Prince Andrew glanced at Kutuzov's face only a foot distant from him and involuntarily noticed the carefully washed seams of the scar near his temple, where an Ismail bullet had pierced his skull, and the empty eye socket.
While the town was bursting at its seams for tomorrow's holiday, the side street where the Deans' inn was located was peacefully quiet.
The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.
The coal-seams must have been formed in wellwatered, lowland forests, at the foot of a high mountain range, built up by the Devonian earth movements.
Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.
Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.
The oldest, bordering the Lower Carboniferous, is the Tuscaloosa formation of clays and sands arranged as follows: dark clays, thin lignite seams, lignitic clays, sands and chert, and light clays; this formation is 5-15 m.
They consist chiefly of sandstone and conglomerate, but include workable seams of coal.
The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.
He likewise refers to the use of byblus as tow for caulking the seams of ships; and the statement of Theophrastus that King Antigonus made the rigging of his fleet of the same material is illustrated by the ship's cable, ern-Nov (315(Ncvov, wherewith the doors were fastened when Ulysses slew the suitors in his hall (Odyss.
The steep icewalls at the margin of the inland ice show, especially where the motion of the ice is slow, a distinct striation, which indicates the strata of annual precipitation with the intervening thin seams of dust (Nordenskidld's kryokonite).
Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
The Ecca shales contain some of the best coals of South Africa, but the seams contain much unmarketable coal.
Sandstones and conglomerates with coal-seams at Vereeniging.
Seams of coal lie near the base, some of them exceeding 20 ft.
There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other goldfields.
Like the similar sandstone in Bolivia, it includes seams of coal and is frequently impregnated with cinnabar.
Such changes seem, however, to have been very rapidly accomplished, as pebbles of completely formed coal are commonly found in the sandstones and coarser sedimentary strata alternating with the coal seams in many coalfields.
The variation in the composition of coal seams in different parts of the same basin is a difficult matter to explain.
The thickness of coal seams varies in Great Britain from a mere film to 35 or 40 ft.; but in the south of France and in India masses of coal are known up to 200 ft.
These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.
Thick in one connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up into eight seams, which, with the intermediate shales and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 ft.
Seams of a medium thickness of 3 to 7 ft.
Coal resources of the country, in seams of i ft.
Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.
And in seams not less than i ft.
The total estimated reductions on account of loss in working due to faults and other natural causes in seams and of coal required to be left for barriers, support of surface buildings, &c.; and column III.
Number and nature of the coal seams in new ground, or the position of the particular seam or seams which it is proposed to work in extensions of known coalfields.
In the early days of coal-mining, open working, or quarrying from the outcrop of the seams, was practised to a considerable extent; but there are now few if any places in England where this can be done.
In 1873 there could be seen, in the thick coal seams of Bengal, near Raniganj, a seam about 50 ft.
2 A B is a cross cut level, by which the seams of coal 1 and 2 are won, and C D a vertical shaft by which the seams 1, 2 and 3 are won.
Poetsch in 1883, and originally applied to shafts passing through quicksands above brown coal seams, has been applied with advantage in opening new pits through the secondary and tertiary strata above the coal measures in the north of France and Belgium, some of the most successful examples being those at Lens, Anzin and Vicq, in the north of France basin.
The working of very thick seams presents certain special peculiarities, owing to the difficulties of supporting the roof in the excavated portions, and supplying fresh air to the workings.
The most typical example of this kind of working in England is afforded by the thick coal of South Staffordshire, which consists of a series of closely associated coal seams, varying from 8 to 12 or 13, divided FIG.
In the working of thick seams inclined at a high angle, such as those in the south of France, and in the lignite mines of Styria and Bohemia, the method of working in horizontal slices, about i 2 or r 5 ft.
In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.
Per ton to the cost of the coal, but in thinner seams the advantage is on the other side.
This loss .is proportionately greater in thin than in thick seams, the same quantity being cut to waste in either case.
These can be most advantageously used on thick seams 6 to io ft.
In steeply inclined seams passes or shoots leading to the main level below are sometimes used, and in Belgium iron plates are sometimes laid in the excavated ground to form a slide for the coal down to the loading place.
It is particularly well suited to mines where groups of seams at different depths are worked simultaneously.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
The second type of Cretaceous is a terrestrial formation, and is important as it contains the rich coal seams of Greymouth, Westport and Seddonville, which yield a high quality of steam coal.
In 1890 coal was struck at a"depth of 1190 ft., and further seams were discovered later.
High winds and seams of burning lignite coal have aided the rains in giving the Bad Lands their peculiar configuration.
Prairie fires or spontaneous combustion have ignited many coal seams. Some have already burnt out; others still emit smoke and sulphurous fumes from the crevices in the hillsides, and through the fissures may be seen the glowing coal and rock.
At Cushendun, however, a coarse conglomerate is believed to be Devonian, while Lower Carboniferous Sandstones, with several coal-seams, form a small productive basin at Ballycastle.
An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.
In New Brunswick the Carboniferous rocks occupy a large area, but the coal seams so far developed are thin and unimportant.
More important than the hills are the narrow and often rather deep river valleys cut below the general level, exposing the soft rocks of the Cretaceous and in many places seams of lignite.
The district is poor in minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but there are workable coal seams near Offenburg, where the Kinzig debouches on the plain.
In this case the carbonaceous beds-coal-seams-naturally appealed most strongly to the imagination, and the name is a good one, notwithstanding the fact that coal-seams occupy but a small fraction of the total thickness of the Carboniferous system; and although subsequent investigations have demonstrated the existence of coal in other geological formations, in none of these does it play so prominent a part.
I sometimes try my acquaintances by such tests as this--Who could wear a patch, or two extra seams only, over the knee?
These older beds are overlaid, especially in the western part of the country, by a sandstone series which contains thin seams of coal and many remains of plants.
The seams vary in thickness.
In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.
This consists of sandstones and shales with thin seams of coal.
Lemiere, who has very fully reviewed the relation of composition to origin in coal seams (Bulletin de la Societe de l'Industrie minerale, 4 ser.
The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.
In some instances the coal seams may be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, and become anthracite in the western side.
In thick seams packing adds about 5d.
R Grits (coarse and fine), shales, thin coal seams and occasional thin limestones.