In return for his assistance against the Scythians, the Greeks of the Cimmerian Bosporus and the Tauric Chersonese recognized his suzerainty.
Herodotus makes him a principal figure in epic dialogues: he warns Darius not to attack the Scythians (iv.
of Macedon was returning from his expedition against the Scythians, the Triballi refused to allow him to pass the Haemus unless they received a share of the booty.
It was perhaps after this that an inroad of Scythians (q.v.) occurred (c. 626 B.C.); if it did not actually touch Judah, the advent of the people of the north appears to have caused great alarm (Jer.
Bib., " Scythians," § I.
Farther south the best-known tribes are the Manchus, the Mongols proper, the Moguls and the Turks, all known under the name of Tatars, and to the ancients as Scythians, occupying from east to west the zone of Asia comprised between the 40th and 50th circles of N.
722), a tribe Ariaspae on the Etymandros (in Sijistan), who, on account of the support which they gave him against the Scythians, were called Euergetae (Arrian iii.
At the root of the work lies a theory, whencesoever derived, which identified the Goths with the Scythians, whose country Darius Hystaspes invaded, and with the Getae of Dacia, whom Trajan conquered.
But these Scythians soon amalgamated with the Parthian peasants.
7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.
- Herodotus expressly divides the Scythians into the Agriculturists, Callipidae, Alazones, Aroteres and Georgi in the western part of the country, and the Nomads with the Royal Scyths to the east.
The settled Scythians would be the remains of this Iranian population, or the different tribes of them may have been connected with their neighbours beyond Scythian dominion - Thracian Getae and Arimaspi, Slavonic Neuri, Finnish Androphagi and such like.
The Cimmerians who preceded the Scythians used Iranian proper names, and probably represented this Iranian element in greater purity.
Surely this is the national legend of the agricultural Scythians about Olbia,.
These are common to all the Scythians, but Thamimasadas (Poseidon) is peculiar to the Royal Scyths.'
After the retreat of Darius the Scythians made a raid as far as Abydos, and even sent envoys to King Cleomenes III.
Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909), gives a summary of various opinions and a survey of the subject from all points of view.
When Assur-bani-pal died, his empire was fast breaking up. Under his successor, Assur-etil-ilani, the Scythians penetrated into Assyria and made their way as far as the borders of Egypt.
It was in the sixth year of Nabonidus (549 B.C.) - or perhaps in 553 - that Cyrus, " king of Anshan" in Elam, revolted against his suzerain Astyages, king of " the Manda " or Scythians, at Ecbatana.
The army of Astyages betrayed him to his enemy, and Cyrus established himself at Ecbatana, thus putting an end to the empire of the Scythians, ' For the events leading up to the conquests of Cyrus, see Persia: Ancient History, § v.
During the reign of Alexander Byzantium was compelled to acknowledge the Macedonian supremacy; after the decay of the Macedonian power it regained its independence, but suffered from the repeated incursions of the Scythians.
vii., stratagems of the barbarians (Medes, Persians, Egyptians, Thracians, Scythians, Celts); bk.
The frontier of Dacia was successfully defended against the Scythians and Sarmatians, and a tract of territory reconquered in north Britain.
00os, a dart, and µavr€ia, prophecy or divination), a form of divination by means of arrows, practised by the Babylonians, Scythians and other ancient peoples.
Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909); V.
But it appears that the Thracians and Scythians in historical times (Herodotus i.
They cannot be the same as the Scythians of Europe, though the name and original nomadic life are points in common.
turned the Scythians against himself, however, even Mesopotamia suffered from the plunderers (Joh.
Diplomacy backed up by vigorous preparations may have deterred the Scythians from the dangerous enterprise of crossing the desert to Egypt.
Herodotus, describing the funeral customs of the Scythians, states that, on the death of a chief, the body was placed upon a couch in a chamber sunk in the earth and covered with timber, in which were deposited all things needful for the comfort of the deceased in the other world.
A welcome work on Scythians and Greeks, interpreting material which has long lain inaccessible in Russian books and periodicals, was published by E.
Minns, Scythians and Greeks (1913); Th.
64) describes the practice among the Scythians.
After the destruction of the Scythians Cyaxares regained the supremacy, renewed his attack on Assyria, and in 606 B.C. destroyed Nineveh and the other capitals of the empire (Herod.
Aesculapius (§ 13) - much in the same way as Hercules has contests with serpents and dragons, becomes the patron of medicinal springs, and by marrying the serpent Echidna was the ancestor of the snakeworshipping Scythians.
He says expressly that they were not pure Scythians, but, being descended from young Scythian men and Amazons, spoke an impure dialect and allowed their women to take part in war and to enjoy much freedom.
After defending itself against the kingdom of Bosporus, and the native Scythians and Tauri, and even extending its power over the west coast of the peninsula, it was compelled to call in the aid of Mithradates VI.
Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1907).
Nine rebel chiefs are led before him, their hands bound behind them, and a rope round their necks; the ninth is Skunka, the chief of the Scythians (Sacae) whom he defeated.
The names and words of the Scythians (Scoloti) in South Russia, which Herodotus has preserved, are for the most part perfectly transparent Iranian formations, identified by Zeuss and MUllenhoff; among them are many proper names in Arfis(Apto--) and aspa (horsecuriror; Zend, aspa).
~&u), enemies, robbers; by the Persians as Sacae; and by the Greeks generally as Scythians.
Herodotus relates that the Persians distinguished all the Scythians i.e.
Deioce~ founds the monarchy; his son Phraortes begins the work o~ conquest; and his son Cyaxares is first overwhelmed by th Scythians, then captures Nineveh, and raises Media ~to a greal power.
It was obviously an attempt to take the nomads of the Turanian steppe in the rear and to reduce them to quiescence, which led to his unfortunate expedition against the Scythians of the Russian steppes (c. 512 B.C.; cf.
We have already seen that the attempt of Darius to control the predatory nomads in the nortI~ led to his expedition against the Scythians; this, again, led tc the incorporation of Thrace and Macedonia, whose king Perdiccm submitted.
4); and Arsaces, a chief of the Parni or Aparnian Iranian nomad tribe (therefore often called Dahan Scythians), inhabiting the steppe east of the Caspianmade himself master of the district of Parthia (q.v.) in 248 B.C. He and his brother Tiridates were the founders of the Parthian kingdom, which, however, was confined within very modest limits during the following decades.
In 159 Mongolian tribes, whom the Chinese call Yue-chi Mithra- and the Greeks Scythians, forced their way into dates ii.
Jr. 66); but his son Mithradates II., surnamed The Great (c. 12488), defeated the Scythians and restored for a while the power of the Arsacids.
Simultaneously began a new and severe conflict with the Scythians.
70) the Scythians were already settled in the Indus valley (pp. 38, 41, 48), their dominion re-sching its zenith under Kanishka (c. A.D.
Soon, however, the nomads (Dahae) gained their independence, and, as we have seen, repeatedly attacked and devastated the Parthian Empire in conjunction with the Tocharians and other tribes of Sacae and Scythians.
It was sprung from a predatory nomad tribe (the Parnian Dahae, Scythians) which had established itself in Khorasan (Parthia), on the borders of civilization, and thence gradually annexed further districts as the political situation or the weakness of its neighbors allowed.
How vital was the nomadic element rn the Parthian Empire is obvious from the fact that, in civil wars, the deposed kings conThe Iranian sistently took refuge among the Dahae or Scythians ~ and were restored by them.
was compelled to flee (32 B.C.), till restored by the Scythians.
The other ancient tongues and dialects of s family are known only by name; we read of peculiar idioms Sogdiana, Zabulistan, Herat, &c. It is doubtful whether the guages of the Scythians, the Lycians and the Lydians, of which dly anything remains, were Iranian or not.
the Treres, settling in Thrace, and crossing into Asia; others settled in southern Russia, leaving their name in the Crimea; then when hard pressed by the Scythians most of them passed round the east end of the Euxine into Asia Minor, probably being the people known as Gimirri on Assyrian monuments, and ravaged that region, the relics of the race finally settling at Sinope.
They passed eastward to the Danube mouth and into southern Russia, as far as the Sea of Azov, mingling with the Scythians, as is proved by the name Celto-scyths.
The original inhabitants were Cimmerians, and after them came Scythians.
Bennet," entitled The Treasury of Wit, and by his first important historical work, the Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of the Scythians or Goths, to which Gibbon acknowledged himself indebted.
Those who hold (2) have to suppose that original references to the Scythians were retouched under the impression of Chaldean invasions.
Bib., Zibeon, " Scythians," § 8; Cheyne, Critica Biblica, part i.
to the invasion of the Scythians (perhaps c. 626), and (d) with the anticipated downfall of Assyria and Nineveh (ii.
are in large measure associated traditionally with the fall of Jerusalem, and to such a calamity, and not to the inroad of the Scythians, the references to the " remnant " and the " captivity " can only refer.
ii.) presuppose events other and later than those with which the Scythians were connected.
On the other hand, it is entirely intelligible that a prophecy relating to Scythians should have been re-shaped to apply to later conditions, and on this view it is explicable why the indefinite political convulsions should be adjusted to the exile and why the gloom should be relieved by the promise of a territory extending from the Mediterranean to the Syrian desert (ii.
30 originally referred to the Scythians, it has been revised to refer to the Chaldeans; also in Ezek.
The ancient Drangiana (Zaraya, Daranka, " lake land ") received the name of " land of the Sacae " after this country was permanently occupied by the " Scythians " or Sacae, who overran Iran in 128 B.C. It was included in the Sassanian empire, and then in the empire of the caliphs.
Their name first occurs in connexion with the expedition of Darius Hystaspis (555 B.C.) against the Scythians, in the course of which they were brought under his sway, but they regained their freedom on his return to the East.
But they are separated by so many generations from the earliest historic times that sure conclusions regarding them are impossible; at all events, as yet Russian archaeologists are not agreed as to whether the ancestors of the Sla y s were Sarmatians only or Scythians also, whose skulls have nothing in common with those of the Mongol race.
The Assyrian evidence is in the main a confirmation of Herodotus, though most writers think that the Scythians who troubled Asia were Sacae from the east of the Caspian (H.
Assyria, therefore, was ill prepared to face the hordes of Scythians - or Manda, as they were called by the Babylonians - who now began to harass the frontiers.
Nineveh, according to Herodotus, was besieged by Cyaxares and the Medes but saved by Madyes and the Scythians some twenty or more years before the Medes in alliance with Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, finally took it, c. 606 B.C. Much conjecture has been lavished upon the varying accounts which have reached us of the capture, but it seems probable that a heavy flood or the besiegers burst the great dam and while thus emptying the moats launched a flood against the west wall on the inside and thus breached the defences.
After their victory over Cyaxares, the Scythians conquered and wasted the whole of western Asia, and ruled twenty-eight years, till at last they were made drunk and slain by Cyaxares at a banquet (cf.
With these inroads of the Cimmerians and Scythians (see ScYTIIIA), we must doubtless connect the great ethnographical revolution in the north of anterior Asia; the Indo-European Armenians (Haik), displacing the old Alaro..
Indians, Scythians and Seres (cf.
Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909); for the history of Kaffa see Heyd, Histoire du commerce du Levant au moyen age (Paris, 1886), vol.
(2) The more usual view is that the Scythians (see Herod.
Of these formulae '(chosen because illustrated by Greek heroic legends) - (I) is a sanction of barbarous nuptial etiquette; (2) is an obvious ordinary incident; (3) is moral, and both (3) and (1) may pair off with all the myths of the origin of death from the infringement of a taboo or sacred command; (4) would naturally occur wherever, as on the West Coast of Africa, human victims have been offered to sharks or other beasts; (5) the story of flight from a horrible crime, occurs in some stellar myths, and is an easy and natural invention; (6) flight from wizard father or husband, is found in Bushman and Namaqua myth, where the husband is an elephant; (7) success of youngest brother, may have been an explanation and sanction of " tungsten-recht " - Maui in New Zealand is an example, and Herodotus found the story among the Scythians; (8) the bride given to successful adventurer, is consonant with heroic manners as late as Homer; (9) is no less consonant with the belief that beasts have human sentiments and supernatural powers; (to) the " strong man," is found among Eskimo and Zulus, and was an obvious invention when strength was the most admired of qualities; (II) the baffled ogre, is found among Basques and Irish, and turns on a form of punning which inspires an " ananzi " story in West Africa; (12) descent into Hades, is the natural result of the savage conception of Hades, and the tale is told of actual living people in the Solomon Islands and in New Caledonia; Eskimo Angekoks can and do descend into Hades - it is the prerogative of the necromantic magician; (13) " the false bride," found among the Zulus, does not permit of such easy explanation - naturally, in Zululand, the false bride is an animal; (14) the bride accused of bearing be 1st-children, has already been disposed of; the belief is inevitable where no distinction worth mentioning is taken between men and animals.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.