of mourning in the churches, by the frequency of certain phrases (Kyrie eleison, Agnus Dei) and the absence of others (Hallelujah, Gloria in excelsis) in the liturgical services, by abstinence from some of the usual social festivities, and by the non-celebration of marriages.
The spring is rainy; the best seasons are summer and autumn, the heat of summer being moderated by the sea.
The principal of these were called Upper and Lower Thessaly, the former comprising the western and south-western part, which contains the higher course of the Peneius and all those of its tributaries that flow from the south - the Enipeus, the Apidanus, the Onochonus and the Pamisus; while the latter, which reaches eastward to the foot of Ossa and Pelion, is inundated in parts at certain seasons of the year by the Peneius, the flood-water from which forms the lake Nessonis, and, when that is full, escapes again and pours itself into the lake of Boebe.
It is the most ancient of the sciences because, before the era of experiment, it was the branch of knowledge which could be most easily systematized, while the relations of its phenomena to day and night, times and seasons, made some knowledge of the subject a necessity of social life.
The climate is oceanic; fogs are common, violent storms are frequent at all seasons.
826-829) that the amphictyons met both in the spring and in the autumn at Delphi, and the literary sources should alone be sufficient authority for meetings in the same seasons at Thermopylae (Hyp. iv.
The excessive moisture in wet seasons in however hostile to cereal crops, especially in the southern and western districts, though improved drainage has done something to mitigate this evil, and might do a great deal more.
Between 1831 and 1842 there were six seasons of dearth, approaching in some places to famine.
In good times this worked well enough, but foreign competition began to tell, and 1879 was the worst of several bad seasons.
Seventeen inches, or more than one-third, falls during the summer, and for the other seasons the range is only from 10.1 in.
Here the seasons are mild and equable, the winters are short (snow seldom falling), and the summers last for five months.
The seasons are more marked here than in the preceding.
The seasons are two - the hot and rainy season from November to April, and the cool and dry season during the rest of the year; this remark applies chiefly to the interior, for rain falls throughout the year on the eastern coast, which is exposed to the vapour-laden south-east trade winds.
The Malagasy have never had any organized religious system or forms of worship; there are no temples, images or stated seasons of devotion, nor is there a priesthood, properly so-called.
The general object of the works was to obtain a navigable depth of water at all seasons of 2 metres (6.56 ft.) on that portion of the river above Orsova, and a depth of 3 metres (9.84 ft.) below that town.
vessels can now navigate the Iron Gates at all seasons of the year when the river is not closed by ice, whereas formerly at extreme low water, lasting generally for about three months in the late summer and autumn, through navigation was always at a standstill, and goods had to be landed and transported considerable distances by land.
They make good or bad seasons, and control the vast animals who, among ancient Persians and Aryans of India, as among Zulus and Iroquois, are supposed to grant or withhold the rain, and to thunder with their enormous wings in the region of the clouds.
Frazer, the human representatives or animal representatives, in the rites, of the spirit of vegetation; of the corn spirit; of the changing seasons, winter or summer, have been developed into many forms of gods, with appropriate myths, explanatory of the magic, and of the sacrifice of the chief performer.
The two distinct rainy seasons of the equatorial zone, where the sun is vertical at half-yearly intervals, become gradually merged into one in the direction of the tropics, where the sun is overhead but once.
In spring cold, wetting mists occasionally envelop the land for entire days, while in summer the sky is often perfectly clear for weeks together, At all seasons of the year sudden changes of temperature, to the extent of from 30 to 500 F., are not infrequent.
For in- Practical.) stance, the queen (or " king " of the hives as it was termed by our forefathers) is of paramount importance at certain seasons, her death or disablement during the period when the male element is absent meaning extinction of the whole colony.
Root Co., Medina, Ohio, U.S.A.) his hives, but to overlook nothing that tends to be of advantage to the bees at all seasons.
Except in seasons of great rain its waters do not reach the sea.
fare, and exposed to the rigour of the seasons, he was probably the little hardy thing we yet see him; but in the marshes of the Nen and the Witham, and on the borders of the Tees and the Clyde, there would be as much proportionate development of frame and strength as we find at the present day."
Some streams wholly dry up in the dry seasons, and in the foot-hills and sand-hills there are a few that disappear by sinking or evaporation.
In a period of 30 years (1869-1898) there were, according to the state Board of Agriculture, four seasons whose crops could reasonably be classed as failures, three more as " short," one as fair, eighteen as good, and four as great.
White not only notes the homes and ways, the times and seasons, of plants and animals - comparing, for instance, the different ways in which the squirrel, the fieldmouse and the nuthatch eat their hazel-nuts - or watches the migrations of birds, which were then only beginning to be properly recorded or understood, but he knows more than any other observer until Charles Darwin about the habits and the usefulness of the earthworms, and is certain that plants distil dew and do not merely condense it.
VERTUMNUS (or Vortumnus, "turning," "changing"), in Roman mythology, the god of the changing year with its seasons, flowers and fruits, probably of Italian origin.
The fry of fishes is used as an article of diet in almost every country: in Germany the young of various species of Cyprinoids, in Italy and Japan the young of nearly every fish capable of being readily captured in sufficient numbers, in the South Sea Islands the fry of Teuthis, in New Zealand young Galaxias are consumed at certain seasons in large quantities; and, like whitebait, these fry bear distinct names, different from those of the adult fish.
During the seasons of rain and melting snow the river is very full, and liable to freshets.