Seas sentence example
Who made the earth and the seas, and everything?
The Australian seas are inhabited by many fishes of the same genera as exist in the southern parts of Asia and Africa.
The Protector, however, did not live to witness the final triumph of his undertaking, which gave to England, as he had wished," the mastery of those seas,"ensuring the English colonies against Spanish attacks, and being maintained and followed up at the Restoration.
It is the duty of a debtor to pay a debt without waiting for any demand, and, unless there is a place fixed on either by custom or agreement, he must seek out his creditor for the purpose of paying him unless he is "beyond the seas."
The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.Advertisement
The average number of seals killed annually is about 33,000.1 The 1 Owing to representations of the Swedish government in 1874 as to the killing of seals at breeding time on the east coast of Greenland, and the consequent loss of young seals left to die of starvation, the Seal Fisheries Act 1875 was passed in England to provide for the establishment of a close time for seal fishery in the seas in question.
The chief success of the government lay in the field of foreign politics, where it prudently avoided entanglement in the ambitious schemes of Hellenistic monarchs, but gained great prestige by energetic interference against aggressors who threatened the existing balance of power or the security of the seas.
In 1569 William in his capacity as sovereign prince of Orange issued letters-of-marque to a number of vessels to prey upon the Spanish commerce in the narrow seas.
The Pliocene appears only in the coast region of the Black and Azov Seas, but it is widely developed in the Aral-Caspian region, where, however, the Ust-Urt and the Obshchiy Syrt rose above the sea.
The Black Sea, the fauna of which appears to be very rich, belongs to the Mediterranean region, slightly modified, while the Caspian partakes of the characteristic fauna inhabiting the lakes and seas of the Aral-Caspian depression.Advertisement
And these proportions represent fairly well the tonnages entering and clearing at the ports of these respective seas.
The legions at once joined him; numbers of Franks enlisted in his service; an increased and well-equipped fleet secured him the command of the neighbouring seas.
Below the north-east declivity of this range lies Georgia, on the other side of which province rises the Caucasus, the boundary of Asia and Europe between the Caspian and Black Seas, the highest points of which reach an elevation of nearly 19,000 ft.
The area between the northern border of the Persian high lands and the Caspian and Aral Seas is a nearly desert low-lying plain, extending to the foot of the north - western extremity of the great Tibeto-Himalayan mountains, and prolonged east- Trans- ward up the valleys of the Oxus (Amu-Darya) and Caspian Jaxartes (Syr-Darya), and northward across the country re ior, and of the Kirghiz to the south-western border of Siberia.
The depression westward of the Caspian and Aral basins, and the original connexion of these seas, have also come under the close investigation of Russian scientists, with the result that the theory of an ancient connexion between the Oxus and the Caspian has been displaced by the more recent hypothesis of an extension of the Caspian Sea eastwards into Trans-Caspian territory within the postPleiocene age.Advertisement
The present outline of the eastern coast and the nearly enclosed seas which lie between the islands and the mainland, are attributed by Richthofen chiefly to simple faulting.
The southerly summer winds of the Asiatic seas between the equator and the tropic do not extend to the coasts of Java, and the southeasterly trade winds are there developed in the usual manner.
Among the more remarkable phenomena of the hotter seas of Asia must be noticed the revolving storms or cyclones, which are of frequent occurrence in the hot months in the Indian Ocean and China Sea, in which last they are known under the name of typhoon.
Other allied genera are abundant, and extend from the Indian seas to eastern Africa.
The Squamipennes, or scaly-finned fishes, are principally found in the seas of southern Asia, and especially near coral reefs.Advertisement
Among the Anacanthini, the cod family so well known in Europe shows but one or two species in the seas of south Asia, though the soles and allied fishes are numerous along the coasts.
The marine eels, Muraenidae, are more numerous towards the Malay Archipelago than in the Indian seas.
The dog-fish also is found, one species extending from the Indian seas to the Cape of Good Hope.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
The ultimate victory of England seems due less to any particular aptitude for dealing with oriental problems than to a better command of the seas and to considerations of European politics.Advertisement
Richard Howe entered the navy in the "Severn," one of the squadron sent into the south seas with Anson in 1740.
North of the Caucasus ranges the water-divide between these two seas descends from Mount Elbruz along the Sadyrlar Mountains (11,000 ft.), and finally sinks into the Stavropol "plateau" (1600 ft.).
In the seas and rivers about 190 species of fishes have been enumerated.
By retaining nearly all the continental conquests of France, and by recovering every one of those which the British had made at her expense beyond the seas, he achieved a feat which was far beyond the powers even of Louis XIV.
It is certain that he was preparing to renew the struggle for the mastery of the seas and of the Orient, which must break out if he held to his present resolve to found a great colonial empire.
True, England had suffered, but she was mistress of the seas and had won a score of new colonies.
The Expeditionary Force was conveyed across the Channel in perfect safety, and its communications safeguarded; and the German mercantile marine was soon cleared from the seas.
They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.
Mackerel are found in almost all tropical and temperate seas, with the exception of the Atlantic shores of temperate South America.
Of extra-Atlantic species the mackerel of the Japanese seas are the most nearly allied to the European, those of New Zealand and Australia, and still more those of the Indian Ocean, differing in many conspicuous points.
The Spanish mackerel is, as the name implies, a native of the seas of southern Europe, but single individuals or small schools frequently reach the shores of Great Britain and of the United States.
By the end of 1771 his scientific reputation was such that he was suggested for the post of "astronomer" to Captain Cook's second expedition to the South Seas, but his unorthodox opinions were objectionable to certain members of the board of longitude and the appointment was not ratified.
The original object of the institution of the courts or court seems to have been to prevent or punish piracy and other crimes upon the narrow seas and to deal with questions of prize; tion.
Unfortunately the island has hardly a regular harbour on any part of the coast; from its situation at the meeting, as it were, of seas, the currents in the neighbourhood are strong, and storms are very frequent.
Pheasants, ducks, geese and snipe are abundant, and Dr C. Collingwood in his Naturalist's Rambles in the China Seas mentions .Ardea prasinosceles and other species of herons, several species of fly-catchers, kingfishers, shrikes and larks, the black drongo, the Cotyle sinensis and the Prinia sonitans.
The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant I coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast - a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytheraea petechiana and Modiola teres being most abundant.
In 1831 and 1833 Great Britain entered into an arrangement with France for a mutual right of search within certain seas, to which most of the other powers acceded; and by the Ashburton treaty (1842) with the United States provision was made for the joint maintenance of squadrons on the west coast of Africa.
It is the commonest cetacean in the seas round the British Isles, and not infrequently ascends the Thames, having been seen as high as Richmond; it has also been observed in the Seine at Neuilly, near Paris.
The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.
He was the author also of a mathematical work on the use of the astrolabe and of a book (Muhit, " the ocean ") on the navigation of the Indian seas.
The atrophy of the Ottoman sea-power had left the archipelago at the mercy of the Greek war-brigs; piracy flourished; and it became essential in the interests of the commerce of all nations to make some power responsible for the policing of the narrow seas.
Napoleon now modified the simple plan prepared for Latouche Treville, and began laying elaborate plans by which French vessels were to slip out and sail for distant seas, to draw the British fleet after them, and then return to concentrate in the Channel.
The remaining colonial possessions of France, and of Holland, then wholly dependent on her, were conquered by degrees, and the ports in which privateers were fitted out to cruise against British commerce in distant seas were gradually rendered harmless.
The south and west coast of Greenland was then re-discovered by John Davis in July 1585, though previous explorers, as Cortereal, Frobisher and others, had seen it, and at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century the work of Davis (1586-1588), Hudson (1610) and Baffin (1616) in the western seas afforded some knowledge of the west coast.
It might be expected that there should be a decrease in the Greenland seal fisheries, caused by the European and American sealers catching larger quantities every year, especially along the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, and so actually diminishing the number of the animals in the Greenland seas.
The very important activities of the Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer were suspended during the war except in a few local seas.
An entirely new project was an international survey of the Mediterranean and adjacent seas, from the fishery and oceanographical standpoints, by France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, but in 1921 no definite programme had been put in operation.
Samples of water are collected periodically from a number of places in a large sea-area (the North or Norwegian seas, or the English Channel, for instance) at the surface, bottom and a number of intermediate levels.
In general the plankton - and especially the phyto-plankton of the polar and temperate seas - is much more abundant than is that of the sub-tropical and tropical zones.
The concentration of these substances is least in the warm equatorial seas and greatest near the poles.
Since there is less of the indispensable food material in the warmer seas there is, therefore, less phyto-plankton.
The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.
These trenches have for successive geological periods been the drainage valleys of immense lakes (probably also of glaciers) which formerly extended over the plateau or fiords of the seas which surrounded it.
The Sea of Okhotsk, separated from the Pacific by the Kurile Archipelago and from the Sea of Japan by the islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, is notorious as one of the worst seas of the world, owing to its dense fogs and its masses of floating ice.
They are usually found amongst seaweed in temperate seas, but they are probably widely distributed; some are fresh-water.
Its inland situation gave it relative security against the pirates who then infested West Indian seas, and the misfortunes of Santiago were the fortunes of Bayamo.
Thus Spain laid claim to exclusive dominion over whole oceans, Great Britain to all her environing narrow seas and so on.
Hayes in 1877, and Varina Anne (1864-1898), better known as "Winnie" Davis, the "daughter of the Confederacy," who was the author of several books, including A Sketch of the Life of Robert Emmet (1888), a novel, The Veiled Doctor (1895), and A Romance of Summer Seas (1898).
History There is something almost pathetic in the childish wonder and delight with which mankind in its earlier phases of civilization gathered up and treasured stories of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus, in Albertus Magnus, and even at the present day in the popular treatises of Japan and China.
Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
That Her Majesty's troops now on the high seas shall not be landed in any part of South Africa."
They inhabit chiefly the northern seas, but many abyssal forms occur between the tropics and in the southern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. They are represented in British waters by eight genera, and about twenty species, only one of which, the burbot (Lola vulgaris), is an inhabitant of fresh waters.
It is a widelydistributed species, being found throughout the northern and temperate seas of Europe, Asia and America, extending as far south as Gibraltar, but not entering the Mediterranean, and inhabits water from 25 to 50 fathoms deep, where it always feeds close to the bottom.
The ship captain ordered the red pennant to be raised on the ship to show that the weather was changing and rough seas were expected.
The tempestuous weather, moreover, created serious damage at most of the landing-places, where solidly constructed jetties were in some instances completely demolished by the seas.
I was looking in the direction of the Europeans who are coming from beyond the seas to tear down thy purdahs and destroy thine empire."
He touched at the haven of Balade (the original name of the island) near the north-western extremity, as did d'Entrecasteaux in 1793, who closely explored the coast and surrounding seas.
European influence was not felt in Arabia until the arrival of the Portuguese in the eastern seas, following on the discovery of the Cape route.
In the 5th century we again hear of piratical incursions by the Heruli in the western seas.
In 1830 he was placed in charge of the division of instruments and charts, and in 1838 was appointed to command an exploring and surveying expedition in the Southern Seas, authorized by Congress in 1836.
The judges who governed the island were always at strife, and, as some of them applied to Pisa and some to Genoa for assistance against one another, the Italian seas were once more stained with blood, and the war burst out again and again, down to 1259, when it terminated in the decisive victory of the Pisans and the consolidation of their supremacy in Sardinia.
FitzGerald very justly attributed the landscape character of Tennyson's genius to the impress left on his imagination by "old Lincolnshire, where there were not only such good seas, but also such fine hill and dale among the wolds."
All are centred in a small village opposite Mou Rambu Point on the west or lagoon side; but most of the men are generally absent, many being employed with the Lascar crews on board the large liners plying in the eastern seas.
It need scarcely be said that these restricted approaches give littlc access to the storms which disturb the seas outside.
Nearly along the boundary between the two zones lie the inland seas of south Japan.
Among the martens there is a weasel (itachi), which, though useful as a ratkiller, has the evil repute of being responsible for sudden and mysterious injuries to human beings; there is a river-otter (kawauso), and there is a sea-otter (rakko) which inhabits the northern seas and is highly valued for its beautiful pelt.
It thus falls out that in spite of the enormous quantity of fish consumed as food or used as fertilizers year after year by the Japanese, the seas remain as richly stocked as ever.
Milne Edwards has identified ten species which occur in Australian seas also, and Rein mentions, as belonging to the same category, the helmet-crab or horse-shoe crab (kabuto-gani, Limulus longispina I-Ioeven).
Very remarkable is the giant Taka-ashi long legs (Macrocheirus Kaempfeni), which has legs 14 metres long and is found in the seas of Japan and the Malay archipelago.
Greeff enumerates, as denizens of Japanese seas, 26 kinds of seaurchins (gaze or uni) and 12 of starfish (hitode or tako-no-makura).
But his greatest immediate peril during1689-1690came from the circumstance that the French disputed the mastery of the seas with the Anglo-Dutch fleet, and that Ireland was strongly for King James.
He aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean.
In 367 Athens and Thebes sent rival ambassadors to Persia, with the result that Athens was actually ordered to abandon her claim to Amphipolis, and to remove her navy from the high seas.
Unlike the other wings of the great central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the north-east.
They occur in mud and on sea-weeds at the bottom of shallow seas below low-water mark and devour organic debris.
Balance of Emigration and Immigration.-Even in the case of emigration from Europe to countries beyond the seas there is some return movement.
Temporary Emigration.-In many European countries there is not only emigration beyond seas, but a very considerable movement to neighbouring countries in search of work, and generally with the intention of returning.
Those who go find means of bettering their own condition beyond the seas, where they become producers of food and raw material for the home country, and at the same time customers for her manufactured products.
On the 12th of May 1652 an English officer, Captain Young, stopped a Dutch convoy near the Start in order to enforce the salute to the English flag, which England then demanded from all who used the seas round her coast.
Where the ocean touches the continents the margin is in places deeply indented by peninsulas and islands marking off portions of the water surface which from all antiquity have been known as " seas."
These seas are entirely dependent on the ocean for their regime, being filled with ocean water, though subject to influence by the land, and the tides and currents of the ocean affect them to a greater or less extent.
Seas may be classified according to their form either as " enclosed " or as " partially enclosed " (or " fringing ").
Enclosed seas extend deeply into the land and originate either by the breaking through of the ocean or by the overflowing of a subsiding area.
Four great intercontinental enclosed seas are included between adjacent continents - the Arctic Sea, the Central American or West Indian Sea, the Australo-Asiatic or Malay Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
There are also four smaller continental enclosed seas each with a single channel of communication with the ocean, viz.
The fringing or partially enclosed seas adjoin the great land masses and are only separated from the oceans by islands or peninsulas.
The four fringing seas of eastern Asia, those of Bering, Okhotsk, Japan and East China, are arranged parallel to the main lines of dislocation in the neighbouring land-masses, and so are the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of California.
On the contrary, the North Sea, the British fringing seas (English Channel, Irish Sea and Minch), and the Gulf of St Lawrence cross the main lines of dislocation.
In addition to these seas notice must be taken of the subordinate marginal features, such as gulfs and straits.
The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.
The continental shelves include not only the oceanic border of the continents but also great areas of the enclosed seas and particularly of the fringing seas, the origin of which through secular subsidence is often very clearly apparent, as for instance in the North Sea and the tract lying off the mouth of the English Channel.
The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
The greatest of the intercontinental seas, the Arctic, comes nearest to oceanic conditions in the extent and depth of its depressions.
The Black Sea, connected with the Mediterranean by long and narrow channels, is occupied in the north by an extensive shelf on which Mean Depths of Oceans and Seas.
The smaller enclosed seas are for the most part very shallow.
The fringing seas as a rule show little variety of submarine relief.
Most of the other seas of this class are formed on a common plan.
The area, general depth and total volume of the oceans and principal seas have been recalculated by Krt mmel, and the accompanying table presents these figures.
As so defined the hemipelagic deposits are those which occur in general on the slope from the continental shelves to the ocean depths and also in the deep basins of enclosed and fringing seas.
When the proportion of calcium carbonate in the blue mud is considerable there results a calcareous ooze, which when found on the continental slope and in enclosed seas is largely composed of remains of deep-sea corals and bottom-living foraminif era, pelagic organisms including pteropods being less frequently represented.
The manganese nodules afford the most ample proof of the prodigious period of time which has elapsed since the formation of the red clay began; the sharks' teeth and whales' ear-bones which serve as nuclei belong in some cases to extinct species or even to forms derived from those familiar in the fossils from the seas of the Tertiary period.
The process of natural evaporation in the salines or salt gardens of the margin of warm seas made the composition of sea-salt familiar at a very early time, and.
In shallow seas the transparency is always reduced in rough weather.
The colour of ocean water far from land is an almost pure blue, and all the variations of tint towards green are the result of local disturbances, the usual cause being turbidity of some kind, and this in the high seas is almost always due to swarms of plankton.
The northern seas have an increasing tendency towards green, the Irminger Sea showing 5-9 Forel, while in the North Sea the water is usually a pure green (io-14 Forel), the western Mediterranean shows 5-9 Forel, but the eastern is as blue as the open ocean (0-2 Forel).
The fresher enclosed seas include the Malay and the East Asiatic fringing seas with 30 to 34.5 per mille, the Gulf of St Lawrence with 30 to 31, the North Sea with 35 north of the Dogger Bank diminishing to 32 further south, and the Baltic, which freshens rapidly from between 25 to 31 in the Skagerrak to 7 or 8 eastward of Bornholm and to practically fresh water at the heads of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.
As yet it is only possible to speak with confidence of the vertical distribution of salinity in the seas surrounding Europe, where there is a general increase of salinity with depth.
Evaporation is naturally greatest in the enclosed seas of the nearly rainless subtropical zone such as the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.
In autumn the enclosed seas of high latitudes frequently present a thermal stratification in which a warm middle layer is sandwiched between a cold upper layer and a cold mass below, the arrangement being termed mesothermic (thaos, middle).
The marginal rises and continental shelves prevent this cold bottom water from penetrating into the depths of the enclosed and fringing seas.
An under-current flows out from the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and from the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar, raising the salinity as well as the temperature of the part of the ocean outside the gates of the respective seas.
Such old sea-ice when prevented from escaping forms the palaeocrystic sea of Nares; but, as a rule, it is carried southward in the .East Greenland and Labrador currents, and melted in the warmer seas of lower latitudes.
Ice also clothes the continental shores of the northern fringing seas of eastern Asia.
Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.
Pettersson's view that ice-melting dominates the 'whole circulation of the oceans and regulates in particular the currents of the seas round northern Europe must, however, be looked on as carrying the explanation too far.
Differences of density between the waters of enclosed seas and of the ocean are brought about in some instances by concentration of the water of the sea on account of active evaporation, and in other instances by dilution on account of the great influx of land water.
A very powerful vertical circulation is thus set up between enclosed seas and the outer ocean.
Scottish Calvinism was destined to exercise no little influence, not only on the history of England, but on the form that the Protestant faith was to take in lands beyond the seas, at the time scarcely known to the Europeans.
And in 1764 in the "Dolphin" he went for a prolonged cruise in the South Seas.
By this Lothair received Italy and the imperial title, together with a stretch of land between the North and Mediterranean Seas lying along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone.
Turning to mints in British Dominions beyond the Seas, Ruding enumerates twenty-six mints in France and Flanders used by British monarchs between 1186 and 1513, and Anglo-Hanoverian coins were struck at Clausthal, Zellerfeld and Hanover in the period 1714-1837.
Sound,, The, below; (3) to test or measure the depth of anything, particularly the depth of water in lakes or seas (see Sounding, below).
In warmer seas many other kinds of prawns are caught for food.
It inhabits in incredible numbers the North Sea, the northern parts of the Atlantic and the seas north of Asia.
If we exclude the abortive invasion of the Danubian principalities by Prince Alexander Ypsilanti (March 1821), which collapsed ignominiously as soon as it was disavowed by the tsar, the theatre of the war was confined to continental Greece, the Morea, and the adjacent narrow seas.
It was also proposed to link up the Elbe and the Danube by a canal which would enable direct transport to be effected from North and Baltic Seas to the Black Sea.
It is sufficient to state here that the medusa is usually a free-swimming animal, floating mouth downwards on the open seas, but in some cases it may be attached by its aboral pole, like a polyp, to some firm basis, either temporarily or permanently.
Sloops of an excellent type were built for work on the high seas, of which the celebrated "Kearsarge" was one.
The mercantile marine of the United States was almost driven off the high seas by the terror of these destructive cruisers.
The Asiatic coasts are for the most part low and irregular, and a number of seas are more or less completely enclosed and cut off from communication with the open ocean.
Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.
The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean.
All the enclosed seas are occupied by characteristic terrigenous deposits.
The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic. The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic. From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.
In the west there is the great looped chain which fringes the east coast of Asia, and with it encloses the series of seas which form parts of the ocean.
All the fossil plants and animals of every kind are brought from this continent into a great museum; the latitude, longitude and relative elevation of each specimen are precisely recorded; a corps of investigators, having the most exact and thorough training in zoology and botany, and gifted with imagination, will soon begin to restore the geographic and physiographic outlines of the continent, its fresh, brackish and salt-water confines, its seas, rivers and lakes, its forests, uplands, plains, meadows and swamps, also to a certain extent the cosmic relations of this continent, the amount and duration of its sunshine, as well as something of the chemical constitution of its atmosphere and the waters of its rivers and seas; they will trace the progressive changes which took place in the outlines of the continent and its surrounding oceans, following the invasion§ of the land by the sea and the re-emergence of the land and retreatal of the seashore; they will outline the shoals and deeps of its border seas, and trace the barriers which prevented intermingling of the inhabitants of the various provinces of the continent and the surrounding seas.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.
Cattle and sheep are bred, and a trade is carried on in them with the whalers which visit these seas.
But the French were too weak in these seas for offensive movements, and therefore remained quiescent at Bourbon and Mauritius till the beginning of 1782.
A native of the Arctic seas, it extends in the western Atlantic as far south as the river St Lawrence, which it ascends for a considerable distance.
From the remoter provinces, which had acquiesced in his accession, little help was to be expected; but the legions of Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia were eager in his cause, the praetorian cohorts were in themselves a formidable force and an efficient fleet gave him the mastery of the Italian seas.
Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
Inasmuch, however, as the floor on which the overlapping strata rest is, like the rest of the Laurentian and Superior Oldland, a worn-down mountain region, and as the lowest member of the sedimentary series usually contains pebbles of the oldiand rocks, the better interpretation of the relation between the two is that the visible oldiand area of to-day is but a small part of the primeval continent, the remainder of which is still buried under the Palaeozoic cover; and that the visible oldiand, far from being the first part of the continent to rise from the primeval ocean, was the last part of the primeval continent to sink under the advancing Palaeozoic seas.
Where the seas were less clear, as in Ohio, the conditions are reflected in the character of the fossils.
That the chalk was deposited in shallow, clear seas is indicated both by the character of the fossils other than foraminifera and by the relation of the chalk to the elastic portions of the series.
At that time fishing, whaling and shipbuilding were its principal industries, the clipper ships built here being among the fastest and best known on the seas.
This portion included the Pribiloff Islands, which are the principal breeding-grounds of the seals frequenting those seas.
In 1886 a difference about international rights on the high seas arose on the Pacific coast in connexion with the seal fisheries of Bering Sea.
This genus was very abundant in the Secondary epoch, especially in Jurassic seas.
There are six living species, all in Australian seas.
Often the word thus extruded is irrecoverable; Ginevra, 125 sqq., "The matin winds from the expanded flowers I Scatter their hoarded incense and awaken I The earth, until the dewy sleep is shaken From every living heart which it possesses I Through seas and winds, cities and wildernesses"; the second "winds" is a repetition of the first, but what should stand in its place, - "lands" or "strands" or "waves" or something else - no one can say.
In 1648, when Sir William Batten went over to Holland with a portion of his squadron, Ayscue's influence kept a large part of the fleet loyal to the Parliament, and in reward for this service he was appointed the following year admiral of the Irish Seas.
About this date the yacht "Wanderer" cruised in these seas, but her owner, Mr Benjamin Boyd, was kidnapped by the natives and never afterwards heard of.
Government had become aware that a large addition was likely to be made to the number of Russian cruisers employed in this manner, and they had, therefore, to contemplate the possibility that such vessels would shortly be found patrolling the narrow seas which lie on the route from Great Britain to Japan in such a manner as to render it virtually impossible for any neutral vessel to escape their attention.
Shearwaters are found in nearly all the seas and oceans of the world,3 generally within no great distance from the land, though rarely resorting thereto, except in the breeding season.
Rough seas, &c., cause them to seek safety in dropping into deeper water.
Even when cut off from its possessions on the mainland the city itself was not captured; its seafaring trade went on; and though by degrees the colonies were lost, yet the ties of race and sentiment remained strong enough to bind the Phoenicians of the mother-country to their kindred beyond the seas.
In the reign of Edward I., whose warlike enterprises after he was king were confined within the four seas, this alteration does not seem to have proceeded very far, and Scotland and Wales were subjugated by what was in the main, if not exclusively, a feudal militia raised as of old by writ to the earls and barons and the sheriffs.'
Travelling generally in companies, and carrying a simple outfit, these Celtic pioneers flung themselves on the continent of Europe, and, not content with reproducing at Annegray or Luxeuil the willow or brushwood huts, the chapel and the round tower, which they had left behind in Derry or in the island of Hy (Iona), they braved the dangers of the northern seas, and penetrated as far as the Faroes and even far distant Iceland.
The Australian Presbyterians have important agencies in the South Seas and in Korea, the Australian Baptists in Bengal, the Canadians of various denominations in the Far North-West of the Dominion, and in India and China.
This is exactly analogous to modern experience in the South Seas, Asia and Africa, to a survey of which we now turn.
Since 1854 teachers from the Hawaiian Islands have worked in the Marquesas, but results here have been less fruitful than anywhere else in the South Seas.
After encountering many adventures in all parts of the unknown seas, among the lotuseaters and the Cyclopes, in the isles of Aeolus and Circe and the perils of Scylla and Charybdis, among the Laestrygones, and even in the world of the dead, having lost all his ships and companions, he barely escaped with his life to the island of Calypso, where he was detained eight years, an unwilling lover of the beautiful nymph.
The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia, while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas - the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark.
They have been taken in nearly all seas except the South Atlantic and S.E.
Many fish inhabited the Carboniferous seas and most of these were Elasmobranchs, sharks with crushing pavement teeth (Psammodus), adapted for grinding the shells of brachiopods, crustaceans, &c. Other sharks had piercing teeth (Cladoselache and Cladodus); some, the petalodonts, had peculiar cycloid cutting teeth.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
Similar events were meanwhile happening in North America, for the seas were steadily filled with sediments which drove them from the northeast towards the south-west, and doubtless those movements which at the close of this period uplifted the Appalachian mountains were already operative in the same direction.
The abundance of corals in some of the Carboniferous seas and possibly also the large size of some of the Productids and foraminifera may be taken as evidence of warm or temperate waters.
A magnificent Spanish armada consisting of 77 vessels, manned by 24,000 soldiers and sailors under the command of Admiral Oquendo, were sent to the Channel in September with orders to drive the Dutch from the narrow seas and land a large body of troops at Dunkirk.
The circumstances under which the battle of the Downs was won were galling to the pride of the English people, and intensified the growing unfriendliness between two nations, one of whom possessed and the other claimed supremacy upon the seas.
It was the beginning of that struggle for supremacy upon the seas which was to end, after Naval three great wars, in the defeat of the weaker country.
The foreign affairs of the republic were throughout these years ably conducted by de Witt, and the position of Dutch colonial expansion in the Eastern seas made secure and firm.
It is, however, certain that nothing would have driven the Provinces to take part in the war but for the overbearing attitude of the British government with regard to the right of neutral shipping upon the seas, and the heavy losses sustained by Dutch commerce at the hands of British privateers.
They had to sacrifice some of their East Indian possessions and to concede to the English freedom of trade in the Eastern seas.
There are fewer hair seals in the southern than in the northern seas.
The first demands of Cromwell were impossible, for they aimed at the absorption of the two republics into a single state, but at last in the autumn of 1654 peace was concluded, by which the Dutch made large concessions and agreed to the striking of the flag to English ships in the narrow seas.
All these works are emphatically of "dark-age" character; very seldom do they suggest the true forms of countries, seas, rivers or mountains, but they embody some useful information as to early medieval conditions and history.
In this connection we hear also of the Heruli, who some twenty years later, about 289, make their appearance in the western seas.
He saw clearly what the possession of the duchies would mean to Germany, their vast importance for the future of German sea-power; already he had a vision of the great war-harbour of Kiel and the canal connecting the Baltic and the North seas; and he was determined that these should be, if not wholly Prussian, at least wholly under Prussian control.
The failure of the great Hamburg house of Godefroy in 1879 threatened to ruin the growing German industries in the South Seas, which it had helped to build up. Bismarck therefore consented to apply to the Reichstag for a state guarantee to a company which would take over its great plantations in Samoa.
Within a few months Germany acquired extended possessions in several parts both of Africa and the South Seas.
Similar events took place in the South Seas.
A similar agreement had been made in 1886 regarding the South Seas.
The Marine Society was organized in 1799, its membership being limited to "persons who have actually navigated the seas beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn, as masters or supercargoes of vessels belonging to Salem"; it assists the widows and children of members.
Its museum, like the ethnological and natural history collection of the Essex Institute, was bought by the Peabody Academy of Science, whose museum now includes Essex county collections (natural history, mineralogy, botany, prehistoric relics, &c.), type collections of minerals and fossils; implements, dress, &c. of primitive peoples, especially rich in objects from Malaysia, Japan and the South Seas; and portraits and relics of famous Salem merchants, with models and pictures of Salem merchant vessels.
The Greek of old Hellas came from a land of islands, peninsulas and inland seas.
With the reinforcement which arrived afterwards he established complete control of the western seas.
The Athenians, though their reserve of 6000 talents was by now almost exhausted (except for 1000 talents in a special reserve), made a tremendous effort (raising 200 talents by a special property tax), and not only prevented an invasion by a demonstration of loo triremes at the Isthmus, but sent Asopius, son of Phormio, to take his place in the western seas.
Paches cleared the Asiatic seas of the enemy, reduced the other towns of Mytilene and returned to Athens with upwards of 1000 prisoners.
Nechos reign a Phoenician ship despatched from Egypt actually circumnavigated Africa, and the attempt was made to complete a canal through the Wadi Tumilat, which connected the Mediterranean and Red Seas by way of the Lower Egyptian Nile.
It enabled him to prosecute shipbuilding with such energy that, 'by 1550, the royal fleet numbered at least thirty vessels, which were largely employed as a maritime police in the pirate-haunted Baltic and North Seas.
Frederick II., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token of his right to rule the northern seas.
Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.
The resources of the state, which might better have been spent in defending the northern frontier against Sla y s and Huns and the eastern frontier against Persians, were consumed in the conquest of two countries which had suffered too much to be of any substantial value, and which, separated by language as well as by intervening seas, could not be permanently retained.
The one is probably derived from the other, most rock salt deposits bearing evidence of having been formed by the evaporation of lakes or seas.
The proportion of sodium chloride in the water of the ocean, where it is mixed with small quantities of other salts, is on the average about 3.33%, ranging from 2.9% for the polar seas to 3.55% or more at the equator.
Enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Black Sea, the Dead Sea, the Caspian and others, are dependent of course for the proportion and quality of their saline matter on local circumstances (see Ocean) .
In tidal seas a " jas " (or storage reservoir) is constructed alongside, similarly rendered impervious, in which the water is allowed to settle and concentrate to a certain extent.
In non-tidal seas this storage basin is not required.
Even when English churchmen passed beyond the seas, they carried with them their creed, but not their ecclesiastical organization.
After 1540, however, Venice, as mistress of the seas, guaranteed the safety of Turkish merchant vessels, and provided them with an escort of galleys.
In tidal seas they range from the limits of high water to some distance beyond the low-water line.
The German Plankton Expedition of 1889 added greatly to our knowledge of the floating vegetable life of the North Atlantic Ocean, while many laboratories established on the shores of inland seas and lakes have rendered a similar service in the case of our freshwater phyto-plankton.
His dazzling achievements as a general have obscured his more sober qualities as a ruler, and even the sound strategy, with which he aimed to be master of the narrow seas.
He took to the heather, making for the western seas, hewing his way through the MacDougals at Tyndrum and marching over the mountains to Loch Lomond, which he crossed in a canoe.
The young prince of Scotland, the first James, was on his way to seek safety in France, during an interval of truce, but was captured on the high seas by English cruisers.
But he also fostered a navy, under Sir Andrew Wood, who swept the seas of the English pirates.
The heat is modified at many points on the coast, however, by the cold Humboldt current which sweeps up the west coast of South America from the Antarctic seas.
Few seas are more prolific in fish than the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; the great proportion of known species are edible and many have a commercial value for the isinglass or oil Shelly conglomerates and dead coral reefs of the littoral; red sandhills of the coast of Trucial Oman; alluvium of Turkish Iraq; river and lake deposits of Oman and the interior of Persia.
After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.
He was defeated on the seas and driven first out of Greece and then out of Asia Minor.
The low and dangerous coasts, off which the seas are generally very shallow, are efficiently served by a series of lifeboat stations.
But his second term derives most of its historical interest from the unsuccessful efforts to convict Aaron Burr of treasonable acts in the south-west, and from the efforts made to maintain, without war, the rights of neutrals on the high seas.
During this season the interior of the peninsula and northern India is greatly heated; and the contrast of temperature is not between northern and southern India, but between the interior of India and the coast districts and adjacent seas.
During the whole of the 16th century the Portuguese disputed with the Mahommedans the supremacy of the Indian seas, and the antagonism between Christianity and Islam became gradually more intense, until the Portuguese power assumed a purely religious aspect.
The massacre of Amboyna in 1623 led the English East India Company to retire from the Eastern seas to the continent of India, and thus, though indirectly, contributed to the foundation of the British Indian empire.
The long naval wars and bloody battles between the English and the Dutch within the narrow seas were not terminated until William of Orange united the two crowns in 1689.
From this date onwards India and the Persian Gulf lay open to the English as far as Portugal was concerned, and before Portugal broke loose from Spain in 1640 her supremacy in Asiatic seas was hopelessly lost.
When Portugal emerged in 1640 from her sixty years' captivity to Spain, she found that her power in the Eastern seas had passed to the Dutch, and thenceforward the struggle lay between the Dutch and the English.
Wherever the English went they were met by the hostility of the Portuguese; and on the 29th of November 1612 the Portuguese admiral with four ships attempted to capture the English vessels under Captain Best at Swally, off the mouth of the Tapti river; but the Portuguese were severely defeated, to the great astonishment of the natives, and that action formed the beginning of British maritime supremacy in Indian seas.
The surrounding seas contain great numbers of fish; the coral reefs abound with a great variety of molluscs; and there are numerous land-shells.
Such are the Mediterranean Sea and the Caribbean Sea, connected with the Atlantic Ocean; the Arabian Sea, a division of the Indian Ocean, and the China and Japan Seas of the western Pacific Ocean.
The edentates are represented by the pangolin (Manis sp.?) of the Palawan group. In the seas are found the dolphin, cachalot and dugong.
An inhabitant of the most northern seas, examples, most commonly young birds of the year, find their way in winter to more temperate shores.
In the article Deportation it is shown how the discoveries in the southern seas led to the adoption of penal exile in preference to other suggested improvements in the English prison systems. The penitentiary scheme proposed by Howard was not, however, abandoned.
The remnant of the republican party took refuge either with Brutus and Cassius in the East, or with Sextus Pompeius, who had made himself master of the seas.
On his way at Puteoli, the passengers and crew of a ship just come from Alexandria cheered the old man by their spontaneous homage, declaring, as they poured libations, that to him they owed life, safe passage on the seas, freedom and fortune.
The influences and motives and processes which led to the result were many and varied, but ultimately in one way or another it became the religion of Europe and of the nations founded by the European races beyond the seas and in the northern part of Asia called Siberia.
The swamps and rivers, as well as the surrounding seas, swarm with fish.
The natives of the coasts of Borneo, assisted and stimulated by immigrants from the neighbouring islands to the north, devoted themselves more and more to organized piracy, and putting to sea in great fleets manned by two and three thousand men on cruises that lasted for two and even three years, they terrorized the neighbouring seas and rendered the trade of civilized nations almost impossible for a prolonged period.
As in Phoenicia, pressure created by the narrow limits of the home country coincided with an adventurous desire to seek new sources of wealth beyond seas; but very many Greek emigrations were caused by the expulsion of the inhabitants of conquered cities, or by the intolerable domination of a hated but triumphant faction within the native state.
In the problems of government raised by the organization of the British dominions beyond the seas the system of colonization has been developed to an extent unknown under any other national flag.
Corals, Archaeocyathus, Spirocyathus, &c., lived in the Cambrian seas along with starfishes (Palaeasterina), Cystideans, Protocystiles, Trochocystites and possibly Crinoids, Dendrocrinus.
It is a striking fact that certain of these nonarticulate "lamp-shells" are familiar inhabitants of our present seas.
The Cambrian rocks previ-, ously described are all such as would result from deposition, in comparatively shallow seas, of the products of degradation of land surfaces by the ordinary agents of denudation.
Over the land areas thus formed, the seas in Cambrian time gradually spread, laying down first the series known as Lower Cambrian, then by further encroachment on the land the wider spread Upper Cambrian deposits - in Europe, the middle series is the most extensive.
Species occur in all seas of the temperate, tropical and subtropical zones.
It is now represented in all seas and lands, in fresh-water lakes and streams, and even in warm springs.
Three other smaller species of the genus are known, and each is more widely distributed than those just mentioned, but the home of all is in the more northern parts of the earth, though in winter two of them go very far south, and, crossing the equator, show themselves on the seas that wash the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand and Peru.
The same period was marked by the discovery of America, the exploration of the Indian seas, and the consolidation of the Spanish nationality.
They, following the lead of Portuguese and Spaniards, combating the Counter-Reformation on the seas, opened for England her career of colonization and plantation.
In the 5th century it suffered like Corinth from the commercial rivalry of Athens in the western seas, and was repeatedly harassed by flying squadrons of Athenian ships.
With the Earth are grouped the tablets to the five lofty Mountains, the three Hills of perpetual peace and the four Seas, the five celebrated Mountains and the four great Rivers.
If the islands in British seas are included, the area is increased to 120,953 sq.
As to the seas, the formation of ice on the west and south coasts is rare, but in the central and northern parts of the Baltic drift-ice and a fringe of solid ice along the coast arrests navigation from the end of December to the beginning of April.
The common and grey seals are met with in the neighbouring seas, and Phoca foetida is confined to the Baltic. Among birds by far' the greater proportion is migrant.
The herring, cod, flatfish, mackerel and sprat are taken in the seas, and also great numbers of a small herring called striimnaing.
Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof.
Among the marine productions on the southern coast, a species of kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, merits special mention because of its extraordinary length, its habit of clinging to the rocks in strong currents and turbulent seas, and its being a shelter for innumerable species of marine animals.
The genus Ostrea has a world-wide distribution, in tropical and temperate seas; seventy species have been distinguished.
The slave trade having in the same year been declared illegal by the British parliament, slaves captured by British vessels in the neighbouring seas were brought to Freetown, and thus the population of the colony grew.
Illegal imprisonment beyond seas renders the offender liable in an action by the injured party to treble costs and damages to the extent of not less than £50o, besides subjecting him to the penalties of praemunire and to other disabilities.
The court of king's bench has also issued the writ to the king's foreign dominions beyond seas, e.g.
Its landscapes are on a small scale; it has no vast plains, no inland seas, no mountain as high as 7000 ft.
Early in this century both England and Scotland had their " conservators " with " jurisdiction to do justice between merchant and merchant beyond the seas "; but France led the way.
Where an offence has been committed on the high seas, or aboard ashore, by British seamen or apprentices, the consul makes inquiry on oath, and may send home the offender and witnesses by a British ship, particulars for the Board of Trade being endorsed on the agreement for conveyance.
We next find him, as legate, in command of a fleet which kept the seas between Delos and Sicily, while Pompey was suppressing the pirates, and he even won the " naval crown," a coveted reward of personal prowess.
Situated in the geographical centre of the European continent, at about equal distance from all the European seas, enclosed by high mountains, and nevertheless easily accessible through Moravia from the Danubian plain and opened by the valley of the Elbe to the German plain, Bohemia was bound to play a leading part in the cultural development of Europe.
The British government made an offer in 1907 to reduce the export of Indian opium to countries beyond the seas by 5100 chests, i.e.
The sperm-whale is one of the most widely distributed of animals, being met with, usually in herds or "schools," in almost all tropical and subtropical seas, and occasionally visiting the northern seas, a number having been killed around the Shetlands a few years ago.
To the end of the First Civil War, Batten continued to patrol the English seas, and his action in 1647 in bringing into Portsmouth a number of Swedish ships of war and merchantmen, which had refused the customary salute to the flag, was approved by parliament.
The commerce and shipping of Schleswig-Holstein, stimulated by its position between two seas, as well as by its excellent harbours and waterways, are much more prominent than its manufactures.
Nausithoe, a small medusa of world-wide distribution, is the type of the subfamily Nausithoidae; the subfamily Linergidae includes the genera Linerges, &c., medusae confined to tropical seas.
Many of the larger species of Crustacea are used as food by man, the most valuable being the lobster, which is caught in large quantities on both sides of the North Altantic. Perhaps the most important of all Crustacea, however, with respect to the part which they play in the economy of nature, are the minute pelagic Copepoda, of which incalculable myriads form an important constituent of the " plankton " in all the seas of the globe.
But native caprice and jealousy of the growing force of the European nations in these seas, and the rivalries between those nations themselves, were destructive of sound trade; and the English factory, though several times set up, was never long maintained.
All we can say is, that in those remote times what is now England had no existence; its site was occupied by seas which were tenanted by marine invertebrates, long since extinct.
As for the boundaries of these ancient seas, we can say nothing with certainty, but it is of interest to note the evidence we possess of still older land conditions, such as we have in the old rocks of Shropshire, &c. In the Devonian period it is clear that an elevatory movement had set in towards the north, which gave rise to the formation of inland lakes and narrow estuaries in which the Old Red Sandstone rocks were formed, while in the south of England lay the sea with a vigorous coral fauna.
Desert conditions, with confined inland seas, marked the Permian and Triassic periods.
The western and northern coasts are regular in outline with long straight beaches; and shallows are common in the seas that wash them.
It is, however, the fish and the fur-bearing animals of its rivers and surrounding seas that are economically most distinctive of and important to Alaska.
Autumn storms raise dangerous seas.
He writes to correspondents making enquiries about the tides in the Euxine and Caspian Seas.
The dolphins, bottle-noses, or, as they are more commonly called, "porpoises," are found in abundance in all seas, while some species are inhabitants of large rivers, as the Amazon.
During this time he could hear "the trailing garments of the night sweep through her marble halls," and see "the stars come out to listen to the music of the seas."
In order to obtain food, they venture naked in small canoes into the treacherous seas; their life is a constant battle with starvation and a rude climate, and their character has become rude and low in consequence.
He devoted no less attention to the increase of Corinthian commerce, which in his days plied busily on both eastern and western seas.
Land tortoises have also disappeared,' but one freshwater species (Sternothaerus sinuatus) is still found; and the adjacent seas contain many turtles.
The neighbouring seas abound in fish.
Bananas, yams, &c., were also largely cultivated, and there was considerable trade in coco-nut oil, timber, fish and fish oil and tortoise-shell, whaling being carried on, chiefly by Americans and French, in the neighbouring seas.
Though then uninhabited there is a strong tradition, probably well founded, that the Seychelles had been from Arab times a rendezvous of the pirates and corsairs who infested the high seas between South Africa and India.
Thus the state is to be conceived, in geological history, as gradually built up around an Archean island in successive seas, the whole of the state becoming dry land after the post-Carboniferous uplift.
A second draft allowed the man who had the military equipment complete, but not fully the five hides of land, to slip into the list, and also the merchant who has fared thrice over the high seas at his own expense.
In the next year he returned in arms, raised Wessex in revolt, and compelled the king to in-law him again, to restore his earldom, and to dismiss with ignominy the Norman favorites who were hunted over seas.
But Henry, once hailed as king, rode hard for London and persuaded bishop Maurice to crown him without delay at Westminster, since the primate Anseim was absent beyond seas.
Unlike his grandfather he dwelt for the greater part of his time beyond seas.
After this John1s spirits rose, and he talked of crossing the seas himself to recover Normandy and Anjou.
But most of all did they dislike his practice of flooding England with strangers from beyond seas, for whom offices and endowments had to be found.
At the same time the barons, headed by the earls of Norfolk and Hereford, raised the old grievance about feudal service beyond seas, which had been so prominent in the time of King John.
The victory of Sluys, which gave England the command of the seas, had been a great landmark in the economic no less than in the naval history of this island.
The seaports soon recovered from their losses in the Black Death, and English shipping was beginning to appear in the distant seas of Portugal and the Baltic. Nothing illustrates the growth of English wealth better than the fact that the kingdom had, till the time of Edward IlL, contrived to conduct all its commerce with a currency of small silver, but that within thirty years of his introduction of a gold coinage in 1343, the English noble was being struck in enormous quantities.
Since Sluys the enemy had never disputed the command of the seas; but in 1372 a Spanish fleet- joined the French, and destroyed off La Rochelle a squadron which was bringing reinforcements for Guienne.
The only result of the two expeditions was to give the English soldiery a poor opinion of French military capacity, and a notion that money was easily to be got from the distracted realm beyond the narrow seas.
For a moment the quarrel of York and Somerset was suspended, and the last English army that crossed the seas during theHundredYearsWar landed in Guienne, joined the insurgents, and for a time swept all before it.
Prosperity seems to have revived early during the rule of York; Warwick had cleared the seas of pirates, and both he and King Edward were great patrons of commerce, though the earls policy was to encourage trade with France, while his master wished to knit up the old alliance with Flanders by adhering Corn- to the cause of Charles of Burgundy.
But in the next year he corrupted his warders, broke out from his prison, and tried to escape beyond seas.
At length the armada sailed in July under the incompetent duke of Medina Sidonia; its object was to secure command of the narrow seas and facilitate the transport of Parmas army from the Netherlands to England.
It is impossible to estimate how far this legend commemorates some actual but imperfectly recorded discovery, and how far it is a reminiscence of the ancient idea of an elysium in the western seas which is embodied in the legends of the Isles of the Blest or Fortunate Islands.
The bottle-noses (Hyperoodon) are restricted to the North Atlantic, never entering, so far as known, the tropical seas.
The pigmy whale (Neobalaena marginata), for instance, has only been met with in the seas round Australia, New Zealand and South America, while a beaked whale (Berardius arnouxi) appears to be confined to the New Zealand seas.
It is remarkable that none of the great lakes or inland seas of the world is inhabited by cetaceans.
The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.
The most remarkable circumstance connected with the distribution of seals is the presence of members of the order in the three isolated great lakes or inland seas of Central Asia - the Caspian, Aral and Baikal - which, notwithstanding their long isolation, have varied but slightly from species now inhabiting the Polar Ocean.
Besides the above-named there are many other Gramineae, such as Lasiagrostis splendens, the whole seas of Scabiosae.
Though fruit-trees will not bear there is an abundance of edible berries; the rivers and lakes abound with trout, perch, pike and other fish, and in the lower waters with salmon; and the cod, herring, halibut and Greenland shark in the northern seas attract numerous Norwegian and Russian fishermen.
There are numerous species of seals; and the seas abound in whales.
He, nevertheless, used telescopes to good purpose in his studies of lunar topography, and his designations for the chief mountainchains and " seas " of the moon have never been superseded.
Petrels are archaic oceanic forms, with great powers of flight, dispersed throughout all the seas and oceans of the world, and some species apparently never resort to land except for the purpose of nidification, though nearly all are liable at times to be driven ashore, and often very far inland, by gales of wind.'
They are skilful cultivators and good boat-builders, the carpenters, being an hereditary caste; there are also tribes of fishermen and sailors; their mats, baskets, nets, cordage and other fabrics are substantial and tasteful; their pottery, made, like many of the above articles, by women, is far superior to any other in the South Seas; but many native manufactures have been supplanted by European goods.
It is encircled by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the east is separated from Great Britain by narrow shallow seas, towards the north by the North Channel, the width of which at the narrowest part between the Mull of Cantire (Scotland) and Torr Head is only 132 m.; in the centre by the Irish Sea, 130 m.
From Permian times onward, in fact, the Irish area lay on the western margin of the seas that played so large a part in determining the geology of Europe.
It seems likely that it was separated from the British region shortly before the glacial epoch, and that some of the ice which then abutted on the country travelled across shallow seas.
During Green's " reign " the economic condition of Tristan was considerably affected by the desertion of the neighbouring seas by the whalers; this was largely due to the depredations of the Confederate cruisers " Alabama " and " Shenandoah " during the American Civil War, many whaling boats being captured and burnt by them.