Sea sentence example

sea
  • The sea was rough.
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  • "I guess the sea breeze is good for the libido," she continued.
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  • It was so close to the sea that those who lived in it could hear the waves forever beating against the shore.
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  • In fact, he seemed lost in a sea of uncertainty.
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  • You must either jump overboard into the sea or be slain with your own sword.
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  • In the open space between the clouds and the black, bubbling sea far beneath, could be seen an occasional strange bird winging its way swiftly through the air.
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  • He moved forward until the sound of the sea and the firmness of the sand suggested he was close to the water's edge.
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  • They told me if Jeff's body wasn't found the first couple of weeks, it had probably washed out to sea and would maybe never be located.
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  • The Sea Mist dated back to the 1930's.
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  • Hundreds of little sail-boats swung to and fro close by, and the sea was calm.
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  • The sea shore is too far to the east so I fear she'll be remanded to a roadside bier of Kudzu and discarded fast food wrappers.
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  • The churning sea below was littered with jagged rocks that looked small from her perch a hundred feet above them.
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  • She rubbed her head and glared at him, watching as he followed his father in the direction where both sky and sea darkened into blackness.
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  • A book of stories of adventure on the sea, which he read over and over again when a boy, had filled him with a longing for a seafaring life.
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  • Take the bodies and throw them into the sea, where no one will find them.
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  • The dry desert heat gave way to cool sea breeze, and a massive apple tree protected her from the sun overhead.
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  • Below them was a vast space, at the bottom of which was a black sea with rolling billows, through which little tongues of flame constantly shot up.
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  • But the smooth sea again suddenly becomes disturbed.
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  • His eyes were white then black then changed from every color in between, his brown hair of medium length and wavy, ruffled by the sea breeze.
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  • She could smell the sea; they were probably somewhere in the destroyed city.
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  • He looked out to sea again.
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  • One summer he went over the sea to Italy; for his name was well known there, and many people wished to hear him sing.
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  • I've chosen the sea shore as the final resting place for my little beauty.
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  • The frozen sea beneath her feet was the color of tar, the black clouds above paused mid-swirl around a pop of blue sky in the storm's center.
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  • The sun pushed aside the shadows as it emerged from the depths of the distant sea until it sat on the horizon, casting long shadows and brilliant bars of light into the walled city.
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  • My father brought me from across the sea.
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  • The Senegal indeed has what is styled an interior delta, but, with the exception of the marigot named, all the divergent branches rejoin the main stream before the sea is reached.
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  • The heavy Caribbean air of the Sanctuary was warm and fragrant with the scent of the sea.
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  • The scent of sea was in the air, a rough circle of lighter darkness before her.
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  • Pierre pushed forward as fast as he could, and the farther he left Moscow behind and the deeper he plunged into that sea of troops the more was he overcome by restless agitation and a new and joyful feeling he had not experienced before.
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  • In the sea of faces, she didn't see Alex.
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  • Nothing made sense to her numbed mind, aside from the fragrant ocean, the fine sand that slid through her fingers like silk, and the warm-cool sensations caused by a combination of afternoon sun and sea breeze.
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  • The pterodactyl dropped and caught itself, coasting in the sea breeze.
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  • Darian looked out over the sea.
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  • The heavy scent of fragrant sea swept over him, the chill of the ocean kept out of the city by its thick walls.
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  • Somewhere in that sea of people was his family – including his sister and her husband.
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  • Kayes is the limit of navigability from the sea.
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  • From Mafu to the sea, a distance of 215 m., the Senegal is navigable all the year round by vessels drawing not more than to ft.
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  • On sea the Athenians, after two minor engagements, gained a decisive victory which enabled them to blockade Aegina.
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  • The name of Alkmaar, which means "all sea," first occurs in the 10th century, and recalls its former situation in the midst of marshlands and lakes.
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  • 7), and Azariah his successor was able to renew the sea trade of the Gulf of Akaba (2 Kings xiv.
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  • Along the Atlantic coast from the mouth of the Adour to the estuary of the Gironde there stretches a monotonous line of sanddunes bordered by lagoons on the land side, but towards the sea harbourless and unbroken save for the Bay of Arcachon.
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  • From all sides, like the roar of the sea, were heard the rattle of wheels, the tramp of feet, and incessant shouts of anger and abuse.
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  • The knights strengthened Valletta and its harbour by bastions, curtain-walls, lines and forts, towards the sea, towards the land and on every available point, taking advantage in every particular of the natural rock and of the marvellous advantages of situation, rendering it then almost impregnable.
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  • Colonel Goddard with a Bengal army marched across the breadth of the peninsula from the valley of the Ganges to the western sea, and achieved almost without a blow the conquest of Gujarat.
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  • Their power extended far into Arabia, particularly along the Red Sea; and Petra was a meeting-place of many nations, though its commerce was diminished by the rise of the Eastern trade-route from Myoshormus to Coptos on the Nile.
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  • 103, owing to the silting up of the Claudian harbour, and the increase of trade, to construct another port further inland - a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 97 acres with enormous warehouses - communicating with the harbour of Claudius and with the Tiber by means of the channel already constructed by Claudius, this channel being prolonged so as to give also direct access to the sea.
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  • The chief cleruchies of Pericles are: Thracian Chersonese (453-452), Lemnos and Imbros, Andros, Naxos and Eretria (before 447); ' Brea in Thrace (446); Oreus (445); Amisus and Astacus in the Black Sea (after 440); Aegina (431).
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  • Its importance is due to its command of the point where the chief trade route from Persia and Central Asia to Europe, over the table-land of Armenia by Bayezid and Erzerum, descends to the sea.
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  • On each side, about half-way between the keep and the sea, these ravines are crossed by massive bridges, and on the farther side of the westernmost of these, away from the city, a large tower and other fortifications remain.
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  • The area of the ancient city is now called the Kaleh, and is inhabited by the Turks; eastward of this is the extensive Christian quarter, and beyond this again a low promontory juts northward into the sea, partly covered with the houses of a well-built suburb, which is the principal centre of commerce.
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  • Though only twenty-two years of age, Alexius was a man of ability and resolute will, and he succeeded without difficulty in making himself master of the greater part of the southern coast of the Black Sea.
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  • The cause of this long duration, and at the same time the secret of its history, is to be found in the isolated position of Trebizond and its district, between the mountains and the sea, which has already been described.
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  • We find them also at war with many of these powers, and with the Genoese, who endeavoured to monopolize the commerce of the Black Sea.
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  • Still more important is the church of Haghia Sophia, which occupies a conspicuous position overlooking the sea, about 2 m.
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  • The mud brought down by it, calculated at 7150 lb an hour at Bagdad, is not deposited in marshes to form alluvium, as in the case of the Euphrates, but although in flood time the river becomes at places an inland sea, rendering navigation extremely difficult and uncertain, the bulk of the mud is deposited in banks, shoals and islands in the bed of the river, and is finally carried out into the Persian Gulf.
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  • It was, however, the need to ensure command of the sea and free all lines of communication behind him that determined Alexander's plan for the next campaign.
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  • The excessive heat of the upper regions compels him to descend, and he next visits the bottom of the sea in a kind of diving-bell.
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  • The district is a deltaic tract, bordering south on the sea and traversed by many tidal creeks.
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  • He was now sent on an important mission to India; he left England in September 1769, but the ship in which he sailed was lost at sea late in 1770 or early in 1771.
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  • The only genuine division of the Albanian race is that of Ghegs and Tosks; the Liaps, who inhabit the district between the Viossa and the sea, and the Tshams or Chams, who occupy the coast-land south of the Kalamas, are subdivisions of the Tosk family.
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  • It lies on either side of the formerly natural, now artificial outlet of the river Waveney to the North Sea, while to the west the river forms Oulton Broad and Lothing Lake.
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  • At the foot of the hill flows the river See, which at high tide is navigable from the sea.
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  • It is navigable from the heart of Tirol to the sea.
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  • In Roman times it flowed, in its lower course, much farther north than at present, along the base of the Euganean hills, and entered the sea at Brondolo.
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  • An interest and importance belong to this sea as forming part of the chief highway between Europe and India.
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  • The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
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  • As far west, therefore, as the Cordillera, there is no evidence that any part of the region was ever beneath the sea in Mesozoic times, and the plant-remains indicate a land connexion with Africa.
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  • This untoward disaster led to the abandonment of the expedition, which forthwith returned to Spain, bringing with them the news of the discovery of a fresh-water sea.
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  • Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.
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  • Seaboard.The shore of the Mediterranean encircling the Gulf of the Lion (Golfe du Lion) from Cape Cerbera to Martigues is lowlying and unbroken, and characterized chiefly by lagoons separated from the sea by sand-dunes.
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  • The coast, constantly encroaching on the sea by reason of the alluvium washed down by the rivers of the Pyrenees and Cvennes, is without important harbours saving that of Cette, itself continually invaded by the sand.
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  • North of that river the coast is low-lying and bordered by sand-lunes, to which succeed on the Strait of Dover the cliffs in the neighborhood of the port of Boulogne and the marshes and sand-dunes of Flanders, with the ports of Calais and Dunkirk, the latter the principal French port on the NOrth Sea.
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  • The coasts present a number of maritime inlets, forming inland bays, which communicate with the sea by channels of greater or less width.
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  • The Central Plateau has probably been a land mass ever since this period, but the rest of the country was flooded by the Palaeozoic sea.
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  • The earlier deposits of that sea now rise to the surface in Brittany, the Ardennes, the Montagne Noire and the Cvennes, and in all these regions they arc intensely folded.
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  • Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
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  • During the later part of the Cretaceous period the sea gradually retreated and left the whole country dry.
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  • 749,753 Departments from which the adult males emigrate 532,567 regularly either to sea or to seek employment in towns 330,533 tend to fall under the first head, those in which large 188,553 bodies of troops are stationed under the second.
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  • The term sailor is used in a very wide sense and includes all persons earning their living by navigation on the sea, or in the harbours or roadsteads, or on salt lakes or canals within the maritime domain of the state, or on rivers and canals as far as the tide goes up or sea-going ships can pass.
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  • (I) it is a corruption of the ancient name, Egeopelago; (2) it is from the modern Greek, `Ayco iraayo, the Holy Sea; (3) it arose at the time of the Latin empire, and means the Sea of the Kingdom (Arche); (4) it is a translation of the Turkish name, Ak Denghiz, Argon Pelagos, the White Sea; (5) it is simply Archipelagus, Italian, arcipelago, the chief sea.
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  • If their ancestors had been carried out to sea once or twice by a flood and safely drifted as far as the Galapagos Islands" (Wallace), "they must have been numerous on the continent" (Rothschild and Hartert).
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  • To the left of the Turks and the right of the Christians, there was open sea.
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  • In fear lest he should be outflanked by Uluch Ali, he stood out to sea, leaving a gap between himself and the centre.
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  • In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."
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  • It is also connected by rail with Kalach on the Don, where merchandise from the Sea of Azov is disembarked.
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  • The tendency of the currents in the Channel opposite Brighton is to drive the shingle eastward, and encroachments of the sea were frequent and serious until the erection of a massive sea-wall, begun about 1830, 60 ft.
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  • At this point in the Haram enclosure there is an enormous underground cistern, known as the Great Sea, and this may possibly have been the source of water supply for the Greek garrison.
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  • On the Acropolis of Athens he set up a colossal bronze image of Athena, which was visible far out at sea.
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  • Beneath these hills the surface of the island falls lower, and several hills in the form of amphitheatres extend their bases as far as the sea.
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  • It rises in an imposing manner from the sea, on a gentle slope in the form of an amphitheatre.
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  • The two harbours are separated by a mole which runs obliquely into the sea.
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  • A further gentle rise in the high steppes leads to the mountains of the West Australian coast, and another strip of low-lying coastal land to the sea.
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  • Australia presents a contour wonderfully devoid of inlets from the sea except on its northern shores, where the coast-line is largely indented.
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  • The higher Australian peaks in the south-east look just what they are, the worn and denuded stumps of mountains, standing for untold ages above the sea.
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  • Naked crags, when they do appear, lift themselves from a sea of green, and a tropical vegetation, quite Malaysian in character, covers everything.
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  • The other rivers worth mentioning are the Yarra, entering the sea at Port Phillip, Hopkins and Glenelg.
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  • But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.
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  • A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.
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  • The Silurian system was marked by the retreat of the sea from central Australia; but the sea still covered a band across Victoria, from the coast to the Murray basin, passing to the east of Melbourne.
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  • This Silurian sea was less extensive than the Ordovician in Victoria; but it appears to have been wider in New South Wales and in Queensland.
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  • Silurian rocks are well developed in western Tasmania, and the Silurian sea must have washed the south-western corner of the continent, if the rocks of the Stirling Range be rightly identified as of this age.
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  • The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.
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  • In this sea were laid down the shales of the Rolling Downs formation.
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  • The sea does not appear to have extended completely across Australia, breaking it into halves, for a projection from the Archean plateau of Western Australia extended as far east as the South Australian highlands, and thence probably continued eastward, till it joined the Victorian highlands.
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  • The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.
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  • The sea encroached far on the land from the Great Australian Bight and there formed the limestones of the Nullarbor Plains.
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  • The sea extended up the Murray basin into the western plains of New South Wales.
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  • Farther east the sea was interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong.
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  • No doubt eastern Australia then extended far out into the Tasman Sea.
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  • After this marine period was brought to a close the sea retreated.
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  • The sea produces three different seals, which often ascend rivers from the coast, and can live in lagoons of fresh water; many cetaceans, besides the " right whale " and sperm whale; and the dugong, found on the northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil.
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  • The " leathery turtle," which is herbivorous, and yields abundance of oil, has been caught at sea off the Illawarra coast so large as 9 ft.
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  • In tropical waters a sea snake is found, which, though very poisonous, rarely bites.
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  • Among the sea fish, the schnapper is of great value as an article of food, and its weight comes up to 50 lb.
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  • South Sea Islanders and other coloured races, numbering probably about 15,000, were in 1906 to be found principally in Queensland, but further immigration of Pacific Islanders to Australia is now restricted, and the majority of those in the country in 1906 were deported by the middle of 1907.
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  • He was furnished with a yacht, the " Heemskirk," and a fly-boat, the " Zeehaen " (or " Sea Hen "), under the command of Captain Jerrit Jansen.
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  • Continuing in a north-easterly direction Oxley struck the Macquarie river at a place he called Wellington, and from this place in the following year he organized a second expedition in hopes of discovering an inland sea.
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  • Oxley now turned aside - led by Mr Evans's report of the country eastward - crossed the Arbuthnot range, and traversing the Liverpool Plains, and ascending the Peel and Cockburn rivers to the Blue Mountains, gained sight of the open sea, which he reached at Port Macquarie.
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  • Yet its result was a disappointment to those who had looked for means of inland navigation by the Macquarie river, and by its supposed issue in a mediterranean sea.
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  • Here, without actually standing on the sea-beach of the northern shore, they met the tidal waters of the sea.
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  • John (afterwards Sir John) Forrest was despatched by the Perth government with general instructions to obtain information regarding the immense tract of country out of which flow the rivers falling into the sea on the northern and western shores of Western Australia.
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  • After a few months' rest it started on the return journey, following Sturt Creek until its termination in Gregory's Salt Sea, and then keeping parallel with the South Australian border as far as Lake Macdonald.
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  • Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
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  • These rise generally only a few feet above the level of the sea, and are crowned by a single house standing on an artificial mound and protected by a surrounding dike or embankment.
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  • His ambition, however, was boundless, and he set himself to realize the dream of his father - a Burgundian kingdom stretching from the North Sea to the Mediterranean.
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  • On the east coast the force of the north-east monsoon, which beats upon the shores of the China Sea annually from November to February, has kept the land for the most part free from mangroves, and the sands, broken here and there by rocky headlands thickly wooded, and fringed by casuarina trees, stretch for miles without interruption.
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  • 33 state above the sea is about I 00 ft.
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  • Along the shore of Lake Champlain are a few species of maritime plants that remain from the time when portions of western Vermont were covered by the sea, and on the upper slopes of some of the higher mountains are a few Alpine species; these, however, are much less numerous on the Green Mountains of Vermont than on the White Mountains of New Hampshire.
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  • The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
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  • The two which drain the largest basin are the Chi Manuk and the Chi Tarum, both rising in the eastern end of the province and flowing northeast and north-west respectively to the Java Sea.
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  • The view of the city from the sea is one of great beauty.
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  • Notre-Dame d'Afrique, a church built (1858-1872) in a mixture of the Roman and Byzantine styles, is conspicuously situated, overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the Bu Zarea hills, m.
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  • The oak will not bear exposure to the full force of the sea gale, though in ravines and on sheltered slopes oak woods sometimes extend nearly to the shore.
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  • The ilex, also known as the "holm oak" from its resemblance to the holly, abounds in all the Mediterranean countries, showing a partiality for the sea air.
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  • In Britain the evergreen oak is quite hardy in ordinary winters, and is useful to the ornamental planter from its capacity for resisting the sea gales; but it generally remains of small size.
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  • Cromwell was outmanoeuvred and in a perilous situation, completely cut off from England and from his supplies except from the sea.
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  • 2 Port Lloyd, the chief anchorage (situated on Peel Island), is considered by Commodore Perry - who visited the islands in 1853 and strongly urged the establishment of a United States coaling station there - to have been formerly the crater of a volcano from which the surrounding hills were thrown up, the entrance to the harbour being a fissure through which lava used to pour into the sea.
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  • The shores are covered with coral; earthquakes and tidal waves are frequent, the latter not taking the form of bores, but of a sudden steady rise and equally sudden fall in the level of the sea; the climate is rather tropical than temperate, but sickness is almost unknown among the residents.
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  • This intermediate region, which has Atlantic characteristics down to 300 fathoms, and at greater depths belongs more properly to the Arctic Sea, commonly receives the name of Norwegian Sea.
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  • The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
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  • In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.
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  • " National, " the Danish " Ingolf " expedition, and the minor expeditions of the " Michael Sars," " Jackal," " Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
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  • But the Dutch fleet was detained in the Texel for many weeks by unfavourable weather, and before it eventually put to sea in October, only to be crushed by Duncan in the battle of Camperdown, Tone had returned to Paris; and Hoche, the chief hope of the United Irishmen, was dead.
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  • It is situated on the canal from Bruges to Sluys (Ecluse), but in the middle ages a navigable channel or river called the Zwyn gave ships access to it from the North Sea.
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  • Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 71 m.
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  • The Serchio (anc. Auser), which joined the Arno at Pisa in ancient times, now flows into the sea independently.
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  • Towards the Black Sea, the less elevated Istranja Dagh stretches from north-west to south-east; and the entire south coast, which includes the promontory of Gallipoli and the western shore of the Dardanelles, is everywhere hilly or mountainous, except near the estuaries of the Maritza, and of the Mesta, a western frontier stream.
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  • And again- "And if a merchant throve, so that he fared thrice over the wide sea.
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  • The coast is low and sandy and is formed by the detritus deposited by the sea current called Calema.
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  • It is provided with a jetty, is the sea terminus of the railway systems, the residence of the governor, and has churches, schools, hospitals and large business houses.
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  • The Anes are reported to have come from the Gold Coast by sea and to have been wrecked at this place.
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  • It lies on the North Sea, 104 m.
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  • The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.
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  • Whilst it is being paid out the portion between the surface of the water and the bottom of the sea lies along a straight line, the component of the weight at right angles to its length being supported by the frictional resistance to sinking in the water.
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  • But the cost of effecting a repair still remains a very uncertain quantity, success being dependent on quiet conditions of sea and weather.
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  • Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.
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  • After the " final splice," as it is termed, between these ends has been made, the bight, made fast to a slip rope, is lowered overboard, the slip rope cut, and the cable allowed to sink by its own weight to its resting-place on the sea bed.
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  • The grappling of the cable and raising it to the surface from a depth of 2000 fathoms seldom occupy less than twenty-four hours, and since any extra strain due to the pitching of the vessel must be avoided, it is clear that the state of the sea and weather is the predominating factor in the time necessary for effecting the long series of operations which, in the most favourable circumstances, are required for a repair.
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  • In the same way all the conducting sheets on the other side of the paper are connected together and form the earth-plate of this artificial cable, thus representing the sea.
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  • He and others also suggested the applicability of the method to the inter-communication of ships at sea.
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  • He proposed that one ship should be provided with the means of making an interrupted current in a circuit formed partly of an insulated metallic wire connected with the sea at both ends by plates, and partly of the unlimited ocean.
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  • Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.
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  • Each line terminated in an earth plate placed in the sea.
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  • P. Granville put into practice between Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight and the Needles lighthouse a method which depends upon conduction through sea water.
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  • Up to 1895 or 1896 the suggestions for wireless telegraphy which had been publicly announced or tried can thus be classified under three or four divisions, based respectively upon electrical conduction through the soil or sea, magnetic induction through space, combinations of the two foregoing, and lastly, electrostatic induction.
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  • It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.
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  • It lies partly on a peninsula between the river and the sea, partly on the wooded uplands which enclose the valley and rise gradually to the high moors beneath Heytor.
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  • The name Archipelago (q.v.) was formerly applied specifically to this sea.
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  • Various derivations are given by the ancient grammarians - one from the town of Aegae; another from Aegea, a queen of the Amazons who perished in this sea; and a third from Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who, supposing his son dead, drowned himself in it.
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  • A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.
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  • The greater part of this trough is over 600 fathoms deep. The profusion of islands and their usually bold elevation give beauty and picturesqueness to the sea, but its navigation is difficult and dangerous, notwithstanding the large number of safe and commodious gulfs and bays.
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  • Many of the islands are of volcanic formation; and a well-defined volcanic chain bounds the Cretan Sea on the north, including Milo and Kimolos, Santorin (Thera) and Therasia, and extends to Nisyros.
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  • Ancient geographers appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point that could be selected.
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  • The river Marecchia, which enters the sea immediately north of Rimini, may be considered as the natural limit of Northern Italy.
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  • The narrow strip of coast-land between the Maritime Alps, the Apennines and the sea—called in ancient times Liguria, and now known as the Riviera of Genoa—is throughout its extent, from Nice to Genoa on the one side, and from Genoa to Spezia on the other, almost wholly mountainous.
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  • From the proximity of the mountains to the sea none of the rivers in this part of Italy has a long course, and they are generally mere mountain torrents, rapid and swollen in winter and spring, and almost dry in summer.
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  • The most considerable of them are—the Roja, which rises in the Col di Tenda and descends to Ventimiglia; the Taggia, between San Remo and Oneglia; and the Centa, which enters the sea at Albenga.
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  • The Lavagna, which enters the sea at Chiavari, is the only stream of any importance between Genoa and the Gulf of Spezia.
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  • But the Apennines of Central Italy, instead of presenting, like the Alps and the northern Apennines, a definite central ridge, with transverse valleys leading down from it on both sides, in reality constitute a mountain mass of very considerable breadth, composed of a number of minor ranges and groups of mountains, which preserve a generally parallel direction, and are separated by upland valleys, some of them of considerable extent as well as considerable elevation above the sea.
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  • In this part the Apennines are separated from the sea, distant about 30 m.
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  • The Arno, which has its source in the Monte Falterona, one of the most elevated summits of the main chain of the Tuscan Apennines, flows nearly south till in the neighborhood of Arezzo it turns abruptly north-west, and pursues that course as far as Pontassieve, where it again makes a sudden bend to the west, and pursues a westerly course thence to the sea, passing through Florence and Pisa.
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  • The Elsa and the Era, which join it on its left bank, descending from the hills near Siena and Volterra, are inconsiderable streams; and the Serchio, which flows from the territory of Lucca and the Alpi Apuani, and formerly joined the Arno a few miles from its mouth, now enters the sea by a separate channel.
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  • The most considerable rivers of Tuscany south of the Arno are the Cecina, which flows through the plain below Volterra, and the Ombrone, which rises in the hills near Siena, and enters the sea about 12 m.
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  • The central range here approaches much nearer to the sea, and hence, with few exceptions, the rivers that flow from it have short courses and are of comparatively little importance.
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  • On the east side in like manner the Monte Gargano (3465 ft.), a detached limestone mass which projects in a bold spur-like promontory into the Adriatic, forming the only break in the otherwise uniform coast-line of Italy on that sea, though separated from the great body of the Apennines by a considerable interval of low country, may be considered as merely an outlier from the central mass.
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  • Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.
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  • The so-called lakes on the coast of the Adriatic north and south of the promontory of Gargano are brackish lagoons communicating with the sea.
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  • The islands farther south in the Tyrrhenian Sea are of an entirely different character.
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  • The Roman district, the largest of the four, extends from the hills of Albano to the frontier of Tuscany, and from the lower slopes of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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  • It is a great depression—the continuation of the Adriatic Sea—filled up by deposits brought down by the rivers from the mountains.
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  • But the strip of coast between the Apennines and the sea, known as the Riviera of Genoa, is not only extremely favourable to the growth of olives, but produces oranges and lemons in abundance, while even the aloe, the cactus and the palm flourish in many places.
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  • The shores, especially on the Tyrthenian Sea, present almost a continued grove of olive, orange, lemon and citron trees, which attain a size unknown in the north of Italy.
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  • Southern Italy indeed has in general a very different climate from the northern portion of the kingdom; and, though large tracts are still occupied by rugged mountains of sufficient elevation to retain the snow for a considerable part of the year, the districts adjoining the sea enjoy a climate similar to that of Greece and the southern provinces of Spain.
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  • The sea mammals include the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).
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  • Tortoiseshell, an important article of commerce, is derived from the Thalassochelys caretta, a sea turtle.
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  • It predominates along the Ligurian Riviera from Bordighera to Spezia, and on the Adriatic, near San Benedetto del Tronto and Gargano, and, crossing the Italian shore of the Ioian Sea, prevails in some regions of Calabria, and terminates around the gulfs of Salerno, Sorrento and Naples.
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  • He holds supreme command by land and sea, appoints ministers and officials, promulgates the laws, coins money, bestows honors, has the right of pardoning, and summons and dissolves the parliament.
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  • Rome is plotected by a circle of forts from a coup de main from the sea, the coast, only 12 m.
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  • B~t in the time of that historian, as well as of Thucydides, the names of Oenotria and Italia, which appear to have been at that period regarded as synonymous, had been extended to include the shore of the Tarentine Gulf as far as Metapontum and from thence across to the gulfs of Laus and Posidonia on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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  • The seventh region consisted of Etruria, which preserved its ancient limits, extending from the Tiber to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and separated from Liguria on the north by the river Macra.
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  • During their season of ascendancy Pisa was enslaved, and Florence gained the access to the sea.
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  • On the 25th of April General Roman Oudinot landed with 8000 men at Civitavecchia, and Republl4 on the 3oth attempted to capture Rome by suprise, but was completely defeated by Garibaldi, who might have driven the French into the sea, had Mazzini allowed him to leave the city.
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  • By the end of May the city was blockaded by land and sea, and in July the bombardment began.
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  • Austria undertook to guard the Adriatic on land and sea, and to help Germany by checkmating Russia on land.
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  • On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.
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  • About the same time Mancini was informed by the Italian agent in Cairo that Great Britain would be well disposed towards an extension of Italian influence on the Red Sea coast.
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  • The occupation, effected on the 5th of February, was accelerated by fear lest Italy might be forestalled by France or Russia, both of which powers were suspected of desiring to establish themselves firmly on the Red Sea and to exercise a protectorate over Abyssinia.
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  • Between the Andamans and Cape Negrais intervene two small groups, Preparis and Cocos; between the Andamans and Sumatra lie the Nicobar Islands, the whole group stretching in a curve, to which the meridian forms a tangent between Cape Negrais and Sumatra; and though this curved line measures 700 m., the widest sea space is about 91 m.
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  • Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.
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  • The religion consists of fear of the spirits of the wood, the sea, disease and ancestors, and of avoidance of acts traditionally displeasing to them.
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  • Two able officers, Colebrooke of the Bengal Engineers, and Blair of the sea service, were sent to survey and report.
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  • To establish the exact relationship it is necessary not only to breed but to rear the medusa, which cannot always be done in 1 In some cases hydroids have been reared in aquaria from ova of medusae, but these hydroids have not yet been found in the sea (Browne [Io a]).
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  • (After quickly and are either Hertwig.) set free in a mature condition or remain in the shelter of the polypcolony, protected from risks of a free life in the open sea.
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  • It has direct communication with the sea by a ship-canal, greatly enlarged and deepened since 1895, which connects the Grand Basin, stretching along the north side of the city, with a spacious harbour excavated at Terneuzen on the Scheldt, 212 m.
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  • A mountain, usually with very steep peaks, forms the centre, if not the whole island; on all sides steep ridges descend to the sea, or, as is oftener the case, to a considerable belt of flat land.
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  • Maitea, which rises from the sea as an exceedingly abrupt cone, and Tapamanu, appear to be the only islands without almost completely encircling barrier-reefs.
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  • Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea.
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  • On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of Holland and Denmark.
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  • Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe.
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  • Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia on the Mediterranean, and Hatria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.
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  • It occurs in Miocene deposits and is also found washed up by the sea near Catania.
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  • While geographical knowledge of the west was still scanty and the secrets of the tin-trade were still successfully guarded by the seamen of Gades and others who dealt in the metal, the Greeks knew only that tin came to them by sea from the far west, and the idea of tin-producing islands easily arose.
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  • The forests of these subtropical and warm temperate regions are situated near the sea or in mountainous regions, and (as already stated) are characterized by winter rains.
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  • From the periplus of the Erythraean Sea 33-37 we learn that their authority extended over the shores of Carmania and the opposite coasts of Arabia.
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  • It is common round the British and Irish coasts, and generally distributed along the shores of the North Sea, extending across the Atlantic to the coast of North America.
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  • He systematized the form of the land within the ring of ocean - the habitable world - by recognizing two continents: Europe to the north, and Asia to the south of the midland sea.
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  • His argument as to the narrowness of the sea between West Africa and East Asia, from the occurrence of elephants at both extremities, is difficult to understand, although it shows that he looked on the distribution of animals as a problem of geography.
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  • It was natural, if not strictly logical, that the ocean river should be extended from a narrow stream to a world-embracing sea, and here again Greek theory, or rather fancy, gave its modern name to the greatest feature of the globe.
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  • He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.
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  • The apparent opposition of the observed fact to the assigned theory he overcame by looking upon the forms of the land and the arrangement of land and sea as instruments of Divine Providence for guiding the destiny as well as for supplying the requirements of man.
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  • They traded also on the Red sea, and opened up regular traffic with India as well as with the ports of the south and west, so that it was natural for Solomon to employ the merchant navies of Tyre in his oversea trade.
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  • Herodotus (himself a notable traveller in the 5th century B.C.) relates that the Egyptian king Necho of the XXVIth Dynasty (c. 600 B.C.) built a fleet on the Red Sea, and confided it to Phoenician sailors with the orders to sail southward and return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean sea.
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  • Fathers Mendez and Lobo traversed the deserts between the coast of the Red sea and the mountains, became acquainted with Lake Tsana, and discovered the sources of the Blue Nile in 1624-1633.
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  • Five years later he accepted an offer from the government to command an expedition into the interior of Africa, the plan being to cross from the Gambia to the Niger and descend the latter river to the sea.
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  • In November 1769 Samuel Hearne was sent by the Hudson Bay Company to discover the sea on the north side of America, but was obliged to return.
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  • With the same object Alexander Mackenzie, with a party of Canadians, set out from Fort Chippewyan on the 3rd of June 1789, and descending the great river which now bears the explorer's name reached the Arctic sea.
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  • Several attempts were also made to navigate the sea from the Lena to the Kolyma.
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  • Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."
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  • If the continuous, unbroken, horizontal extent of land in a continent is termed its trunk,' and the portions cut up by inlets or channels of the sea into islands and peninsulas the limbs, it is possible to compare the continents in an instructive manner.
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  • A further subdivision depends on the character of the inter-relation of land and sea along the shore producing such types as a fjord-coast, ria-coast or lagoon-coast.
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  • It is on the windward faces of the highest ground, or just beyond the summit of less dominant heights upon the leeward side, that most rain falls, and all that does not evaporate or percolate into the ground is conducted back to the sea by a route which depends only on the form of the land.
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  • The slope of the river bed diminishes until the plain compels the river to move slowly, swinging in meanders proportioned to its size, and gradually, controlled by the flattening land, ceasing to transport material, but raising its banks and silting up its bed by the dropped sediment, until, split up and shoaled, its distributaries struggle across its delta to the sea.
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  • This is the typical river of which there are infinite varieties, yet every variety would, if time were given, and the land remained unchanged in level relatively to the sea, ultimately approach to the type.
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  • Thus, for example, in a mountain range at right angles to a prevailing sea-wind, it is the land forms which determine that one side of the range shall be richly watered and deeply dissected by a complete system of valleys, while the other side is dry, indefinite in its valley systems, and sends none of its scanty drainage to the sea.
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  • In the case of a large hollow in a very dry climate the rate of g evaporation may be sufficient to prevent the water from ever rising to the lip, so that there is no outflow to the sea, and a basin of internal drainage is the result.
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  • This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.
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  • The percentages of the land surface draining to the different oceans are approximately - Atlantic, 34'3%; Arctic sea, 26.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%.'
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  • The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
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  • The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
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  • In the case of land and fresh-water organisms the sea is the chief barrier; in the case of marine organisms, the land.
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  • A snow-capped mountain ridge or an arid desert forms a barrier between different forms of life which is often more effective than an equal breadth of sea.
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  • The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
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  • The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be traced.'
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  • Vegetation of all sorts acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaking up rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the mangrove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea.
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  • On the seashore fishing naturally became a means of livelihood, and dwellers by the sea, in virtue of the dangers to which they are exposed from storm and unseaworthy craft, are stimulated to a higher degree of foresight, quicker observation, prompter decision and more energetic action in emergencies than those who live inland.
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  • The highlander and viking, products of the valleys raised high amid the mountains or half-drowned in the sea, are everywhere of kindred spirit.
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  • It is noticeable that the patriotic spirit is strongest in those places where people are brought most intimately into relation with the land; dwellers in the mountain or by the sea, and, above all, the people of rugged coasts and mountainous archipelagoes, have always been renowned for love of country, while the inhabitants of fertile plains and trading communities are frequently less strongly attached to their own land.
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  • The sea is the most effective of all, and an island state is recognized as the most stable.
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  • From the bottom of this sea they have been raised to form the dry lands along the shores of Suffolk, whence they are now extracted as articles of commercial value, being ground to powder in the mills of Mr [afterwards Sir John] Lawes, at Deptford, to supply our farms with a valuable substitute for guano, under the accepted name of coprolite manure."
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  • 250 genera and species, extend to almost every part of the region, yet only one species of Ptilotis oversteps its limits, crossing the sea from Lombok to Bali.
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  • The most important were the Ulai or Eulaeus (Kuran) with its tributary the Pasitigris, the Choaspes (Kerkhah), the Coprates (river of Diz called in the inscriptions), the Hedyphon or Hedypnus (Jerrahi), and the Croatis (Hindyan), besides the monumental Surappi and Ukni, perhaps to be identified with the Hedyphon and Oroatis, which fell into the sea in the marshy region at the mouth of the Tigris.
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  • Being ordered to co-operate with Sherman in North Carolina, Schofield moved his corps by rail and sea to Fort Fisher, North Carolina, in seventeen days, occupied Wilmington on the 22nd of February 1865, fought the action at Kinston on the 8 - 10th of March, and on the 23rd joined Sherman at Goldsboro.
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  • The length of the Euphrates from its source at Diadin to the sea is about 1800 m., and its fall during the last 1 zoo m.
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  • Chesney was sent out at the head of an expedition with instructions to transport two steamers from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and, after putting them together at Birejik, to attempt the descent of the river to the sea.
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  • In the first, the Periplus of the Outer Sea, in two books, in which he proposed to give a complete description of the coasts of the eastern and western oceans, his chief authority is Ptolemy; the distances from one point to another are given in stades, with the object of rendering the work easier for the ordinary student.
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  • The second, the Periplus of the Inner Sea (the Mediterranean), is a meagre epitome of a similar work by Menippus of Pergamum, who lived during the times of Augustus and Tiberius.
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  • (i) Narbonensis, that is, the land between Alps, sea and Cevennes, extending up the Rhone to Vienne, was as Augustus found it, distinct in many ways from the rest of Gaul.
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  • A Log Book is a marine or sea journal, containing, in the British navy, the speed, course, leeway, direction and force of the wind, state of the weather, and barometric and thermometric observations.
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  • It is penetrated by numerous spurs of this range, which strike the sea abruptly at right angles to the coast, and in many cases plunge down into it sheer.
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  • It is divided into three districtsNovorossiysk, with the town (pop. in 1897, 16,208) of the same name, which acts as the capital of the Black Sea district; Velyaminovsk; and Sochi.
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  • In return for Russia's service in preventing the aid of Austria from being given to France, Gorchakov looked to Bismarck for diplomatic support in the Eastern Question, and he received an instalment of the expected support when he successfully denounced the Black Sea clauses of the treaty of Paris.
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  • It stretched from sea to sea and consisted of a wall and a rampart.
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  • From this point the boundary between France and Liberia would be the course of the Cavalla river from near its source to the sea.
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  • As the whole coastline of Liberia thus fronts the sea route from Europe to South Africa it is always likely to possess a certain degree of strategical importance.
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  • The coast, in fact, rises in some places rather abruptly from the sea.
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  • It is navigable from the sea for some 80 m.
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  • The important river Lofa flows nearly parallel with the St Paul's river and enters the sea about 40 m.
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  • The Dukwia and Farmington are tortuous rivers entering the sea under the name of the river Junk (Portuguese, Junco).
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  • The Sino river rises in the Niete mountains and brings down a great volume of water to the sea, though it is not a river of considerable length.
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  • Its lower course is through the territory of Sierra Leone, and it enters the sea as the Sulima.
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  • On the sea coast there is the leathery turtle (Dermochelis) and also the green turtle (Chelone).
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  • The town lies parallel with the sea, on the western shore of Trinity Bay, with an excellent harbour, and a long beach, finely timbered.
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  • The city proper is almost entirely enclosed by the remains of a great granite wall (built in 1673, when the new city was established), on the top of which on the side facing the sea is Las Bovedas promenade.
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  • Kronstadt is the naval headquarters in the Baltic, Sevastopol in the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific.
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  • The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
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  • It is a special feature of Russia that she has no free outlet to the open sea except on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean.
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  • Even the White Sea is merely a gulf of that ocean.
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  • But even this sheet of water is an inland sea, the only outlet of which, the Bosphorus, is in foreign hands, while the Caspian, an immense shallow lake, mostly bordered by deserts, possesses more importance as a link between Russia and her Asiatic settlements than as a channel for intercourse with other countries.
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  • It is separated from the Black Sea by a gentle swelling which may be traced from Kremenets in Volhynia to the lower Don, and perhaps farther S.E.
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  • Taking their origin from a series of lacustrine basins scattered over the plateaus and differing slightly in elevation, the Russian rivers describe immense curves before reaching the sea, and flow with a very gentle gradient, while numerous large tributaries collect their waters from over vast areas.
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  • The White Sea has also been brought into connexion with the central Volga basin while the sister-river of the Volga - the Kama - became the main artery of communication with Siberia.
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  • The river is navigable for 770 m.; grain and a variety of goods conveyed from the upper Kama are floated down, while furs, fish and other products of the sea are shipped up the river to be transported to Cherdyn on the Kama.
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  • Dvina flows with a very slight gradient through a broad valley, and reaches the White Sea at Archangel.
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  • Dvina, which falls into the sea below Riga, is shallow above the rapids of Jacobstadt, but navigation is carried on as far as Vitebsk - corn, timber, potash, flax, &c., being the principal shipments of its navigable tributaries (the Obsha, Ulla and Kasplya).
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  • Dvina, and enters the Black Sea.
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  • Towards the Black Sea coast its thickness diminishes, and it disappears in the valleys.
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  • It is only on the Black Sea coast that the absolute range of temperature does not exceed 108°, while in the remainder of Russia it reaches 126° to 144°, the oscillations being between - 22° and - 31°, occasionally going down as low as - 54°, and rising as high as 86° to 104°, or even 109°.
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  • Russia between May the 18th and the 24th, sa that it is only in June that warm weather sets in definitely, and it reaches its maximum in the first half of July (or of August on the Black Sea coast).
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  • The rivers freeze rapidly; towards November 10th all the streams of the White Sea basin are ice-bound, and so remain for an average of 167 days; those of the Baltic, Black Sea and Caspian basins freeze later, but about December the 10th nearly all the rivers of the country are highways for sledges.
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  • On the whole, February and March continue to be cold, and their average temperatures rise above zero nowhere except on the Black Sea coast.
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  • The Black Sea, the fauna of which appears to be very rich, belongs to the Mediterranean region, slightly modified, while the Caspian partakes of the characteristic fauna inhabiting the lakes and seas of the Aral-Caspian depression.
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  • Those of the later Lacustrine period, on the contrary, are so numerous that there is scarcely one lacustrine basin in the regions of the Oka, the Kama, the Dnieper, not to speak of the lake-region itself, and even the White Sea coasts, where remains of Neolithic man have not been discovered.
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  • The tea plant thrives and is being planted fairly rapidly on the Black Sea littoral in Transcaucasia.
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  • Of the 55 million sheep kept in Russia only about 15 millions belong to the fine merino breed, and these are pastured chiefly on the Black Sea steppes.
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  • Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
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  • The total mercantile marine of Russia does not aggregate 700,000 tons; and it is distributed in the following proportions: 35'4% in the Caspian Sea, 34'7% in the Black Sea and Shipping.
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  • Along the Murman coast of the Arctic Ocean and in the White Sea, where many millions of herrings are caught annually by some 3000 persons, the yearly produce is estimated at the value of £140,000.
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  • In the Baltic Sea, as well as in the lakes of its basin (Ladoga, Onega, Ilmen, &c.), the yearly value is estimated at £ 200,000.
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  • The Black Sea fisheries, in which about 4000 men are engaged, yield fish valued at £300,000 per annum.
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  • The value of the fish has much increased owing to the introduction of cold storage; as a result of the employment of this method of packing, fish is now exported in a fresh state from the Black Sea to all parts of S.W.
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  • The annual yield of the Azov Sea fisheries, occupying 15,000 men, is valued at £600,000.
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  • In the Volga section of the Caspian Sea fish are caught to the value of about £I,000,000 annually; in the Ural section over 40,000 tons of fish and nearly 1500 tons of caviare are obtained.
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  • Lake Ilmen and the river Volkhov, on which stands Novgorod, Rurik's capital, formed part of the great waterway from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and we know that by this route travelled from Scandinavia to Constantinople the tall fair-haired Northmen who composed the famous Varangian bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors.
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  • When the two became united under one ruler towards the end of the 14th century they formed a broad strip of territory stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea and separating Russia from central Europe.
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  • As a precaution against Tatar invasions he founded fortified towns on his southern frontiers - Tambov, Kozlov, Penza and Simbirsk; but when the Don Cossacks offered him Azov, which they had captured from the Turks, and a National Assembly, convoked for the purpose of considering the question, were in favour of accepting it as a means of increasing Russian influence on the Black Sea, he decided that the town should be restored to the sultan, much to the disappointment of its captors.
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  • Already the desire to make his country a great naval power was becoming his ruling passion, and when he found by experience that the White Sea, Russia's sole maritime outlet, had great practical inconveniences as a naval base, he revived the project of getting a firm footing on the shores of the Black Sea or the Baltic. At first he gave the preference to the former, and with the aid of a flotilla of small craft, constructed on a tributary of the Don, he succeeded in capturing Azov from the Turks.
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  • Peter's other favourite scheme, that of acquiring the command of the Black Sea, was as far from realization as ever.
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  • His dreams of freeing the Christians from the yoke of the infidel had to be abandoned, and the conquest of the northern shores of the Black Sea was postponed till the reign of Catherine II.
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  • It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
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  • Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.
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  • Nicholas immediately sent his Black Sea fleet into the Bosphorus, landed on the Asiatic shore a force of 10,000 men, and advanced another large force towards the Turkish frontier in Bessarabia.
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  • In return for these services Bismarck helped Russia to recover a portion of what she had lost by the Crimean War, for it was thanks to his connivance and diplomatic support that she was able in 1871 to denounce with impunity the clauses of the treaty of Paris which limited Russian armament in the Black Sea.
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  • Had the tsar been satisfied with this important success, which enabled him to rebuild Sevastopol and construct a Black Sea fleet, his reign might have been a peaceful and prosperous one, but he tried to recover the remainder of what - had been lost by the Crimean War, the province of Turkish Bessarabia and predominant influence in Turkey.
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  • The former extends from the sea to the central chain of hills and contains all the lowlands and many mountainous districts, some of the latter rising to an elevation of between 3000 and 4000 ft.
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  • They comprise several ranges which the roads from the sea to the interior have to cross at right angles, thereby rendering communication and transport very difficult.
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  • Of the rivers of Fars only three important ones flow into the sea: (1) the Mand (Arrian's Sitakos), Karaagha.ch in its upper course; (2) the Shapur or Khisht river (Granis); (3) the Tab (Oroatis).
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  • In the article on " Railways " in the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published in 1824, it is said: "It will appear that this species of inland carriage [railways] is principally applicable where trade is considerable and the length of conveyance short; and is chiefly useful, therefore, in transporting the mineral produce of the kingdom from the mines to the nearest land or water communication, whether sea, river or canal.
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  • The Trans-Siberian railway was a military necessity if Russia was to exercise dominion throughout Siberia and maintain a port on the Yellow Sea or the Sea of Japan.
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  • Buds of a particular tree growing near the sea were described as producing barnacles, and these, falling into the water, were supposed to develop into geese.
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  • The Great Basin is not, as its name implies, a topographic cup. Its surface is of varied character, with many independent closed basins draining into lakes or "playas," none of which, however, has outlet to the sea.
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  • Southward the altitude falls, Death valley and Coahuila valley being in part below the level of the sea.
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  • A missionary visiting the Samoan valley found there a tradition of a party who put to sea never to return, and he also found the wood of which the staff was made growing plentifully in the district.
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  • The whole mass looks as if it were, as it is, slowly sliding down the valley to the sea.
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  • The extreme frosts and heats of the English climate are unknown, but occasional heavy snow-falls occur, and the sea in shallow inlets is covered with a thin coating of ice.
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  • Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
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  • The British warship "Calliope" (Captain Pearson) was in the harbour, but succeeded in getting up steam and, standing out to sea, escaped destruction.
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  • The most famous Arsaces was the chief of the Parni, one of the nomadic Scythian or Dahan tribes in the desert east of the Caspian Sea.
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  • It thrives best on a dry, deep, sandy loam, on airy sheltered sites at no great elevation above the sea.
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  • He was not always wise, however, either for himself or his country; for he became deeply involved in the South Sea Scheme, in the disastrous collapse of which (1720) he lost the ample wealth he had amassed.
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  • This son (by name Edward) was educated at Westminster' and Cambridge, but never took a degree, travelled, became member of parliament, first for Petersfield (1734), then for Southampton (1741), joined the party against Sir Robert Walpole, and (as his son confesses, not much to his father's honour) was animated in so doing by " private revenge " against the supposed " oppressor " of his family in the South Sea affair.
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  • Below this region flow the streams of the Great Basin, none of which reach the sea, but either terminate in lakes having no outlet or else vanish in sloughs or " sinks."
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  • The numerous remains extant, of which the theatre and the buildings partially submerged by the sea are the most noteworthy, all belong to the Roman period.
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  • The town is connected with the sea by the Corsini Canal, the two small rivers Ronco and Montone no longer serving as means of communication.
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  • At length under Augustus it suddenly rose into importance, when that emperor selected it as the station for his fleet on "the upper sea."
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  • At the same time Augustus conducted a branch of the Po (the fossa Augusta) through the city into the sea.
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  • As the waves of the sea are fancifully compared to horses, so a field of corn, waving in the breeze, may be said to represent the wedding of the sea-god and the corn-goddess.
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  • A Texet'ij (" initiatory ceremony ") of women by a woman also took place at Eleusis, characterized by obscene jests and the use of phallic emblems. The sacramental meal on this occasion consisted of the produce of land and sea, certain things (pomegranates, honey, eggs) being forbidden for mystical reasons.
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  • Morton Park contains 200 acres of woodland bordering the shores of Billington Sea (a freshwater lake).
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  • His work in connexion with the drafting of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and with the Bering Sea controversy attracted attention.
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  • They can live in brackish and even in sea water.
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  • The boundary line between the two counties is drawn lengthwise down the centre of the lake and is continued down the river Shiel to the sea.
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  • Even at that period, however, the silt brought down by the rivers rendered access to the harbour difficult, and the historian Philistus excavated a canal to give free access to the sea.
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  • The author was an unnamed Austrian poet, but the story itself belongs to the cycle of sagas, which originated on the shores of the North Sea.
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  • Here, thirteen years later, Herwig and her brother Ortwin find her washing clothes by the sea; on the following day they attack the Norman castle with their army and carry out the long-delayed retribution.
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  • Like the Odyssey, Gudrun is an epic of the sea, a story of adventure; it does not turn solely round the conflict of human passions; nor is it built up round one all-absorbing, all-dominating idea like the Nibelungenlied.
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  • Towards the close of the 13th century the Egyptian king Merneptah (Mineptah) records a successful campaign in Palestine, and alludes to the defeat of Canaan, Ascalon, Gezer, Yenuam (in Lebanon) and (the people or tribe) Israel.3 Bodies of aliens from the Levantine coast had previously threatened Egypt and Syria, and at the beginning of the 12th century they formed a coalition on land and sea which taxed all the resources of Rameses III.
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  • The Hittite power became weaker, and the invaders, in spite of defeat, appear to have succeeded in maintaining themselves on the sea coast.
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  • The Edomites, who had been almost extirpated by David in the valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, were now strong enough to seek revenge; and the powerful kingdom of Damascus, whose foundation is ascribed to this period, began to threaten Israel on the north and north-east.
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  • He took, presumably, the coast-road in order to establish and retain his command of the sea.
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  • A breakwater and sea-wall prevent the blocking of the harbour entrance and encroachments of the sea; and there is another breakwater at Landguard Point on the opposite (Suffolk) shore of the estuary.
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  • A new island rose from the sea, and was at once named " Wesley," but disappeared again.
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  • Cereals are imported from the Black Sea and Danube ports, ready-made clothing from Austria and Germany, articles of luxury from Austria and France, and cotton textiles from England.
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  • - The acropolis of this historic city looks on the Libyan Sea and commands the extensive plain of Messara.
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  • The Keftiu who represented Minoan culture in Egypt in the concluding period of the Cnossian palace (Late Minoan II.) cease to appear on Egyptian monuments towards the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty (c. 1350 B.C.), and their place is taken by the "Peoples of the Sea."
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  • At the same time he was reported to have been the first monarch who established a naval power, and acquired what was termed by the Greeks the Thalassocracy, or dominion of the sea.
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  • Among the most important of these were - Lyttus or Lyctus, in the interior, south-east of Cnossus; Rhaucus, between Cnossus and Gortyna; Phaestus, in the plain of Messara, between Gortyna and the sea; Polyrrhenia, near the north-west angle of the island; Aptera, a few miles inland from the Bay of Suda; Eleutherna and Axus, on the northern slopes of Mount Ida; and Lappa, between the White Mountains and the sea.
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  • It is situated at the head of Loch Ryan, an arm of the North Channel (Irish Sea), 59 m.
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  • Augustus, however, finding it too unwieldy, again divided it into three provinces, one of which was Belgica, bounded on the west by the Seine and the Arar (Saone); on the north by the North Sea; on the east by the Rhine from its mouth to the Lacus Brigantinus (Lake Constance).
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