Sea-water Sentence Examples
P. Granville put into practice between Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight and the Needles lighthouse a method which depends upon conduction through sea water.
They can live in brackish and even in sea water.
Besides the delta of the Po and the large marshy tracts which it forms, there exist on both sides of it extensive lagoons of salt water, generally separated from the Adriatic by narrow strips of sand or embankments, partly natural and partly artificial, but havin openings which admit the influx and efflux of the sea-water, and serve as ports for communication with the mainland.
Such could hardly be obtained in any other way by those worms that have no special respiratory apparatus, and that live in mud and under stones where the natural supply of freshly oxygenated sea-water is practicaily limited.
Marine Soap. - These soaps are so named because they are not insoluble in a strong solution of salt; hence they form a lather and can be used for washing with sea-water.Advertisement
In mounting, the specimen is floated out in a flat white dish containing sea-water, so that foreign matter may be detected, and a piece of paper of suitable size is placed under it, supported either by the fingers of the left hand or by a palette.
It became clear that only very rough estimates of the numbers of planktonic organisms in a volume of sea-water as large as (say) 10 cubic metres could be made, but that these estimates could nevertheless be trusted to show very marked regional and seasonal differences.
Clearly, however, the vast quantity of living substance in the ocean is built up from materials that are present in the sea-water as an exceedingly dilute solution, and the solution is dilute just because organisms are incessantly utilizing it.
The result of this is that the alkalinity of the sea-water increases and the hydrogen-ion concentration decreases.
Perfectly pure distilled sea-water dissociates, to an infinitesimal degree, into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (HO) ions, so that one litre of such water contains 1 X 10 7, or 1 part of a gram-molecule of either hydr010,000,000 gen or hydroxyl (a gramme-molecule of hydrogen is 2 grammes, or of hydroxyl 17 grammes).Advertisement
If this is admitted the poverty of tropical sea-water in mineral nitrogen compounds is explained by the higher temperature, which accelerates the activity of denitrifying bacteria.
The silica, in the form of diatom or radiolarian skeletons, is eventually deposited on the ocean floor after the death of the organisms. Most of the fine colloidal clay is, however, deposited as river-sludges when the fresh water carrying it mixes with denser sea-water.
The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.
There are, therefore, a number of agencies, all of which operate in shoal waters on the lee side of islands, or in shallow lagoons in such regions as the Bahamas, and the result of all these is to throw down calcium carbonate from solution in sea-water as minute needle-shaped crystals or little balls of aragonite.
It consists of a definite contractile sac or sacs lying on the dorsal side of the alimentary canal near the oesophagus, and in preparations of Terebratulina made by quickly removing the viscera and examining them in sea-water under a microscope, he was able to count the pulsations, which followed one another at intervals of 30-40 seconds.Advertisement
Apparatus for the economic production of a potable water from sea-water is of vital importance in the equipment of ships.
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
His system for the disinfection of sewage and similar matter by the electrolysis of chlorides, or of sea-water, has been tried, but for the most part abandoned on the score of expense.
But as things are the watersurface is broken by land, and the mean density of the substance of the land is 2 6 times as great as that of sea-water, so that the gravitational attraction of the land must necessarily cause a heaping up of the sea around the coasts, forming what has been called the continental wave, and leaving the sea-level lower in mid-ocean.
As well as the finest of terrigenous clay there is present in sea-water far from land a different clay derived from the decomposition of volcanic material.Advertisement
The analyses of modern chemists have now revealed the existence of 32 out of the 80 known elements as existing dissolved in sea-water, and it is scarcely too much to say that the remaining elements also exist in minute traces which the available methods of analysis as yet fail to disclose.
Silver and gold also exist in solution in sea-water.
Malaguti and Durocher 1 estimate the silver in sea-water as i part in ioo,000,000 or i grain in 1430 gallons.
Sonnstadt 2 detected gold by means of a colour test and roughly estimated the amount as i grain per ton of sea-water, and on this estimate all the projects for extracting gold from sea-water have been based.
Since the earliest quantitative analyses of sea-water were made by Lavoisier in 1772, Bergman in 177 4, Vogel in 1813 and Marcet in 1819 the view has been held that the salts are present in sea-water in the form in which they are deposited when the water is evaporated.Advertisement
One can look on sea-water as a mixture of very dilute solutions of particular salts, each one of which after the lapse of sufficient time fills the whole space as if the other constituents did not exist, and this interdiffusion accounts easily for the uniformity of composition in the sea-water throughout the whole ocean, the only appreciable difference from point to point being the salinity or degree of concentration of the mixed solutions.
Magnesium sulphate amounts to 4.7% of the total salts of sea-water according to Dittmar, but to 23.6% of the salts of the Caspian according to Lebedinzeff; in the ocean magnesium chloride amounts to 10.9% of the total salts, in the Caspian only to 4.5%; on the other hand calcium sulphate in the ocean amounts to 3.6%, in the Caspian to 6.9 This disparity makes it extremely difficult to view ocean water as merely a watery extract of the salts existing in the rocks of the land.
The determination of salinity was formerly carried out by evaporating a weighed quantity of sea-water to dryness and weighing the residue.
Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.
Such a simple formula is only possible because the salts of sea-water are of such uniform composition throughout the whole ocean that the chlorine bears a constant ratio to the total salinity as newly defined whatever the degree of concentration.
Besides the determination of salinity by titration of the chlorides, the method of determination by the specific gravity of the sea-water is still often used.
Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
Sorensen, carried out a careful investigation of the relation between the amount of chlorine, the total salinity and the specific gravity of sea-water of different strengths including an entirely new determination of the thermal expansion of sea-water.
The temperature of maximum density of sea-water of any specific gravity was found by Knudsen to be given with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes by the formula 0 = 3.950.2660 -0, where 0 is the temperature of maximum density in degrees centigrade.
Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
The importance of the osmotic pressure of sea-water in biology will be easily understood from the fact that a frog placed in sea-water loses water by exosmosis and soon becomes 20% lighter than its original weight, while a true salt-water fish suddenly transferred to fresh water gains water by endosmosis, swells up and quickly succumbs.
The elevation of the boilingpoint is of little practical importance, but the reduction of vapour pressure means that sea-water evaporates more slowly than fresh water, and the more slowly the higher the salinity.
The fact that sea-water does evaporate more slowly than fresh water has been proved by the observations of Mazelle at Triest and of Okado in Azino (Japan).
Their experiments show that in similar conditions the evaporation of sea-water amounts to from 70 to 91% of the evaporation of fresh water, a fact of some importance in geophysics on account of the vast expanses of ocean the evaporation from which determines the rainfall and to a large extent the heat-transference in the atmosphere.
The optical properties of sea-water are of immediate importance in biology, as they affect the penetration of sunlight into the depths.
The refraction of light passing through sea-water is dependent on the salinity to the extent that the index of refraction is greater as the salinity increases.
The transparency of sea-water has frequently been measured at sea by the simple expedient of sinking white-painted disks and noting the depth at which they become invisible as the measure of the transparency of the water.
There are some observations on the transparency of sea-water of an entirely different character.
Fol and Sarasin detected the last traces of sunlight in the western Mediterranean at a depth of 254 to 260 fathoms, and Luksch in the eastern Mediterranean at 328 fathoms and in the Red Sea at 273 fathoms. The chief cause of the different depths to which light penetrates in sea-water is the varying turbidity due to the presence of mineral particles in suspension or to plankton.
The colour of sea-water as it is seen on board ship is most readily determined by comparison with the tints of Forel's xanthometer or colour scale, which consists of a series of glass tubes fixed like the rungs of a ladder in a frame and filled with a mixture of blue and yellow liquids in varying proportions.
The blue of the sea-water as observed by the Forel scale has of course nothing to do with the blue appearance of any distant water surface due to the reflection of a cloudless sky.
The natural colour of pure sea-water is blue, and this is emphasized in deep and very clear water, which appears almost black to the eye.
Aitken with clear sea-water in long tubes leave no doubt on the subject.
On account of its salinity, sea-water has a smaller capacity for heat than pure water.
The thermal conductivity also diminishes as salinity increases, the conductivity for heat of sea-water of 35 per mille salinity being 4.2% less than that of pure water.
This means that sea-water heats and cools somewhat more readily than pure water.
The compressibility of sea-water is not yet fully investigated.
Strutt found that salt from evaporated sea-water did not contain one-third of the quantity of radium present in the water of the town supply in Cambridge.
The water of the ocean, like any other liquid, absorbs a certain amount of the gases with which it is in contact, and thus sea-water contains dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and carbonic acid absorbed from the atmosphere.
The first useful determinations of the dissolved gases of sea-water were made by Oskar Jacobsen in 1872.
Pettersson in 1894, two portions of sea-water are collected in glass tubes which have been exhausted of air, coated internally with mercuric chloride to prevent the putrefaction of any organisms, and sealed up beforehand.
Fox, of the Central Laboratory of the International Council at Christiania, has investigated the relation of the atmospheric gases to sea-water by very exact experimental methods and arrived at the following expressions for the absorption of oxygen and nitrogen by sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
As a rule the amount of both gases dissolved in sea-water is found to be that which is indicated by the temperature of the water in situ.
The facts regarding carbonic acid in sea-water are even less understood, for here we have to do not only with the solution of the gas but also with a chemical combination.
On this account it is very difficult to know when all the gas is driven out of a sample of sea-water, and a much larger proportion is present than the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere and its coefficient of absorption would indicate.
Since 1851 it has been known that all sea-water has an alkaline reaction, and Torniie defined the alkalinity of sea-water as the amount of carbonic acid which is necessary to convert the excess of bases into normal carbonate.
Thus the alkalinity serves as an index of the admixture of river water with sea-water.
Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.
On account of the high specific heat of sea-water the diurnal range of temperature at the surface is very small.
Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.
Experience shows that sea-water can be cooled considerably below the freezing-point without freezing if there is no ice or snow in contact with it.
Frederickshall; it occurs in sea-water and it is a constant constituent of the blood.
Ammonium salts too are found distributed through all fertile soil, in sea-water, and in most plant and animal liquids, and also in urine.
Sodium chloride, or common salt, is exceedingly common, being the chief salt present in sea-water, besides occurring in extensive stratified deposits.
These form the principal natural sources of sodium compounds - the chloride as rock salt and in sea-water being of, such predominating importance as quite to outweigh all the others.
From this has developed the intramuscular injection of diluted sea-water in the treatment of gastro-enteritis, anaemia and various skin affections.
The eggs are minute, and pass out into the sea-water through the dorsal or exhalent siphon.
The larva for a time swims freely in the sea-water, having a circlet of cilia round the body in front of the mouth, forming the velum.
Often, as has been said, the atoll is divided into a number of islets, but in some smaller atolls the ring is complete, and the sea-water gains access beneath the surface of the reef to the lagoon within, where it is sometimes seen to spout up at the rise of the tide.
Shaler, state geologist in 1873-1880, " When the rocks whence they flow were formed on the Silurian sea-floors, a good deal of the sea-water was imprisoned in the strata, between the grains of sand or mud and in the cavities of the shells that make up a large part of these rocks.
It is also found in small quantities in sea-water, in some seaweeds, and in various mineral and medicinal springs.
All types of life to which shallow, clear sea-water was congenial appear to have abounded in the interior.
They are employed for taking observations of the density of sea-water.
The salinometer is a hydrometer originally intended to indicate the strength of the brine in marine boilers in which sea-water is employed.
It occurs dissolved in sea water and in most mineral waters, especially in those at Epsom (from which place it takes its name), Seidlitz, Saidschutz and Pullna.
There are both mineral and sea-water baths in the neighbourhood.
The fluoride is found native as sellaIte, and the bromide and iodide occur in sea water and in many mineral springs.
Fishing, the recovery of salt from the sea-water, and shipbuilding constitute the other principal occupations of the population.
At one time sea-water was thought to be injurious, but modern investigation finds no objection to it except on the score of appearance, efflorescence being more likely to occur when it is used.
Lime should never be used in work exposed to sea-water, or to water containing chemicals of any kind.
Portland cement concrete, on the other hand, may be used without fear in sea-water, provided that certain reasonable precautions are taken.
The matter was carefully investigated, and it was found that the sulphate of magnesia in the sea-water has a decomposing action on Portland cements, especially those which contain a large proportion of lime or even of alumina.
Indeed, no Portland cement is free from the liability to be decomposed by sea-water, and on a moderate scale this action is always going on more or less.
But to ensure the permanence of structures in sea-water the great object is to choose a cement containing as little lime and alumina as possible, and free from sulphates such as gypsum; and more important still to proportion the sand and stones in the concrete in such a way that the structure is practically non-porous.
On the other hand, if the concrete is rough and porous the sea-water will gradually eat into the heart of the structure, especially in a case like a dam, where the water, being higher on one side than the other, constantly forces its way through the rough material, and decomposes the Portland cement it contains.
If it be exposed to damp, to sea-water or to corrosive influences of any kind in contact with another metal, or if it be mixed with another metal so as to form an alloy which is not a true chemical compound, the other metal being highly negative to it, powerful galvanic action will be set up and the structure will quickly deteriorate.
These channels are filled, sometimes with sea-water, sometimes with overflow water from the Volga and the Kuma.
They sometimes continue for days together with great violence, rendering navigation dangerous and driving the sea-water up over the shores.
In 1826 he discovered in sea-water a substance which he recognized as a previously unknown element and named bromine.
The former is distilled from sea-water near Trapani, and the latter obtained in smaller quantities from mines.
The process of the spontaneous evaporation of sea water was studied by Usiglio on Mediterranean water at Cette.
The application of these results to the production of salt from sea water is obvious.
In northern Russia and in Siberia sea water is concentrated by freezing, the ice which separates containing little salt; the brine is then boiled down when an impure sea salt is deposited.
In India there is the great salt range of the Punjab, as well as the Sambhur Lake, and salt is obtained from sea water at many places along its extensive seaboard.
As sea-water contains both sulphates and magnesium salts, it is especially necessary in concrete for harbour work to take every care to produce an impervious structure.
This essential oil, as an article of commerce, is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea-water, and then quickly distilling the whole.
In the form of alkaline chlorides it is found in sea-water and various spring waters, and in the tissues of animals and plants; while, as hydrochloric acid it is found in volcanic gases.
Hence it is that so-called artificial fertilization is possible; that is to say, fertilization will take place when ripe eggs and milt are artificially pressed from the oysters and allowed to fall into a vessel of sea-water.
About a mile west of the town are the curious sea mills; a stream of sea water running down a chasm in the shore is made to turn the wheels.
The eggs are collected either by "stripping" them from the mature adult immediately after capture, or by keeping the adults alive until they are ready to spawn, and then stripping them or by keeping them in reservoirs of sea-water and allowing them to spawn of their own accord.
It has been found possible to grow pure cultures of various diatoms, and by feeding these to delicate larvae kept in sterilized sea-water, great successes have been attained.
The principal industries are the raising of Indian corn and sugar-cane and the manufacture of salt from sea-water.
Silver is widely diffused throughout nature, occurring in minute amount in sea-water, and in the mineral kingdom as the free metal, as an amalgam with mercury and as alloys with gold, platinum, copper and other metals.
Potassium, sodium and magnesium bromides are found in mineral waters, in river and sea-water, and occasionally in marine plants and animals.
Subject to the rock being porous this process would be continued until the greater column of the lighter fresh water balanced the smaller head of sea water.
Before this stage the converse process begins, the reduced column of fresh water is no longer capable of balancing the sea water in the sand, inflow occurs at c and e, resulting finally in the well water becoming saline.
The principal time of inflow of North Sea water is during spring and summer.
Even wetting the skin with sea-water has been found useful by shipwrecked sailors.
In the interior salt is difficult to get, and sea-water, which is carried inland in hollow bamboos, is used in cooking in place of it.
Salt, too, is obtained from the ashes of wood saturated by sea-water.
His mother, a Tlingit woman, whose sons had all been slain, met a friendly dolphin, which advised her to swallow a pebble and a little sea-water.
Larger rounded lumps of pumice, found in the clay, have probably floated to their present situations, and sank when decomposed, all their cavities becoming filled with sea water.
The only fossils of the clay are radiolaria, sharks' teeth and the ear-bones of whales, precisely those parts of the skeleton of marine creatures which are hardest and can longest survive exposure to sea-water.
A group of small limax amoebae from fresh and sea water some of which produce cysts, flagella or both.
Superb yacht cruising area plus excellent angling / small boat sailing on fresh or sea water lochs.
Amber can float in strong brine, but not sea water.
They are filled to within about six inches of their tops with fine sand, through which constantly flow strong currants of sea water.
Fresh water cooling, using a heat exchanger cooled by sea water.
The 10-mile wide crater lake between them, where the heart of the volcano had been ripped out, filled up with sea water.
Get rid of oxygen mask, to avoid breathing in sea water.
From medieval times sea water was evaporated in huge salt pans at the mouth of the burn.
No birds sing, unless they're ones from far forests, drinking sea-water here, making raucous cries.
As an integrated subsystem to any OTEC facility cold sea water air conditioning significantly increases the economic viability of development.
Even these species are sometimes left stranded by low spring tides, though the mud in which they are rooted remains saturated with sea-water.
The study of marine life has in recent years become more general, and has become associated with very precise investigations into the chemical composition of sea-water, changes in chemical equilibrium, the effect of variations in salinity and temperature, the processes set up by marine bacteria, and so on.
Pure water, then, has a hydrogen-ion concentration of io 7 but sea-water gives (because of the mixture of the salts in solution) the concentration 108 ' 2 and when photosynthesis by the larger alga, or diatoms, is very active this figure falls to about 109 ' 1.
Some unicellular organisms are said to segregate salts of strontium from sea-water.
No birds sing, unless they 're ones from far forests, drinking sea-water here, making raucous cries.
Sugarmaking, the distillation of rice-spirit, silk-weaving, fishing and the preparation of a fish-sauce (nuoc-mam) made from decayed fish, and the manufacture of salt from sea-water and of lime are carried on in many localities.
Samples of this timber have been studied after forty-three years' immersion in sea-water.
Many Gastropoda deposit their eggs, after fertilization, enclosed in capsules; others, as Paludina, are viviparous; others, again, as the Zygobranchia, agree with the Lamellibranch Conchifera (the bivalves) in having simple exits for the ova without glandular walls, and therefore discharge their eggs unenclosed in capsules freely into the sea-water; such unencapsuled eggs are merely enclosed each in its own delicate chorion.
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
Carbonic acid is the most abundant and it may be contained in sea-water in the proportion of about 50 milligrammes per litre (that is, 50 per million).
Fitzgerald patented a process in 1683 having for its purpose the "sweetening of sea-water."
It is then run off, and replaced by fresh sea-water.
At a later date other experimentalists found, however, that an equal thickness of sea-water interposed between a primary and secondary circuit completely prevented similar inductive intercommunication.