Scotus sentence example
His works had considerable influence in shaping the system of John Scotus Erigena.
According to John Scotus Erigena, the nothing out of which the world is created is the divine essence.
More importance attaches to Duns Scotus, who brings prominently forward the idea of a progressive development in nature by means of a process of determination.
This serves Duns Scotus as the most universal basis of existence, all angels having material bodies.
Thomas' great rival, Duns Scotus, does this to a large extent, at times affirming " two truths."Advertisement
When his master, William Varron, removed to Paris in 1301, Duns Scotus was appointed to succeed him as professor of philosophy, and his lectures attracted an immense number of students.
Further, while the genius of Aquinas was constructive, that of Duns Scotus was destructive; Aquinas was a philosopher, Duns a critic. The latter has been said to stand to the former in the relation of Kant to Leibnitz.
Theologically, the Thomistic system approximates to pantheism, while that of Scotus inclines distinctly to Pelagianism.
In opposition to Aquinas, who maintained that reason and revelation were two independent sources of knowledge, Duns Scotus held that there was no true knowledge of anything knowable apart from theology as based upon revelation.
Another chief point of difference with Aquinas was in regard to the freedom of the will, which Duns Scotus maintained absolutely.Advertisement
Seeberg, Die Theologie des Duns Scotus (1900), and in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie fiir protestantische Theologie (1898), with bibliog.
On the question of universals he endeavoured to steer a middle course between the pantheistically inclined realism of Duns Scotus and the extreme nominalism of William of Occam.
Berengar's belief was not shaken by their arguments and exhortations, and hearing that Lanfranc, the most celebrated theologian of that age, strongly approved the doctrine of Paschasius and condemned that of " Scotus " (really Ratramnus), he wrote to him a letter expressing his surprise and urging him to reconsider the question.
The basis of his work was a chronicle compiled by Marianus Scotus, an Irish recluse, who lived first at Fulda, afterwards at Mainz.
In this book he tries to prove that Bernard (Sapiens), Alcuin, Boniface and Joannes Scotus Erigena were all Scots, and even Boadicea becomes a Scottish author.Advertisement
This opinion, defended by Bonaventura, Alexander of Hales, Scotus and others, soon became and is now generally accepted.
In Scotus Erigena, at the beginning of the Scholastic era, there is no such subordination contemplated, because philosophy and theology in his work are in implicit unity.
Indeed, no sooner was the harmony apparently established by Aquinas than Duns Scotus began this negative criticism, which is carried much farther by William of Occam.
Prantl has professed to find the headstream of Nominalism also in Scotus Erigena; but beyond the fact that he discusses at considerable length the categories of thought and their mutual relations, occasionally using the term voces to express his meaning, Prantl appears to adduce no reasons for an assertion which directly contradicts Erigena's most fundamental doctrines.
Still later Duns Scotus and Occam were both Franciscans.Advertisement
It is the question of the particularity or " this-ness " (haecceitas, as Duns Scotus afterwards named it) that embarrasses the Scholastics.
This difficulty was presently raised by Duns Scotus and the realistically-inclined opponents of the Thomist doctrine.
Scotus extends the number of theological doctrines which are not, according to him, susceptible of philosophical proof, including in this class the creation of the world out of nothing, the immortality of the human soul, and even the existence of an almighty divine cause of the universe (though he admits the possibility of proving an ultimate cause superior to all else).
His destructive criticism thus tended to reintroduce the dualism between faith and reason which Scholasticism had laboured through centuries to overcome, though Scotus himself, of course, had no such sceptical intention.
To this Scotus opposed an indeterminism of the extremest type, describing the will as the possibility of determining itself motivelessly in either of two opposite senses.Advertisement
Scotus, on the other hand, following out his doctrine of the will, declared the good to be so only by arbitrary imposition.
Aquinas is on the side of rationalism, Scotus on the side of scepticism.
While agreeing with Albert and Thomas in maintaining the threefold existence of the universals, Duns Scotus attacked the Thomist doctrine of individuation.
Notwithstanding the above doctrine, however, Scotus holds that all created things possess both matter and form - the soul, for example, possessing a matter of its own before its The principle of individuation.
A pupil of The Scotus, he carried his master's criticism farther, and Twofold denied that any theological doctrines were rationally Truth.Advertisement
Occam denied the title of a science to theology, emphasizing, like Scotus, its practical character.
Paschasius shrank from the logical outcome of his view, namely, that Christ's body or part of it is turned into human excrement, but Ratramnus, another monk of Corbey, in a book afterwards ascribed to Duns Scotus, drew this inference in order to discredit his antagonists, and not because he believed it himself.
He was one of the first to attack the realist doctrines of Duns Scotus, and is interesting mainly as the precursor of William of Occam in his revival of Nominalism.
Laurie wrote Metaphysica, nova et vetusta, a Return to Dualism, by Scotus Novanticus (1884; 2nd ed., enlarged, 1889).
St Martin's, built between the 10th and 12th centuries, has a fine baptistery; St Gereon's, built in the 11th century on the site of a Roman rotunda, is noted for its mosaics, and glass and oil-paintings; the Minorite church, begun in the same year as the cathedral, contains the tomb of Duns Scotus.Advertisement
Here for the first time the highlanders were under heavy fire of grape and roundshot, to which they could not reply, and though the right wing and centre, Camerons, Atholl men, Macleans, Clan Chattan, Appin Stewarts, under Lord George and Lochiel, fought with even more than their usual gallantry and resolution, the Macdonalds on the left, discouraged by the death of Keppoch, Scotus and other officers in the advance, never came to the shock.
His real name was Johannes Scotus (Scottus) or John the Scot.
The combination Johannes Scotus Erigena has not been traced earlier than Ussher and Gale; even Gale uses it only in the heading of the version of St Maximus.
The name Scotus, which has often been taken to imply Scottish origin, really favours the theory that he was an Irishman according to the then usage of Scotus or Scotigena.
On the other hand, William of Malmesbury prefers to read Heruligena, which would make Scotus a Pannonian, while Bale says he was born at St David's, Dempster connects him with Ayr, and Gale with Eriuven in Hereford.Advertisement
Some early writers thought there were two persons, John Scotus and John Erigena.
William of Malmesbury's amusing story illustrates both the character of Scotus and the position he occupied at the French court.
Schluter (Munster, 1838); and in Floss's Opera omnia; there is a German translation by Ludwig Noack, Johannes Scotus Erigena fiber die Eintheilung der Natur (3 vols., 1874-1876).
It was better, he said, to be weak in Duns Scotus, but strong in St Paul - than to be crammed with all the learning of Durandus, and ignorant of the law of Christ.
Philosophy had attempted to free itself from the trammels of theological orthodoxy in the hardy speculations of some schoolmen, notably of Scotus Erigena and Abelard.Advertisement
He entered the Franciscan order and subsequently went to Paris, where he was a pupil of Duns Scotus.
Following Duns Scotus, he adopted the Platonic theory of ideas, and denied that Aristotle had made any contribution to metaphysical speculation.
It is a curious commentary on the theories of Duns Scotus that one pupil, Francis, should have taken this course, while another pupil, Occam, should have used his arguments in a diametrically opposite direction and ended in extreme Nominalism.
This dispute would have little interest now, had not Hincmar appealed to John Scotus Erigena, who attempted to solve the theological problem by philosophical conceptions.
Duns Scotus leaned toward Semi-Pelagianism, which rejected the doctrine of predestination, and maintained a co-operation of freedom and grace.Advertisement
It is generally held that he taught Bonaventura, Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas, but a comparison of dates makes it clear that the two latter could nothave been his pupils and that the statement about Bonaventura is open to doubt.
Ratramnus's views failed to find acceptance; their author was soon forgotten, and, when the book was condemned at the synod of Vercelli in 1050, it was described as having been written by Johannes Scotus Erigena at the command of Charlemagne.
There is not only no room in history for this Median king of the Book of Daniel, but it is also highly likely that the interpolation of "Darius the Mede" was caused by a confusion of history, due both to the destruction of the Assyrian capital Nineveh by the Medes, sixty-eight years before the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, and also to the fame of the later king, Darius Hystaspis, a view which was advanced as early in the history of biblical criticism as the days of the Benedictine monk, Marianus Scotus.
Colm Scotus virum celeberrimum ac summum geometram Is.
It is traceable as far back as the schoolmen of whom Duns Scotus describes as "transcendental" those conceptions which have a higher degree of universality than the Aristotelian categories.
It is most noteworthy that they were joined by thinkers such as Grosseteste, Adam Marsh, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus and William of Ockham.
Of a third work, De differentiis et societatibus graeci latinique verbi, we only possess an abstract by a certain Johannes, identified with Johannes Scotus Erigena (9th century).
When we turn to Duns Scotus, we still find realism, still predestinarianism.
Seeberg to interpret Duns Scotus as the forerunner of Luther in his emphasis on the prac tical.
It is against this part of his doctrines that the most important criticism, in ethics, of his rival Duns Scotus (c. 1266-1308) was directed.
Scotus consistently maintained that the divine will is similarly independent of reason, and that the divine ordering of the world is to be conceived as absolutely arbitrary.
This doctrine is obviously hostile to all reasoned morality; and in fact, notwithstanding the dialectical ability of Scotus and Occam, the work of Thomas remained indubitably the crowning result of the great constructive effort of medieval philosophy.
Something also he owed to Scotus and other medieval schoolmen.
His only great predecessor, Scotus Erigena, had more of the speculative and mystical element than is consistent with a schoolman; but in Anselm are found that recognition of the relation of reason to revealed truth, and that attempt to elaborate a rational system of faith, which form the special characteristics of scholastic thought.
The latent nominalism of Aristotle only came gradually to be emphasized through the prominence which Christianity gave to the individual life, and, apart from passing notices as in Abelard, first found clear enunciation in the school of Duns Scotus.
In Duns Scotus, Averroes and Aristotle are the unequalled masters of the science of proof; and he pronounces distinctly the separation between Catholic and philosophical truth, which became the watchword of Averroism.
Scotus counters that we can show that skepticism is false.
One might almost say that Duns Scotus recognizes the principle of a gradual physical evolution, only that he chooses to represent the mechanism by which the process is brought about by means of quaint scholastic fictions.
A more liberal estimate might include John Scotus Erigena or even Anselm or Bernard of Clairvaux in the West and Photius in the East.
Thomas's great rival, Duns Scotus, does this to a large extent, at times affirming " two truths."
In 1308 Duns Scotus was sent by the general of his order to Cologne, with the twofold object of engaging in a controversy with the Beghards and of assisting in the foundation of a university; according to some, his removal was due to jealousy.
The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was the great subject in dispute between the two parties; it was strenuously opposed by Aquinas, and supported by Duns Scotus, although not without reserve.
On Duns Scotus generally, see life by Wadding in vol.
Schneid, Die Korperlehre des Duns Scotus - its relation to Thomism and Atomism (1879); P. Minges, "Ist Duns Scotus Indeterminist?"
Seton-Watson (" Scotus Viator "), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong indictment of the racial policy of the Magyars, supported by exact references and many ' The methods pursued to this end are exposed in pitiless detail by Mr Seton-Watson in his chapter on the Education Laws of Hungary, in Racial Problems, 205.
On 18 November 1304 Scotus was appointed the Franciscan regent master in theology at Paris.
The critics of Aquinas - Duns Scotus and the later Nominalists - show some tendency towards rational scepticism.
He does not enter into the animal comparisons of his predecessors, but occupies himself chiefly with simple descriptive physiognomy as indicative of character; and the same is true of the scattered references in the writings of Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas.
The exact relation between the two was, however, a matter of controversy, Aquinas and Duns Scotus holding that both are practical reason, while Bonaventura narrows synderesis to the volitional tendency to good actions.