Who made the earth and the seas, and everything?
The Australian seas are inhabited by many fishes of the same genera as exist in the southern parts of Asia and Africa.
The Protector, however, did not live to witness the final triumph of his undertaking, which gave to England, as he had wished," the mastery of those seas,"ensuring the English colonies against Spanish attacks, and being maintained and followed up at the Restoration.
The gar-fish and flying-fishes are numerous, extending into the seas of Europe.
Excellent fish of many varieties abound in the Australian seas and in many of the rivers.
He was the first to attempt to open a trade route with Tibet, and to organize a survey of Bengal and of the eastern seas.
The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.
The Polynemidae, which range from the Atlantic through the Indian Ocean to the Pacific, supply animals from which isinglass is prepared; one of them, the mango-fish, esteemed a great delicacy, inhabits the seas from the Bay of Bengal to Siam.
There was barely room to maneuver, and she found herself standing on her tiptoes to keep track of Evelyn, who had no trouble with the people around her parting the seas for her.
Chagrined at finding no notice taken of a wild scheme for founding a military colony in the South Seas which he had submitted to Pitt, he turned to Irish politics.
Masudi, a great traveller who knew from personal experience all the countries between Spain and China, described the plains, mountains and seas, the dynasties and peoples, in his Meadows of Gold, an abstract made by himself of his larger work News of the Time.
The Stromateidae, or pomfrets, resemble the dory, a Mediterranean form, and extend to China and the Pacific. The sword fishes, Xiphiidae, the lancet fishes, Acanthuridae, and the scabbard fishes, Trichuridae, are distributed through the seas of south Asia.
The chief success of the government lay in the field of foreign politics, where it prudently avoided entanglement in the ambitious schemes of Hellenistic monarchs, but gained great prestige by energetic interference against aggressors who threatened the existing balance of power or the security of the seas.
In 1569 William in his capacity as sovereign prince of Orange issued letters-of-marque to a number of vessels to prey upon the Spanish commerce in the narrow seas.
11) the fleet of Alva on the Zuyder Zee was Alva with- completely defeated by the Sea-Beggars and its Death of seas.
It is the duty of a debtor to pay a debt without waiting for any demand, and, unless there is a place fixed on either by custom or agreement, he must seek out his creditor for the purpose of paying him unless he is "beyond the seas."
The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
Fish are very numerous and many species are peculiar to the Andaman seas.
- In the Hydromedusae the medusa-individual occurs, as already stated, in one of two conditions, either as an independent organism leading a true life c2 a2 in the open seas, or as a subordinate individuality in the hydroid c colony, from which it is never set free; it then becomes a mere reproductive appendage or gono- phore, losing suc FIG.
70, 71), common in the Mediterranean and other seas.
The conception of the north-western route to Cathay now leads the story of exploration, for the first time as far as important and sustained efforts are concerned, towards the Arctic seas.
"The nodules, having been imbued with phosphatic matter from their matrix in the London Clay, were dislodged," says Buckland, "by the waters of the seas of the first period, and accumulated by myriads at the bottom of those shallow seas where is now the coast of Suffolk.
Constant use, increased friction (m o r e especially at high speeds), and damage to the rotator will alter an ascertained log error; head or following seas, strong winds, currents and tidal streams also FIG.
From the fact that turnstones may be met with at almost any season in various parts of the world, and especially on islands as the Canaries, Azores, and many of those in the British seas, it has been inferred that these birds may breed in such places.
The White, Barents and Kara Seas of the Arctic bound it on the N., and the northern Pacific - that is, the Seas of Bering, Okhotsk and Japan - bounds it on the E.
This desert is now filled to only a small extent by the salt waters of the Caspian, Aral and Balkash inland seas; but it bears unmistakable traces of having been during Post-Pliocene times an immense inland basin.
The Pliocene appears only in the coast region of the Black and Azov Seas, but it is widely developed in the Aral-Caspian region, where, however, the Ust-Urt and the Obshchiy Syrt rose above the sea.
The Black Sea, the fauna of which appears to be very rich, belongs to the Mediterranean region, slightly modified, while the Caspian partakes of the characteristic fauna inhabiting the lakes and seas of the Aral-Caspian depression.
And these proportions represent fairly well the tonnages entering and clearing at the ports of these respective seas.
The legions at once joined him; numbers of Franks enlisted in his service; an increased and well-equipped fleet secured him the command of the neighbouring seas.
Below the north-east declivity of this range lies Georgia, on the other side of which province rises the Caucasus, the boundary of Asia and Europe between the Caspian and Black Seas, the highest points of which reach an elevation of nearly 19,000 ft.
The area between the northern border of the Persian high lands and the Caspian and Aral Seas is a nearly desert low-lying plain, extending to the foot of the north - western extremity of the great Tibeto-Himalayan mountains, and prolonged east- Trans- ward up the valleys of the Oxus (Amu-Darya) and Caspian Jaxartes (Syr-Darya), and northward across the country re ior, and of the Kirghiz to the south-western border of Siberia.
The depression westward of the Caspian and Aral basins, and the original connexion of these seas, have also come under the close investigation of Russian scientists, with the result that the theory of an ancient connexion between the Oxus and the Caspian has been displaced by the more recent hypothesis of an extension of the Caspian Sea eastwards into Trans-Caspian territory within the postPleiocene age.
The present outline of the eastern coast and the nearly enclosed seas which lie between the islands and the mainland, are attributed by Richthofen chiefly to simple faulting.
The extreme of heat near the Caspian and Aral Seas rises to nearly 100° Fahr., while that of cold falls to - 20° Fahr.
The southerly summer winds of the Asiatic seas between the equator and the tropic do not extend to the coasts of Java, and the southeasterly trade winds are there developed in the usual manner.
Among the more remarkable phenomena of the hotter seas of Asia must be noticed the revolving storms or cyclones, which are of frequent occurrence in the hot months in the Indian Ocean and China Sea, in which last they are known under the name of typhoon.
Other allied genera are abundant, and extend from the Indian seas to eastern Africa.
The Squamipennes, or scaly-finned fishes, are principally found in the seas of southern Asia, and especially near coral reefs.
Among the Anacanthini, the cod family so well known in Europe shows but one or two species in the seas of south Asia, though the soles and allied fishes are numerous along the coasts.
The marine eels, Muraenidae, are more numerous towards the Malay Archipelago than in the Indian seas.
The dog-fish also is found, one species extending from the Indian seas to the Cape of Good Hope.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
The ultimate victory of England seems due less to any particular aptitude for dealing with oriental problems than to a better command of the seas and to considerations of European politics.
Richard Howe entered the navy in the "Severn," one of the squadron sent into the south seas with Anson in 1740.
North of the Caucasus ranges the water-divide between these two seas descends from Mount Elbruz along the Sadyrlar Mountains (11,000 ft.), and finally sinks into the Stavropol "plateau" (1600 ft.).
In the seas and rivers about 190 species of fishes have been enumerated.
By retaining nearly all the continental conquests of France, and by recovering every one of those which the British had made at her expense beyond the seas, he achieved a feat which was far beyond the powers even of Louis XIV.
It is certain that he was preparing to renew the struggle for the mastery of the seas and of the Orient, which must break out if he held to his present resolve to found a great colonial empire.
True, England had suffered, but she was mistress of the seas and had won a score of new colonies.
The Expeditionary Force was conveyed across the Channel in perfect safety, and its communications safeguarded; and the German mercantile marine was soon cleared from the seas.
(On the largest of these lions is cut a runic inscription recording an attack on the Piraeus in the 11th century by Norse warriors of the Varangian guard, under Harold Hardrada, afterwards - s047 - king of Norway.) The arsenal suffered frequently and severely from fires, the worst being those of 1509 and 1569; yet such was the wealth of Venice that in the following year she put upon the seas the fleet that crushed the Turks at Lepanto in 1571.
They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.
Mackerel are found in almost all tropical and temperate seas, with the exception of the Atlantic shores of temperate South America.
Of extra-Atlantic species the mackerel of the Japanese seas are the most nearly allied to the European, those of New Zealand and Australia, and still more those of the Indian Ocean, differing in many conspicuous points.
Two of these species occur in the British seas: S.
The Spanish mackerel is, as the name implies, a native of the seas of southern Europe, but single individuals or small schools frequently reach the shores of Great Britain and of the United States.
By the end of 1771 his scientific reputation was such that he was suggested for the post of "astronomer" to Captain Cook's second expedition to the South Seas, but his unorthodox opinions were objectionable to certain members of the board of longitude and the appointment was not ratified.
A shepherd boy named Stephen had appeared, in France, and had induced thousands to follow his guidance: with his boyish army he rode on a wagon southward to Marseilles, promising to lead his followers dry-shod through the seas.
That, too, had begun with a shepherd boy: the leader of the Pastoureaux, like the leader of the children, promised to lead his followers dry-shod through the seas; and tradition even said that this leader, "the master of Hungary," as he was called, was the Stephen of the Children's Crusade.
The original object of the institution of the courts or court seems to have been to prevent or punish piracy and other crimes upon the narrow seas and to deal with questions of prize; tion.
Unfortunately the island has hardly a regular harbour on any part of the coast; from its situation at the meeting, as it were, of seas, the currents in the neighbourhood are strong, and storms are very frequent.
Sieb., of northern seas.
Pheasants, ducks, geese and snipe are abundant, and Dr C. Collingwood in his Naturalist's Rambles in the China Seas mentions .Ardea prasinosceles and other species of herons, several species of fly-catchers, kingfishers, shrikes and larks, the black drongo, the Cotyle sinensis and the Prinia sonitans.
The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant I coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast - a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytheraea petechiana and Modiola teres being most abundant.
The narwhal is an Arctic whale, frequenting the icy circumpolar seas, and rarely seen south of 65° N.
In 1831 and 1833 Great Britain entered into an arrangement with France for a mutual right of search within certain seas, to which most of the other powers acceded; and by the Ashburton treaty (1842) with the United States provision was made for the joint maintenance of squadrons on the west coast of Africa.
meerschwein, although the word is commonly used by sailors to designate all the smaller cetaceans, especially those numerous species which naturalists call "dolphins," it is properly restricted to the common porpoise of the British' seas (Phocaena communis, or P. phocaena).
It is the commonest cetacean in the seas round the British Isles, and not infrequently ascends the Thames, having been seen as high as Richmond; it has also been observed in the Seine at Neuilly, near Paris.
The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.
by the Ionian and Adriatic Seas.
He was the author also of a mathematical work on the use of the astrolabe and of a book (Muhit, " the ocean ") on the navigation of the Indian seas.
The atrophy of the Ottoman sea-power had left the archipelago at the mercy of the Greek war-brigs; piracy flourished; and it became essential in the interests of the commerce of all nations to make some power responsible for the policing of the narrow seas.
Napoleon now modified the simple plan prepared for Latouche Treville, and began laying elaborate plans by which French vessels were to slip out and sail for distant seas, to draw the British fleet after them, and then return to concentrate in the Channel.
The remaining colonial possessions of France, and of Holland, then wholly dependent on her, were conquered by degrees, and the ports in which privateers were fitted out to cruise against British commerce in distant seas were gradually rendered harmless.
The south and west coast of Greenland was then re-discovered by John Davis in July 1585, though previous explorers, as Cortereal, Frobisher and others, had seen it, and at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century the work of Davis (1586-1588), Hudson (1610) and Baffin (1616) in the western seas afforded some knowledge of the west coast.
It might be expected that there should be a decrease in the Greenland seal fisheries, caused by the European and American sealers catching larger quantities every year, especially along the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, and so actually diminishing the number of the animals in the Greenland seas.
The average number of seals killed annually is about 33,000.1 The 1 Owing to representations of the Swedish government in 1874 as to the killing of seals at breeding time on the east coast of Greenland, and the consequent loss of young seals left to die of starvation, the Seal Fisheries Act 1875 was passed in England to provide for the establishment of a close time for seal fishery in the seas in question.
Quiller Couch; A Stevenson Medley (1899); In the South Seas: experiences.
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
The very important activities of the Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer were suspended during the war except in a few local seas.
An entirely new project was an international survey of the Mediterranean and adjacent seas, from the fishery and oceanographical standpoints, by France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, but in 1921 no definite programme had been put in operation.
Samples of water are collected periodically from a number of places in a large sea-area (the North or Norwegian seas, or the English Channel, for instance) at the surface, bottom and a number of intermediate levels.
winds, however, drive it towards the N.E., where it impinges on the shallow seas and shore of northern Europe.
There have been great differences in the seas round Iceland and Greenland with regard to the presence of ice: from the 9th to the 12th centuries there is no evidence (in contemporary accounts) of the presence of much ice in the sea off Greenland, nor was much ice carried by the Labrador current, but from the 13th century onwards we do have evidence that there was very troublesome ice off Greenland.
In general the plankton - and especially the phyto-plankton of the polar and temperate seas - is much more abundant than is that of the sub-tropical and tropical zones.
5 part per million of nitrogen in the above forms. The North Atlantic contains, on the average, about 0.15 part per million and the equatorial seas little more than about o 1 part per million.
- In the temperate seas the two great features are: (1) the outburst of vegetable life in the spring; and (2) the vernal or summer phase of reproduction among animals.
The concentration of these substances is least in the warm equatorial seas and greatest near the poles.
Since there is less of the indispensable food material in the warmer seas there is, therefore, less phyto-plankton.
This is really the case, for all observations show that the Antarctic and Arctic ice-bound seas are enormously rich in diatom life when compared with temperate and tropical regions: the great Antarctic zone of sea-bottom deposit, in which the skeletons of diatoms predominate, covers some ten millions of square miles.
The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.
These trenches have for successive geological periods been the drainage valleys of immense lakes (probably also of glaciers) which formerly extended over the plateau or fiords of the seas which surrounded it.
The Sea of Okhotsk, separated from the Pacific by the Kurile Archipelago and from the Sea of Japan by the islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, is notorious as one of the worst seas of the world, owing to its dense fogs and its masses of floating ice.
They are usually found amongst seaweed in temperate seas, but they are probably widely distributed; some are fresh-water.
Its inland situation gave it relative security against the pirates who then infested West Indian seas, and the misfortunes of Santiago were the fortunes of Bayamo.
Thus Spain laid claim to exclusive dominion over whole oceans, Great Britain to all her environing narrow seas and so on.
Hayes in 1877, and Varina Anne (1864-1898), better known as "Winnie" Davis, the "daughter of the Confederacy," who was the author of several books, including A Sketch of the Life of Robert Emmet (1888), a novel, The Veiled Doctor (1895), and A Romance of Summer Seas (1898).
History There is something almost pathetic in the childish wonder and delight with which mankind in its earlier phases of civilization gathered up and treasured stories of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus, in Albertus Magnus, and even at the present day in the popular treatises of Japan and China.
Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
46), and the commercial activity of the nation has begun to develop beyond the seas (cvii.
That Her Majesty's troops now on the high seas shall not be landed in any part of South Africa."
They inhabit chiefly the northern seas, but many abyssal forms occur between the tropics and in the southern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. They are represented in British waters by eight genera, and about twenty species, only one of which, the burbot (Lola vulgaris), is an inhabitant of fresh waters.
It is a widelydistributed species, being found throughout the northern and temperate seas of Europe, Asia and America, extending as far south as Gibraltar, but not entering the Mediterranean, and inhabits water from 25 to 50 fathoms deep, where it always feeds close to the bottom.
The ship captain ordered the red pennant to be raised on the ship to show that the weather was changing and rough seas were expected.
The tempestuous weather, moreover, created serious damage at most of the landing-places, where solidly constructed jetties were in some instances completely demolished by the seas.
I was looking in the direction of the Europeans who are coming from beyond the seas to tear down thy purdahs and destroy thine empire."
He touched at the haven of Balade (the original name of the island) near the north-western extremity, as did d'Entrecasteaux in 1793, who closely explored the coast and surrounding seas.
European influence was not felt in Arabia until the arrival of the Portuguese in the eastern seas, following on the discovery of the Cape route.
In the 5th century we again hear of piratical incursions by the Heruli in the western seas.
In 1830 he was placed in charge of the division of instruments and charts, and in 1838 was appointed to command an exploring and surveying expedition in the Southern Seas, authorized by Congress in 1836.
The judges who governed the island were always at strife, and, as some of them applied to Pisa and some to Genoa for assistance against one another, the Italian seas were once more stained with blood, and the war burst out again and again, down to 1259, when it terminated in the decisive victory of the Pisans and the consolidation of their supremacy in Sardinia.
treat of the sea and the dry land: they discourse of the seas, the ocean and the great rivers, agricultural operations, metals, precious stones, plants, herbs, with their seeds, grains and juices, trees wild and cultivated, their fruits and their saps.
FitzGerald very justly attributed the landscape character of Tennyson's genius to the impress left on his imagination by "old Lincolnshire, where there were not only such good seas, but also such fine hill and dale among the wolds."
All are centred in a small village opposite Mou Rambu Point on the west or lagoon side; but most of the men are generally absent, many being employed with the Lascar crews on board the large liners plying in the eastern seas.
It need scarcely be said that these restricted approaches give littlc access to the storms which disturb the seas outside.
Nearly along the boundary between the two zones lie the inland seas of south Japan.
Among the martens there is a weasel (itachi), which, though useful as a ratkiller, has the evil repute of being responsible for sudden and mysterious injuries to human beings; there is a river-otter (kawauso), and there is a sea-otter (rakko) which inhabits the northern seas and is highly valued for its beautiful pelt.
It thus falls out that in spite of the enormous quantity of fish consumed as food or used as fertilizers year after year by the Japanese, the seas remain as richly stocked as ever.
Milne Edwards has identified ten species which occur in Australian seas also, and Rein mentions, as belonging to the same category, the helmet-crab or horse-shoe crab (kabuto-gani, Limulus longispina I-Ioeven).
Very remarkable is the giant Taka-ashi long legs (Macrocheirus Kaempfeni), which has legs 14 metres long and is found in the seas of Japan and the Malay archipelago.
Greeff enumerates, as denizens of Japanese seas, 26 kinds of seaurchins (gaze or uni) and 12 of starfish (hitode or tako-no-makura).
But his greatest immediate peril during1689-1690came from the circumstance that the French disputed the mastery of the seas with the Anglo-Dutch fleet, and that Ireland was strongly for King James.
All are inhaoitants of the tropical Indo-Pacific ocean, and most numerous in and about the Persian Gulf, in the East Indian Archipelago, and in the seas between S.
He aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean.
In 367 Athens and Thebes sent rival ambassadors to Persia, with the result that Athens was actually ordered to abandon her claim to Amphipolis, and to remove her navy from the high seas.
Unlike the other wings of the great central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the north-east.
They occur in mud and on sea-weeds at the bottom of shallow seas below low-water mark and devour organic debris.
Balance of Emigration and Immigration.-Even in the case of emigration from Europe to countries beyond the seas there is some return movement.
Temporary Emigration.-In many European countries there is not only emigration beyond seas, but a very considerable movement to neighbouring countries in search of work, and generally with the intention of returning.
to countries beyond seas) numbered, in 1905, 447, 08 3; the "temporary" emigration to European or Mediterranean countries amounted to 279,248.
Those who go find means of bettering their own condition beyond the seas, where they become producers of food and raw material for the home country, and at the same time customers for her manufactured products.
On the 12th of May 1652 an English officer, Captain Young, stopped a Dutch convoy near the Start in order to enforce the salute to the English flag, which England then demanded from all who used the seas round her coast.
Where the ocean touches the continents the margin is in places deeply indented by peninsulas and islands marking off portions of the water surface which from all antiquity have been known as " seas."
These seas are entirely dependent on the ocean for their regime, being filled with ocean water, though subject to influence by the land, and the tides and currents of the ocean affect them to a greater or less extent.
Seas may be classified according to their form either as " enclosed " or as " partially enclosed " (or " fringing ").
Enclosed seas extend deeply into the land and originate either by the breaking through of the ocean or by the overflowing of a subsiding area.
Four great intercontinental enclosed seas are included between adjacent continents - the Arctic Sea, the Central American or West Indian Sea, the Australo-Asiatic or Malay Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
There are also four smaller continental enclosed seas each with a single channel of communication with the ocean, viz.
The fringing or partially enclosed seas adjoin the great land masses and are only separated from the oceans by islands or peninsulas.
The four fringing seas of eastern Asia, those of Bering, Okhotsk, Japan and East China, are arranged parallel to the main lines of dislocation in the neighbouring land-masses, and so are the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of California.
On the contrary, the North Sea, the British fringing seas (English Channel, Irish Sea and Minch), and the Gulf of St Lawrence cross the main lines of dislocation.
In addition to these seas notice must be taken of the subordinate marginal features, such as gulfs and straits.
between tropical and polar seas.
" Challenger " round the world says " of measured seas the Sardonian is the deepest with full under the scientific direction of Sir Wyville Thomson and the one thousand fathoms " (i.
The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.
Calculating from sheet A I of the Prince of Monaco's Atlas of Ocean Depths,' Kriimmel obtained a mean angle of slope of 0° 2 7 ' 44" or an average fall of i in 124 for the North Atlantic between o° and 47° N., the enclosed seas being left out of account.
The continental shelves include not only the oceanic border of the continents but also great areas of the enclosed seas and particularly of the fringing seas, the origin of which through secular subsidence is often very clearly apparent, as for instance in the North Sea and the tract lying off the mouth of the English Channel.
The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
The greatest of the intercontinental seas, the Arctic, comes nearest to oceanic conditions in the extent and depth of its depressions.
The Black Sea, connected with the Mediterranean by long and narrow channels, is occupied in the north by an extensive shelf on which Mean Depths of Oceans and Seas.
The smaller enclosed seas are for the most part very shallow.
The fringing seas as a rule show little variety of submarine relief.
Most of the other seas of this class are formed on a common plan.
The area, general depth and total volume of the oceans and principal seas have been recalculated by Krt mmel, and the accompanying table presents these figures.
As so defined the hemipelagic deposits are those which occur in general on the slope from the continental shelves to the ocean depths and also in the deep basins of enclosed and fringing seas.
When the proportion of calcium carbonate in the blue mud is considerable there results a calcareous ooze, which when found on the continental slope and in enclosed seas is largely composed of remains of deep-sea corals and bottom-living foraminif era, pelagic organisms including pteropods being less frequently represented.
The manganese nodules afford the most ample proof of the prodigious period of time which has elapsed since the formation of the red clay began; the sharks' teeth and whales' ear-bones which serve as nuclei belong in some cases to extinct species or even to forms derived from those familiar in the fossils from the seas of the Tertiary period.
The process of natural evaporation in the salines or salt gardens of the margin of warm seas made the composition of sea-salt familiar at a very early time, and.
On the authority of the first meeting of the International Conference for the Study of the Northern European Seas at Stockholm in 1899 Martin Knudsen, assisted by Karl Forch and S.
For the north European seas disks of about 18 or 20 in.
In shallow seas the transparency is always reduced in rough weather.
The colour of ocean water far from land is an almost pure blue, and all the variations of tint towards green are the result of local disturbances, the usual cause being turbidity of some kind, and this in the high seas is almost always due to swarms of plankton.
The northern seas have an increasing tendency towards green, the Irminger Sea showing 5-9 Forel, while in the North Sea the water is usually a pure green (io-14 Forel), the western Mediterranean shows 5-9 Forel, but the eastern is as blue as the open ocean (0-2 Forel).
Brown or even blood-red stripes have been observed in the North Atlantic when swarms of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were present; the brown alga Trichodesmium erythraeum, as its name suggests, can change the blue of the tropical seas to red; swarms of diatoms may produce olive-green patches in the ocean, while some other forms of minute life have at times been observed to give the colour of milk to large stretches of the ocean surface.
The salinity of enclosed seas naturally varies much more than that of the open ocean.
The fresher enclosed seas include the Malay and the East Asiatic fringing seas with 30 to 34.5 per mille, the Gulf of St Lawrence with 30 to 31, the North Sea with 35 north of the Dogger Bank diminishing to 32 further south, and the Baltic, which freshens rapidly from between 25 to 31 in the Skagerrak to 7 or 8 eastward of Bornholm and to practically fresh water at the heads of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.
As yet it is only possible to speak with confidence of the vertical distribution of salinity in the seas surrounding Europe, where there is a general increase of salinity with depth.
Evaporation is naturally greatest in the enclosed seas of the nearly rainless subtropical zone such as the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
Buchan's discussion of the two-hourly observations on the " Challenger " the total range between the daily maximum and minimum in the warmer seas is between o 7° and o 8° F., and for the colder seas still less (0.2° F.), compared with 3.2° F.
frequently occurs in the western part of the tropical Pacific, while among seas the Persian Gulf reaches 96° F., only 2° under blood-heat, and the Red Sea follows closely with a maximum of 94°.
Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.
In autumn the enclosed seas of high latitudes frequently present a thermal stratification in which a warm middle layer is sandwiched between a cold upper layer and a cold mass below, the arrangement being termed mesothermic (thaos, middle).
The marginal rises and continental shelves prevent this cold bottom water from penetrating into the depths of the enclosed and fringing seas.
39.6° F., not even at the bottom of the great Bartlett Deep in 3439 fathoms. Such homothermic masses of water are characteristic of all deep enclosed seas.
Thus in the Malay Sea the various minor seas or basins are homothermic below the depth of the rim, at the temperature prevailing at that depth in the open ocean: in the China Sea below 875 fathoms with 36.5° F.; in the Sulu Sea (depth 2550 fathoms) below 400 fathoms with 50 5° F.; in the Celebes Sea below 820 fathoms with 38.6° F.; in the Banda Sea below 902 fathoms with 37.9° F.
In other enclosed seas which are shut off from the ocean by a very shallow sill the rule holds good that the homothermic water below the level of the sill is at the lowest temperature reached by the surface water in the coldest season of the year, provided always that the stratification of salinity is such as to permit of convection being set up. To this group belongs the Arctic Sea; the Norwegian Sea is homothermic below J50 fathoms at 29.8° F., but this cold water does not penetrate into the Arctic Basin on account of the ridge between Spitsbergen and Greenland, and there the water below 1400 fathoms has a temperature of 30 6° to 30.7° F.
An under-current flows out from the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and from the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar, raising the salinity as well as the temperature of the part of the ocean outside the gates of the respective seas.
In shallow seas such as the North Sea and the British fringing seas, where tidal currents run strong, there is a general mixing together of the surface and deeper water, thus making the arrangement of vertical temperature anathermic in summer and katathermic in winter, while at the transitional periods in spring and autumn it is practically homothermic. Thus at Station E2 of the international series at the mouth of the English Channel in 49° 2 7' N., 4 42' W., the following distribution of temperature F.
Such old sea-ice when prevented from escaping forms the palaeocrystic sea of Nares; but, as a rule, it is carried southward in the .East Greenland and Labrador currents, and melted in the warmer seas of lower latitudes.
Ice also clothes the continental shores of the northern fringing seas of eastern Asia.
Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.
Pettersson's view that ice-melting dominates the 'whole circulation of the oceans and regulates in particular the currents of the seas round northern Europe must, however, be looked on as carrying the explanation too far.
Differences of density between the waters of enclosed seas and of the ocean are brought about in some instances by concentration of the water of the sea on account of active evaporation, and in other instances by dilution on account of the great influx of land water.
A very powerful vertical circulation is thus set up between enclosed seas and the outer ocean.
Scottish Calvinism was destined to exercise no little influence, not only on the history of England, but on the form that the Protestant faith was to take in lands beyond the seas, at the time scarcely known to the Europeans.
And in 1764 in the "Dolphin" he went for a prolonged cruise in the South Seas.
By this Lothair received Italy and the imperial title, together with a stretch of land between the North and Mediterranean Seas lying along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone.
Turning to mints in British Dominions beyond the Seas, Ruding enumerates twenty-six mints in France and Flanders used by British monarchs between 1186 and 1513, and Anglo-Hanoverian coins were struck at Clausthal, Zellerfeld and Hanover in the period 1714-1837.
It is bounded by these two seas on the S., while it has on the N.
Sound,, The, below; (3) to test or measure the depth of anything, particularly the depth of water in lakes or seas (see Sounding, below).
In warmer seas many other kinds of prawns are caught for food.
It inhabits in incredible numbers the North Sea, the northern parts of the Atlantic and the seas north of Asia.
If we exclude the abortive invasion of the Danubian principalities by Prince Alexander Ypsilanti (March 1821), which collapsed ignominiously as soon as it was disavowed by the tsar, the theatre of the war was confined to continental Greece, the Morea, and the adjacent narrow seas.
by the narrow seas separating Ireland from Scotland, the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea, S.
It was also proposed to link up the Elbe and the Danube by a canal which would enable direct transport to be effected from North and Baltic Seas to the Black Sea.
It is sufficient to state here that the medusa is usually a free-swimming animal, floating mouth downwards on the open seas, but in some cases it may be attached by its aboral pole, like a polyp, to some firm basis, either temporarily or permanently.
Sloops of an excellent type were built for work on the high seas, of which the celebrated "Kearsarge" was one.
"Sumter" made a successful cruise on the high seas, and before she was abandoned at Gibraltar had made seventeen prizes.
The mercantile marine of the United States was almost driven off the high seas by the terror of these destructive cruisers.
The Asiatic coasts are for the most part low and irregular, and a number of seas are more or less completely enclosed and cut off from communication with the open ocean.
Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.
The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean.
All the enclosed seas are occupied by characteristic terrigenous deposits.
In the greater depths temperature is extraordinarily uniform, 80% of the existing observations falling within the limits of 1.6° C. and 1.9° C. In the enclosed seas of the western Pacific, temperature usually falls till a depth corresponding to that of the summit of the barriers which isolate them from the open ocean is reached, and below that point temperature is uniform to the bottom.
The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic. The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic. From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.
In the west there is the great looped chain which fringes the east coast of Asia, and with it encloses the series of seas which form parts of the ocean.
there are practically none, and to the north and south of these parallels respectively the islands, though large and numerous, are purely continental, lying close under the mainland, enclosing no seas, and forming no separate political units.
aus der Siidsee (Brunswick, 1899); Robert Louis Stevenson, In the South Seas (London, 1900); A.
This confined sea-water is gradually being displaced by the downward sinking of the rain-water through the rifts of the strata, and thus finds its way to the surface: so that these springs offer to us a share of the ancient seas, in which perhaps a hundred million of years ago the rocks of Kentucky were laid down."
All the fossil plants and animals of every kind are brought from this continent into a great museum; the latitude, longitude and relative elevation of each specimen are precisely recorded; a corps of investigators, having the most exact and thorough training in zoology and botany, and gifted with imagination, will soon begin to restore the geographic and physiographic outlines of the continent, its fresh, brackish and salt-water confines, its seas, rivers and lakes, its forests, uplands, plains, meadows and swamps, also to a certain extent the cosmic relations of this continent, the amount and duration of its sunshine, as well as something of the chemical constitution of its atmosphere and the waters of its rivers and seas; they will trace the progressive changes which took place in the outlines of the continent and its surrounding oceans, following the invasion§ of the land by the sea and the re-emergence of the land and retreatal of the seashore; they will outline the shoals and deeps of its border seas, and trace the barriers which prevented intermingling of the inhabitants of the various provinces of the continent and the surrounding seas.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.
Cattle and sheep are bred, and a trade is carried on in them with the whalers which visit these seas.
TRILOBITES, extinct Arthropoda, formerly classified with the Crustacea, but of late years relegated to the Arachnida, which occurred abundantly in seas of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, but disappeared entirely at the close of the Palaeozoic epoch.
But the French were too weak in these seas for offensive movements, and therefore remained quiescent at Bourbon and Mauritius till the beginning of 1782.
A native of the Arctic seas, it extends in the western Atlantic as far south as the river St Lawrence, which it ascends for a considerable distance.
From the remoter provinces, which had acquiesced in his accession, little help was to be expected; but the legions of Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia were eager in his cause, the praetorian cohorts were in themselves a formidable force and an efficient fleet gave him the mastery of the Italian seas.
Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
KRONSTADT or CRONSTADT, a strongly fortified seaport town of Russia, the chief naval station of the Russian fleet in the northern seas, and the seat of the Russian admiralty.
Inasmuch, however, as the floor on which the overlapping strata rest is, like the rest of the Laurentian and Superior Oldland, a worn-down mountain region, and as the lowest member of the sedimentary series usually contains pebbles of the oldiand rocks, the better interpretation of the relation between the two is that the visible oldiand area of to-day is but a small part of the primeval continent, the remainder of which is still buried under the Palaeozoic cover; and that the visible oldiand, far from being the first part of the continent to rise from the primeval ocean, was the last part of the primeval continent to sink under the advancing Palaeozoic seas.
limestone, and therefore much less elastic rock, than the Cambrian, pointing to clearer seas in which life abounded.
Where the seas were less clear, as in Ohio, the conditions are reflected in the character of the fossils.
That the chalk was deposited in shallow, clear seas is indicated both by the character of the fossils other than foraminifera and by the relation of the chalk to the elastic portions of the series.
At that time fishing, whaling and shipbuilding were its principal industries, the clipper ships built here being among the fastest and best known on the seas.
This portion included the Pribiloff Islands, which are the principal breeding-grounds of the seals frequenting those seas.
2 The areas assigned to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and British Columbia are exclusive of the territorial seas, that to Quebec' is exclusive of the Gulf of St Lawrence (though including the islands lying within it), and that to Ontario is exclusive of the Canadian portion of the Great Lakes.
In 1886 a difference about international rights on the high seas arose on the Pacific coast in connexion with the seal fisheries of Bering Sea.
per quarter; the ocean transport companies carried eight bushels of wheat across the seas in 1901 for the value of one bushel, or exactly at the same ratio as in 1872.
This genus was very abundant in the Secondary epoch, especially in Jurassic seas.
There are six living species, all in Australian seas.
Often the word thus extruded is irrecoverable; Ginevra, 125 sqq., "The matin winds from the expanded flowers I Scatter their hoarded incense and awaken I The earth, until the dewy sleep is shaken From every living heart which it possesses I Through seas and winds, cities and wildernesses"; the second "winds" is a repetition of the first, but what should stand in its place, - "lands" or "strands" or "waves" or something else - no one can say.
In 1648, when Sir William Batten went over to Holland with a portion of his squadron, Ayscue's influence kept a large part of the fleet loyal to the Parliament, and in reward for this service he was appointed the following year admiral of the Irish Seas.
BOTTLENOSE WHALE (Hyperoodon rostratus), a member of the sperm-whale family, which is an inhabitant of the North Atlantic, passing the summer in the Spitzbergen seas and going farther south in winter.
About this date the yacht "Wanderer" cruised in these seas, but her owner, Mr Benjamin Boyd, was kidnapped by the natives and never afterwards heard of.
Government had become aware that a large addition was likely to be made to the number of Russian cruisers employed in this manner, and they had, therefore, to contemplate the possibility that such vessels would shortly be found patrolling the narrow seas which lie on the route from Great Britain to Japan in such a manner as to render it virtually impossible for any neutral vessel to escape their attention.
P. Badger, Hakluyt Soc., 1863, note, pp. 31 and 32) that the name of Bushla or Busba, from the Italian Bussola, though common among Arab sailors in the Mediterranean, is very seldom used in the Eastern seas, - Dairah and Beit el-Ibrah (the Circle, or House of the Needle) being the ordinary appellatives in the Red Sea, whilst in the Persian Gulf Kiblah-n¢meh is in more general use.
Bailak Kibdjaki, also, an Arabian writer, shows in his Merchant's Treasure, a work given to the world in 1282, that the magnetized needle, floated on water by means of a splinter of wood or a reed, was employed on the Syrian seas at the time of his voyage from Tripoli to Alexandria (1242), and adds:"They say that the captains who navigate the Indian seas use, instead of the needle and splinter, a sort of fish made out of hollow iron, which, when thrown into the water, swims upon the surface, and points out the north and south with its head and tail" (Klaproth, Lettre, p. 57).
In Scandinavian records there is a reference to the nautical use of the magnet in the Hauksbok, the last edition of the LandndmabOk (Book of the Colonization of Iceland): - "Floki, son of Vilgerd, instituted a great sacrifice, and consecrated three ravens which should show him the way (to Iceland); for at that time no men sailing the high seas had lodestones up in northern lands."
Shearwaters are found in nearly all the seas and oceans of the world,3 generally within no great distance from the land, though rarely resorting thereto, except in the breeding season.
Rough seas, &c., cause them to seek safety in dropping into deeper water.
Even when cut off from its possessions on the mainland the city itself was not captured; its seafaring trade went on; and though by degrees the colonies were lost, yet the ties of race and sentiment remained strong enough to bind the Phoenicians of the mother-country to their kindred beyond the seas.
For the remarkable flying survey of the south coast by the commandant of the Siboga expedition, exploring the deep seas and fauna of the archipelago, see Bulletin (No.
His object was twofold: first, to obtain the control of the great German rivers the Elbe and the Weser, as a means of securing his dominion of the northern seas; and secondly, to acquire the secularized German bishoprics of Bremen and Werden as appanages for his younger sons.
In the reign of Edward I., whose warlike enterprises after he was king were confined within the four seas, this alteration does not seem to have proceeded very far, and Scotland and Wales were subjugated by what was in the main, if not exclusively, a feudal militia raised as of old by writ to the earls and barons and the sheriffs.'
Travelling generally in companies, and carrying a simple outfit, these Celtic pioneers flung themselves on the continent of Europe, and, not content with reproducing at Annegray or Luxeuil the willow or brushwood huts, the chapel and the round tower, which they had left behind in Derry or in the island of Hy (Iona), they braved the dangers of the northern seas, and penetrated as far as the Faroes and even far distant Iceland.
The Australian Presbyterians have important agencies in the South Seas and in Korea, the Australian Baptists in Bengal, the Canadians of various denominations in the Far North-West of the Dominion, and in India and China.
This is exactly analogous to modern experience in the South Seas, Asia and Africa, to a survey of which we now turn.
Since 1854 teachers from the Hawaiian Islands have worked in the Marquesas, but results here have been less fruitful than anywhere else in the South Seas.
The outstanding features of missionary work in the South Seas are (1) its remarkable success: cannibalism, human sacrifice and infanticide have been suppressed, civilization and trade have marvellously advanced; (2) the evangelical devotion of the natives themselves; (3) the need of continued European supervision, the natives being still in many ways little better than grown-up children.
- In Africa, as in the South Seas, mission work has gone hand in hand with geographical discovery.
- Australia has been referred to already (see South Seas, above).
After encountering many adventures in all parts of the unknown seas, among the lotuseaters and the Cyclopes, in the isles of Aeolus and Circe and the perils of Scylla and Charybdis, among the Laestrygones, and even in the world of the dead, having lost all his ships and companions, he barely escaped with his life to the island of Calypso, where he was detained eight years, an unwilling lover of the beautiful nymph.
The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia, while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas - the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark.
279) states that the Egyptians of Colchis preserved as heirlooms a number of wooden 60as (tablets) showing seas and highways with considerable accuracy.
They have been taken in nearly all seas except the South Atlantic and S.E.
- Numerically, the most important inhabitants of the clear Carboniferous seas were the crinoids, corals, Foraminifera and brachiopods.
Many fish inhabited the Carboniferous seas and most of these were Elasmobranchs, sharks with crushing pavement teeth (Psammodus), adapted for grinding the shells of brachiopods, crustaceans, &c. Other sharks had piercing teeth (Cladoselache and Cladodus); some, the petalodonts, had peculiar cycloid cutting teeth.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
Similar events were meanwhile happening in North America, for the seas were steadily filled with sediments which drove them from the northeast towards the south-west, and doubtless those movements which at the close of this period uplifted the Appalachian mountains were already operative in the same direction.
The abundance of corals in some of the Carboniferous seas and possibly also the large size of some of the Productids and foraminifera may be taken as evidence of warm or temperate waters.
A magnificent Spanish armada consisting of 77 vessels, manned by 24,000 soldiers and sailors under the command of Admiral Oquendo, were sent to the Channel in September with orders to drive the Dutch from the narrow seas and land a large body of troops at Dunkirk.
The circumstances under which the battle of the Downs was won were galling to the pride of the English people, and intensified the growing unfriendliness between two nations, one of whom possessed and the other claimed supremacy upon the seas.
It was the beginning of that struggle for supremacy upon the seas which was to end, after Naval three great wars, in the defeat of the weaker country.
The foreign affairs of the republic were throughout these years ably conducted by de Witt, and the position of Dutch colonial expansion in the Eastern seas made secure and firm.
It is, however, certain that nothing would have driven the Provinces to take part in the war but for the overbearing attitude of the British government with regard to the right of neutral shipping upon the seas, and the heavy losses sustained by Dutch commerce at the hands of British privateers.
They had to sacrifice some of their East Indian possessions and to concede to the English freedom of trade in the Eastern seas.
- There are several varieties of these seals in the seas stretching north from Scotland, around Newfoundland, Greenland and the north-west coast of America, and they are far more numerous than fur seals.
There are fewer hair seals in the southern than in the northern seas.
The first demands of Cromwell were impossible, for they aimed at the absorption of the two republics into a single state, but at last in the autumn of 1654 peace was concluded, by which the Dutch made large concessions and agreed to the striking of the flag to English ships in the narrow seas.
All these works are emphatically of "dark-age" character; very seldom do they suggest the true forms of countries, seas, rivers or mountains, but they embody some useful information as to early medieval conditions and history.
The typical fossils unearthed in these deposits are shells of species now living in both the Caspian and the Aral, though in the shallow parts of both seas only, namely (according to Ivan V.
In 1868 it consisted of ~5 steamers (including 2 ironclads) and 44 sailing vessels, but during the various wars of the period 1848-1871, only a few minor actions were fought at sea, and for many years after the French War the development of the navy did not keep pace with that of the empires commercial interests beyond the seas, or compete seriously with the naval power of possible rivals.
In this connection we hear also of the Heruli, who some twenty years later, about 289, make their appearance in the western seas.
He saw clearly what the possession of the duchies would mean to Germany, their vast importance for the future of German sea-power; already he had a vision of the great war-harbour of Kiel and the canal connecting the Baltic and the North seas; and he was determined that these should be, if not wholly Prussian, at least wholly under Prussian control.
The failure of the great Hamburg house of Godefroy in 1879 threatened to ruin the growing German industries in the South Seas, which it had helped to build up. Bismarck therefore consented to apply to the Reichstag for a state guarantee to a company which would take over its great plantations in Samoa.
Within a few months Germany acquired extended possessions in several parts both of Africa and the South Seas.
Similar events took place in the South Seas.
The Deulsch-Ost-Afrika Gesellschaft, with a capital of ~ 200,000, took over the territories acquired by Dr Peters, and for the South Seas the Neu-Guinea Gesellschaf I, founded by an amalgamation of a number of firms in 1884, received a charter in 1885.
A similar agreement had been made in 1886 regarding the South Seas.
The Marine Society was organized in 1799, its membership being limited to "persons who have actually navigated the seas beyond the Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn, as masters or supercargoes of vessels belonging to Salem"; it assists the widows and children of members.
Its museum, like the ethnological and natural history collection of the Essex Institute, was bought by the Peabody Academy of Science, whose museum now includes Essex county collections (natural history, mineralogy, botany, prehistoric relics, &c.), type collections of minerals and fossils; implements, dress, &c. of primitive peoples, especially rich in objects from Malaysia, Japan and the South Seas; and portraits and relics of famous Salem merchants, with models and pictures of Salem merchant vessels.
The Greek of old Hellas came from a land of islands, peninsulas and inland seas.
With the reinforcement which arrived afterwards he established complete control of the western seas.
The Athenians, though their reserve of 6000 talents was by now almost exhausted (except for 1000 talents in a special reserve), made a tremendous effort (raising 200 talents by a special property tax), and not only prevented an invasion by a demonstration of loo triremes at the Isthmus, but sent Asopius, son of Phormio, to take his place in the western seas.
Paches cleared the Asiatic seas of the enemy, reduced the other towns of Mytilene and returned to Athens with upwards of 1000 prisoners.
Nechos reign a Phoenician ship despatched from Egypt actually circumnavigated Africa, and the attempt was made to complete a canal through the Wadi Tumilat, which connected the Mediterranean and Red Seas by way of the Lower Egyptian Nile.
In six months the greater part of the Arabian peninsula was subject to All Bey, and he appointed as sherif of Mecca a cousin of his own, who bestowed on All by an official proclamation the titles Sultan of Egypt and Khk~n of the Two Seas.
DENMARK (Danmark), a small kingdom of Europe, occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.
It enabled him to prosecute shipbuilding with such energy that, 'by 1550, the royal fleet numbered at least thirty vessels, which were largely employed as a maritime police in the pirate-haunted Baltic and North Seas.
Frederick II., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token of his right to rule the northern seas.
Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.
The resources of the state, which might better have been spent in defending the northern frontier against Sla y s and Huns and the eastern frontier against Persians, were consumed in the conquest of two countries which had suffered too much to be of any substantial value, and which, separated by language as well as by intervening seas, could not be permanently retained.
The one is probably derived from the other, most rock salt deposits bearing evidence of having been formed by the evaporation of lakes or seas.
The proportion of sodium chloride in the water of the ocean, where it is mixed with small quantities of other salts, is on the average about 3.33%, ranging from 2.9% for the polar seas to 3.55% or more at the equator.
Enclosed seas, such as the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Black Sea, the Dead Sea, the Caspian and others, are dependent of course for the proportion and quality of their saline matter on local circumstances (see Ocean) .
In tidal seas a " jas " (or storage reservoir) is constructed alongside, similarly rendered impervious, in which the water is allowed to settle and concentrate to a certain extent.
In non-tidal seas this storage basin is not required.
Even when English churchmen passed beyond the seas, they carried with them their creed, but not their ecclesiastical organization.
&c.) that the Caspian and Aral existed as separate seas before and during all the historic period, and that the main course of the rivers Jaxartes and Oxus was determined in a prehistoric era.
After 1540, however, Venice, as mistress of the seas, guaranteed the safety of Turkish merchant vessels, and provided them with an escort of galleys.
In tidal seas they range from the limits of high water to some distance beyond the low-water line.
The German Plankton Expedition of 1889 added greatly to our knowledge of the floating vegetable life of the North Atlantic Ocean, while many laboratories established on the shores of inland seas and lakes have rendered a similar service in the case of our freshwater phyto-plankton.
His dazzling achievements as a general have obscured his more sober qualities as a ruler, and even the sound strategy, with which he aimed to be master of the narrow seas.
He took to the heather, making for the western seas, hewing his way through the MacDougals at Tyndrum and marching over the mountains to Loch Lomond, which he crossed in a canoe.
The young prince of Scotland, the first James, was on his way to seek safety in France, during an interval of truce, but was captured on the high seas by English cruisers.
But he also fostered a navy, under Sir Andrew Wood, who swept the seas of the English pirates.
The heat is modified at many points on the coast, however, by the cold Humboldt current which sweeps up the west coast of South America from the Antarctic seas.
Few seas are more prolific in fish than the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; the great proportion of known species are edible and many have a commercial value for the isinglass or oil Shelly conglomerates and dead coral reefs of the littoral; red sandhills of the coast of Trucial Oman; alluvium of Turkish Iraq; river and lake deposits of Oman and the interior of Persia.
After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.
He was defeated on the seas and driven first out of Greece and then out of Asia Minor.
to the promontory of the Skaw (Skagen), thus preventing a natural communication directly east and west between the Baltic and North Seas.
The low and dangerous coasts, off which the seas are generally very shallow, are efficiently served by a series of lifeboat stations.
But his second term derives most of its historical interest from the unsuccessful efforts to convict Aaron Burr of treasonable acts in the south-west, and from the efforts made to maintain, without war, the rights of neutrals on the high seas.
During this season the interior of the peninsula and northern India is greatly heated; and the contrast of temperature is not between northern and southern India, but between the interior of India and the coast districts and adjacent seas.
During the whole of the 16th century the Portuguese disputed with the Mahommedans the supremacy of the Indian seas, and the antagonism between Christianity and Islam became gradually more intense, until the Portuguese power assumed a purely religious aspect.
The massacre of Amboyna in 1623 led the English East India Company to retire from the Eastern seas to the continent of India, and thus, though indirectly, contributed to the foundation of the British Indian empire.
The long naval wars and bloody battles between the English and the Dutch within the narrow seas were not terminated until William of Orange united the two crowns in 1689.
From this date onwards India and the Persian Gulf lay open to the English as far as Portugal was concerned, and before Portugal broke loose from Spain in 1640 her supremacy in Asiatic seas was hopelessly lost.
When Portugal emerged in 1640 from her sixty years' captivity to Spain, she found that her power in the Eastern seas had passed to the Dutch, and thenceforward the struggle lay between the Dutch and the English.
Wherever the English went they were met by the hostility of the Portuguese; and on the 29th of November 1612 the Portuguese admiral with four ships attempted to capture the English vessels under Captain Best at Swally, off the mouth of the Tapti river; but the Portuguese were severely defeated, to the great astonishment of the natives, and that action formed the beginning of British maritime supremacy in Indian seas.
The surrounding seas contain great numbers of fish; the coral reefs abound with a great variety of molluscs; and there are numerous land-shells.
Such are the Mediterranean Sea and the Caribbean Sea, connected with the Atlantic Ocean; the Arabian Sea, a division of the Indian Ocean, and the China and Japan Seas of the western Pacific Ocean.
Subdivisions of great seas are similarly defined (e.g.
the Adriatic Sea), and a few large bodies of salt water entirely land-locked are also called seas - e.g.
The edentates are represented by the pangolin (Manis sp.?) of the Palawan group. In the seas are found the dolphin, cachalot and dugong.
An inhabitant of the most northern seas, examples, most commonly young birds of the year, find their way in winter to more temperate shores.
In the article Deportation it is shown how the discoveries in the southern seas led to the adoption of penal exile in preference to other suggested improvements in the English prison systems. The penitentiary scheme proposed by Howard was not, however, abandoned.
The remnant of the republican party took refuge either with Brutus and Cassius in the East, or with Sextus Pompeius, who had made himself master of the seas.
On his way at Puteoli, the passengers and crew of a ship just come from Alexandria cheered the old man by their spontaneous homage, declaring, as they poured libations, that to him they owed life, safe passage on the seas, freedom and fortune.
The influences and motives and processes which led to the result were many and varied, but ultimately in one way or another it became the religion of Europe and of the nations founded by the European races beyond the seas and in the northern part of Asia called Siberia.
The swamps and rivers, as well as the surrounding seas, swarm with fish.
The natives of the coasts of Borneo, assisted and stimulated by immigrants from the neighbouring islands to the north, devoted themselves more and more to organized piracy, and putting to sea in great fleets manned by two and three thousand men on cruises that lasted for two and even three years, they terrorized the neighbouring seas and rendered the trade of civilized nations almost impossible for a prolonged period.
As in Phoenicia, pressure created by the narrow limits of the home country coincided with an adventurous desire to seek new sources of wealth beyond seas; but very many Greek emigrations were caused by the expulsion of the inhabitants of conquered cities, or by the intolerable domination of a hated but triumphant faction within the native state.
In the problems of government raised by the organization of the British dominions beyond the seas the system of colonization has been developed to an extent unknown under any other national flag.
Corals, Archaeocyathus, Spirocyathus, &c., lived in the Cambrian seas along with starfishes (Palaeasterina), Cystideans, Protocystiles, Trochocystites and possibly Crinoids, Dendrocrinus.
It is a striking fact that certain of these nonarticulate "lamp-shells" are familiar inhabitants of our present seas.
The Cambrian rocks previ-, ously described are all such as would result from deposition, in comparatively shallow seas, of the products of degradation of land surfaces by the ordinary agents of denudation.
Over the land areas thus formed, the seas in Cambrian time gradually spread, laying down first the series known as Lower Cambrian, then by further encroachment on the land the wider spread Upper Cambrian deposits - in Europe, the middle series is the most extensive.
2 (Kristiania 1915), contains oceanographical investigations in the Barents and Greenland seas.
Species occur in all seas of the temperate, tropical and subtropical zones.
lanceolatus, is found in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, and on the coasts of France, Great Britain and Scandinavia, while a closely allied species or subspecies, A.
It is now represented in all seas and lands, in fresh-water lakes and streams, and even in warm springs.
and VI., and from that country they have spread, mostly since 1870, nearly all over western Europe, as well as to the AngloSaxon world beyond the seas; but are scarcely apparent in countries where the Roman church has a strong hold on the people.
Three other smaller species of the genus are known, and each is more widely distributed than those just mentioned, but the home of all is in the more northern parts of the earth, though in winter two of them go very far south, and, crossing the equator, show themselves on the seas that wash the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand and Peru.
The same period was marked by the discovery of America, the exploration of the Indian seas, and the consolidation of the Spanish nationality.
They, following the lead of Portuguese and Spaniards, combating the Counter-Reformation on the seas, opened for England her career of colonization and plantation.
In the 5th century it suffered like Corinth from the commercial rivalry of Athens in the western seas, and was repeatedly harassed by flying squadrons of Athenian ships.
With the Earth are grouped the tablets to the five lofty Mountains, the three Hills of perpetual peace and the four Seas, the five celebrated Mountains and the four great Rivers.
AVALON (also written Avallon, Avollon, Avilion and Avelion), in Welsh mythology the kingdom of the dead, afterwards an earthly paradise in the western seas, and finally, in the Arthurian romances, the abode of heroes to which King Arthur was conveyed after his last battle.
If the islands in British seas are included, the area is increased to 120,953 sq.
As to the seas, the formation of ice on the west and south coasts is rare, but in the central and northern parts of the Baltic drift-ice and a fringe of solid ice along the coast arrests navigation from the end of December to the beginning of April.
The common and grey seals are met with in the neighbouring seas, and Phoca foetida is confined to the Baltic. Among birds by far' the greater proportion is migrant.
The herring, cod, flatfish, mackerel and sprat are taken in the seas, and also great numbers of a small herring called striimnaing.
Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof.
Among the marine productions on the southern coast, a species of kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, merits special mention because of its extraordinary length, its habit of clinging to the rocks in strong currents and turbulent seas, and its being a shelter for innumerable species of marine animals.
The genus Ostrea has a world-wide distribution, in tropical and temperate seas; seventy species have been distinguished.
1434; 838 A.H.) Majma-ulba,~irain, of the Confluence of the Two Seas, can.
The slave trade having in the same year been declared illegal by the British parliament, slaves captured by British vessels in the neighbouring seas were brought to Freetown, and thus the population of the colony grew.
(5) No inhabitant of England (except persons contracting, or, after conviction for felony, electing to be transported) shall be sent prisoner to Scotland, Ireland, Jersey, &c., or any place beyond the seas.
Illegal imprisonment beyond seas renders the offender liable in an action by the injured party to treble costs and damages to the extent of not less than £50o, besides subjecting him to the penalties of praemunire and to other disabilities.
The court of king's bench has also issued the writ to the king's foreign dominions beyond seas, e.g.
Its landscapes are on a small scale; it has no vast plains, no inland seas, no mountain as high as 7000 ft.
covery and conquest of the seas and lands of the Orient."
Early in this century both England and Scotland had their " conservators " with " jurisdiction to do justice between merchant and merchant beyond the seas "; but France led the way.
Where an offence has been committed on the high seas, or aboard ashore, by British seamen or apprentices, the consul makes inquiry on oath, and may send home the offender and witnesses by a British ship, particulars for the Board of Trade being endorsed on the agreement for conveyance.
We next find him, as legate, in command of a fleet which kept the seas between Delos and Sicily, while Pompey was suppressing the pirates, and he even won the " naval crown," a coveted reward of personal prowess.
Situated in the geographical centre of the European continent, at about equal distance from all the European seas, enclosed by high mountains, and nevertheless easily accessible through Moravia from the Danubian plain and opened by the valley of the Elbe to the German plain, Bohemia was bound to play a leading part in the cultural development of Europe.
The British government made an offer in 1907 to reduce the export of Indian opium to countries beyond the seas by 5100 chests, i.e.
The sperm-whale is one of the most widely distributed of animals, being met with, usually in herds or "schools," in almost all tropical and subtropical seas, and occasionally visiting the northern seas, a number having been killed around the Shetlands a few years ago.
To the end of the First Civil War, Batten continued to patrol the English seas, and his action in 1647 in bringing into Portsmouth a number of Swedish ships of war and merchantmen, which had refused the customary salute to the flag, was approved by parliament.
The commerce and shipping of Schleswig-Holstein, stimulated by its position between two seas, as well as by its excellent harbours and waterways, are much more prominent than its manufactures.
Nausithoe, a small medusa of world-wide distribution, is the type of the subfamily Nausithoidae; the subfamily Linergidae includes the genera Linerges, &c., medusae confined to tropical seas.
Many of the larger species of Crustacea are used as food by man, the most valuable being the lobster, which is caught in large quantities on both sides of the North Altantic. Perhaps the most important of all Crustacea, however, with respect to the part which they play in the economy of nature, are the minute pelagic Copepoda, of which incalculable myriads form an important constituent of the " plankton " in all the seas of the globe.
kester FI c. - Larva of The former occur in all seas from the shore 3.
But native caprice and jealousy of the growing force of the European nations in these seas, and the rivalries between those nations themselves, were destructive of sound trade; and the English factory, though several times set up, was never long maintained.
All we can say is, that in those remote times what is now England had no existence; its site was occupied by seas which were tenanted by marine invertebrates, long since extinct.
As for the boundaries of these ancient seas, we can say nothing with certainty, but it is of interest to note the evidence we possess of still older land conditions, such as we have in the old rocks of Shropshire, &c. In the Devonian period it is clear that an elevatory movement had set in towards the north, which gave rise to the formation of inland lakes and narrow estuaries in which the Old Red Sandstone rocks were formed, while in the south of England lay the sea with a vigorous coral fauna.
Desert conditions, with confined inland seas, marked the Permian and Triassic periods.
Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas (2nd ed., Oxford, 1907) G.
The western and northern coasts are regular in outline with long straight beaches; and shallows are common in the seas that wash them.
It is, however, the fish and the fur-bearing animals of its rivers and surrounding seas that are economically most distinctive of and important to Alaska.
" A British protectorate is a country which is not within British dominions, but as regards its foreign relations is under the exclusive control of the King, so that its government cannot hold direct communication with any other foreign power, nor a foreign power with that Government " (Jenkyns, British Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas,, p. 165; Reinsch, Colonial Government, p. 109; Payne, Colonies and Colonial Federations, p. 194).
- Bodin, Les Six livres de la Republique (Lyons, 1580); De republica libri sex (Paris, 1586); Stengel, Die Staatsund volkerrechtliche Stellung der deutschen Colonien (1886); Heimburger, Der Erwerb der Gebietshoheit (1888); D'Orgeval, Les Protectorats allemands; annales de l'Ecole des Sciences Politiques (1890); Wilhelm, Theorie juridique des protectorats (1890); Despagnet, Essai sur les protectorats (1896); Heilborn, Das volkerrechtliche Protectorat (1891); Hall, The Foreign Jurisdiction of the British Crown (1894) Stengel, Die deutschen Schutzgebiete (1895); Gairal, Les Protectorats internationaux; Ieze, Etude theorique, eec., sur l'occupation, eec. (1896); Trione, Gli stati civili nei loro rapporti giuridici coi popoli barbari e semibarbari (1889); Ilbert, The Government of India (1898); Jenkyns, British Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas (1902); Laband, Das Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches (1876-1882), Revue de droit international, civilises, et barbares, xvii.
Autumn storms raise dangerous seas.
He writes to correspondents making enquiries about the tides in the Euxine and Caspian Seas.
The dolphins, bottle-noses, or, as they are more commonly called, "porpoises," are found in abundance in all seas, while some species are inhabitants of large rivers, as the Amazon.
During this time he could hear "the trailing garments of the night sweep through her marble halls," and see "the stars come out to listen to the music of the seas."
In order to obtain food, they venture naked in small canoes into the treacherous seas; their life is a constant battle with starvation and a rude climate, and their character has become rude and low in consequence.
He devoted no less attention to the increase of Corinthian commerce, which in his days plied busily on both eastern and western seas.
Land tortoises have also disappeared,' but one freshwater species (Sternothaerus sinuatus) is still found; and the adjacent seas contain many turtles.
The neighbouring seas abound in fish.
Bananas, yams, &c., were also largely cultivated, and there was considerable trade in coco-nut oil, timber, fish and fish oil and tortoise-shell, whaling being carried on, chiefly by Americans and French, in the neighbouring seas.
Though then uninhabited there is a strong tradition, probably well founded, that the Seychelles had been from Arab times a rendezvous of the pirates and corsairs who infested the high seas between South Africa and India.
Thus the state is to be conceived, in geological history, as gradually built up around an Archean island in successive seas, the whole of the state becoming dry land after the post-Carboniferous uplift.
10 See The Seven Seas, a dictionary and grammar of the Persian language, by Ghazi ud-din Haidar, king of Oudh, in seven parts (Lucknow, 3822) (only the title of the book is in English).
11 The Seven Seas, part i.
Pollicipes cornucopiae, Leach, European seas.
A second draft allowed the man who had the military equipment complete, but not fully the five hides of land, to slip into the list, and also the merchant who has fared thrice over the high seas at his own expense.
First Northumbria, then Wessex, then London yielded, and 1~thelred was forced to fly over seas to Richard, duke of Nor.
In the next year he returned in arms, raised Wessex in revolt, and compelled the king to in-law him again, to restore his earldom, and to dismiss with ignominy the Norman favorites who were hunted over seas.
But Henry, once hailed as king, rode hard for London and persuaded bishop Maurice to crown him without delay at Westminster, since the primate Anseim was absent beyond seas.
Unlike his grandfather he dwelt for the greater part of his time beyond seas.
After this John1s spirits rose, and he talked of crossing the seas himself to recover Normandy and Anjou.
But most of all did they dislike his practice of flooding England with strangers from beyond seas, for whom offices and endowments had to be found.
At the same time the barons, headed by the earls of Norfolk and Hereford, raised the old grievance about feudal service beyond seas, which had been so prominent in the time of King John.
The victory of Sluys, which gave England the command of the seas, had been a great landmark in the economic no less than in the naval history of this island.
velop the commercial advantages which had been won at Sluys, and secured by the dominion of the seas which they had held, ever since.
The seaports soon recovered from their losses in the Black Death, and English shipping was beginning to appear in the distant seas of Portugal and the Baltic. Nothing illustrates the growth of English wealth better than the fact that the kingdom had, till the time of Edward IlL, contrived to conduct all its commerce with a currency of small silver, but that within thirty years of his introduction of a gold coinage in 1343, the English noble was being struck in enormous quantities.
Since Sluys the enemy had never disputed the command of the seas; but in 1372 a Spanish fleet- joined the French, and destroyed off La Rochelle a squadron which was bringing reinforcements for Guienne.
The only result of the two expeditions was to give the English soldiery a poor opinion of French military capacity, and a notion that money was easily to be got from the distracted realm beyond the narrow seas.
For a moment the quarrel of York and Somerset was suspended, and the last English army that crossed the seas during theHundredYearsWar landed in Guienne, joined the insurgents, and for a time swept all before it.
Prosperity seems to have revived early during the rule of York; Warwick had cleared the seas of pirates, and both he and King Edward were great patrons of commerce, though the earls policy was to encourage trade with France, while his master wished to knit up the old alliance with Flanders by adhering Corn- to the cause of Charles of Burgundy.
But in the next year he corrupted his warders, broke out from his prison, and tried to escape beyond seas.
with the Hanseatic League had left the Germans still in control of the northern seas.
At length the armada sailed in July under the incompetent duke of Medina Sidonia; its object was to secure command of the narrow seas and facilitate the transport of Parmas army from the Netherlands to England.
policy, and his pretentious claim to the sovereignty of the British seas, demanded the support of a fleet, which might indeed be turned to good purpose in offering a counterpoise to the growing navies of France and Holland.
It is impossible to estimate how far this legend commemorates some actual but imperfectly recorded discovery, and how far it is a reminiscence of the ancient idea of an elysium in the western seas which is embodied in the legends of the Isles of the Blest or Fortunate Islands.
The bottle-noses (Hyperoodon) are restricted to the North Atlantic, never entering, so far as known, the tropical seas.
The pigmy whale (Neobalaena marginata), for instance, has only been met with in the seas round Australia, New Zealand and South America, while a beaked whale (Berardius arnouxi) appears to be confined to the New Zealand seas.
It is remarkable that none of the great lakes or inland seas of the world is inhabited by cetaceans.
The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.
The most remarkable circumstance connected with the distribution of seals is the presence of members of the order in the three isolated great lakes or inland seas of Central Asia - the Caspian, Aral and Baikal - which, notwithstanding their long isolation, have varied but slightly from species now inhabiting the Polar Ocean.
Besides the above-named there are many other Gramineae, such as Lasiagrostis splendens, the whole seas of Scabiosae.
Though fruit-trees will not bear there is an abundance of edible berries; the rivers and lakes abound with trout, perch, pike and other fish, and in the lower waters with salmon; and the cod, herring, halibut and Greenland shark in the northern seas attract numerous Norwegian and Russian fishermen.