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seams

seams Sentence Examples

  • Prince Andrew glanced at Kutuzov's face only a foot distant from him and involuntarily noticed the carefully washed seams of the scar near his temple, where an Ismail bullet had pierced his skull, and the empty eye socket.

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  • While the town was bursting at its seams for tomorrow's holiday, the side street where the Deans' inn was located was peacefully quiet.

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  • The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.

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  • These can be most advantageously used on thick seams 6 to io ft.

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  • These older beds are overlaid, especially in the western part of the country, by a sandstone series which contains thin seams of coal and many remains of plants.

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  • He glanced down at the expensive loafers that now contained tiny grains of sand he'd never be able to flush out of the seams.

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  • Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.

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  • Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.

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  • The oldest, bordering the Lower Carboniferous, is the Tuscaloosa formation of clays and sands arranged as follows: dark clays, thin lignite seams, lignitic clays, sands and chert, and light clays; this formation is 5-15 m.

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  • They consist chiefly of sandstone and conglomerate, but include workable seams of coal.

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  • The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.

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  • He likewise refers to the use of byblus as tow for caulking the seams of ships; and the statement of Theophrastus that King Antigonus made the rigging of his fleet of the same material is illustrated by the ship's cable, ern-Nov (315(Ncvov, wherewith the doors were fastened when Ulysses slew the suitors in his hall (Odyss.

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  • The steep icewalls at the margin of the inland ice show, especially where the motion of the ice is slow, a distinct striation, which indicates the strata of annual precipitation with the intervening thin seams of dust (Nordenskidld's kryokonite).

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  • Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.

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  • In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.

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  • The Ecca shales contain some of the best coals of South Africa, but the seams contain much unmarketable coal.

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  • Seams of coal lie near the base, some of them exceeding 20 ft.

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  • There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other goldfields.

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  • Like the similar sandstone in Bolivia, it includes seams of coal and is frequently impregnated with cinnabar.

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  • Clearer evidence of their occurrence has, however, been found in fragments of wood fossilized by silica or carbonate of lime which are sometimes met with in coal seams.

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  • Such changes seem, however, to have been very rapidly accomplished, as pebbles of completely formed coal are commonly found in the sandstones and coarser sedimentary strata alternating with the coal seams in many coalfields.

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  • The variation in the composition of coal seams in different parts of the same basin is a difficult matter to explain.

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  • The thickness of coal seams varies in Great Britain from a mere film to 35 or 40 ft.; but in the south of France and in India masses of coal are known up to 200 ft.

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  • These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.

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  • thick in one connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up into eight seams, which, with the intermediate shales and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 ft.

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  • Seams of a medium thickness of 3 to 7 ft.

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  • coal resources of the country, in seams of i ft.

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  • Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.

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  • and in seams not less than i ft.

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  • the total estimated reductions on account of loss in working due to faults and other natural causes in seams and of coal required to be left for barriers, support of surface buildings, &c.; and column III.

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  • number and nature of the coal seams in new ground, or the position of the particular seam or seams which it is proposed to work in extensions of known coalfields.

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  • In the early days of coal-mining, open working, or quarrying from the outcrop of the seams, was practised to a considerable extent; but there are now few if any places in England where this can be done.

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  • In 1873 there could be seen, in the thick coal seams of Bengal, near Raniganj, a seam about 50 ft.

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  • 2 A B is a cross cut level, by which the seams of coal 1 and 2 are won, and C D a vertical shaft by which the seams 1, 2 and 3 are won.

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  • Poetsch in 1883, and originally applied to shafts passing through quicksands above brown coal seams, has been applied with advantage in opening new pits through the secondary and tertiary strata above the coal measures in the north of France and Belgium, some of the most successful examples being those at Lens, Anzin and Vicq, in the north of France basin.

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  • The working of very thick seams presents certain special peculiarities, owing to the difficulties of supporting the roof in the excavated portions, and supplying fresh air to the workings.

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  • The most typical example of this kind of working in England is afforded by the thick coal of South Staffordshire, which consists of a series of closely associated coal seams, varying from 8 to 12 or 13, divided FIG.

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  • In the working of thick seams inclined at a high angle, such as those in the south of France, and in the lignite mines of Styria and Bohemia, the method of working in horizontal slices, about i 2 or r 5 ft.

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  • In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.

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  • per ton to the cost of the coal, but in thinner seams the advantage is on the other side.

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  • This loss .is proportionately greater in thin than in thick seams, the same quantity being cut to waste in either case.

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  • In steeply inclined seams passes or shoots leading to the main level below are sometimes used, and in Belgium iron plates are sometimes laid in the excavated ground to form a slide for the coal down to the loading place.

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  • It is particularly well suited to mines where groups of seams at different depths are worked simultaneously.

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  • In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.

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  • The second type of Cretaceous is a terrestrial formation, and is important as it contains the rich coal seams of Greymouth, Westport and Seddonville, which yield a high quality of steam coal.

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  • In 1890 coal was struck at a"depth of 1190 ft., and further seams were discovered later.

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  • High winds and seams of burning lignite coal have aided the rains in giving the Bad Lands their peculiar configuration.

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  • Prairie fires or spontaneous combustion have ignited many coal seams. Some have already burnt out; others still emit smoke and sulphurous fumes from the crevices in the hillsides, and through the fissures may be seen the glowing coal and rock.

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  • An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.

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  • In New Brunswick the Carboniferous rocks occupy a large area, but the coal seams so far developed are thin and unimportant.

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  • More important than the hills are the narrow and often rather deep river valleys cut below the general level, exposing the soft rocks of the Cretaceous and in many places seams of lignite.

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  • The district is poor in minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but there are workable coal seams near Offenburg, where the Kinzig debouches on the plain.

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  • Lower: Flaggy hard sandstones (ganister), shales and thin coal seams.

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  • The conditions under which the beds of coal were formed will be found described under that head; it will be sufficient to notice here that some coal seams were undoubtedl y formed by jungle or swamplike growths on the site of the deposit, and it is equally true that others were formed by the transport and deposition of vegetable detritus.

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  • - Foremost among the useful products of the Carboniferous rocks is the coal (q.v.) itself; but associated with the coal seams in Great Britain, North America and elsewhere, are very important beds of ironstone, fire-clay, terra-cotta clay, and occasionally oil shale and alum shale.

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  • They consist of breccias, conglomerates, sandstones, marls, and limestones, with seams of coal and lignite.

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  • Sometimes it contains thick seams of lignite or brown coal.

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  • Coal seams exist in the Malabuh valley (Achin), in the Sinamu valley, and on both sides of the Ombilin River; the Ombilin field was brought into especial notice by D.

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  • The very small pups are of a beautiful quality, but too tiny to make into garments, and, as the aim of a good furrier is to avoid all lateral or cross seams, skins are selected that are the length of the garment that, is to be made.

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  • For straight seams the machines are excellent, making as neat a seam as is found in glove work, unless, of course, the pelts are especially heavy, such as bears and sheep rugs.

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  • The hills and plateaus appear to be composed chiefly of the same sandstone series which in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul contains seams of coal, with plant remains similar to those of the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Upper Carboniferous).

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  • Some tribes hung the scalps to their bridles, others to their shields, while some ornamented with them the outer seams of their leggings.

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  • In the basins of the Forth and Clyde the following subdivisions are well marked: (5) Upper Red Sandstone series (red and grey sandstones, fireclays, shales, marls); (4) Coal Measures (white and grey sandstones, dark shales, fireclays, coal seams, ironstones); (3) Millstone Grit (massive sandstones and grits, with fireclays, thin limestones and coal); (2) Carboniferous Limestone series - (c) sandstones and shales, with three or more seams of limestone; (b) sandstones, shales, coals and ironstones, but with no limestone bands; (a) sandstones, shales, fireclays, coals and iron XXIV.

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  • 14 stones, with thin limestones towards the top and the Hurlet (Renf rewshire) limestone at the bottom; (I) Calciferous Sandstone series - (b) Upper or Cement Stone group, consisting of white and grey sandstones (of which the city of Edinburgh was built), black shales, thin limestones (Burdiehouse, near Edinburgh), and occasional coal seams; (a) Lower Red Sandstone group, with reddish and greenish marls and shales, passing down with the Upper Old Red Sandstone.

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  • The coal-fields contain two main groups of seams, the lower in the middle section of the Carboniferous Limestone, and the upper in the Coal Measures.

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  • The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are not workable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth basin are largely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil.

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  • Occasional beds of tuff are intercalated among these lavas, and likewise seams of fine clay or shale which have preserved the remains of numerous land-plants.

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  • The mineral is chiefly obtained from seams in the Calciferous Sandstone at the base of the Carboniferous rocks.

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  • inland from Sur, and some seams of good coal in newer strata; sulphur occurs in a fairly pure state at Khamir and Bustaneh near Lingeh, and on Qishm I.; copper, as copper glance and malachite, occurs in the interior of Oman; copper-mines are said to have been worked in the neighbourhood of the coast near Lingeh by the Portuguese, but all trace of them has been lost.

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  • Although the islands promise to become important, because of their excellent harbours, the discovery of good seams of bituminous coal (beside the anthracite already known), their abundant timber of certain kinds and their prolific fisheries, but little settlement has taken place.

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  • thick) contains eleven seams, having a total thickness of 120 ft., in the eastern district, and thirteen seams, 100 ft.

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  • The average thickness of the seams worked is from 12 to 18 ft., but occasionally a seam attains a great thickness - 20 to 80 ft.

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  • thick) contains four seams, of a total thickness of 69 ft.

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  • The seams of the lower series are the best, and some of these at Sanktoria, near the Barakar river, are fairly good for coke and gas.

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  • m.; there are three seams, varying from 9 to 33 ft.

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  • These are overlaid by a limestone, upon which rests conformably a series of sandstones with coal seams. The age of these beds is unknown.

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  • They contain a few seams of coal, but the most important coal-bearing deposits of the country belong to the Tertiary period.

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  • They contain numerous seams of coal.

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  • The older rocks are overlaid unconformably by Cretaceous beds, consisting chiefly of sandstones with seams of coal, the whole series thinning rapidly towards the north and thus indicating the neighbourhood of the old shore-line.

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  • The overlying Tertiary series includes nummulitic beds and valuable seams of coal.

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  • The border ranges of the east and south of Assam belong to the Burmese system of mountain chains (see Burma), and consist largely of Tertiary beds, including the great coal seams of Upper Assam.

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  • Compared with the Gondwana coal of the peninsula of India the Tertiary coal seams of Assam are remarkable for their purity and their extraordinary thickness.

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  • The coal seams are commonly associated with petroleum springs.

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  • There are also some very rich coal seams in eastern Persia, far away on the fringe of the desert, and under existing conditions quite valueless.

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  • Coal has been worked in the Tertiary beds along the Harnai route to Quetta, but the seams are thin and the quality poor.

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  • The deposits in these basins consist largely of coarse sandstones and conglomerates, amongst which lie seams of coal.

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  • The Upper Carboniferous rocks are most important from their rich seams of coal.

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  • The theoretical conclusion has been confirmed by the discovery of Coal Measures, with workable coal seams, at Dover at a depth of 2000 ft.

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  • All finished material is carefully examined to see that it possesses a smooth surface, and that it is free from cracks, seams and other defects, and that it is true to section throughout.

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  • Cattle farms prosper along Beagle Channel, the timber industry is growing, lignite seams have been discovered, and alluvial gold is washed principally at Slogget Bay.

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  • It includes numerous seams of coal, many of which are worked on an extensive scale (at Giridih, Raniganj, &c.).

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  • The seams are generally from one to five feet in thickness.

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  • The Molteno beds contain several workable seams of coal.

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  • The richest coal and lignite seams occur among the north-eastern mountains, generally near the Danube or Timok, and along the Morava.

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  • The Upper Carboniferous is formed to a large extent of sandstones and shales, with seams of coal; but beds of massiye limestones are often intercalated, and some of these contain Fusaljna and other fossils like those of the Russian Ftisulina limestone.

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  • The Carboniferous formations carry only thin seams of coal, never thicker than about 2 ft., and rarely readily accessible, and they can never be of more than small and merely local importance.

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  • Nowadays the political consequence of Brunei largely arises from the existence there of valuable seams of coal, leased to the Sarawak government.

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  • The Upper Carboniferous includes beds of shale and coal; but though the coal is good, the seams are thin and have not been much worked.

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  • In following the progress of plant-life through those periods in the history of the earth of which records are left in ancient sediments, seams of coal or old land-surfaces, we recognize at certain stages a want of continuity between the floras of successive ages.

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  • Other seams are full of the twigs and cones of Athrotaxis, a Conifer now confined to Tasmania.

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  • Many of the clays which pass under this designation belong to the Carboniferous period, and are found underlying seams of coal.

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  • While the town was bursting at its seams for tomorrow's holiday, the side street where the Deans' inn was located was peacefully quiet.

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  • He glanced down at the expensive loafers that now contained tiny grains of sand he'd never be able to flush out of the seams.

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  • alluvial silt has heavy seams running through it which make them bend.

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  • It includes outcrops of numerous coal seams, and several mudstone horizons yielding non-marine bivalves.

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  • Tube construction eliminates chafing side seams, and the absence of a shelf bra grants a dose of freedom.

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  • bulgeedonia's refugee camps are not just full they are bulging at the seams.

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  • bursting at the seams.

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  • busting at the seams with music to kick your feet to.

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  • caulked the seams of the Caird.

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  • coal seams which tend to run horizontally, metal deposits are vertical.

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  • The seams were on severe gradients with chain conveyors along the face length.

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  • creaking at the seams.

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  • The British constitution, at least in regard to England, is now creaking at the seams.

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  • durable polyester flysheet with taped seams providing a very respectable 2000mm hydrostatic head of protection.

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  • Sand and fill existing lining paper particularly the seams, taking care to re- paste any loose paper before applying emulsion.

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  • Clothing is accentuated by large eyelets, oblique seams, seams on the outside and frayed ends.

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  • The flysheet is 190T PU coated polyester with taped seams giving a hydrostatic head of 1500mm.

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  • Taped seams are normal as is the concealed hood for all-over protection.

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  • With a rollaway hood and sealed seams, it offers even more comfort and protection.

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  • Featuring embossed cherry blossom design on side, Reinforced Seams and EVA outsole with molded rubber pod inserts to provide durability and traction.

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  • kimono sleeve: Cut with no seams in sleeve.

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  • In the lower seams mandrills were sometimes used as gages to measure the length for wooden props.

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  • marl seams (eg.

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  • monocoque bodies have spot welded seams.

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  • Check for rust and paint bubbles particularly on the sills, wheel arches, seams, door bottoms and suspension mountings.

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  • And by now there was a whole new wave of Brighton bands and punk venues, which were bursting at the seams.

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  • The flysheet is made from double coated Weatherweave 2oz polyester with fully taped seams giving a hydrostatic head of 3000mm.

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  • Wrexham is bulging at the seams with rock bands and I reckoned that on this showing this is one of the best.

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  • Throughout the entire area are seams of diabase, with large slabs of diabase in some areas overlying ancient sandstone.

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  • Inside the boot, all seams were filled with seam sealer to reduce the chance of water collecting.

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  • For examples, many of the welded body seams were on the outside of the car!

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  • What should I do if taped seams are showing wear or coming apart?

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  • They look like French seams stitched down flat, which will entail three sets of stitching per seams stitched down flat, which will entail three sets of stitching per seam.

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  • They are also all of a high wall bathtub construction with sealed seams.

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  • Up to sixteen workable coal seams are to be found in the district.

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  • Inside the boot, all seams were filled with seam sealer to reduce the chance of water collecting.

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  • Features include flatlock seams, a cotton gusset and a sheer toe.

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  • coal seams are also found in the west of the county.

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  • Leave a length of yarn for joining shoulder seams.

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  • sew up seams on the machine of course.

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  • sewn into linings, seams becoming integral to the recollection.

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  • Minimal rucksack rub over shoulder area due to flat fell shoulder seams.

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  • One-piece, high gloss, heavy gage aluminum sidewalls good looks and no seams.

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  • His soil isn't suitable for carrots and parsnips as the alluvial silt has heavy seams running through it which make them bend.

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  • They look like French seams stitched down flat, which will entail three sets of stitching per seam.

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  • The seams had their flat faces beveled to match the decreasing angle made by adjacent strakes.

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  • stratumthe coal seams were laid down, together with their associated layers of clay, ironstone and strata of limestone.

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  • I tape the seams with Magic tape the seams with Magic Tape and add a self adhesive Avery mailing label for the address.

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  • unsightly seams.

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  • welded body seams were on the outside of the car!

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  • workable coal seams are to be found in the district.

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  • The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.

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  • The seams are principally above water levels and in many cases have been laid bare by erosion; and the supply is varied - besides a " fat coking, gassy bituminous," there are an excellent grade of splint coal (first mined in 1864 at Coalburg, Kanawha county) and (except that in Kentucky) the only important supply of cannel coal in the United States.

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  • The Permian, which contains workable coal seams, lies unconformably upon the older beds and seems to have been deposited in isolated basins (e.g.

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  • These older beds are overlaid, especially in the western part of the country, by a sandstone series which contains thin seams of coal and many remains of plants.

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  • In Victoria, Tasmania, northern New South Wales and Queensland, there are Jurassic terrestrial deposits, containing the coal seams of Victoria, of the Clarence basin of north-eastern New South Wales, and of the Ipswich series in Queensland; the same beds range far inland on the western slopes of the east Australian highlands in New South Wales and Queensland and they occur, with coal-seams, at Leigh's Creek, at the northern foot of the South Australian highlands.

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  • The seams vary in thickness.

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  • Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.

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  • In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.

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  • Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.

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  • The oldest, bordering the Lower Carboniferous, is the Tuscaloosa formation of clays and sands arranged as follows: dark clays, thin lignite seams, lignitic clays, sands and chert, and light clays; this formation is 5-15 m.

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  • They consist chiefly of sandstone and conglomerate, but include workable seams of coal.

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  • The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.

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  • He likewise refers to the use of byblus as tow for caulking the seams of ships; and the statement of Theophrastus that King Antigonus made the rigging of his fleet of the same material is illustrated by the ship's cable, ern-Nov (315(Ncvov, wherewith the doors were fastened when Ulysses slew the suitors in his hall (Odyss.

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  • The steep icewalls at the margin of the inland ice show, especially where the motion of the ice is slow, a distinct striation, which indicates the strata of annual precipitation with the intervening thin seams of dust (Nordenskidld's kryokonite).

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  • Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.

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  • In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.

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  • The Ecca shales contain some of the best coals of South Africa, but the seams contain much unmarketable coal.

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  • This consists of sandstones and shales with thin seams of coal.

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  • Seams of coal lie near the base, some of them exceeding 20 ft.

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  • There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other goldfields.

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  • Like the similar sandstone in Bolivia, it includes seams of coal and is frequently impregnated with cinnabar.

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  • Clearer evidence of their occurrence has, however, been found in fragments of wood fossilized by silica or carbonate of lime which are sometimes met with in coal seams.

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  • Such changes seem, however, to have been very rapidly accomplished, as pebbles of completely formed coal are commonly found in the sandstones and coarser sedimentary strata alternating with the coal seams in many coalfields.

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  • The variation in the composition of coal seams in different parts of the same basin is a difficult matter to explain.

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  • The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.

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  • The thickness of coal seams varies in Great Britain from a mere film to 35 or 40 ft.; but in the south of France and in India masses of coal are known up to 200 ft.

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  • These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.

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  • thick in one connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up into eight seams, which, with the intermediate shales and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 ft.

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  • Seams of a medium thickness of 3 to 7 ft.

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  • coal resources of the country, in seams of i ft.

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  • Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.

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  • and in seams not less than i ft.

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  • the total estimated reductions on account of loss in working due to faults and other natural causes in seams and of coal required to be left for barriers, support of surface buildings, &c.; and column III.

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  • number and nature of the coal seams in new ground, or the position of the particular seam or seams which it is proposed to work in extensions of known coalfields.

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  • In the early days of coal-mining, open working, or quarrying from the outcrop of the seams, was practised to a considerable extent; but there are now few if any places in England where this can be done.

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  • In 1873 there could be seen, in the thick coal seams of Bengal, near Raniganj, a seam about 50 ft.

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  • 2 A B is a cross cut level, by which the seams of coal 1 and 2 are won, and C D a vertical shaft by which the seams 1, 2 and 3 are won.

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  • Poetsch in 1883, and originally applied to shafts passing through quicksands above brown coal seams, has been applied with advantage in opening new pits through the secondary and tertiary strata above the coal measures in the north of France and Belgium, some of the most successful examples being those at Lens, Anzin and Vicq, in the north of France basin.

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  • The working of very thick seams presents certain special peculiarities, owing to the difficulties of supporting the roof in the excavated portions, and supplying fresh air to the workings.

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  • The most typical example of this kind of working in England is afforded by the thick coal of South Staffordshire, which consists of a series of closely associated coal seams, varying from 8 to 12 or 13, divided FIG.

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  • In the working of thick seams inclined at a high angle, such as those in the south of France, and in the lignite mines of Styria and Bohemia, the method of working in horizontal slices, about i 2 or r 5 ft.

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  • In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.

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  • In thick seams packing adds about 5d.

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  • per ton to the cost of the coal, but in thinner seams the advantage is on the other side.

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  • This loss .is proportionately greater in thin than in thick seams, the same quantity being cut to waste in either case.

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  • These can be most advantageously used on thick seams 6 to io ft.

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  • In steeply inclined seams passes or shoots leading to the main level below are sometimes used, and in Belgium iron plates are sometimes laid in the excavated ground to form a slide for the coal down to the loading place.

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  • It is particularly well suited to mines where groups of seams at different depths are worked simultaneously.

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  • In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.

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  • The second type of Cretaceous is a terrestrial formation, and is important as it contains the rich coal seams of Greymouth, Westport and Seddonville, which yield a high quality of steam coal.

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  • In 1890 coal was struck at a"depth of 1190 ft., and further seams were discovered later.

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  • High winds and seams of burning lignite coal have aided the rains in giving the Bad Lands their peculiar configuration.

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  • Prairie fires or spontaneous combustion have ignited many coal seams. Some have already burnt out; others still emit smoke and sulphurous fumes from the crevices in the hillsides, and through the fissures may be seen the glowing coal and rock.

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  • An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.

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  • In New Brunswick the Carboniferous rocks occupy a large area, but the coal seams so far developed are thin and unimportant.

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  • More important than the hills are the narrow and often rather deep river valleys cut below the general level, exposing the soft rocks of the Cretaceous and in many places seams of lignite.

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  • The district is poor in minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but there are workable coal seams near Offenburg, where the Kinzig debouches on the plain.

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  • Lower: Flaggy hard sandstones (ganister), shales and thin coal seams.

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  • (See Bernician, Tuedian and Avonian.) At an early period, owing to the immense commercial importance of the coal seams, it became the practice to distinguish a " productive " (flotzfiihrend, terrain houiller) and an "unproductive," barren (flotzleerer) Lower Carboniferous; these two groups correspond in North America to the " Carboniferous " and " Sub-Carboniferous " respectively, or, as they are now sometimes styled, the " Pennsylvanian " and " Mississippian."

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  • The conditions under which the beds of coal were formed will be found described under that head; it will be sufficient to notice here that some coal seams were undoubtedl y formed by jungle or swamplike growths on the site of the deposit, and it is equally true that others were formed by the transport and deposition of vegetable detritus.

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  • - Foremost among the useful products of the Carboniferous rocks is the coal (q.v.) itself; but associated with the coal seams in Great Britain, North America and elsewhere, are very important beds of ironstone, fire-clay, terra-cotta clay, and occasionally oil shale and alum shale.

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  • They consist of breccias, conglomerates, sandstones, marls, and limestones, with seams of coal and lignite.

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  • Sometimes it contains thick seams of lignite or brown coal.

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  • Coal seams exist in the Malabuh valley (Achin), in the Sinamu valley, and on both sides of the Ombilin River; the Ombilin field was brought into especial notice by D.

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  • The very small pups are of a beautiful quality, but too tiny to make into garments, and, as the aim of a good furrier is to avoid all lateral or cross seams, skins are selected that are the length of the garment that, is to be made.

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  • For straight seams the machines are excellent, making as neat a seam as is found in glove work, unless, of course, the pelts are especially heavy, such as bears and sheep rugs.

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  • The hills and plateaus appear to be composed chiefly of the same sandstone series which in the Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul contains seams of coal, with plant remains similar to those of the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Upper Carboniferous).

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  • Some tribes hung the scalps to their bridles, others to their shields, while some ornamented with them the outer seams of their leggings.

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  • In the basins of the Forth and Clyde the following subdivisions are well marked: (5) Upper Red Sandstone series (red and grey sandstones, fireclays, shales, marls); (4) Coal Measures (white and grey sandstones, dark shales, fireclays, coal seams, ironstones); (3) Millstone Grit (massive sandstones and grits, with fireclays, thin limestones and coal); (2) Carboniferous Limestone series - (c) sandstones and shales, with three or more seams of limestone; (b) sandstones, shales, coals and ironstones, but with no limestone bands; (a) sandstones, shales, fireclays, coals and iron XXIV.

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  • 14 stones, with thin limestones towards the top and the Hurlet (Renf rewshire) limestone at the bottom; (I) Calciferous Sandstone series - (b) Upper or Cement Stone group, consisting of white and grey sandstones (of which the city of Edinburgh was built), black shales, thin limestones (Burdiehouse, near Edinburgh), and occasional coal seams; (a) Lower Red Sandstone group, with reddish and greenish marls and shales, passing down with the Upper Old Red Sandstone.

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  • The coal-fields contain two main groups of seams, the lower in the middle section of the Carboniferous Limestone, and the upper in the Coal Measures.

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  • The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are not workable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth basin are largely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil.

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  • Occasional beds of tuff are intercalated among these lavas, and likewise seams of fine clay or shale which have preserved the remains of numerous land-plants.

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  • The mineral is chiefly obtained from seams in the Calciferous Sandstone at the base of the Carboniferous rocks.

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  • inland from Sur, and some seams of good coal in newer strata; sulphur occurs in a fairly pure state at Khamir and Bustaneh near Lingeh, and on Qishm I.; copper, as copper glance and malachite, occurs in the interior of Oman; copper-mines are said to have been worked in the neighbourhood of the coast near Lingeh by the Portuguese, but all trace of them has been lost.

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  • Although the islands promise to become important, because of their excellent harbours, the discovery of good seams of bituminous coal (beside the anthracite already known), their abundant timber of certain kinds and their prolific fisheries, but little settlement has taken place.

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  • thick) contains eleven seams, having a total thickness of 120 ft., in the eastern district, and thirteen seams, 100 ft.

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  • The average thickness of the seams worked is from 12 to 18 ft., but occasionally a seam attains a great thickness - 20 to 80 ft.

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  • thick) contains four seams, of a total thickness of 69 ft.

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  • The seams of the lower series are the best, and some of these at Sanktoria, near the Barakar river, are fairly good for coke and gas.

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  • m.; there are three seams, varying from 9 to 33 ft.

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  • These are overlaid by a limestone, upon which rests conformably a series of sandstones with coal seams. The age of these beds is unknown.

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  • They contain a few seams of coal, but the most important coal-bearing deposits of the country belong to the Tertiary period.

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  • They contain numerous seams of coal.

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  • The older rocks are overlaid unconformably by Cretaceous beds, consisting chiefly of sandstones with seams of coal, the whole series thinning rapidly towards the north and thus indicating the neighbourhood of the old shore-line.

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  • The overlying Tertiary series includes nummulitic beds and valuable seams of coal.

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  • The border ranges of the east and south of Assam belong to the Burmese system of mountain chains (see Burma), and consist largely of Tertiary beds, including the great coal seams of Upper Assam.

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  • Compared with the Gondwana coal of the peninsula of India the Tertiary coal seams of Assam are remarkable for their purity and their extraordinary thickness.

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  • The coal seams are commonly associated with petroleum springs.

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  • There are also some very rich coal seams in eastern Persia, far away on the fringe of the desert, and under existing conditions quite valueless.

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  • Coal has been worked in the Tertiary beds along the Harnai route to Quetta, but the seams are thin and the quality poor.

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  • The deposits in these basins consist largely of coarse sandstones and conglomerates, amongst which lie seams of coal.

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  • The Upper Carboniferous rocks are most important from their rich seams of coal.

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  • The theoretical conclusion has been confirmed by the discovery of Coal Measures, with workable coal seams, at Dover at a depth of 2000 ft.

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  • All finished material is carefully examined to see that it possesses a smooth surface, and that it is free from cracks, seams and other defects, and that it is true to section throughout.

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  • Cattle farms prosper along Beagle Channel, the timber industry is growing, lignite seams have been discovered, and alluvial gold is washed principally at Slogget Bay.

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  • It includes numerous seams of coal, many of which are worked on an extensive scale (at Giridih, Raniganj, &c.).

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  • The seams are generally from one to five feet in thickness.

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