An example of that is a breed of cat called "Scottish Fold."
It was in this sense that Scottish bowlers saved the game.
Aldred, the son of Eadulf, who now ruled north of the Tyne, appealed to Constantine II., king of the Scots, for help, but the Scottish and Northumbrian armies were defeated at Corbridge.
Toward midnight, after he had left the countess' apartments, he was sitting upstairs in a shabby dressing gown, copying out the original transaction of the Scottish lodge of Freemasons at a table in his low room cloudy with tobacco smoke, when someone came in.
As Albany was strongly supported by the Scottish parliament, Angus found it necessary to withdraw to France till 1524.
As Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle once observed, "Man seldom, or rather never for a length of time and deliberately, rebels against anything that does not deserve rebelling against."
Somewhat reluctantly it was accepted by Scottish Presbyterianism as a substitute for an older version with a greater variety of metre and music. "Old Hundred" and "Old 124th" mean the moth and 124th Psalms in that old book.
The lush Scottish Highlands around him were covered in a blanket of snow that stretched for miles, the white world interrupted only by a few narrow roads snaking in different directions.
It is not known to have been printed before 1786, when it appeared in Pinkerton's Ancient Scottish Poems. 3.
His father, Johann Reinhold Forster, a man of great scientific attainments but an intractable temper, was at that time pastor of the place; the family are said to have been of Scottish extraction.
In Great Britain wild cats survive only in some of the Scottish forests, and even there it is difficult to decide whether pure-bred specimens are extant.
In 1068, after the failure of the first rising of the north, Edgar retired to Scotland, when his sister Margaret married the Scottish king, Malcolm Canmore.
The Bowling Associations of Victoria and New South Wales were established in 1880, and it was not until 1892 that the Scottish Bowling Association was founded.
The end ditch within the limits of the space is, according to Scottish laws, regarded as part of the green, a regulation which prejudices the general acceptance of those laws.
In English practice the leader is entitled to a second throw if he fail to roll a On Scottish greens the game of points is frequently played, but it is rarely seen on English greens.
On Scottish greens the leader has only a single throw.
A "toucher" bowl is a characteristic of the Scottish game to which great exception is taken by many English clubs.
According to Scottish rules, unless it has been forced clean out of bounds, such a jack is still alive.
Braxfield, on the Clyde, gave the title of Lord Braxfield to Robert Macqueen (1722-1799), who was born in the mansion and acquired on the bench the character of the Scottish Jeffreys.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.
JOHN NAPIER (1550-1617), Scottish mathematician and inventor of logarithms, was born at Merchiston near Edinburgh in 1550, and was the eighth Napier of Merchiston.
The general assembly is representative of the whole Church, either, as in the Irish General Assembly, by a minister and elder sent direct to it from every congregation, or, as in the Scottish General Assemblies, by a proportion of dele- Assembly.
Then there were the Scottish commissioners who, though without votes, took a leading part in the proceedings.
The Presbyterianism now visible in England is of Scottish origin and Scottish type, and beyond the fact of embracing a few congregations which date from, or before, the Act of Uniformity and the Five Mile Act, has little in common with the Presbyterianism which was for a brief period by law established.
The infusion of a considerable Scottish element into the population necessitated the formation of a congenial church.
Within the Episcopal Church and supported by its endowments, Robert Blair, John Livingstone and other ministers maintained a Scottish Presbyterian communion.
A majority of the Ulster Protestants were Presbyterians, and in a great religious revival which took place the ministers of the Scottish regiments stationed in Ireland took a leading part.
Notwithstanding intervening reverses there were by 1647 nearly thirty ordained ministers in fixed charges in Ulster besides the chaplains of the Scottish regiments.
Entire conformity with the Scottish Church was maintained, and strict discipline was enforced by pastoral visitations, kirk-sessions and presbyteries.
1631), a Scottish politician of some note.
Soon after John's accession in 1199 the Scottish king asked for the earldom of Northumberland, which Richard I., like his father, had refused to restore to Scotland.
William founded and richly endowed the abbey at Arbroath, and many of the Scottish towns owe their origin to his charters.
Cullen's eldest son Robert became a Scottish judge in 1796 under the title of Lord Cullen, and was known for his powers of mimicry.
That Douglas undertook this work and that he makes a plea for more accurate scholarship in the translation have been the basis of a prevalent notion that he is a Humanist in spirit and the first exponent of Renaissance doctrine in Scottish literature.
ROBERT HALDANE (1764-1842), Scottish divine, elder brother of J.
The Welsh and Scottish kings, however, both submitted to lEthelstan, and Guthfrith was again driven into exile.
During the closing years of exile he was on intimate terms with the historian Polydore Vergil, and one of his last acts was to arrange to give Polydore a corrected version of Major's account of Scottish affairs.
Mitchell, Manual of Bowl-playing (Glasgow, 1880); Laws of the Game issued by the Scottish B.A.
It is a species of cannel coal, somewhat similar to the Boghead mineral of Scotland, but yielding a much larger percentage of volatile hydro-carbon than the Scottish mineral.
JOHN DOUGLAS (1721-1807), Scottish man of letters and Anglican bishop, was the son of a small shopkeeper at Pittenweem, Fife, where he was born on the 14th of July 1721.
At Marston Moor on the 2nd of July he commanded all the horse of the Eastern Association, with some Scottish troops; and though for a time disabled by a wound in the neck, he charged and routed Rupert's troops opposed to him, and subsequently went to the support of the Scots, who were hard pressed by the enemy, and converted what appeared at one time a defeat into a decisive victory.
If that authority falls to nothing,"he said," nothing can follow but confusion."The Presbyterians, however, now engaged in a plan for restoring the king under their own control, and by the means of a Scottish army, forced on their policy, and on the 27th of May ordered the immediate disbandment of the army, without any guarantee for the payment of arrears.
Both the army and the parliament gave cold replies to his offers to negotiate; and Charles, on the 27th of December 1647, entered into the Engagement with the Scots by which he promised the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years, the suppression of the Independents and their sects, together with privileges for the Scottish nobles, while the Scots undertook to invade England and restore him to his throne.
Meanwhile behind his back the royalists had risen all over England, the fleet in the Downs had declared for Charles, and the Scottish army under Hamilton had invaded the north.
long., in which he recorded a depth exceeding 4000 fathoms. The Scottish Antarctic expedition has shown this sounding to be erroneous; the " Scotia " obtained samples of bottom, in almost the same spot, from a depth of 2660 fathoms. Combining the results of recent soundings, Dr W.
Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds that there is a ridge " extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
He thus threw in his lot with the Scottish philosophy, and his first dissertations are, in their leading position, adaptations from Reid's Inquiry.
In 1835 Jouffroy's health failed and he went to Italy, where he continued to translate the Scottish philosophers.
Obviously, nearly every kind of crane can be made portable by mounting it on a carriage, fitted with wheels; it is even not unusual to make the Portable Scottish derrick portable by using three trucks, one under the mast, and the others under the two back legs.
In the upper valleys of the Alps there are many local varieties, one of which at Ossola is like the Scottish blacklace.
He was created Viscount Osborne in the Scottish peerage on the 2nd of February 1673, and a privy councillor on the 3rd of May.
On the 19th of June, on the resignation of Lord Clifford, he was appointed lord treasurer and made Baron Osborne of Kiveton and Viscount Latimer in the peerage of England, while on the 27th of June 1674 he was created earl of Danby, when he surrendered his Scottish peerage of Osborne to his second son Peregrine Osborne.
The Scottish philosophy of Thomas Reid and his successors believed that David Hume's scepticism was no more than the genuine outcome of Locke's sensationalist appeal to experience when ripened or forced on by the immaterialism of Bishop Berkeley - God and the soul alone; not God, world and soul.
One may regard him as an idealist, though Scottish intuitionalism - especially in the writings of Professor John Veitch - has claimed him for its own; and indeed Descartes's two substances of active mind and passive extended matter are very much akin to " Natural Dualism."
of testaments and other matters (Keith, History of the Scottish Bishops, Edinburgh, 1824, p. 38).
It is a Presbyterian system, and the Scottish Episcopal Church is a disestablished and voluntary body since 1690.
Keith, History of the Scottish Bishops (Edinburgh, 1824); P. N.
JOHN INGLIS GLENCORSE, Lord (1810-1891), Scottish judge, son of a minister, was born at Edinburgh on the 21st of August 1810.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
of State Papers, Scottish, i.
of State Pap., Scottish, ii.
of State Papers, Foreign, Scottish, Venetian, vii; Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, xix.
This augmentation has been interpreted as a golden scocheon with the demi-lion within the Scottish tressure.
Elsewhere, as the settlers in Gaul became French, the emigrants from Gaul became English, Irish, Scottish, and whatever we are to call the present inhabitants of Sicily and southern Italy.
Both Normans and English came to Scotland in crowds in the days of Margaret, Edgar and David, and Scottish national feeling sometimes rose up against them.
c. 1384), Scottish chronicler.
LOCH LOMOND, the largest and most beautiful of Scottish lakes, situated in the counties of Stirling and Dumbarton.
(a) Freewill is generally assumed on the Christian side (R.C. Church; Scottish philosophy; H.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers.
degrees from all the Scottish universities, was from 1896 to 1899 lord rector of Edinburgh University and from 1900 chancellor of St.
Next to Stanley the most important place on East Falkland is Darwin on Choiseul Sound - a village of Scottish shepherds and a station of the Falkland Island Company.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is Scottish - Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos.
- ?1556), Scottish poets and religious re - formers, were natives of Dundee, where their father James Wedderburn was a prosperous merchant.
A charge of heresy was brought against him, but he escaped to France, and established himself as a merchant at Rouen or Dieppe, where he lived un - molested until his death in 1553, although attempts were made by the Scottish community there to bring further charges against him.
The enormous influence of the collection, with its added Gude and Godlie Ballatis, on Scottish reform, is attested by the penalties enacted against the authors and printers of these books.
Mitchell reprinted the 1567 volume (expurgated) for the Scottish Text Society.
Brown in the Scottish Historical Review (January 1904).
Coming to Bombay, he fell under the influence of Dr John Wilson, principal of the Scottish College.
He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period.
JOHN CAIRD (1820-1898), Scottish divine and philosopher, was born at Greenock on the 15th of December 1820.
JAMES HALYBURTON (1518-1589), Scottish reformer, was born in 1518, and was educated at St Andrews, where he graduated M.A.
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879), British physicist, was the last representative of a younger branch of the wellknown Scottish family of Clerk of Penicuik, and was born at Edinburgh on the 13th of November 1831.
Shane O'Neill (C. 1530-1567) was a chieftain whose support was worth gaining by the English even during his father's lifetime; but rejecting overtures from the earl of Sussex, the lord deputy, Shane refused to help the English against the Scottish settlers on the coast of Antrim, allying himself instead with the MacDonnells, the most powerful of these immigrants.
But his conduct giving rise to suspicions, an expedition under the earl of Essex was sent against him, which met with such doubtful success that in 1575 a treaty was arranged by which O'Neill received extensive grants of lands and permission to employ three hundred Scottish mercenaries.
In March 1646 a cessation of hostilities was arranged between Ormonde and the Catholics; and O'Neill, furnished with supplies by the papal nuncio, Rinuccini, turned against the Scottish parliamentary army under General Monro, who had been operating with fluctuating success in Ireland since April 1642.
Alexander Brodie (1617-1680), the fourteenth laird, was one of the commissioners who went to the Hague to treat with Charles II., and afterwards became a Scottish lord of session and an English judge.
The Norwegian connexion was broken in 1266, and in 1334 Man was detached from the Scottish islands.
ALLAN RAMSAY (1686-1758), Scottish poet, was born at Leadhills, Lanarkshire, on the 15th of October 1686.
The preface to his Ever Green is a protest against "imported trimming" and "foreign embroidery in our writings," and a plea for a return to simple Scottish tradition.
His marriage in 1848 with Miss Mackinnon, a Scottish lady, remained without issue.
ALEXANDER HENDERSON (1583-1646), Scottish ecclesiastic, was born in 1583 at Criech, Fifeshire.
Acting on the constitutional principle that the king's right to convene did not interfere with the church's independent right to hold assemblies, they sat till the 10th of December, deposed all the Scottish bishops, excommunicated a number of them, repealed all acts favouring episcopacy, and reconstituted the Scottish Kirk on thorough Presbyterian principles.
In the negotiations for peace Henderson was one of the Scottish commissioners, and made a very favourable impression on the king.
While he was in London he had a personal interview with the king, with the view of obtaining assistance for the Scottish universities from the money formerly applied to the support of the bishops.
As " Scottish commissioner to the Westminster Assembly, he was in England from August 1643 till August 1646; his principal work was the drafting of the directory for public worship. Early in 1645 Henderson was sent to Uxbridge to aid the commissioners of the two parliaments in negotiating with the king; but nothing came of the conference.
In 1646 the king joined the Scottish army; and, after retiring with them to Newcastle, he sent for Henderson, and discussed with him the two systems of church government in a number of papers.
Its foundation was probably certain expressions lamenting Scottish interference in English affairs.
Henderson is one of the greatest men in the history of Scotland and, next to Knox, is certainly the most famous of Scottish ecclesiastics.
ALEXANDER ARBUTHNOT (1538-1583), Scottish ecclesiastic and poet, educated at St Andrews and Bourges, was in 1569 elected principal of King's College, Aberdeen, which office he retained until his death.
The poems are printed in Pinkerton's Ancient Scottish Poems (1786), i.
In 642, however, we find the two Celtic peoples at war with one another, for in that year the Britons under their king Owen defeated and slew the Scottish king Domnall Breac. In the same year they came into conflict with the Northumbrian king Oswio.
It is believed that the native dynasty came to an end early in the 10th century and that the subsequent kings belonged to a branch of the Scottish royal family.
I n 945-4 6 Strathclyde was ravaged by King Edmund and given over to the Scottish king Malcolm I.
The fall of the kingdom was only temporary, for we hear of a defeat of the Scottish king Cuilean by the Britons in 97 1.
In the 11th century Strathclyde appears to have been finally incorporated in the Scottish kingdom, and the last time we hear of one of its kings is at the battle of Carham in 1018 when the British king Owen fought in alliance with Malcolm II.
Can we change English writers and Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers and other categories into this;
R.G.S., 1894; Delmar Morgan, " The Mountain Systems of Central Asia," Scottish Geological Magazine, No.
THOMAS REID (1710-1796), Scottish philosopher, was born at Strachan in Kincardineshire, on the 26th of April 1710.
In view of the results of this analysis, Reid's theory (and the theory of Scottish philosophy generally) has been dubbed natural realism or natural dualism, in contrast to theories like subjective idealism and materialism or to the cosmothetic idealism or hypothetical dualism of the majority of philosophers.
But this unduly narrows the scope of Scottish philosophy, which does not exhaust itself, as is sometimes supposed, in uncritically reasserting the independent existence of matter and its immediate presence to mind.
The last designation, which became the current one, was un doubtedly unfortunate, and has conveyed to many a false impression of Scottish philosophy.
The relativism or phenomenalism which Hamilton afterwards adopted from Kant and sought to engraft upon Scottish philosophy is wholly absent from the original Scottish doctrine.
But since Hamilton's time the most typical Scottish thinkers have repudiated his relativistic doctrine, and returned to the original tradition of the school.
ALEXANDER PEDEN (c. 1626-1686), Scottish divine, one of the leading forces in the Covenant movement, was born at Auchincloich, Ayrshire, about 1626, and was educated at Glasgow University.
He was a descendant of Thomas Webster, of Scottish ancestry, who settled in New Hampshire about 1636.
Three miles south of Beauly is Beaufort Castle, the chief seat of the Lovats, a fine modern mansion in the Scottish baronial style.
SIR DAVID BREWSTER (1781-1868), Scottish natural philosopher, was born on the 11th of December 1781 at Jedburgh, where his father, a teacher of high reputation, was rector of the grammar school.
The Scottish sovereigns, however, did not wholly neglect Dumfries.
In this he has anticipated the spirit and method as well as many of the results of Reid and the Scottish school.
PETER GUTHRIE TAIT (1831-1901), Scottish physicist, was born at Dalkeith on the 28th of April 1831.
An Act passed in 1770, which relaxed the rigour of strict entails and afforded power to landlords to grant leases and otherwise improve their estates, had a beneficial effect on Scottish agriculture.
The unlimited issues of government paper and the security afforded by these leases induced the Scottish banks to afford every facility to landlords and tenants to embark capital in the improvement of the land.
In his Westminster review of Whately's Logic in 1828 (invaluable to all students of the genesis of Mill's logic) he appears, curiously enough, as an ardent and brilliant champion of the syllogistic logic against highfliers such as the Scottish philosophers who talk of "superseding" it by "a supposed system of inductive logic."
at Carlisle, the younger Robert joined Sir William Wallace, who raised the standard of Scottish independence in the name of Baliol after that king had surrendered his kingdom to Edward in 1296.
The Scottish lords were not to serve beyond the sea against their will, and were pardoned for their recent violence, in return owning allegiance to Edward.
The death of his father in 1304 may have determined his course, and led him to prefer the chance of the Scottish crown to his English estates and the friendship of Edward.
This determination closes the first chapter of his life; the second, from 1304 to 1314, is occupied by his contest for the kingdom, which was really won at Bannockburn, though disputed until the treaty of Northampton in 1328; the last, from 1314 to his death in 1329, was the period of the establishment of his government and dynasty by an administration as skilful as his generalship. It is to the second of these that historians, attracted by its brilliancy even amongst the many romances of history and its importance to Scottish history, have directed most of their attention, and it is during it that his personal character, tried by adversity and prosperity, gradually unfolds itself.
That which terminated in 1304, though unfortunately few characteristics, personal or individual, have been preserved, shows him by his conduct to have been the normal Scottish noble of the time.
A parliament in London in September 1305 to which Scottish representatives were summoned, agreed to an ordinance for the government of Scotland, which, though on the model of those for Wales and Ireland, treating Scotland as a third subject province under an English lieutenant, was in other respects not severe.
Two days later Isabella, countess of Buchan, claimed the right of her family, the Macduffs, earls of Fife, to place the Scottish king on his throne, and the ceremony was repeated with an addition flattering to the Celtic race.
On his way he granted the Scottish estates of Bruce and his adherents to his own followers, Annandale falling to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th earl of Hereford.
He overran Buchan either once or twice, and after a serious illness defeated the earl of Buchan, one of his chief Scottish opponents, near Inverurie on the 22nd of May 1308.
The Scottish bowmen followed up this advantage, and the fight became general; the English horse, crowded into too narrow a space, were met by the steady resistance of the Scottish pikemen, who knew, as Bruce had told them truly, that they fought for their country, their wives, their children, and all that freemen hold dear.
Leasing-making - a Scottish term for seditious language - was to be sternly punished.
to cut off the Scottish trade with Flanders.
The chief author of Scottish independence barely survived his work.
That national poet collected in the earliest Scottish poem, written in the reign of Bruce's grandson, the copious traditions which clustered round his memory.
The Scottish parliament agreed to the marriage of the young queen with the dauphin of France, and, on the plea of securing her safety from English designs, she set sail from Dumbarton in August 1548 to complete her education at the French court.
She was reconciled with Archbishop Hamilton, and took up arms against the Protestants of Perth, who, incited by Knox, had destroyed the Charterhouse, where many of the Scottish kings were buried.
The reformers submitted on condition that no foreign garrison was to be imposed on Perth and that the religious questions in dispute should be brought before the Scottish parliament.
Mary of Lorraine broke the spirit of this agreement by garrisoning Perth with Scottish troops in the pay of France.
His accession was "the first example of inheritance of the Scottish throne in the direct line."
A remarkable fossil from the Scottish Coal-measures (Lithomantis) had apparently small wing-like structures on the prothorax, and in allied genera small veined outgrowths - like tracheal gills - occurred on the abdominal segments.
The manor in 1242 was handed over to the Scottish king who held it till 1295, when Edward I.
THOMAS GUTHRIE (1803-1873), Scottish divine, was born at Brechin, Forfarshire, on the 12th of July 1803.
After being educated at the high school of Edinburgh and at Durham, he attended the literary and law classes at the university of Edinburgh, and becoming in 1810 a member of the Edinburgh faculty of advocates, he for some time enjoyed the intimate acquaintance of Cockburn, Jeffrey, Scott and other distinguished men whose talent then lent lustre to the Scottish bar.
COLIN MACLAURIN (1698-1746), Scottish mathematician, was the son of a clergyman, and born at Kilmodan, Argyllshire.
His eldest son John, born in 1734, was distinguished as an advocate, and appointed one of the judges of the Scottish court of session, with the title of Lord Dreghorn.
W.) M`Lennan, John Ferguson (1827-1881), Scottish ethnologist, was born at Inverness on the 14th of October 1827.
He was called to the Scottish bar in 1857, and in 1871 was appointed parliamentary draughtsman for Scotland.
At the instance of Pippin, Boniface secured Adalbert's condemnation at the synod of Soissons in 744; but he, and Clement, a Scottish missionary and a heretic on predestination, continued to find followers in spite of legate, council and pope, for three or four years more.
The town hall and Easton institute are in the Scottish Baronial style.
JOHN [" MACGREGOR ROB Ro y "1 (1825-1892), Scottish canoeist, traveller and philanthropist, son of General Sir Duncan MacGregor, K.C.B., was born at Gravesend on the 24th of January 1825.
Following petitions to the Kennel Club from exhibitors at the club's own show at the Crystal Palace, and also at the show of the Scottish Kennel Club in Edinburgh during the autumn of 1900, the divisions were decided upon as follows: Sporting.
Most of the leading breeds have clubs or societies, which have been founded by admirers with a view to furthering the interests of their favourites; and such combinations as the Bulldog Club (incorporated), the London Bulldog Society, the British Bulldog Club, the Fox Terrier Club, the Association of Bloodhound Breeders - under whose management the first man-hunting trials were held, - the Bloodhound Hunt Club, the Collie Club, the Dachshund Club, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, the English Setter Club, the Gamekeepers' Association of the United Kingdom, the International Gun Dog League, the Irish Terrier Club, the Irish Wolfhound Club, the St Bernard Club, the National Terrier Club, the Pomeranian Club, the Spaniel Club, the Scottish Terrier Club and the Toy Bulldog Club have done good work in keeping the claims of the breeds they represent before the dogowning public and encouraging the breeding of dogs to type.
The Gordon setter, the chief Scottish variety, is a heavier animal with coarser hair, black-andtan in colour.
ELSPETH BUCHAN (1738-1791), founder of a Scottish religious sect known as the Buchanites, was the daughter of John Simpson, proprietor of an inn near Banff.
On the death of Edgar, king of Scotland, in 1107, the territories of the Scottish crown were divided in accordance with the terms of his will between his two brothers, Alexander and David.
Robert Barclay (q.v.), a descendant of an ancient Scottish family, who had received a liberal education, principally in Paris, at the Scots College, of which his uncle was rector, joined the Quakers about 1666, and William Penn (q.v.) came to them about two years later.
in his Scottish campaigns, and on Edward Bruce's invasion of Ulster in 1315 Richard marched against him, but he had given his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to Robert Bruce, afterwards king of Scotland, about 1304.
His name first came before the public in 1683, when a prospectus was published in Edinburgh entitled An Account of the Scottish Atlas, stating that "the Privy Council of Scotland has appointed John Adair, mathematician and skilfull mechanick, to survey the shires."
He was then employed on a survey of the Scottish coast and two years later was made a fellow of the Royal Society.
THOMAS BROWN (1778-1820), Scottish philosopher, was born at Kirkmabreck, Kirkcudbright, where his father was parish clergyman.
Brown's philosophy occupies an intermediate place between the earlier Scottish school and the later analytical or associational psychology.
Welsh's Account of the Life and Writings, &c. (1825); M'Cosh's Scottish Philosophy, pp. 317-337.
On the 25th of July 1898 he addressed to the Scottish Catholic bishops a letter, in the course of which he said that "many of the Scottish people who do not agree with us in faith sincerely love the name of Christ and strive to ascertain His doctrine and to imitate His most holy example."
Linete and Linet-wige, whence seems to have been corrupted the old Scottish "Lintquhit," and the modern northern English "Lintwhite" - originally a somewhat generalized bird's name, but latterly specialized for the Fringilla cannabina of Linnaeus, the Linota cannabina of recent ornithologists.
The death of Wishart produced a deep effect on the Scottish people, and the cardinal became an object of general dislike, which encouraged his enemies to proceed with the design they had formed against him.
A son of John Bethune of Auchmuty and a nephew of Cardinal Beaton, James was a trusted adviser of the Scottish regent, Mary of Lorraine, widow of James V., and a determined foe of the reformers.
He paid twenty-two visits, which stirred up all the Scottish churches.
SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH (1765-1832), Scottish publicist, was born at Aldourie, 7 m.
THOMAS GALLOWAY (1796-1851), Scottish mathematician, was born at Symington, Lanarkshire, on the 26th of February 1796.
Among his most satisfactory productions are some of his earlier ones, such as the full-length of the duke of Argyll, and the numerous bust-portraits of Scottish gentlemen and their ladies which he executed before settling in London.
His full-length of Lady Mary Coke is remarkable for the skill and delicacy with which the white satin drapery is managed; while in the portrait of his brown-eyed wife, the eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Evelick, in the Scottish National Gallery, we have a sweetness and tenderness which shows the painter at his highest.
This last-named work shows the influence of French art, an influence which helped greatly to form the practice of Ramsay, and which is even more clearly visible in the large collection of his sketches in the possession of the Royal Scottish Academy and the Board of Trustees, Edinburgh.
WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN RANKINE (1820-1872), Scottish engineer and physicist, was born at Edinburgh on the 5th of July 1820, and completed his education in its university.
The observatory, which was connected by wire with the post office at Fort William, was provisioned by the Scottish Meteorological Society, to whom it belonged.
John Thoreau, his father, who married the daughter of a New England clergyman, was the son of a John Thoreau of the isle of Jersey, who, in Boston, married a Scottish lady of the name of Burns.
Flora McDonald, the famous Scottish heroine, came to Campbelltown in April 1775 with her husband and children, and here she seems to have lived during the remainder of that year.
About a mile east of the village is a small piece of moorland called the Bossenno, from the bocenieu or mounds with which it is covered; and here, in 1874, the explorations of James Miln, a Scottish antiquary, brought to light the remains of a Gallo-Roman town.
ANDREW BAXTER (1686-1750), Scottish metaphysician, was born in Aberdeen and educated at King's College.
See life in Biographia Britannica; McCosh's Scottish Philosophy, PP. 42-49.
The first who gave more accurate information was the Scottish whaler, Captain William Scoresby, jun.
JOHN HILL BURTON (1809-1881), Scottish historical writer, the son of an officer in the army, was born at Aberdeen on the 22nd of August 1809.
After studying at the university of his native city, he removed to Edinburgh, where he qualified for the Scottish bar and practised as an advocate; but his progress was slow, and he eked out his narrow means by miscellaneous literary work.
He had in 1854 been appointed secretary to the prison board, an office which gave him entire pecuniary independence, and the duties of which he discharged most assiduously, notwithstanding his literary pursuits and the pressure of another important task assigned to him after the completion of his history, the editorship of the National Scottish Registers.
He often accompanied his father on his official visits to the lighthouses of the Scottish coast and on longer journeys, thus early accustoming himself to travel.
Whenever the cultivation 'of his estate and the vigorous championship of his Samoan retainers gave him the leisure, Stevenson was during these years almost wholly occupied in writing romances of Scottish life.
In 1893 Stevenson published the important Scottish romance of .Catriona., written as a sequel to Kidnapped, and the three tales illustrative of Pacific Ocean character, Island Nights' Entertainments.
Among the clubs of the city are the Pacific Club, founded in 1853 as the British Club; the Scottish Thistle Club (1891), of which Robert Louis Stevenson was a member; the Hawaii Yacht Club, and the Polo, Country and University Clubs.
JOHN HOME (1722-1808), Scottish dramatic poet, was born on the 22nd of September 1722 at Leith, where his father, Alexander Home, who was distantly related to the earls of Home, filled the office of town-clerk.
of Original Poems by Scottish Gentlemen (1762)., See also Sir W.
This type of structure is somewhat common in Ireland, but the only Scottish examples are those at Brechin, Abernethy in Perthshire, and Egilshay in the Orkneys.
Brechin Castle played a prominent part in the Scottish War of Independence.
There are few decisions of Scottish courts on the subject.
The Welsh mines are chiefly in Flint, Cardigan and Montgomery shires; the Scottish in Dumfries, Lanark and Argyll; and the Irish in Wicklow, Waterford and Down.
In Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham and latterly the United States, the reverberatory furnace is used only for roasting the ore, and the oxidized ore is then reduced by fusion in a low, square blastfurnace (a "Scottish hearth furnace") lined with cast iron, as is also the inclined sole-plate which is made to project beyond the furnace, the outside portion (the "work-stone") being provided with grooves guiding any molten metal that may be placed on the "stone" into a cast iron pot; the "tuyere" for the introduction of the wind was, in the earlier types, about half way down the furnace.
In the more recent form of the hearth process the blocks of cast iron forming the sides and back of the Scottish furnace are now generally replaced in the United States by water-cooled shells (waterjackets) of cast iron.
Not long after the outbreak of the Scottish troubles in 1637 he joined the party of resistance, and was for some time one of its most energetic champions.
Taking no account of the real forces of the time, he aimed at an ideal form of society in which the clergy should confine themselves to their spiritual duties, and the king, after being enlightened by open communication with the Scottish nation, should maintain law and order without respect of persons.
In the Scottish parliament which met in September, Montrose found himself in opposition to Argyll, who had made himself the representative of the Presbyterian and national party, and of the middle classes.
He failed, because Charles could not even then consent to abandon the bishops, and because no Scottish party of any weight could be formed unless Presbyterianism were established ecclesiastically.
But in 1644, when a Scottish army entered England to take part against the king, Montrose, now created a marquess, was at last allowed to try what he could do.
David Leslie, the best of the Scottish generals, was promptly despatched against Montrose to anticipate the invasion.
Montrose was to appear once more on the stage of Scottish history.
Sci., Igor.) orifices of the lung-chambers of modern scorpions, can be found in the Scottish specimen of Palaeophonus, which presents the ventral surface of the animal to view.
Gordon, a Dutch officer -of Scottish extraction, who commanded the garrison at Cape Town, reached the river in its middle course at the spot indicated by Sparrman and named it the Orange in honour of the prince of Orange.
Most of the Scottish kings were crowned at Scone, the last function being held on the 1st of January 1651, when Charles II.
THOMAS DEMPSTER (1579-1625), Scottish scholar and historian, was born at Cliftbog, Aberdeenshire, the son of Thomas Dempster of Muresk, Auchterless and Killesmont, sheriff of Banff and Buchan.
Ile obtained his early education in Aberdeenshire, and at ten entered Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; after a short while he went to Paris, and, driven thence by the plague, to Louvain, whence by order of the pope he was transferred with several other Scottish students to the papal seminary at Rome.
In this book he tries to prove that Bernard (Sapiens), Alcuin, Boniface and Joannes Scotus Erigena were all Scots, and even Boadicea becomes a Scottish author.
In the vicinity are the castles of Murthly, one a modern mansion in the Elizabethan style, erected about 1838 from designs by James Gillespie Graham (1777-1855), and the other the old castle, still occupied, which was occasionally used as a hunting-lodge by the Scottish kings.
Near it is the parliament .and banqueting hall, restored (1889-1892) by the generosity of William Nelson (1817-1887) the publisher, which contains a fine collection of Scottish armour, weapons and regimental colours, while, emblazoned on the windows, are the heraldic bearings of royal and other figures distinguished in national history.
Here also are deposited the Scottish regalia (" The Honours of Scotland "), with the sword of state presented to James IV.
called Mons Meg, of which repeated mention is made in Scottish history.
in length, with 106 mythical portraits of Scottish kings, and a triptych (c. 1484) containing portraits of James III.
Parliament House, begun in 1632 and completed in 1640, in which the later assemblies of the Scottish estates took place until the dissolution of the parliament by the Act of Union of 1707, has since been set apart as the meeting-place of the supreme courts of law.
It contains, in addition to the ancient national records, adequate accommodation, in fireproof chambers, for all Scottish title-deeds, entails, contracts and mortgages, and for general statistics, including those of births, deaths and marriages.
In 1910 it was renamed and appropriated to the uses of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, which was instituted in 1826, and incorporated by royal charter in 1838, on the model of the Royal Academy in London.
20), Sir Noel Paton's " Quarrel " and " Reconciliation of Oberon and Titania," several works by William Etty, Robert Scott Lauder and Sam Bough, Sir Edwin Landseer's " Rent Day in the Wilderness," and the diploma pictures of the academicians, besides many specimens of the modern Scottish school.
The most imposing structure belonging to the Scottish Episcopal Church is St Mary's cathedral, built on ground and chiefly from funds left by the Misses Walker of Coates, and opened for worship in 1879.
The Scottish dead in the American Civil War are commemorated in a monument bearing a life-sized figure of Abraham Lincoln and a freed slave.
In Dean cemetery, partly laid out on the banks of the Water of Leith, and considered the most beautiful in the city (opened 1845), were interred Lords Cockburn, Jeffrey and Rutherford; " Christopher North," Professor Aytoun, Edward Forbes the naturalist, John Goodsir the anatomist; Sir William Allan, L Sam Bough, George Paul Chalmers, the painters; George Combe, the phrenologist; Playfair, the architect; Alexander Russel, editor of the Scotsman; Sir Archibald Alison, the historian; Captain John Grant, the last survivor of the old Peninsular Gordon Highlanders; Captain Charles Gray, of the Royal Marines, writer of Scottish songs; Lieutenant John Irving, of the Franklin expedition, whose remains were sent home many years after his death by Lieut.
At Dalmahoy Castle, near Ratho (pop. 1946), the seat of the earl of Morton, are preserved the only extant copy of the bible of the Scottish parliament and the original warrant for committing Queen Mary to Lochleven Castle in Kinross-shire.
The university of Edinburgh, the youngest of the Scottish universities, was founded in 1583 by a royal charter granted by James IV., and its rights, immunities and privileges have been remodelled, ratified and extended at various periods.
In 1621 an act of the Scottish parliament accorded to the university all rights and privileges enjoyed by other universities in the kingdom, and these were renewed under fresh guarantees in the treaty of union between England and Scotland, and in the Act of Security.
The Royal Scottish Museum, structurally united to the university, contains collections illustrative of industry, art, science and natural history; and Minto House college and Heriot-Watt college are practically adjuncts of the university.
The university benefits also, like the other Scottish universities, from Mr Andrew Carnegie's endowment fund.
From 1507, when Walter Chapman, the Scottish Caxton, set up the first press, to the present day, printing has enjoyed a career of almost continuous vitality, and the great houses of R.
Publishing, on the other hand, has drifted away, only a few leading houses - such as those of Blackwood, Chambers and Nelson - still making the Scottish capital their headquarters.
- Edinburgh society still retains a certain oldfashioned Scottish exclusiveness.
The local patriotism and good taste of the citizens have regulated recreation and have also preserved in pristine vigour many peculiarly Scottish customs and pastimes.
Soon after his accession to the Scottish throne David I.
1572), Buchanan (1582), Alexander Montgomery (1605), Drummond of Hawthornden (1649), Allan Ramsay (1757), Smollett (1771), Fergusson (1774), and Burns (1796), carried on the literary associations of the Scottish capital nearly to the close of the 18th century, when various causes combined to give them new significance and value.
In Scott's early days a journey to London was beset with difficulties and even dangers; but railways have now brought it within a few hours' distance, and Scottish artists and literary men are tempted to seek a wider field.
Edinburgh is not markedly a manufacturing city, but preserves its character as the Scottish capital.
It was during the period 1841-1849, when he had no legal duty, except the self-imposed one of occasionally hearing Scottish appeals in the House of Lords, that the unlucky dream of literary fame troubled Lord Campbell's leisure.'
Knox, for example, did away with the imposition of hands (M`Crie's Knox, period vii.), though the rite was restored by the Scottish Presbyterian Church in the Second Book of Discipline.
Nor do Scottish presbyterians now recognize any special class of doctors, unless we suppose that these are represented by professors of theology.
In 1889 the Scottish Text Society completed their edition of the text, with prolegomena and notes by James Moir.
Craigie's article in The Scottish Review (July 1903), a comparative estimate of the Brus and Wallace, in favour of the latter.
Guy, the 2nd, distinguished himself in the Scottish campaigns of Edward I., who warned him at his death against Piers Gaveston.
The modern castle, in the Scottish Baronial style, 12 m.
It was with this corps that Dr. Elsie Inglis and a detachment of the Scottish Women's Hospitals served as medical unit.
JOHN ABERCROMBIE (1780-1844), Scottish physician, was the son of the Rev. George Abercrombie of Aberdeen, where he was born on the 10th of October 1780.
On the 22nd of August a great Scottish army under King James IV.
As the Scots were forced back, a part of Dacre's force closed upon the other flank, and finally Dacre himself, boldly neglecting an almost intact Scottish division in front of him, charged in upon the rear of King James's corps.
Among the ten thousand Scottish dead were all the leading men in the kingdom of Scotland, and there was no family of importance that had not lost a member in this great disaster.
WILLIAM DUNBAR (c. 1460 - c. 1520), Scottish poet, was probably a native of East Lothian.
He is spoken of as the Rhymer of Scotland in the accounts of the English privy council dealing with the visit of the mission for the hand of Margaret Tudor, rather because he wrote a poem in praise of London,than because, as has been stated, he held the post of laureate at the Scottish court.
This strain runs throughout many of the occasional poems, and is not wanting in odd passages in Dunbar's contemporaries; and it has the additional interest of showing a direct historical relationship with the work of later Scottish poets, and chiefly with that of Robert Burns.
If further selection be made from the large body of miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic literature; The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, as one of the richest and most effective pastiches in the older alliterative style, then used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; Done is a battell on the Dragon Blak, for religious feeling expressed in melodious verse; and the well-known Lament for the Makaris.
This has been superseded by the Scottish Text Society's edition (ed.
Selections have been frequently reprinted since Ramsay's Ever-Green (1724) and Hailes's Ancient Scottish Poems (1817).
For critical accounts see Irving's History of Scottish Poetry, Henderson's Vernacular Poetry of Scotland, Gregory Smith's Transition Period, J.
A more important work, the Practica seu lilium medicinae, of Bernard Gordon, a Scottish professor at Montpellier (written in the year 1307), was more widely spread, being translated into French and Hebrew, and printed in several editions.
One of the most elaborate developments of the system was that of Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), a Scottish physician who became professor at Leiden, to be spoken of hereafter.
Healy had said that he tried to govern Ireland with Scottish jokes), Sir Henry had already earned the general respect of all parties, and in April 1895, when Mr Speaker Peel retired, his claims for the vacant post were prominently canvassed; but his colleagues were averse from his retirement from active politics and Mr Gully was selected.
But in spite of the fiasco of the Irish Councils Bill (1907), the struggles over education (Mr Birrell's bill of 1906 being dropped on account of the Lords' amendments), the rejection by the peers of the Plural Voting Abolition Bill (1906), and the failure (again due to the Lords) of the Scottish Small Holdings Bill and Valuation Bill (1907), which at the time made his premiership appear to be a period of bitter and unproductive debate, a good many reforming measures of some moment were carried.
adelphi) Robert and William Adam, Scottish architects.
Residents of Irish birth have decreased since 1851; those of Scottish birth have increased steadily, and roughly as the population.
Jacobite traditions also lingered among the great families of the Scottish Highlands; the last person to suffer death as a Jacobite was Archibald Cameron, a son of Cameron of Lochiel, who was executed in 1 753.
Hallen, " Glass-making in Sussex," Scottish Antiquary, No.
ROBERT WODROW (1679-1734), Scottish historian, was born at Glasgow, being a son of James Wodrow, _professor of divinity.
This was not merely an idle flourish, for some of his charters are signed by Welsh and Scottish kings as subreguli.
ADAM FERGUSON (1723-1816), Scottish philosopher and historian, was born on the 20th of June 1723, at Logierait, Perthshire.
ii., 1839-1840): - "We find in his method the wisdom and circumspection of the Scottish school, with something more masculine and decisive in the results.
McCosh, The Scottish Philosophy (1875); articles in Dictionary of National Biography and Edinburgh Review (January 1867); Lord Henry Cockburn, Memorials of his Time (1856).
SAMUEL MORISON BROWN (1817-1856), Scottish chemist, poet and essayist, born at Haddington on the 23rd of February 1817, was the fourth son of Samuel Brown, the founder of itinerating libraries, and grandson of John Brown, author of the Self-Interpreting Bible.
JOHN GLAS (1695-1773), Scottish divine, was born at Auchtermuchty, Fife, where his father was parish minister, on the 5th of October 1695.
The Scottish chaplains in ordinary are on the same basis as those in England, but the Irish chaplains are attached to the household of the lord-lieutenant.
The Scottish acre contains 6150.4 sq.
As the proper form of address "my lord" is used not only to those members of the nobility to whom the title "Lord" is applicable, and to bishops, but also to all judges of the High Court in England, and of the Scottish and Irish Superior Courts, and to lord mayors and lord provosts.
WILLIAM MCCOMBIE (1805-1880), Scottish agriculturist, was born at Tillyfour, Aberdeenshire, where he founded the herd of black-polled cattle with which his name is associated.
He was the first tenant farmer to represent a Scottish constituency, and was returned to parliament, unopposed, as Liberal member for the western division of Aberdeen in 1868.
1614), 1st and 2nd earls of Orkney, and others, the Scottish xv.
To the east of the remains of the bishop's palace are the ruins of the earl's palace, a structure in the Scottish Baronial style, built about 1600 for Patrick Stewart, 2nd earl of Orkney, and on his forfeiture given to the bishops for a residence.
Child, English and Scottish Ballads, i.
GERSHOM CARMICHAEL (c. 1672-1729), Scottish philosopher, was born probably in London, the son of a Presbyterian minister who had been banished by the Scottish privy council for his religious opinions.
Sir William Hamilton regarded him as "the real founder of the Scottish school of philosophy."
Near Scalasaig a granite obelisk has been erected to the memory of Sir Duncan M`Neill (1794-1874), a distinguished Scottish lawyer, who took the title of Lord Colonsay when he became a lord of appeal.
The English archers were provided with a good target in the masses of the Scottish spearmen, and Hotspur was restrained from charging by his ally, George Dunbar, earl of March.
The Scottish army was almost destroyed, while the English loss is said to have been five men.
Disputes with the king arose over the disposal of the Scottish prisoners, Percy insisting on his right to hold Douglas as his personal prisoner, and he was summoned to court to explain.
After a long parley, in which a truce of two days was even said to have been agreed on, the Scottish earl of March, fighting on the royal side, forced on the battle in the afternoon, the royal right being commanded by the prince of 1 The dissatisfaction of the Percys seems to have been chiefly due to the money question.
JAMES DAVID FORBES (1809-1868), Scottish physicist, was the fourth son of Sir William Forbes, 7th baronet of Pitsligo, and was born at Edinburgh on the 10th of April 1809.
Sheep ranges under the care of Scottish shepherds have also been established in the department of Junin, the stock being imported from southern Patagonia, England and Australia.
JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799), Scottish chemist and physicist, was born in 1728 at Bordeaux, where his father - a native of Belfast but of Scottish descent - was engaged in the wine trade.
ALEXANDER DUFF (1806-1878), Scottish missionary in India, was born on the 26th of April 1806, at Auchmayle in the parish of Moreton, Perthshire.
ROBERT SMITH CANDLISH (1806-1873), Scottish divine, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of March 1806, and spent his early years in Glasgow, where he graduated in 1823.
His theology was that of the Scottish Calvinistic school, but his sympathetic character combined with strong conviction gathered round him one of the largest and most intelligent congregations in the city.
From the very commencement of his ministry in Edinburgh, Candlish took the deepest interest in ecclesiastical questions, and he soon became involved as one of the chief actors in the struggle which was then agitating the Scottish church.
His forefathers were Gledstanes of Gledstanes, in the upper ward of Lanarkshire; or in Scottish phrase, Gledstanes of that Ilk.
His father, Peter Johnston (1763-1841), a Virginian of Scottish descent, served in the War of Independence, and afterwards became a distinguished jurist; his mother was a niece of Patrick Henry.
proceeded to plant with English and Scottish colonists the vast tracts escheated to the crown in Ulster, the whole of the arable and pasture land in Armagh, estimated at 77,800 acres, was to have been allotted in sixty-one portions.
Nineteen of these, comprising 22,180 acres, were to have been allotted to the church, and forty-two, amounting to 55,620 acres, to English and Scottish colonists, servitors, native Irish and four corporate towns - the swordsmen to be dispersed throughout Connaught and Munster.
Ramus's works appear among the logical textbooks of the Scottish universities, and he was not without his followers in England in the 17th century.
ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM (c.16 551 730), Scottish classical scholar and critic, was born in Ayrshire.
Irving in Lives of Scottish Writers (1839).
During the course of the 19th century in Scottish Presbyterianism the affirmation of Christ's atoning death for all men, the denial of eternal punishment, the modification of the doctrine of the inspiration of the Scriptures by acceptance of the results of the Higher Criticism, were all censured as perilous errors.
NORMAN MACLEOD (1812-1872), Scottish divine, son of Rev. Norman Macleod (1783-1862), and grandson of Rev. Norman Macleod, minister of Morven, Argyllshire, was born at Campbeltown on the 3rd of June 1812.
At this time the troubles in the Scottish Church were already gathering to a head (see Free Church Of Scotland).
Never since Principal Carstairs had any Scottish clergyman been on such terms with his sovereign.
In 1865 he risked an encounter with Scottish Sabbatarian ideas.
He was one of the greatest of Scottish religious leaders, a man of wide sympathy and high ideals.
In, e.g., the Scottish and American episcopal churches, however, the metropolitan is the senior bishop pro tern.
During the wars of Scottish independence the possession of Ayr and its castle was an object of importance to both the contending parties, and the town was the scene of many of Wallace's exploits.
In 1315 the Scottish parliament met in the church of St John to confirm the succession of Edward Bruce to the throne.
The early church condemned specularii (mirror-gazers), and Aubrey and the Memoirs of Saint-Simon contain "scrying" anecdotes of the 17th and 18th centuries, while Sir Walter Scott's story, My Aunt Margaret's Mirror, is based on a tradition of about 1750 in a noble Scottish family.
The Scottish Churches gave Edward Irving, Thos.
If its mouth be taken as between St Bee's Head on the English and Burrow Head on the Scottish coast, its length is 50 m.
The Scottish counties bordering the firth are Wigtownshire, Kirkcudbright and Dumfriesshire; the English coast belongs to Cumberland.
The Scottish shore, however, is not continuously flat, and such elevations as Criffell (1866 ft.), Bengairn (1250) and Cairnharrow (1497), above Wigtown Bay, rise close to it.
The fisheries are extensive, and though there are no ports of the first magnitude on the firth, a considerable shipping trade is carried on at Whitehaven, Harrington, Workington, Maryport and Silloth in Cumberland, and at Annan, Kirkcudbright, Creetown and Wigtown on the Scottish side.
The mountains themselves are mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones: that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the Scottish fir to 1000 ft.
In the Scottish rising of the " Forty-five " he was employed as a brigade-major.
The centre of infantry stood on the forward slope of the long spur which runs east from Doon, and beyond them, practically on the plain, was the bulk of the Scottish cavalry.
The fresh impulse enabled it to break the Scottish cavalry and repulse the foot, and Leslie's line of battle was gradually rolled up from right to left.
Ten thousand men, including almost the whole of the Scottish foot, surrendered, and their killed numbered three thousand.
BATTLE OF THE STANDARD, a name given to the battle of the 22nd of August 1138 near Northallerton, in which the Scottish army under King David was defeated by the English levies of Yorkshire and the north Midlands, who arrayed themselves round a chariot carrying the consecrated banners of St Peter of York, St John of Beverley, St Wilfrid of Ripon and St Cuthbert of Durham.
The first Scottish confession dates from 1560.
As the Anglican divines soon ceased to attend the assembly, and the Independents were few in number, it was the work of Presbyterians only, the Scottish members carrying their proposal to make it an independent document and not a mere revision of the Thirty-nine Articles.
After discussions lasting for two years it was debated in parliament, finished on the 22nd of March 1648, and was adopted by the Scottish parliament in the following year.
Oxford, Edinburgh and Glasgow gave him honorary degrees; the two Scottish universities made him lord rector.
ALEXANDER ALES (ALESIUS) (1500-1565), Scottish divine of the school of Augsburg, whose family name was Alane, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of April 1500.
He had been chosen to meet Hamilton in controversy, with a view to convincing him of his errors, but the arguments of the Scottish proto-martyr, and above all the spectacle of his heroism at the stake, impressed Alesius so powerfully that he was entirely won over to the cause of the Reformers.
In 1533 a decree of the Scottish clergy, prohibiting the reading of the New Testament by the laity, drew from Alesius a defence of the right of the people, in the form of a letter to James V.
A reply to this by John Cochlaeus, also addressed to the Scottish king, occasioned a second letter from Alesius, in which he not only amplifies his argument with great force, but enters into more general questions connected with the Reformation.
Mitchell's introduction to Gau's Richt Vay (Scottish Text Society, 1888).
Murray, " The Maltese Islands, with special reference to their Geological Structure," Scottish Geog.
ALEXANDER CARLYLE (1722-1805), Scottish divine, was born on the 26th of January 1722, in Dumfriesshire, and passed his youth and early manhood at Prestonpans, where he witnessed the battle of 1745.
His influence was enhanced by his personal appearance, which was so striking as to earn him the name of "Jupiter Carlyle"; and his autobiography (published 1860), though written in his closing years and not extending beyond the year 1770, is abundantly interesting as a picture of Scottish life, social and ecclesiastical, in the 18th century.
The new king of Scots, David, who was his brother-in-law, was a mere boy, and the Scottish barons, exiled for their support of Robert Bruce, took advantage of the weakness of his rule to invade Scotland in 1332.
SAINT FILLAN, or Faelan, the name of the two Scottish saints, of Irish origin, whose lives are of a purely legendary character.
The lay-abbot, who was its superior in the reign of William the Lion, held high rank in the Scottish kingdom..
P. Forbes, Kalendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 18 7 2), pp. 34 1 -34 6; D.
In his dispute with his brother, in his controversies with the English and Scottish mathematicians, and in his harsh and jealous bearing to his son Daniel, he showed a mean, unfair and violent temper.
Local tradition connects the name with that of Wallis or Wallace, a Scottish buccaneer, who, in 1638, settled, with a party of logwood cutters, on St George's Cay, a small island off the town.
DAVID LESLIE NEWARK, Lord (1601-1682), Scottish general, was born in 1601, the fifth son of Sir Patrick Leslie of Pitcairly, Fifeshire, commendator of Lindores, and Lady Jean Stuart, daughter of the 1st earl of Orkney.
In December 1567 the Scottish parliament was informed that the letters were signed by Mary (they are unsigned), but the phrase is not used in the subsequent act of parliament.
ROBERT ADAMSON (1852-1902), Scottish philosopher, was born in Edinburgh on the 19th of January 1852.
On the 30th of May 1605 he became a member of the Scottish privy council.
THOMAS FRANCIS KENNEDY (1788-1879), Scottish politician, was born near Ayr in 1788.
In the construction of the Scottish Reform Act Kennedy took a prominent part; indeed he and Lord Cockburn may almost be regarded as its authors.
north-west, is claimed as the birthplace of the Scottish martyr, Patrick Hamilton (1504-1528).
On the 20th of August 1589, in spite of Queen Elizabeth's opposition, she was married by proxy to King James, without dower, the alliance, however, settling definitely the Scottish claims to the Orkney and Shetland Islands.
Her voyage to Scotland was interrupted by a violent storm - for the raising of which several Danish and Scottish witches were burned or executed - which drove her on the coast of Norway, whither the impatient James came to meet her, the marriage taking place at Opslo (now Christiania) on the 23rd of November.
The position of queen consort to a Scottish king was a difficult and perilous one, and Anne was attacked in connexion with various scandals and deeds of violence, her share in which, however, is supported by no evidence.
Brought up a Lutheran, and fond of pleasure, she had shown no liking for Scottish Calvinism, and soon incurred rebukes on account of her religion, "vanity," absence from church, "night waking and balling."
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
JOHN CAIRNS (1818-1892), Scottish Presbyterian divine, was born at Ayton Hill, Berwickshire, on the 23rd of August 1818, the son of a shepherd.
On his return he wrote a long article on "Recent Scottish Theology" for the Presbyterian and Reformed Review, for which he read over every theological work of note published in Scotland during the preceding half-century.
Among his principal publications are An Examination of Ferrier's "Knowing and Being," and the Scottish Philosophy - (a work which gave him the reputation of being an independent Hamiltonian in philosophy); Memoir of John Brown, D.D.
He settled a controversy with William of Scotland concerning the choice of the archbishop of St Andrews, and on the 13th of March 1188 removed the Scottish church from under the legatine jurisdiction of the archbishop of York, thus making it independent of all save Rome.
It has monuments to Patrick Hamilton, the martyr, and Thomas Hog (1628-1692), the Scottish divine, for some time a prisoner on the Bass.
At the beginning of the 13th century it obtained a charter from the earl of Strathearn, afterwards became a royal burgh for a period, and was represented in the Scottish parliament.
From Cambridge he wrote some Latin satiric verses 1 in defence of the universities and the English Church against Andrew Melville, a Scottish Presbyterian minister.
The crown of Scotland, preserved with the Scottish regalia at Edinburgh, is believed to be composed of the original circlet worn by King Robert the Bruce.
ALEXANDER BAIN (1818-1903), Scottish philosopher and educationalist, was born on the 11th of June 1818 in Aberdeen, where he received his first schooling.
In 1860 he was appointed by the crown to the new chair of logic and English in the university of Aberdeen (created on the amalgamation of the two colleges, King's and Marischal, by the Scottish Universities Commission of 1858).
Fischer was followed later in the same year by Joseph Thomson, the Scottish explorer.
Though he had succeeded in disarming all organized opposition in parliament, the hostility displayed against him in the nation, arising from his Scottish nationality, his character as favourite, his peace policy and the resignation of the popular hero Pitt, was overwhelming.
John Knox, who, after a chequered career, had come under the influence of Calvin at Geneva, returned to Scotland for a few months in 1 555, and shortly after (1557) that part of the Scottish nobility which had been won over to the new faith formed their first " covenant " for mutual protection.
This was adopted by the Scottish parliament, with the resolution " the bishops of Rome have no jurisdiction nor authoritie in this Realme in tymes cuming."
The alliance of England and the Scottish Protestants against the French, and the common secession from the papal monarchy, was in a sense the foundation and beginning of Great Britain.
Scottish Calvinism was destined to exercise no little influence, not only on the history of England, but on the form that the Protestant faith was to take in lands beyond the seas, at the time scarcely known to the Europeans.
The year after his accession the clans MacWilliam and MacHeth, inveterate enemies of the Scottish crown, broke into revolt; but the insurrection was speedily quelled.
and the French prince Louis, the Scottish king was included in the pacification.
NICOL 1768-18511, Scottish physicist, was born about 1768, and died Edinburgh on the 2nd of September 1851.
It was declared to be unlawful for the regent to make war or peace, or ratify any treaty with any foreign power, or prorogue, adjourn or dissolve any parliament without the consent of the majority of the council of regency, or give her assent to any bill for repealing or varying the Act of Settlement, the Act of Uniformity, or the Act of the Scottish parliament for securing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian church government in Scotland (1707, c. 6).
GEORGE ADAM SMITH (1856-), Scottish divine, was born in Calcutta on the 19th of October 1856, where his father, George Smith, C.I.E., was then principal of the Doveton College.
and his Scottish followers.
north, on the coast, is of interest as the place where the Scottish regalia were concealed during the siege of Dunottar Castle.
1450), Scottish writer, author of the Buke of the Howlat, was secretary or chaplain to the earl of Moray (1450) and rector of Halkirk, near Thurso.
The poem has been frequently reprinted, by Pinkerton, in his Scottish Poems (1792); by D.
Amours in Scottish Alliterative Poems (Scottish Text Society, 18 97), pp. 47-81.
WILLIAM CULLEN (1710-1790), Scottish physician and medical teacher, was born at Hamilton, Lanarkshire, on the 1 5th of April 1710.
The compositions of Haydn include 104 symphonies, 16 overtures, 76 quartets, 68 trios, 54 sonatas, 31 concertos and a large number of divertimentos, cassations and other instrumental pieces; 24 operas and dramatic pieces, 16 Masses, a Stabat Mater, interludes for the " Seven Words," 3 oratorios, 2 Te Deums and many smaller pieces for the church, over 40 songs, over 50 canons and arrangements of Scottish and Welsh national melodies.
The Basuto were already a strong force when the first white settlers, Dutch farmers from the Cape, entered the country in 1824; the white element has since been reinforced by a considerable strain of British, particularly Scottish, blood.
WILLIAM MURE (1799-1860), Scottish classical scholar, was born at Caldwell, Ayrshire, on the 9th of July 1799.
PATRICK ADAMSON (1537-1592), Scottish divine, archbishop of St Andrews, was born at Perth.
He had previously published a catechism in Latin verse dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his opponents, and also a Latin translation of the Scottish Confession of Faith.
SIR THOMAS MAKDOUGALL BRISBANE (1773-1860), Scottish soldier and astronomer, was born on the 23rd of July 1 773 at Brisbane House, near Largs, in Ayrshire.
He founded two gold medals for the encouragement of scientific research, one in the award of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and the other in that of the Scottish Society of Arts.
People noticed meanwhile that the queen had taken a great affection for her Scottish man-servant, John Brown, who had been in her service since 1849; she made him her constant personal attendant, and looked on him more as a friend than as servant.
In this sense it is now little used, except in Scottish law in the forms assoilzie and absolvitor.
The firstreal homeseekers to enter the state of whom there is any record were a colony of Scottish Highlanders who had first settled at Kildonan (Winnipeg) in 1812 under a grant from the Hudson's Bay Company to Thomas Douglas, 5th earl of Selkirk.
It was a favourite pastime among the Romans, who imported their bears from Britain, a proof that the animal was then comparatively abundant in that country; indeed, from reference made to it in early Scottish history, the bear does not appear to have been extirpated in Britain before the end of the i 1 th century.
From this time onward Haakon's reign was marked by more peace and prosperity than Norway had known for many years, Until in 1263 a dispute with the Scottish king concerning the Hebrides, a Norwegian possession, induced Haakon to undertake an expedition to the west of Scotland.
A division of his army seems to have repulsed a large Scottish force at Largs (though the later Scottish accounts claim this battle as a victory), and, having won back the Norwegian possessions in Scotland, Haakon was wintering in the Orkneys, when he was taken ill and died on the 15th of December 1263.
Stephen, History of the Scottish Church (Edinburgh, 1894-1896, 2 vols.); W.
In the last few months of his life he took part in the discussion about the consecration of certain Scottish bishops, and it was in pursuance of his advice that they were consecrated by several bishops of the English church.
By this act were laid the foundations of the Scottish' Episcopal church.
12 Scottish Naturalist, i.
Traill, " Scottish Galls," Scottish Naturalist, i.
In Scotland he gave £2,000,000 in 1901 to establish a trust for providing funds for assisting education at the Scottish universities, a benefaction which led in 1906 to his being elected lord rector of Edinburgh University.
He thus, to a certain extent, agrees with the Scottish school, but he differs from them in rejecting altogether the doctrine of mental faculties.
The new prayer-book and canons were drawn up by the Scottish bishops with his assistance and enforced in the country, and, though not officially connected with the work, he was rightly regarded as its real author.
When the Scottish troubles broke out, she raised money from her fellow-Catholics to support the king's army on the borders in 1639.
In the Scottish campaign of 1547 he was present at the barren victory of Pinkie, and in the next year was taken prisoner at Saint Monance, but aided by his persuasive tongue he escaped to the English garrison at Lauder, where he was once more besieged, only returning to England on the conclusion of peace in 1550.
He therefore returned to active service under Lord Grey, who was in command of an English army sent (1560) to help the Scottish rebels, and in 1564 he served in Ireland under Sir Henry Sidney.
The term is of less practical importance in t i tle English than in the Scottish system, where it held an important place in the practice of conveyancing, real property having been generally divided into feudal-holding and burgage-holding.
The reason for the system preserving for so long its specifically distinct form in Scottish conveyancing was because burgage-holding was an exception to the system of subinfeudation which remained prevalent in Scotland when it was suppressed in England.
His father, Andrew Spottiswoode, who was descended from an ancient Scottish family, represented Colchester in parliament for some years, and in 1831 became junior partner in the firm of Eyre & Spottiswoode, printers.
p. 39 (1900); Scott, " Fish Parasites," Scottish Fishery Board, 18th Ann.
Geddes, a Scottish Catholic priest, who projected, and in part carried out (1792-1800), a critically annotated new translation of the Old Testament, and argued therein that the Pentateuch ultimately rests on a variety of sources partly written, partly oral, but was compiled in Canaan probably in the reign of Solomon; K.
PETTER DASS (1647-1708), the "father" of modern Norwegian poetry, was the son of Peter Dundas, a Scottish merchant of Dundee, who, leaving his country about 1630 to escape the troubles of the Presbyterian chursh, settled in Bergen, and in 1646 married a Norse girl of good family.
FRANCIS JEFFREY JEFFREY, Lord (1773-1850), Scottish judge and literary critic, son of a depute-clerk in the Court of Session, was born at Edinburgh on the 23rd of October 1773.
After the passing of the Scottish Reform Bill, which he introduced in parliament, he was returned for Edinburgh in December 1832.
On the disruption of the Scottish Church he took the side of the seceders, giving a judicial opinion in their favour, afterwards reversed by the house of lords.
Subsequently crossing over to France, he appears to have lived mainly on his lands in Normandy until 1324, when he was invited to England by King Edward II., who hoped to bring him forward as a candidate for the Scottish crown.
Although Edward did not give Baliol any active assistance, the claimant placed himself at the head of some disinherited Scottish nobles, raised a small army and sailed from Ravenspur.
Alexander took a leading part in Scottish affairs during the latter part of the 13th century, and is first mentioned as chamberlain in 1287.
He shared in the negotiations between the Scottish nobles and Edward I.
Thomas is the last of the Baliols mentioned in the Scottish records.
GEORGE CHALMERS (1742-1825), Scottish antiquarian and political writer, was born at Fochabers, a village in the county of Moray, in 1742.
In 1824 he published The Poetical Remains of some of the Scottish Kings, now first collected; and in the same year he edited and presented as a contribution to the Bannatyne Club Robene and Makyne and the Testament of Cresseid, by Robert Henryson.
It is divided into four books, treating successively of the Roman, the Pictish, the Scottish and the Scoto-Saxon periods, from 80 to 1306 A.D.
He had also been engaged on a history of Scottish poetry and a history of printing in Scotland.
Among his avowed antagonists in literary warfare the most distinguished were Malone and Steevens, the Shakespeare editors; Mathias, the author of the Pursuits of Literature; Dr Jamieson, the Scottish lexicographer; Pinkerton, the historian; Dr Irving, the biographer of the Scottish poets; and Dr Currie of Liverpool.
in the British Museum, and the Calendars of Domestic, Foreign, Spanish, Venetian, Scottish and Irish State Papers.
CHARLES WORDSWORTH (1806-1892), Scottish bishop, son of Christopher Wordsworth, Master of Trinity, was born in London on the 22nd of August 1806, and educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford.
In 1846, however, he resigned; and then accepted the wardenship of Trinity College, Glenalmond, the new Scottish Episcopal public school and divinity college, where he remained from 1847 to 1854, having great educational success in all respects; though his views on Scottish Church questions brought him into opposition at some important points to W.
In Scotland the Edinburgh Bible Society (1809), the Glasgow Bible Society (1812), and other Scottish auxiliaries, many of which had dissociated themselves from the British and Foreign Bible Society after 1826, were finally incorporated (1861) with the National Bible Society of Scotland, which has carried on vigorous work all over the world, especially in China.
The teaching of political ecomomy was associated in the Scottish universities with that of moral philosophy.
That the inductive spirit exercised no influence on Scottish philosophers is certainly not true; Montesquieu, whose method is essentially inductive, was in Smith's time closely studied by Smith's fellow-countrymen.
CHALMERS, THOMAS (1780-1847), Scottish divine, was born at Anstruther in Fifeshire, on the 17th of March 1780.
In 1834 he became leader of the evangelical section of the Scottish Church in the General Assembly.
On the 30th of May 1847, immediately after his return from the House of Commons, where he had given evidence as to the refusal of sites for Free Churches by Scottish landowners, he was found dead in bed.
WALTER BOWER (1385-1449), Scottish chronicler, was born about 1385 at Haddington.
He played an important part at the council of Perth (1432) in the defence of Scottish rights.
Since 1648 the standard Presbyterian catechisms have been those compiled by the Westminster Assembly, presented to parliament in 1647, and then authorized by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (July 1648) and by the Scottish parliament (January 1649).
The Freemasons had been largely instrumental in overthrowing Iturbide; they now divided into the Escoceses (lodges of the Scottish ritual), who were Monarchist and Centralist, and the Yorkinos, who took their ritual from New York, and their cue, it was alleged, from the American minister, Joel Poinsett.
Of the Lollard movement in Scotland but little is known, but a curious relic has come down to our times in the shape of a New Testament of Purvey's Revision in the Scottish dialect of the early 16th century.
Scottish missionaries and a few European traders have become established here.
Elizabeth and Burghley were inclined to try an alliance with the Scottish king, and the event justified their policy, which Walsingham did his best to frustrate, although deserted on this occasion by his chief regular supporter, Leicester.
The picturesque ruins of Bothwell Castle occupy a conspicuous position on the side of the river, which here takes the bold sweep famed in Scottish song as.
Formerly the term was held to embrace not only all the islands off the Scottish western coast, including the islands in the Firth of Clyde, but also the peninsula of Kintyre, the Isle of Man and the Isle of Rathlin, off the coast of Antrim.
Many efforts were made by the Scottish monarchs to displace the Norwegians.
On the other hand, Haakon IV., king of Norway, at once to restrain the independence of his jarls and to keep in check the ambition of the Scottish kings, set sail in 1263 on a great expedition, which, however, ended disastrously at Largs.
Alexander, son of Donald, resumed the hereditary warfare against the Scottish crown; and in 1462 a treaty was concluded between Alexander's son and successor John and Edward IV.
(6) It has been pointed out that reservation for the sick prevails in the Scottish Episcopal Church, the doctrinal standards of which correspond with those of the Church of England.
But it must be remembered that the Scottish Episcopal Church has an additional order of its own for the Holy Communion, and that consequently its clergy are not restricted to the services in the Book of Common Prayer.
C. Eeles, Reservation of the Holy Eucharist in the Scottish Church (Aberdeen, 1899); Bishop J.
IAN MACLAREN, the pseudonym of John Watson (1850-1907), Scottish author and divine.
Ian Maclaren's first sketches of rural Scottish life, Beside the Bonnie Briar Bush (1894), achieved extraordinary popularity and were followed by other successful books, The Days of Auld Lang Syne (1895), Kate Carnegie and those Ministers (1896) and Afterwards and other Stories (1898).
GEORGE MACDONALD (1824-1905), Scottish novelist and poet, was born at Huntly, Aberdeenshire.
As a portrayer of Scottish peasant-life in fiction he was the precursor of a large school, which has benefited by his example and surpassed its original leader in popularity.
DAVID GEORGE RITCHIE (1853-1903), Scottish philosopher, was born at Jedburgh, son of the Rev. George Ritchie, D.D.
ROBERT BALFOUR (known also as Balforeus) (1550?- 1625?), Scottish philosopher, was educated at St Andrews and the university of Paris.
Scotorum; Irving's Lives of the Scottish Writers; Anderson's Scottish Nation, i.
children of white fathers (chiefly French or Scottish) and Indian mothers-who originally formed the bulk of its inhabitants.
Maildulphus, a Scottish or Irish monk, who came into England about 635, built a hermitage near the site of the modern Malmesbury (Maildulphi-urbs, Maldelmesburh, Malmesbiri) and gathered disciples round him, thus forming the nucleus of the later abbey of which Aldhelm his pupil became the first abbot.
Until the middle of the 19th century the methods of agriculture were of a primitive character, but since then they have been entirely transformed, and Orcadian farming is now not below the average standard of the Scottish lowlands.
Balfour Castle, a mansion in the Scottish Baronial style built in 1848, is situated near the south-western extremity of the island.
In 1471 James bestowed the castle and lands of Ravenscraig in Fife on William, earl of Orkney, in exchange for all his rights to the earldom of Orkney, which, by act of parliament passed on the 20th of February of the same year, was annexed to the Scottish crown.
In 1900 he was elected Liberal member for Midlothian, and in 1905 entered the Government as Comptroller of the Household and Scottish Liberal Whip. In 1909 he became UnderSecretary for India, and in 1910 parliamentary secretary to the Treasury and chief Liberal Whip, in which position he remained until 1 9 12.
MAXWELL, the name of a Scottish family, members of which have held the titles of earl of Morton, earl of Nithsdale, Lord Maxwell, and Lord Herries.
in 130o; another Sir Herbert was made a lord of the Scottish parliament before 1445; and his great-grandson John, 3rd Lord Maxwell, was killed at Flodden in 1513.
John Maxwell (c. 1590-1647), archbishop of Tuam, was a Scottish ecclesiastic who took a leading part in helping Archbishop Laud in his futile attempt to restore the liturgy in Scotland.
Robert Maxwell (1695-1765) was the author of Select Transactions of the Society of Improvers and was a great benefactor to Scottish agriculture.
The early colonists were German Lutherans (Salzburgers), Piedmontese, Scottish Highlanders, Swiss, Portuguese Jews and Englishmen; but the main tide of immigration, from Virginia and the Carolinas, did not set in until 1752.
WILLIAM FOWLER (c. 1560-1614), Scottish poet, was born about the year 1560.
Specimens of Fowler's verses were published in 1803 by John Leyden in his Scottish Descriptive Poems. Fowler contributed a prefatory sonnet to James VI.'s Furies; and James, in return, commended, in verse, Fowler's Triumphs.
1659) and is a good example of the Scottish Baronial mansion with high-pitched roof and turreted angles.
ALEXANDER WHYTE (1837-), Scottish divine, was born at Kirriemuir in Forfarshire on the 13th of January 1837, and was educated at the university of Aberdeen and at New College, Edinburgh.
THOMAS BLACKLOCK (1721-1791), Scottish poet, the son of a bricklayer, was born at Annan, in Dumfriesshire, in 1721.
The general ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular outlines, one side overlooking the Tweed; and the style is mainly the Scottish Baronial.
21 Evangelical, 6 Roman Catholic, a Reformed, a Russian, an English(erected byGilbert Scott) with a graceful spire, a Scottish (Presbyterian), and an American (Episcopal) church, the last a handsome building, with a pretty parsonage attached.
Many Glasites joined the general body of Scottish Congregationalists, and the sect may now be considered extinct.
JOHN CRAIG (1512 ?-1600), Scottish reformer, born about 1512, was the son of Craig of Craigston, Aberdeenshire, who was killed at Flodden in 1513.
Scottish State Papers; Reg.
JOHN STUART BLACKIE (1809-1895), Scottish scholar and man of letters, was born in Glasgow on the 28th of July 1809.
Scottish nationality was another source of enthusiasm with him; and in this connexion he displayed real sympathy with Highland home life and the grievances of the crofters.
In spite of the many calls upon his time he produced a considerable amount of literary work, usually on classical or Scottish subjects, including some poems and songs of no mean order.
Blackie was a Radical and Scottish nationalist in politics, but of a fearlessly independent type; he was one of the "characters" of the Edinburgh of the day, and was a well-known figure as he went about in his plaid, worn shepherd-wise, wearing a broadbrimmed hat, and carrying a big stick.
The river valley, being of exceptional richness, early attracted the traders, and so in the beginning of the 19th century gained the attention of Lord Selkirk, a benevolent Scottish nobleman who sent out in1811-1815several hundreds of Highland settlers.
EDWARD IRVING (1792-1834), Scottish church divine, generally regarded as the founder of the "Catholic Apostolic Church", was born at Annan, Dumfriesshire, on the 4th of August 1792.
By his father's side, who followed the occupation of a tanner, he was descended from a family long known in the district, and the purity of whose Scottish lineage had been tinged by alliance with French Protestant refugees; but it was from his mother's race, the Lowthers, farmers or small proprietors in Annandale, that he seems to have derived the most distinctive features of his personality.
STEWART, Stuart or Steuart, the surname of a family which inherited the Scottish and ultimately the English crown.
The Scottish king conferred on Walter various lands in Renfrewshire, including Paisley, where he founded the abbey in 1163.
by Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., the claims of Margaret's descendants became merged in the Scottish line, and on the death of Queen Elizabeth of England, the last surviving descendant of Henry VIII., James VI.
The accession of James, was, however, contrary to the will of Henry VIII., which favoured the heirs of his younger sister Mary, wife of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, whose succession would probably have marvellously altered the complexion of both Scottish and English history.
In the Scottish line the nearest heir after James VI., both to the Scottish and English crowns, was Arabella Stuart, only child of :Charles, earl of Lennox, younger brother of Lord Darnley - Lady Margaret Douglas, the mother of Darnley and his brother, having been the daughter of Archibald, sixth earl of Angus, by Margaret of England, queen dowager of James IV.
GEORGE MATHESON (1842-1906), Scottish theologian and preacher, was born in Glasgow in 1842, the son of George Matheson, a merchant.
1856; professor of logic and metaphysics at Edinburgh University from 1880) in his Scottish Philosophy (1885), and Hegelianism and Personality (1887).
After the metaphysical idealism, begun by Berkeley, had eventuated in Hume's reduction of the objects of knowledge to sensations, ideas and associations, the Scottish school, applying the Baconian method to the study of mind, began to inquire once more for the evidences of our knowledge, and produced the natural or intuitive realism of T.
(1891), rightly protests against Hamilton's combination of Scottish and German schools which will not coalesce, and exhorts the former " to M throw away its crutches of impressions, instincts, suggestions, and common sense, and give the mind a power of seeing things directly."
The Scottish School never realized that every sensation of the five senses is a perception of a sensible object in the bodily organism; and that touch is a perception, not only of single sensible pressure, but also of double sensible pressure, a perception of our bodily members sensibly pressing and pressed by one another, from which, on the recurrence of a single sensible pressure, we infer the pressure of an external thing for the first time.
For the Scottish Excavations see Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, xx.-xl., and especially J.
ANDREW MELVILLE (1545-1622), Scottish scholar, theologian and religious reformer, was the youngest son of Richard Melville (brother to Melville of Dysart), proprietor of Baldovy near Montrose, at which place Andrew was born on the 1st of August 1545.
His father fell at the battle of Pinkie (1547), fighting in the van of the Scottish army, and, his wife having died soon after, the orphan was cared for by his eldest brother Richard (1522-1575).
During the whole time he protected the liberties of the Scottish Church against all encroachments of the government.
Though the Scottish Churches Bill, the Unemployed Bill and the Aliens Bill were passed, a complete fiasco occurred over the redistribution proposals, which pleased nobody and had to be withdrawn owing to a blunder as to procedure; and though on the 17th of July a meeting of the party at the foreign office resulted in verbal assurances of loyalty, only two days later the government was caught in a minority of four on the estimates for the Irish Land Commission.
He was sent at the age of twelve to be educated at the Scottish monastery in Regensburg, and apparently never afterwards returned to his native country.
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