During these years there was constant warfare between the English and the Scots on the border, but in May 1524 Albany was obliged to retire to France.
Aldred, the son of Eadulf, who now ruled north of the Tyne, appealed to Constantine II., king of the Scots, for help, but the Scottish and Northumbrian armies were defeated at Corbridge.
In 937 a great fleet and army were brought together by Constantine and Anlaf, the son of Sihtric, another Norwegian chieftain who had allied himself with the Scots, helped by Anlaf Godfreyson from Ireland.
The next earl was Waltheof and after him Uhtred, who defeated Malcolm II., king of the Scots, in io06.
Kendal was plundered by the Scots in 1210, and was visited by the rebels in 1715 and again in 1745 when the Pretender was proclaimed king there.
A portion of old Balvenie Castle, a ruin, is considered to be of Pictish origin, but most of it is in the Scots Baronial.
In 1138 he made a truce at Roxburgh between England and Scotland, and took active part in gathering together the army which defeated the Scots at the Battle of the Standard in August 1138.
He succeeded in making the majority of the Britons, Picts and Scots tributary to him.
Of the 25,301 foreign-born in 1900, 5114 were Germans; 3485, Irish; 337 6, Swedes; 3344, English; 2623, English-Canadian; 1338, Russians; and 1033, Scots.
At Marston Moor on the 2nd of July he commanded all the horse of the Eastern Association, with some Scottish troops; and though for a time disabled by a wound in the neck, he charged and routed Rupert's troops opposed to him, and subsequently went to the support of the Scots, who were hard pressed by the enemy, and converted what appeared at one time a defeat into a decisive victory.
The contention brought to a crisis the struggle between the moderate Presbyterians and the Scots on the one side, who decided to maintain the monarchy and fought for an accommodation and to establish Presbyterianism in England, and on the other the republicans who would be satisfied with nothing less than the complete overthrow of the king, and the Independents who regarded the establishment of Presbyterianism as an evil almost as great as that of the Church of England.
On the 25th of November Cromwell charged Manchester with "unwillingness to have the war prosecuted to a full victory"; which Manchester answered by accusing Cromwell of having used expressions against the nobility, the Scots and Presbyterianism; of desiring to fill the army of the Eastern Association with Independents to prevent any accommodation; and of having vowed if he met the king in battle he would as lief fire his pistol at him as at anybody else.
The lords and the Scots vehemently took Manchester's part; but the Commons eventually sided with Cromwell, appointed Sir Thomas Fairfax general of the New Model Army, and passed two self-denying ordinances, the second of which, ordering all members of both houses to lay down their commissions within forty days, was accepted by the lords on the 3rd of April 1645.
On the 31st of May 1647 Cromwell had ordered Cornet Joyce to prevent the king's removal by the parliament or the Scots from Holmby, and Joyce by his own authority and with the king's consent brought him to Newmarket to the headquarters of the army.
Meanwhile all hopes of an accommodation with Charles were dispelled by his flight on the 11th of November from Hampton Court to Carisbroke Castle in the Isle of Wight, his Flight object being to negotiate independently with the Scots, the parliament and the army.
Both the army and the parliament gave cold replies to his offers to negotiate; and Charles, on the 27th of December 1647, entered into the Engagement with the Scots by which he promised the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years, the suppression of the Independents and their sects, together with privileges for the Scottish nobles, while the Scots undertook to invade England and restore him to his throne.
He then marched north into Scotland, following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the Argyle faction at Edinburgh; replying to the Independents who disapp-oved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired "union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ...
But it is plain that, once convinced of the necessity for the king's execution, he was the chief instrument in overcoming all scruples among his judges, and in resisting the protests and appeals of the Scots.
He urged Fairfax to attack the Scots at once in their own country and to forestall their The invasion; but Fairfax refused and resigned, and battles of Cromwell was appointed by parliament, on the 26th Dunbar of June 1650, commander-in-chief of all the forces and of the Commonwealth.
and after a campaign in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh which proved unsuccessful in drawing out the Scots from their fortresses, he retreated to Dunbar to await reinforcements from Berwick.
The Scots under Leslie followed him, occupied Doon Hill commanding the town, and seized the passes between Dunbar and Berwick which Cromwell had omitted to secure.
Cromwell's religious policy included the maintenance of a national church, a policy acceptable to the army but much disliked by the Scots, who wanted the church to control the state, not the state the church.
At a time when throughout the rest of Europe armies were manoeuvring against one another with no more than a formal result, the English and Scots were fighting decisive battles; and Cromwell's battles were more decisive than those of any other leader.
During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the wall of Antoninus to the shores of Kent.
Questions of tithes (or "teinds ") and ministers' stipends were referred to commissioners by acts of the Scots parliaments beginning in 1607.
By Scots act of 1707, c. 9, their powers were transferred to the judges of the court of session, who now constitute a " teind court " (Brodie-Innes, op. cit.
The evidence of the peat bogs shows that the Scots fir, which is now extinct, was abundant in Denmark in the Roman period.
JAMES HEPBURN BOTHWELL, 4TH Earl Of, duke of Orkney and Shetland (c. 1536-1578), husband of Mary, queen of Scots, son of Patrick, 3rd earl of Bothwell, and of Agnes, daughter of Henry, Lord Sinclair, was born about 1536.
He left no lawful descendants; but his nephew, Francis Stewart Hepburn, who, through his father, John Stewart, prior of Coldingham, was a grandson of King James V., and was thus related to Mary, queen of Scots, and the regent Murray, was in 1581 created earl of Bothwell.
Chalmers's Life of Mary, Queen of Scots (1818); Life of Bothwell, by F.
of Mary, Queen of Scots, by J.
See also MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS.
After three such good fortunes by marriage Norfolk in his folly looked for a crown with a fourth match, listening to the laird of Lethington when he set forth the scheme by which the duke was to marry a restored queen of Scots and rule Scotland with her who should be recognized as Elizabeth's successor.
After promising fidelity and the abandonment of the Scots marriage scheme, Cecil took him corresponding with Mary and tampering with the Ridolfi plot.
The success of the Percies over the Scots at Homildon Hill (Sept.
It is not likely that he would write in support of Cardinal Beaton's policy, and the dialect is an exaggerated form of Latinized Middle Scots, differing materially from the language of the Compendious Book.
267), Gregory Smith's Specimens of Middle Scots (1902), p. 135 et seq., and the article by J.
O'Neill now turned his hand against the MacDonnells, claiming that he was serving the queen of England in harrying the Scots.
He served with the English against Desmond in Munster in 1580, and assisted Sir John Perrot against the Scots of Ulster in 1584.
Phelim and his followers committed much depredation in Ulster on the pretext of reducing the Scots; and he attempted without success to take Drogheda, being compelled by Ormonde to raise the siege in April 1642.
The choice of the two names has some significance, when we consider his later literary life as the associate of the Queen Anne poets and as a collector of old Scots poetry.
In the following year he printed a collection of Scots Songs.
The Tea-Table Miscellany is "A Collection of Choice Songs Scots and English," containing some of Ramsay's own, some by his friends, several well-known ballads and songs, and some Caroline verse.
In The Ever Green, being a Collection of Scots Poems wrote by the Ingenious before 1600, Ramsay had another purpose, to reawaken an interest in the older national literature.
Gay visited him in Edinburgh, and Pope praised his pastoral - compliments which were undoubtedly responsible for some of Ramsay's unhappy poetic ventures beyond his Scots vernacular.
It has the "mixed" faults which make the greater poem of his Scots successor, Thomson, a "transitional" document, but these give it an historical, if not an individual, interest.
At the Pacification of Birks the king virtually granted all the demands of the Scots.
The Pacification of Birks had been wrung from the king; and the Scots, seeing that he was preparing for the "Second Bishops' War," took the initiative, and pressed into England so vigorously that Charles had again to yield everything.
Three miles east of Stranraer is Lochinch, the residence of the earl of Stair, a modern structure in the Scots Baronial style.
Such notices as we have of the history of Strathclyde in the 7th and 8th centuries are preserved only in the chronicles of the surrounding nations and even these supply us with little more than an incomplete record of wars with the neighbouring Scots, Picts and Northumbrians.
It is probable that the Britons were allied with the Scots when Aidan, the king of the latter, invaded Northumbria in A.D.
In 711 and again in 717 we hear of further wars between the Britons and the Scots of Dalriada, the former being defeated in both years.
In the reign of his successor lEthelstan, however, they joined with the Scots and Norwegians in attempts to overthrow the English supremacy, attempts which were ended by their defeat at the battle of Brunanburh in 937.
997 Owain (Eugenius) 1018 See Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, edited by W.
Ã†thelflaed won the support of the Danes against the Norwegians, and seems also to have entered into an alliance with the Scots and the Welsh against the pagans.
It is said to have been named Athfotla (Atholl) after Fotla, son of the Pictish king Cruithne, and was under the rule of a Celtic mormaer (thane or earl) until the union of the Picts and Scots under Kenneth Macalpine in 843.
The county buildings, in Buccleuch Street, are an imposing example of the Scots Baronial style.
But what more than any other point of strategy made the fight famous was that the Scots fought on foot in battalions with their spears outwards, in a circular formation serving the same purpose as the modern square.
As a result of Bannockburn, Bruce's queen was restored to her husband; Stirling was delivered up to the Scots; the north of England was ravaged, and Carlisle and Berwick were besieged.
and envied the freedom the Scots had won.
Some of his chief nobles - Thomas, earl of Lancaster, in 1321, and Sir Andrew Harclay, earl of Carlisle, in 1322 - entered into correspondence with the Scots, and, though Harclay's treason was detected and punished by his death, Edward was forced to make a truce of thirteen years at Newcastle on the 30th of May 1323, which Bruce ratified at Berwick.
became king of England, and one of the first acts of the new reign, after a narrow escape of the young king from capture by Moray, was the treaty of York, ratified at Northampton in April 1328, by which it was agreed that "Scotland, according to its ancient bounds in the days of Alexander III., should remain to Robert, king of Scots, and his heirs free and divided from England, without any subjection, servitude, claim or demand whatsoever."
April 1541), died within a few days of one another in April 1541, and her husband died in December 1542, within a week of the birth of his daughter and heiress, Mary, Queen of Scots.
In June 1548 a French fleet, with provisions and 5000 soldiers on board, under the command of Andre de Montalembert, seigneur d'Esse, landed at Leith to reinforce the Scots army, and laid siege to Haddington, then in the hands of the English.
Mary of Lorraine now gave her energies to the expulsion of the English and to the difficult task of keeping the peace between the Scots and their French auxiliaries.
1040) was a son of Crinan or Cronan, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and became king of the Scots in succession to his maternal grandfather, Malcolm II., in 1034, having previously as rex Cumbrorum ruled in Strathclyde.
This charge he resigned in the next year, and, after making arrangements for the protection of his northern diocese from an expected inroad of the Scots, he proceeded in July 1336 to France to attempt a settlement of the claims in dispute between Edward and Philip. In the next year he served on three commissions for the defence of the northern counties.
There are some ruins of a castle erected as a protection against the Scots.
The town suffered much from the incursions of the Scots, and Ralph, earl of Westmorland, who died 1426, built the castle, but a tower called the Bishop's Tower had been previously erected on the same site.
An isolated use of the word " catholic " as a secular legal term survives in Scots law; a catholic creditor is one whose debt is secured over several or over all of the subjects belonging to the debtor.
- The original lease in Scots law took the form of a grant by the proprietor or lessor.
To obviate this difficulty, the Scots Act 1449, c. 18, made possession of the subjects of the lease equivalent to sasine.
In the case of urban leases, however, ejectment (q.v.) - called in Scots Law " removing " - will not be authorized unless the tenant received 4 0 days' warning before the term of removal.
Scots Law: Hunter, on Landlord and Tenant (Edinburgh, 4th ed., 1876); Rankine, on Land Ownership (Edinburgh, 3rd ed., 1891); Rankine, on Leases (Edinburgh, 2nd ed., 1893); Hunter, Landlord and Tenant (4th ed.
In 385 he was appointed master of the soldiery (magister militum) in Thrace, and shortly afterwards directed energetic campaigns in Britain against Picts, Scots and Saxons, and along the Rhine against other barbarians.
Among other matters reference is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of Tiberius; the persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigern (Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders.
In 1173 Bishop Hugh de Puiset allowed French and Flemish troops to land at Hartlepool to aid the Scots.
During the civil wars Hartlepool, which a few years before was said to be the only port town in the country, was taken by the Scots, who maintained a garrison there until 1647.
Many of the Scots princes received their education as wards of the Lords Erskine and the earls of Mar, the last to be thus educated being Henry, the eldest son of James VI.
Robert Barclay (q.v.), a descendant of an ancient Scottish family, who had received a liberal education, principally in Paris, at the Scots College, of which his uncle was rector, joined the Quakers about 1666, and William Penn (q.v.) came to them about two years later.
king of the Scots, as his future queen, had cemented that alliance with the church and with the native English which was the foundation of his greatness.
In 1582 he withdrew to the continent, where he was active in the cause of Mary, queen of Scots.
PONY (from the Lowland Scots powney, probably from O.
At this castle Mary queen of Scots was detained in 1569 under the custody of the earls of Huntingdon and Shrewsbury.
It contains several historic relics, the most interesting being a bed adorned with embroidery worked by Mary Queen of Scots during her imprisonment in Lochleven Castle.
In this book he tries to prove that Bernard (Sapiens), Alcuin, Boniface and Joannes Scotus Erigena were all Scots, and even Boadicea becomes a Scottish author.
Other buildings in the Palace Yard include the apartments occupied by the regent, Mary of Guise, and her daughter Mary, queen of Scots, and the room in which James VI.
Alexander Carlyle, the famous divine (1 77 2-1805), whose Memorials of his Times still affords fascinating reading, ministered for fifty-five years in the parish church, in the graveyard of which lies David Macbeth Moir (1798-1851), who under the pen-name of " Delta " wrote Mansie Wauch, a masterpiece of Scots humour and pathos.
The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
In the 16th century the movements connected with John Knox and Mary, queen of Scots, made Edinburgh a castle of much activity.
In 1072 he undertook a campaign against Malcolm, king of Scots, who had married Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling, and was inclined to promote English rebellions.
1470-1492), author of the Scots historical poem The Actis and Deidis of the Illustere and Vailzeand Campioun Schir William Wallace, Knicht of Ellerslie, flourished in the latter half of the 15th century.
It has the formal interest of being one of the earliest, certainly one of the most extensive versedocuments in Scots written in five-accent, or heroic, couplets.
On the other hand, there are elements in the poem which show that it is not entirely the work of a poor crowder; and these (notably references to historical and literary authorities, and occasional reminiscences of the literary tricks of the Scots Chaucerian school) have inclined some to the view that the text, as we have it, is an edited version of the minstrel's rough song story.
There are many later reprints, including some of William I-Iamilton of Gilbertfield's modern Scots version of 1722.
of Wooler), the scene of a famous battle fought on the 9th of September r 513 between the English and the Scots.
On his appearance the Scots hastily changed front and took post on Branxton Hill, facing north.
Surrey's archers and cannon soon gained the upper hand, and the Scots, unable quietly to endure their losses, rushed to close quarters.
As the Scots were forced back, a part of Dacre's force closed upon the other flank, and finally Dacre himself, boldly neglecting an almost intact Scottish division in front of him, charged in upon the rear of King James's corps.
He belongs, with James Henryson and Douglas, to the Scots Chaucerian school.
This poem has the additional interest of showing the racial antipathy between the "Inglis"- speaking inhabitants of the Lothians and the "Scots" or Gaelic-speaking folk of the west country.
On the death of Mary queen of Scots he was chosen to pronounce her eulogy.
Howel Dda, king of West Wales, Owen, king of Cumbria, Constantine, king of the Scots, and Ealdred of Bamburgh, and henceforth he calls himself "rex totius Britanniae."
In the summer of 1388 the Scots invaded England by way of Carlisle, sending a small body under the earls of Douglas, Mar and Moray to invade Northumberland.
The Scots then retreated to Otterburn, where Percy, who was bent on recovering his pennon, attacked them on a fine August evening in 1388.
The Scots again invaded England in the autumn of 1402, headed by the earl of Douglas and Murdoch Stewart, son of the duke of Albany.
Northumberland and Hotspur barred their way at Millfield, near Wooler, and the Scots were compelled to fight at Humbledon, or Homildon Hill, on the 14th of September.
was about to march north himself to look into the real relations between the Percys and the Scots, when on the 6th of July 1403 Henry Percy was in open rebellion.
He was most successful in his translation of popular song, in which he shows a rare sympathetic insight into the various feelings and ideas of peoples as unlike as Greenlanders and Spaniards, Indians and Scots.
Among those which also include political and social topics, and are more particularly dealt with under Newspapers, may be mentioned, the Examiner (1808-1881), the Spectator (1828), the Saturday Review (1855), the Scots or National Observer (1888-1897), Outlook (1898), Pilot (1900-1903), and Speaker (1890), which became the Nation.
It will be sufficient to mention the following: The Scots Magazine (1739-1817) was the first published in Scotland; from 1817 to 1826 it was styled the Edinburgh Magazine.
The Battle Of Dunbar was fought on the 3rd (13th) of September 1650 between the English army under Oliver Cromwell and the Scots under David Leslie, afterwards Lord Newark.
In the evening Cromwell drew up his army, under 1 1,000 effective men, along the ravine, and issued orders to attack the Scots at dawn of the 3rd (13th).
The left of the Scots was ineffective, as was a part of their centre of foot on the upper part of the hillside, and the English commander proposed to deal with the remainder.
The Scots were surprised in their bivouacs, but quickly formed up, and at first repulsed both the horse and the foot.
In the words of an English officer, "The sun appearing upon the sea, I heard Nol say, ` Now let God arise, and let His enemies be scattered,' and following us as we slowly marched I heard him say, `I profess they run.'" Driven into the broken ground, and penned between Doon Hill and the ravine, the Scots were indeed helpless.
The Maltese relied on the Roman Canon Law, the English on the common law of England, Scots or Irish had nothing but the English law to fall back upon.
In the summer he took part in an abortive campaign against the Scots, and was married to Philippa at York on the 24th of January 1328.
The new king of Scots, David, who was his brother-in-law, was a mere boy, and the Scottish barons, exiled for their support of Robert Bruce, took advantage of the weakness of his rule to invade Scotland in 1332.
At their head was Edward Baliol, whose victory at Dupplin Moor established him for a brief time as king of Scots.
After four months Baliol was driven out by the Scots, whereupon Edward for the first time openly took up his cause.
In 1333 the king won in person the battle of Halidon Hill over the Scots, but his victory did not restore Baliol to power.
The Scots despised him as a puppet of the English king, and after a few years David was finally established in Scotland.
Contributing causes were Philip's support of the Scots and Edward's alliance with the Flemish cities, which were then on bad terms with their French overlord, and the revival of Edward's claim, first made in 1328, to the French crown.
In 1346, David, king of Scots, was also defeated and taken prisoner at Neville's Cross, near Durham.
This is the name generally given to eight letters, and a sequence of irregular sonnets, all described as originally in French, and said to have been addressed by Mary, queen of Scots, to the earl of Bothwell, between January and April 1566-1567.
impossible; and they rang the changes on Scots translations of the alleged French originals, and on the French itself.
For example, when Moray, after Mary was in Elizabeth's power (May 16, 1568), wished Elizabeth to have the matter tried, he in May-June 1568 sent John Wood to England with Scots translations of the letters.
Wood was to ask, "if the French originals are found to tally with the Scots translations, will that be reckoned good evidence ?"
It was as easy to send copies of the French, and thus give no ground for the suspicion that the Scots letters were altered on the basis of information acquired between May and October 1568, and that the French versions were made to fit the new form of the Scots copies.
Henderson (1889; second issue, 1890, being the more accurate); in The Mystery of Mary Stuart, by Andrew Lang (4th edition, 1904), and in Henderson's criticism of that book, in his Mary, Queen of Scots (1905) (Appendix A).
Now, on the 11th of June 1568, Lennox was in the company of John Wood, a creature of Moray's, and Wood, as we saw, brought copies of the Scots renderings of the Letters into England in May - June 1568.
iv.) Henderson, on the other side, believes that Wood "indubitably" showed to Lennox the Scots copies of the Casket Letters about the 11th of June 1568.
in Scots, did Lennox follow Moray's erroneous version of July 1567 ?
Because in June 1568 that version, forged, was in the Scots collection of the Casket Letters ?
(Letter II., Mary Queen of Scots, p. 650.) Mary did not need a particularly good memory; if she wrote, she wrote unchecked her recollections of the day's talk.
in Scots, he will find that.Crawford has sources of information not yielded by Letter II.; while Letter II.
The reply may be that the Scots versions were regarded as a great secret; that Lennox was a married man; and that though Lennox in June knew about Mary's letters, doubtless from Wood, or from common report (Bishop Jewell in a letter of August 1567 mentions that he had heard of them), yet Wood did not show to him the Scots copies.
In the great civil struggle he used his pen against the Scots, and was in the king's army at the siege of Gloucester, inventing certain engines for assaulting the town.
English exiles were welcomed at his court; he was mainly instrumental in restoring Eardwulf to the throne of Northumbria in 80 9; and Einhard includes the Scots within the sphere of his influence.
Amongst its benefactors were many Catholic Scots and English peers and gentlemen whose arms are emblazoned on the windows of the spacious refectory hall.
In 1120 he was nominated to the archbishopric of St Andrews, but as the Scots would not recognize the authority of the see of Canterbury he was never consecrated, and soon afterwards he resigned his claim to the archbishopric. His death is generally assigned to the year 1124.
The castle, of which nothing but the earthworks and foundations remain, is famous as the scene of the imprisonment of Mary queen of Scots from September 1586 to her trial and execution on the 8th of February 1587.
There were also an Irish and a Scots college and houses of English Benedictines and Franciscans.
to Scotland with a view to persuading the Scots that Episcopacy was preferable to Presbyterianism.
she found time in 1843 to edit the Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots, whose innocence she championed with enthusiasm.
Scots law as to the requisites of a valid award is practically identical with the law of England.
The grounds of reduction of a decreet arbitral are "corruption," "bribery," "false hold" (Scots Act of Regulations 1695, s.
As to Scots law: Bell, On Arbitration (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1877); Erskine, Principles (20th ed., Edinburgh, 1903).
Columba was honoured by his countrymen, the Scots of Britain and Ireland, as much as by his Pictish converts, and in his character of chief ecclesiastical ruler he gave formal benediction and inauguration to Aidan, the successor of Conall, as king of the Scots.
Nor is he less successful when recording pathetic events, for his stories of certain martyrdoms, and of the execution of Mary queen of Scots, are told with exquisite feeling and in language of well-restrained emotion.
Civil war broke out at once between James and the Douglases, whose lands were ravaged; but after the Scots parliament had exonerated the king, James, the new earl of Douglas, made his submission.
The earliest known inhabitants were of Celtic origin, and the names of the townlands or subdivisions, supposed to have been made in the 13th century, are pure Celtic. Antrim was exposed to the inroads of the Danes, and also of the northern Scots, who ultimately effected permanent settlements.
Many foreign merchants made the city their residence, and these included a colony of Scots, who exported produce to Edinburgh.
The raw Scots lad started work at an early age as a bobbin-boy in a cotton factory, and a few years later was engaged as a telegraph clerk and operator.
Landing at Kinghorn in Fifeshire in August 1332, he gained a complete victory over the Scots under Donald, earl of Mar, at Dupplin Moor, took Perth, and on the 24th of September was crowned king of Scotland at Scone.
Regaining his kingdom after the defeat of the Scots at Halidon Hill in July 1333, Baliol surrendered the whole of the district formerly known as Lothian to Edward, and did homage for Scotland to the English king.
His life of Mary, Queen of Scots, in two 4to vols., was first published in 1818.
His intervention in Scotland in 1 5591560 showed that he could strike on occasion; and his action over the execution of Mary, queen of Scots, proved that he was willing to take responsibility from which Elizabeth shrank.
- The Scots Choppin, or Half-Pint, 1555.
He was abbot of Inchcolm (in the Firth of Forth) from 1418, was one of the commissioners for the collection of the ransom of James I., king of Scots, in 1423 and 1424, and in 1433 one of the embassy to Paris on the business of the marriage of the king's daughter to the dauphin.
Scots Church 16.
Two striking churches face each other in Collins Street, the Scots church, a Gothic edifice with a lofty spire, and the Independent church, a fine Saracenic building with a massive campanile.
Law, The New Testament in Scots, being Purvey's Revision of Wycliffe's version turned into Scots by Murdoch Nisbet, c. 1520 (Scot.
The bark is red, like that of the Scots fir, deeply furrowed, with the ridges often much curved and twisted.
Magnus, son of Haakon, concluded in 1266 a peace with the Scots, renouncing all claim to the Hebrides and other islands except Orkney and Shetland, and Alexander III.
The fairy women who come to the births of children and foretell their fortunes (Fata, Moerae, ancient Egyptian Hathors, Fees, Dominae Fatales), with their spindles, are refractions of the human "spae-women" (in the Scots term) who attend at birth and derive omens of the child's future from various signs.
There is a Scots enactment similar in character (Lands Clauses [Scotland] Act 1845).
ii.) Scots Law: Deas, Law of Railways in Scotland (ed.
He succeeded his brother Edmund in the year 946 and at this time received the formal submission both of the Northumbrians and Scots.
The Liber Pluscardensis, a valuable authority on early Scots history, was compiled in the priory by Maurice Buchanan in 1461.
English, Irish and Scots and their descendants form the bulk of the population of Ontario, French-Canadians of Quebec, Scots of Nova Scotia, the Irish of a large proportion of New Brunswick.
If, as seems likely, the Dalriadic Scots towards the beginning of the 6th century established a footing in the islands, their success was short-lived, and the Picts regained power and kept it until dispossessed by the Norsemen in the 9th century.
In the wake of the Scots incursionists followed the Celtic missionaries about 565.
Readers of Scott's Pirate will remember the frank contempt which Magnus Troil expressed for the Scots, and his opinions probably accurately reflected the general Norse feeling on the subject.
He was the son of General James Lindsay of Balcarres, but took the additional surname of Loyd in 1858 on marrying the heiress of Lord Overstone, the banker; he fought with his regiment the Scots Fusilier Guards in the Crimea and won the V.C., retiring as lieutenant-colonel.
During the Roman occupation of Britain, Irish pirates seem to have been an intermittent nuisance, and Irish emigrants may have settled occasionally in Wales; the best attested emigration is that of the Scots into Caledonia.
In 1317 the town was burnt by the Scots under Robert Bruce, although the burgesses paid 3000 marks that it might be spared.
They were Scots, first cousins, the grandchildren of a certain John Ruskin of Edinburgh (1732-1780).
No particulars of their life have been made public. In 1854 his wife left him, obtained a nullification of the marriage under Scots law, and ultimately became the wife of John Everett Millais.
Histories; McCrie's Life of Melville; Hay Fleming's Mary, Queen of Scots; Bannatyne's Memorials.
Near the town is Workington Hall, a castellated structure retaining some of the ancient rooms, including that in which Mary, queen of Scots, is said to have slept when she escaped to England after the battle of Langside in May 1568.
Alexander, fourth steward, the eldest son of Walter, third steward, inherited by his marriage with Jean, granddaughter of Somerled, the islands of Bute and Arran, and on the 2nd of October 1263 led the Scots against Haakon IV., king of Norway, at Largs.
In 1318, when the Scots invaded England, Ripon only escaped being burnt a second time by the payment of 1000 marks.
It became the prison at various periods of Robert II.; of Alexander Stuart, earl of Buchan, "the Wolf of Badenoch"; Archibald, earl of Douglas (1429); Patrick Graham, archbishop of St Andrews (who died, still in bondage, on St Serf's Island in 1478), and of Mary, queen of Scots.
- The history of Britain after the withdrawal of the Roman troops is extremely obscure, but there can be little doubt that for many years the inhabitants of the provinces were exposed to devastating raids by the Picts and Scots.
In 635 he sent to the elders of the Scots for a bishop. On the arrival of Aidan in answer to this request he assigned to him the island of Lindisfarne as his see, near the royal city of Barnborough.
Bede declares that Oswald ruled over "all the peoples and provinces of Britain, which includes four languages, those of the Britons, Picts, Scots and Angles."
If he be the author of the five or six long poems which have been ascribed to him by different writers, he adds to his importance as the father of Scots poetry the reputation of being one of the most voluminous writers in Middle English, certainly the most voluminous of all Scots poets.
Patriotic as the sentiment is, it is in more general terms than is found in later Scots literature.
the monks appear to have again suffered from poverty, partly no doubt owing to the invasion of the Scots, but partly also through their own "misconduct and extravagance."
Haddan, " Scots on the Continent," Remains, p. 256.
MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS' (1542-1587), daughter of King James V.
After ten years' training under the tutelage of the woman whose main instrument of policy was the corruption of her own children, the queen of Scots, aged fifteen years and five months, was married to the eldest and feeblest of the brood on the 24th of April 1558.
(2) An application from the editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica - who might, 1 suppose, as in Macaulay's time, almost command the services of the most eminent scholars and historians of the country - to me, a mere poet, proposing that I should contribute to that great repository of erudition the biography of Mary Queen of Scots.
Queen Elizabeth, with the almost incredible want of tact or instinctive delicacy which distinguished and disfigured her vigorous intelligence, had recently proposed as a suitor to the queen of Scots her own low-born favourite, Lord Robert Dudley, the widower if not the murderer of Amy Robsart; and she now protested against the project of marriage between Mary and Darnley.
The hapless and worthless bridegroom had already incurred the hatred of two powerful enemies, the earls of Morton and Glencairn; but the former of these took part with the queen against the forces raised by Murray, Glencairn and others, under the nominal leadership of Hamilton, duke of Chatelherault, on the double plea of danger to the new religion of the country, and of the illegal proceeding by which Darnley had been proclaimed king of Scots without the needful constitutional assent of the estates of the realm.
This counsel was rejected, and in October 1565 the queen marched an army of i 8,000 men against them from Edinburgh; their forces dispersed in face of superior numbers, and Murray, on seeking shelter in England, was received with contumely by Elizabeth, whose half-hearted help had failed to support his enterprise, and whose intercession for his return found at first no favour with the queen of Scots.
During her residence here a conference was held at York between her own and Elizabeth's commissioners and those appointed to represent her son as a king of Scots.
The queen of Scots, with dauntless dignity, refused to yield the castles of Edinburgh and Dumbarton into English keeping, or to deliver up her fugitive English partisans then in Scotland; upon other points they came to terms, and the articles were signed the 16th of October.
In December 1583 Mary had laid before the French ambassador her first complaint of the slanders spread by Lady Shrewsbury and her sons, who were ultimately compelled to confess the falsehood of their imputations on the queen of Scots and her keeper.
Anthony Babington, in his boyhood a ward of Shrewsbury, resident in the household at Sheffield Castle, and thus subjected to the charm before which so many victims had already fallen, was now induced to undertake the deliverance of the queen of Scots by the murder of the queen of England.
Her best though not her only fine qualities were national and political, the high public virtues of a good public servant; in the private and personal qualities which attract and attach a friend to his friend and a follower to his leader, no man or woman was ever more constant and more eminent than Mary Queen of Scots.
Commission; Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots (Scottish Record Publ.
Turnbull in Letters of Mary Queen of Scots (London, 1845), and by Agnes Strickland in Letters of Mary Queen of Scots and Documents connected with her Personal History (3 vols., London, 1842).
Numerous biographies of Mary Stuart have been published, as well as essays and treatises dealing with particular episodes in her life, of which the most worthy of mention are: George Chalmers, Life of Mary Queen of Scots, (2 vols., London, 1818); Henry Glassford Bell, Life of Mary Queen of Scots (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1828-1831); the "Life" in Agnes Strickland's Lives of the Queens of Scotland (8 vols., Edinburgh, 1850); J.
Leader, Mary Queen of Scots in Captivity (Sheffield, 1880); Colin Lindsay, Mary Queen of Scots and her Marriage with Bothwell (London, 1883); Mrs Maxwell-Scott, The Tragedy of Fotheringay (London, 1895); F.
1898); Jane Stoddart, Girlhood of Mary Queen of Scots.
With special reference to the controversy concerning the Casket Letters, in addition to the article Casket Letters and the abovementioned works by Sir John Skelton, the following should be consulted: Walter Goodall, Examination of the Letters said to be written by Mary Queen of Scots to Bothwell (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1 754), which contains the letters themselves; William Tytler, Inquiry into the Evidence against Mary Queen of Scots (2 vols., London, 1790); John Whitaker, Mary Queen of Scots Vindicated (3 vols., London, 1788); F.
Henderson, The Casket Letters and Mary Queen of Scots (Edinburgh, 1889); Andrew Lang, The Mystery of Mary Stuart (London, 1900).
In 1690 Giovanni Francesco Savaro published a play La Maria Stuarda, and since then the story of the Queen of Scots has been the subject of numerous poems and dramas, of which the most celebrated are Schiller's Maria Stuart, and three tragedies by A.
The Scots, however, crossed by a ford, and continued the pursuit of the enemy as far as Berwick.
After an obstinate fight the Scots were overpowered and defeated with great loss.
Perhaps our knowledge of Johnson's sentiments regarding the Scots in general, and of his expressions regarding Hume and Smith in particular, may lessen our surprise at this vehemence.
To protect it from molestation Abbot Schaw (or Shaw) induced James IV., a frequent visitor, to erect it into a burgh of barony in 1488, a charter which gave it the right to return a member to the Scots parliament.
and Archbishop Laud had just met with a reverse in their efforts to impose the English liturgy upon the Scots; and fearing further measures on the part of the king, it occurred to Archibald Johnston, Lord Warriston, to revive the National Covenant of 1581.
The leaders of the English parliament, worsted in the Civil War, implored the aid of the Scots, which was promised on condition that the Scottish system of church government was adopted in England.
refused to accept it when he surrendered himself to the Scots in 1646, but he made important concessions in this direction in the "Engagement" made with the Scots in December 1647.
Sir Walter assures us that a Scots earl took this maxim so seriously to heart that he planted a large tract of country with trees, a practice which in these days is promoted by the English and Royal Scottish Arboricultural Societies.
ANTHONY BABINGTON (1561-1586), English conspirator, son of Henry Babington of Dethick in Derbyshire, and of Mary, daughter of George, Lord Darcy, was born in October 1561, and was brought up secretly a Roman Catholic. As a youth he served at Sheffield as page to Mary queen of Scots, for whom he early felt an ardent devotion.
The place was early a favourite residence of the Scots kings when they came to hunt in Ettrick forest.
No sooner did copies of the book reach Paris than he found himself shunned by his former associates, and though he was himself so little conscious of disloyalty that he was forward to present a manuscript copy " engrossed in vellum in a marvellous fair hand" 3 to the young king of the Scots (who, after the defeat at Worcester, escaped to Paris about the end of October), he was denied the royal presence when he sought it shortly afterwards.
LETTERS OF HORNING, a term in Scots law.
to the Scots, an aversion of which he could not remember the: commencement, but which, he owned, had probably originated.
This was James Boswell, a young Scots lawyer, heir to an honourable name and a fair estate.
One Scotsman, bent on vindicating the fame of Scots learning, defied him to the combat in a detestable Latin hexameter: - "Maxime, si to vis, cupio contendere tecum."
In 1386, the town was burned by the Scots, and in 1400 was destroyed by the combined Scots and Irish.
He was a member of the Scots parliament, and was sent by King James III.
A small endowment was provided by the king, and the university, modelled on that of Paris and intended principally to be a school of law, soon became the most famous and popular of the Scots seats of learning, a result which was largely due to the wide experience and ripe wisdom of Elphinstone and of his friend, Hector Boece, the first rector.
In 1J43 he went to Scotland in the train of a Scottish embassy which had come to London to consider the treaty of marriage between Prince Edward and the infant queen of Scots.
That Alfred sent alms to Irish as well as to continental monasteries may be accepted on Asser's authority; the visit of the three pilgrim " Scots " (i.e.
Among the documents is one of the earliest specimens of the Scots dialect.
Of high antiquity, and, like many other Irish towns, claiming (with considerable probability) to have been founded by St Patrick in the 5th century, it long possessed the more important distinction of being the metropolis of Ireland; and, as the seat of a flourishing college, was greatly frequented by students from other lands, among whom the English and Scots were said to have been so numerous as to give the name of Trian-Sassanagh, or Saxon Street, to one of the quarters of the city.
The Scots are believed to have destroyed the nave in 1296, but it may be doubted if it was ever completed.
In 1343 the men of Hexham were accused of pretending to be Scots and imprisoning many people of Northumberland and Cumberland, killing some and extorting ransoms for others.
In 1522 the bishop of Carlisle complained to Cardinal Wolsey, then archbishop of York, that the English thieves committed more thefts than "all the Scots of Scotland," the men of Hexham being worst of all, and appearing loo strong at the markets held in Hexham, so that the men whom they had robbed dared not complain or "say one word to them."
It was in these years that Throckmorton became acquainted with Mary Queen of Scots.
That the Caledonians, like the later Scots, sometimes sought their fortunes in the south, is proved by a curious tablet of about A.D.
While the war with Scotland dragged on through the early years of the reign of Edward II., the fortification of Berwick was a matter of importance, and in 1317 the mayor and bailiffs undertook to defend it for the yearly sum of 6000 marks; but in the following year, "owing to their default," the Scots entered and occupied it in spite of a truce between the two kingdoms. After Edward III.
After being taken by the English it remained unrepresented until it was re-taken by the Scots, when it sent two members to the parliament at Edinburgh from 1476 to 1479.
Conciliation was also tried with some success; plantation schemes were rejected in favour of an attempt to Anglicize the Irish; their chieftains were created earls and endowed with monastic lands; and so peaceful was Ireland in 1542 that the lord-deputy could send Irish kernes and gallowglasses to fight against the Scots.
The name Scotland for this geographical area of northern Britain (the Caledonia of the ancients - a name still poetically used for Scotland) originated in the 11th century, when (from the tribe of Scots) part of it was called Scotia (a name previously applied to what is now Ireland); and the name of Scotland became established in the 12th and 13th centuries.
The system of schools which prevailed till the Education Act of 1872 dated from 1696, when the Act for Settling of Schools was passed - one of the last but not the least of the achievements of the Scots Parliament - providing for the maintenance of a school in every parish by the kirk-session and heritors, with power to the Commissioners of Supply to appoint a schoolmaster in case the primary authorities made default.
The modern plantations consist mostly of Scots fir with a sprinkling of larch.
The total capital of all the Scots companies in 1888 was £114,120,119 by 1910 it exceeded £185,000,000.
In the 13th century the Scots had acquired a considerable celebrity in shipbuilding; and a powerful French baron had a ship specially built at Inverness in 1249 to convey him and his vassals to the Holy Land.
That their rivals, the Scots, were a Gaelic-speaking people is certain.
The Scots made raids, but, as yet, no national settlement.
The withdrawal of the Romans from Britain (410) left the northern part of the island as a prey to be fought for by warlike tribes, of whom the most notable were the Picts in the north, the Scots or Dalriads from Ireland in the west (Argyll), the Cymric or Welsh peoples in the south-west and between Forth and Tay, and the Teutonic invaders, Angles or English, in the south-east.
While southern Scotland was thus English and Cymric, the north, from Cape Wrath to Lochaber, in the west, and to the Firth of Tay, on the east, was Pictland; and the vernacular spoken there was the Gaelic. The west, south of Lochaber to the Mull of Kintyre, with the isles of Bute, Islay, Arran and Jura, was the realm of the Dalriadic kings, Scots from Ireland (503): here, too, Gaelic was spoken, as among the " Southern Picts " of the kingdom of Galloway.
In 431 the contemporary Chronica of Prosper of Aquitaine record that Palladius was ordained by Pope Celestine as the first bishop " to the believing Scots," that is, to the Irish.
If there were " believing Scots " in Ireland before the first bishop was ordained, their ecclesiastical constitution cannot have been episcopal.
The Dalriadic settlers in Argyll and the Isles, the (Irish) Scots, were Christians in the Irish manner.
The pagan English of Deira (603) routed under lEthelfrith the Christian Scots of Argyll between Liddesdale and North Tyne; and pagan English for more than a century held unopposed the tianity.
Thus the Dalriadic Scots had handed on the gift of Irish Christianity, with such literature as accompanied it in the shape of Latin, and reading and writing, to the northern English from Forth to Humber.
In the quarrels of Picts and of Scots of Argyll, the Pictish king, Angus MacFergus (ob.
761), was victorious while in his prime, and then consolidated Pictland; but (802-83'9) the Scandinavian sea-rovers began to hold large territories in Scotland,weakened the Picts, and made easy their conquest by Kenneth MacAlpine of Kintyre, the king of the Dalriad Scots of Argyll.
There was, of course, in fact, no extermination of the Picts, there was merely a change of dynasty, and alliance between Picts and Scots, and that change was probably made in accordance with Pictish customs of succession.
Edward procured a papal dispensation for the marriage of the Maid of Norway to his son Edward; the Scots were glad to consent, and preliminaries were adjusted by the Treaty of Birgham (18th of July 1290).
All possible care was taken by the Scots to guard their national independence, but Edward succeeded in inserting his favourite clause, " saving always the rights of the King of England, which belonged, or ought to belong, to him."
As the Bruce faction had asserted their fealty to Edward, the carefully patriotic attitude of the Scots may be ascribed to the two bishops, who did not consistently live on this level.
A disorderly levy of Scots, appearing on the hills above Dunbar, left their strong position (like Leslie later) and were defeated with heavy loss.
By 1303 France (which doubtless had moved the pope to his action) deserted the Scots in the Treaty of Amiens, and Edward, with little opposition, overran Scotland in 1303.
Eight justices were appointed, the sheriffs were mainly Scots of the kingdom; the bishop of St Andrews was one of the Scottish representatives.
He then took the old royal castle of Dunstaffnage and drove the chief, John of Lorne, into England; Menteith, the captor of Wallace, changed sides, and Edward, after a feeble invasion in 1310, retreated from a land laid desolate by the Scots.
For two years the north of England, as far south as Durham and Chester, was the prey of the Scots, and some English counties secured themselves by paying an indemnity.
An immense booty and many ransoms rewarded the Scots, whose victory was one of the decisive battles of the world.
As long as a hundred Scots are left alive, they will continue the war for freedom, " which no good man loses save with his life."
The English owed the victory to their archers, whose shafts rolled up a courageous charge by the Scots.
strove to relieve Stirling, and found his R with Bannockburn on Halidon hill (r9th of July 1333), where he was routed and slain, with many of the IIL leaders of the Scots.
Scotland was to be forgiven the ransom, receive the Stone of Scone and retain its independent title as a kingdom: her parliaments were to be held within her own borders; her governors and magistrates were to be Scots, freedom of trade was guaranteed, and the earl of Douglas was to be restored to his English estates, or to an equivalent.
The French deemed the Scots shabby, poor and avaricious: their grooms werekilled by the peasantry when they went foraging: the nobles were churlish and inhospitable.
His letter is written in Scots.
In 1424 the Scots, with the earl of Buchan and the earl of Douglas, were almost exterminated at Verneuil, some five months after King James, already affianced to the Lady Jane Beaufort, was released.
In February 1429 the Scots under the orifiamme were cut to pieces in " The Battle of the Herrings " at Rouvray.
The surviving Scots fought under Jeanne d'Arc till her last success, at Lagny, under Sir Hugh Kennedy of Ardstinchar in Ayrshire, but James (May, June 1429) made a treaty of peace with Cardinal Beaufort, which enabled Beaufort to send large reinforcements into Paris, where the Maid, deserted by Charles VII., failed a few months later.
Their descendants were again and again kept from the royal succession only by the existence of a Stuart child, Mary, queen of Scots, or James VI.
The Scots had so handled their enemies that they could not or dared not pursue their advantage; on the other hand, it was long indeed before the memory of Flodden ceased to haunt the Scots and deter them from invading England in force.
Protestantism, and the disasters of James V., with the regency of his widow, were to convert the majority of Scots to the English party.
England was prepared, and on the 23rd of November routed and drove into Solway Moss a demoralized multitude of farm-burning Scots.
Arran must have perceived that Henry had infuriated the Scots and that the cardinal might adopt the claims of Lennox and proclaim Arran illegitimate.
In September the Protector Somerset (Hertford) invaded and utterly routed the Scots at Pinkie near Musselburgh.
The " navy was so augmented as it is a thing almost incredible," but none the less £ioo sterling was worth as much, Drury wrote from Berwick, as £1000 Scots.
and the Scots can be touched on in this summary.
The surrender of Charles to the Scots, the surrender by the Scots of Charles to the English, for £ 200,000 of arrears of pay, with hopes of another f200,000 (February 1647), were among the consequences of Montrose's defeat.
at the Hague were opened, and the Scots accused the English of breach of the Solemn League and Covenant.
The Scots invested very largely, for them, but their expeditions were ill-found and worse managed; the Spaniards seized one of their vessels with its crew; the colonists deserted the colony; a fresh expedition was expelled by Spain, and William refused to take up the Scottish quarrel (1695-1700).
Anne, from the beginning of her reign, advocated union, which, with the question of the succession, was the subject of constant and furious debates in the Scots parliament, till, on the 4th of March 1707,the act received the 4 royal assent.
Scotland was to have forty-five members and sixteen elected peers at Westminster; the holders of Darien stock were compensated; as a balance to equality of taxation a pecuniary equivalent was to be paid, the kirk and Scottish courts of justice were safeguarded (final appeal being to the British House of Lords), and Scots shared English facilities and privileges of trade, in name, for many years passed before Scotland really began to enjoy the benefits.
In fact the Scots were feebly organized, and the English Jacobites were not organized at all.
But the vast majority of Scots, though not in love with the Union, preferred it to the rule of a Catholic king - Charles probably, for James had every desire to abdicate.
After 1745 the men of letters of the country continued with intense eagerness the movement initiated by John Knox, when he wrote in English, not in the old Scots that he learned at his mother's knee.
As early as 1730-1740, the great English public schools and universities began to attract the Scottish youths of the wealthier classes, and now good Scots is seldom heard in conversation and is not always written in popular Scottish novels.
It is true that down to the 15th century there were many Teutonic Scots who had difficulty in expressing themselves in " Ynglis," and that, at a later date, the literary vocabulary was strongly influenced by the Latin habit of Scottish culture; but the difficulty was generally academic, arising from a scholarly sensitiveness to style in the use of a medium which had no literary traditions; perhaps also from medieval and humanistic contempt of the vulgar tongue; in some cases from the cosmopolitan circumstance of the Scot and the special nature of his appeal to the learned world.
The later Scots Chaucerian type is less directly derivative in its treatment of allegory and in its tricks of style, and less southern in its linguistic forms; but, though it is more original and natural, it nevertheless retains much of the Chaucerian habit.
The greater portion of this Middle Scots " Chaucerian " literature is courtly in character, in the literary sense, that it continues and echoes the sentiment and method of the verse of the tours d'amour type; and in the personal sense, that it was directly associated with the Scottish court and conditioned by it.
Strong as the Chaucerian influence was, it was too artificial to change the native habit of Scots verse; and though it helps to explain much in the later history of Scots literature, it offers no key to the main process of that literature in succeeding centuries.
It would not be difficult to show that the reaction in the i 8th century against literary and class affectation - however editorial and bookish it was in the choice of subjects and forms - was in reality a re-expression of the old themes in the old ways, which had never been forgotten, even when Middle Scots, Jacobean and early 18th-century verse-fashions were strongest.
The author's confession that, being " thretty 3eris nurist in Fraunce, and in the noble study of Paris in Latin toung," he " knew nocht the gret eloquens of Chauceir," and again that he had written another work in Latin, " the tounge that I knaw better," is valuable testimony to the difficulties in the way of a struggling Scots prose.
Lyndsay in the midst of passages in Scots quotes directly from the Genevan version.
Of the prose books named the Complaynt of Scotlande is the most remarkable example of aureate Middle Scots, the prose analogue of the verse of the " Chaucerians."
This characteristic is by no means strong in Scots prose, even at this time: the last, and most extravagant, example is the Rolment of Courtis by Abacuck Bysset, as late as 1622.
There appear towards the close of the period certain verse-writers, who, despite points of difference with their Middle Scots predecessors, belong as much to this period as to the next.
There is nothing in Scots to balance this English and Latin list.
Scraps may be unearthed as mediocre as the Answer to Curat Caddel's Satyre upon the Whigs, which attempts to revive the mere vulgarity of the Scots " flyting."
We are attracted to Beltrees and his kinsmen less by their craftsmanship than by the fact that they supplied the leaders of the vernacular revival of the 18th century with many subjects and versemodels, and that by their treatment of these subjects and models, based on the practice of an earlier day, they complete the evidence of the continuity of the domestic popular type of Scots verse.
If the work begun by Allan Ramsay, continued by Fergusson and completed by Burns, were matter for separate treatment, it would be necessary to show not only that the editorial zeal which turned these writers to the forgotten vernacular and to " popular " themes was inspired by the general conditions of reaction against the artificiality of the century; but that it was because these poets were Scots, and in Scotland, that they chose this line of return to nature and naturalness, and did honour, partly by protest, to the slighted efforts of the " vulgar " muse.
In 945 Edmund ravaged Strathclyde, and entrusted it all to Malcolm, king of Scotland, "on condition that he should be his fellow-worker by sea and land," the object of this policy being apparently to detach the king of Scots from any possible confederacy such as had been formed in 937.
The site of the old station was afterwards occupied by a fort of considerable strength, which was captured by the Scots under Colonel Stewart on the 10th of March 1644.
During the winter of1401-1402his plans were further extended to negotiations with the rebel Irish, the Scots and the French.
The castle is built of granite in the Scots baronial style, with an eastern tower loo ft.
When in 1317 the Scots invaded England, they penetrated as far south as Boroughbridge and burnt the town.
His son, Robert, earl of Angus (1277-1325), was taken prisoner by the Scots at Bannockburn, but was soon released, though he was deprived of the earldom of Angus and of his Scottish estates.
The appointment of Mr. Smith, like Dr. Laws an Aberdeenian, was highly popular with the Nyasaland settlers, who are mainly Scots.
It seems clear, however, that Vortigern made use of them to protect his kingdom against the Picts and Scots, and rewarded them for their services with a grant of land.
The shaken masses then gave way one after the other, and the Scots fled in all directions.
By the former council his arguments were described as Pultes Scotorum (" Scots porridge") and commentum diaboli (" an invention of the devil").
Under the date of 14th July 1527, we find a "grant to Maister Hector" of an annual pension of £50, to be paid by the sheriff of Aberdeen out of the king's casualties; and on the 26th of July 1529 was issued a "precept for a lettre to Mr Hector Boys, professor of theology, of a pension of £50 Scots yearly, until the king promote him to a benefice of loo marks Scots of yearly value; the said pension to be paid him by the custumars of Aberdeen."
Some time after Don John's appointment to the governorship of the Netherlands Perez accidentally became cognisant of his inconveniently ambitious " empresa de Inglaterra," in which he was to rescue Mary Queen of Scots, marry her, and so ascend the throne of England.
In these slips we have the origin of the Norse kefli, the Scots kaivel, which were and are still used as lots.
In 603 he repelled the attack of Aidan, king of the Dalriad Scots, at Daegsastan, defeating him with great loss.
porthors, Porteous, portes, &c. In Scots law, the "porteous-roll" was the name given formerly to a list of criminals drawn up by the justice-clerk on information given by the local authorities, together with the names of witnesses, and charges made.
With regard to this work some controversy at once arose over the author's treatment of Mary, queen of Scots.
A house exists in Backgate in which Mary Queen of Scots, resided in 1566, and one in Castlegate which Prince Charles Edward occupied in 1745.
and another, in 1566, from Mary Queen of Scots.
BATTLE OF THE HERRINGS, the name applied to the action of Rouvray, fought in 1429 between the French (and Scots) and the English, who, under Sir John Falstolfe (or Falstaff), were convoying Lenten provisions, chiefly herrings, to the besiegers of Orleans.
Their leaders renounced allegiance to the regent; she ended her not unkindly, but as Knox calls it "unhappy," life in the castle of Edinburgh; the English troops, after the usual Elizabethan delays and evasions, joined their Scots allies; and the French embarked from Leith.
The Scots confession, though of course drawn up independently, is in substantial accord with the others then springing up in the countries of the Reformation, but is Calvinist rather than Lutheran.
Mary Queen of Scots had been for a short time also queen of France, and in 1561 returned to her native land, a young widow on whom the eyes of Europe were fixed.
The Old Hall hotel at the west end of the Crescent stands on the site of the mansion built in 1572 by the earl of Shrewsbury in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, which was the residence of Mary queen of Scots when she visited the town.
The baths were visited at least four times by Mary queen of Scots, when a prisoner in charge of George, earl of Shrewsbury, other famous Elizabethan visitors being Lord Burleigh, the earl of Essex, and Robert, earl of Leicester.
Under a Scots act of 1701 (c. 6) provision is made for preventing wrongous imprisonment and against undue delay in trials.
In 1463 he was employed on a diplomatic mission in France; and in 1464, after taking part in negotiation with the Scots, Neville became archbishop of York.
A mile to the west is the Gillies' Hill, now finely wooded, over which the Scots' camp - followers appeared to complete the discomfiture of the English, to which event it owes its name.
His front was covered by the marshy bed of the stream, his left flank by its northerly bend towards the Forth, his right by a group of woods, behind which, until the English army appeared, the Scots concealed themselves.
which numbered about 60,000 against the 40,000 of the Scots, appeared to the south of the burn and at once despatched two bodies of men towards Stirling, the first by the direct road, the.
The attack of the English failed to make any gap in the line of defence, many knights and men-atarms were injured by falling into the pits, and the battle became a melee, the Scots, with better fortune than at Falkirk and Flodden, presenting always an impenetrable hedge of spears, the English, too stubborn to draw off, constantly trying in vain to break it down.
c. 860), often described as the first king of Scotland (kingdom of Scone), was the son of the Alpin, called king of the Scots, who had been slain by the Picts in 832 or 834, whilst endeavouring to assert his claim to the Pictish throne.
On the death of his father, Kenneth is said to have succeeded him in the kingdom of the Scots.
The most important of Skene's other works are: editions of John of Fordun's Chronica gentis Scotorum (Edinburgh, 1871-1872); of the Four Ancient Books of Wales (Edinburgh, 1868); of the Chronicles of the Picts and Scots (Edinburgh, 1867); and of Adamuan's Vita S.
N.W., was the scene of the battle in which, on the 17th of February 1545, the Scots under the earl of Angus, Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch, and Norman Leslie, defeated S000 English, whose leaders, Sir Ralph Evers or Eure and Sir Brian Latoun or Layton, were slain.
He appears to have feared the return of Mary Queen of Scots to Scotland, but after her arrival in 1561 he was appointed secretary of state, and for about six years he directed the policy of Scotland and enjoyed the confidence of the queen.
Meanwhile Sir John Shaw - to whom and to whose descendants, the Shaw-Stewarts, the town has always been indebted - by charter (dated 1741 and 1751) had empowered the householders to elect a council of nine members, which proved to be the most liberal constitution of any Scots burgh prior to the Reform Act of 1832, when Greenock was raised to the status of a parliamentary burgh with the right to return one member to parliament.
Here, as is supposed, the "Alleluia Victory" was gained over the Picts and Scots by Lupus and Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, according to some about A.D.
HENRY STEWART DARNLEY or [[Stuart, Lord]] (1545-1567), earl of Ross and duke of Albany, second husband of Mary, queen of Scots, was the eldest son of Matthew Stewart, earl of Lennox (1516-1571), and through his mother Lady Margaret Douglas (1515-1578) was a great-grandson of the English king Henry VII.
of France in i 560 Darnley was sent into that country by his mother, who hoped that he would become king of England on Elizabeth's death, and who already entertained the idea of his marriage with Mary, queen of Scots, the widow of Francis, as a means to this end.
Personally he was a very insignificant character and his sole title to fame is his connexion with Mary, queen of Scots.
For further information, and also for a list of the works bearing on his life, see the article Mary, Queen Of Scots.
THEODOSIUS I., "the Great," son of Theodosius, Valentinian's great general, who in 368-69 drove back the Picts and Scots from the Roman territories in Britain and suppressed the revolt of Firmus in Mauretania (372).
During the period of the Border lawlessness the inhabitants suffered repeatedly at the hands of moss-troopers and through the feuds of rival families, in addition to the losses caused by the English and Scots wars.
These family connexions with the Hebridean Scots and with the O'Neills made the lord deputy, Sir John Perrot, afraid of a powerful combination against the English government, and induced him to establish garrisons in Tyrconnel and to demand hostages from Hugh MacManus O'Donnell, which the latter refused to hand over.
in 1594 Enniskillen castle was taken and the women and children flung into the river from its walls by order of Sir Richard Bingham, the English governor of Connaught, O'Donnell sent urgent messages to Tyrone for help; and while he himself hurried to Derry to withstand an invasion of Scots from the isles, Maguire defeated the English with heavy loss at Bellanabriska (The Ford of the Biscuits).
Rupert had relieved York and joined forces with the marquess of Newcastle's army that had defended that city, and the Parliamentarians and Scots who had besieged it had drawn off south-westward followed by the Royalists.
The respective forces were - Royalists about 18,000, Parliamentarians and Scots about 27,000.
On the other side the cavalry of the Eastern Association under Lieut.-General Cromwell and that of the Scots under Major-General Leslie (Lord Newark) formed the left, the infantry of the Eastern Association under Major-General Crawford, of the Scots under Lord Leven, and of the Yorkshire Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax was in the centre and the Yorkshire cavalry under Sir Thomas Fairfax was on the right wing.
Rupert soon galloped up with his fresh second line and drove back Cromwell's men, Cromwell himself being wounded, but Leslie and the Scots Cavalry, taking ground to their left, swung in upon Rupert's flank, and after a hard struggle the hitherto unconquered cavalry of the prince was broken and routed.
Then, being unlike other cavalry of the time, a thoroughly disciplined force, the Eastern Association cavalry rallied, leaving the pursuit to the Scots light horse.
But the Scots on the right of the foot held firm against Lucas's attacks, and Cromwell and Leslie with their cavalry passed along the rear of the Royal army, guided by Sir Thomas Fairfax (who though wounded in the rout of his Yorkshire horse.
The precise method of fertilization in the Scots Pine was followed by V.
Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, two nephews of the cardinal, Arthur and Edmund Pole, being ardent young men, conspired to go over to the duke of Guise in France, hoping to return with an army into Wales and so promote the claims of Mary Queen of Scots to the crown of England, for which service the elder, Arthur, expected to be restored to the dukedom of Clarence.
Tradition says that the straw-plait industry owes its introduction to James I., who transferred to Luton the colony of Lorraine plaiters whom Mary queen of Scots had settled in Scotland.
He maintained an attitude of defiance and of "Roman resolution," smiled scornfully at his questioners, making no secret of his intentions, replied to the king, who asked why he would kill him, that the pope had excommunicated him, that "dangerous diseases require a desperate remedy," adding fiercely to the Scottish courtiers who surrounded him that "one of his objects was to blow back the Scots into Scotland."
A Scots version of the history was written in 1596 by James Dalrymple of the Scottish Cloister at Regensburg.
He obtained the title of Augustus on the 1st of May 305, and died the following year shortly before the 25th of July at Eboracum (York) during an expedition against the Picts and Scots.
On the entablature surmounting the Ionic columns are panels containing medallions of Scots sovereigns from James I.
The Grammar School, founded in 1263, was removed in 1861-1863 from its old quarters in Schoolhill to a large new building, in the Scots Baronial style, off Skene Street.
and the Scots in 1289 and 1290.
In 1549 the town was walled and fortified by Montalembert, sieur d'Esse, the commander of the French troops, and endured an ineffectual siege in 1560 by the Scots and their English allies.
In Hardgate Street is "Bothwell Castle," the town house of the earl of Bothwell, where Mary Queen of Scots rested on her way to Dunbar.
Fortified in 1548 by Lord Grey of Wilton, the English commander, it was besieged next year by the Scots and French, who forced the garrison to withdraw.
the Humber subdued, but the Yorkshire Danes, the Welsh, and evenit is saidthe remote Scots of the North, did homage to Edward and became his men.
But this first conquest of the region beyond Humber had to be repeated over and over again; time after time the Danes rebelled and proclaimed a new king, aided sometimes by bands of their kinsmen from Ireland or Norway, sometimes by the Scots and Strathclyde Welsh.
But its overlordship he never lost, and since he also maintained the supremacy which his father had won over the Welsh and Scots, it was not without reason that he called himself on his coins and in his charters Rex totius Britanniae.
It was long remembered how all the kings of this island, both the Welsh and the Scots, eight kings, came to him once upon a time on one day and all bowed to his governance.
The battle of Carham (1018) had given this land to the Scots, and Canute consented to draw the border line of England at the Tweed instead of at the Firth of Forth, when Malcolm did him homage.
But he fought through his troubles, conquered Cumberland from the Scots (1092), in dealing with his domestic enemies used cunning where force failed, and generally got his will in the end.
The king of Scots was forced to buy his liberty by doing homage to Henry for the whole of his kingdom.
the Scots maintainedin that of a neighbor of acknowledged wisdom and repute, invited to settle a domestic problem.
But it was possible for patriotic Scots to contend that they had done so only in their capacity as English baronsfor they held much land south of Tweedand topoint to the similarity of their position to that of the English king when he did homage for his duchy of Guienne at Paris, without; thereby admitting any suzerainty of the French crown Over England or Ireland.
After some delay, and with manifest reluctance, the Scots complied; their hand was forced by the fact that most of the claimants to the crown had hastened to make the acknowledgment, each hoping thereby to prejudice the English king in his own favor.
The Scots, on the other hand, were resolved not to allow of, the introduction of usages which had not prevailed in earlier times, and to keep the tie as vague and loose as possible.
He then summoned a parliament at Berwick, and announced to the assembled Scots that he had determined to depose King John, and to assume the crown himself.
The ease with which he had subdued the realm misled him; he fancied that the slack resistance, which was mainly due to the incapacity and unpopularity of Baliol, implied the indifference of the Scots to the idea ol annexation.
The impression made on the Scots was so great that for some years they refused to engage in another pitched battle.
But the Scots, as was natural, bore the brunt of the kings wrath.
Edwards arrangements for the administration of the conquered kingdom were wise and liberal, if only the national spirit of the Scots could have tolerated them.
The sheriffdoms and most of the ministerial posts were left in the hands of Scots, though the supreme executive authority was put in.the hands of John of Brittany, earl of Richmond, the kings nephew.
The Scots, as at Falkirk, were ranged in solid clumps of pikemen above the burn, with only a small reserve of horse.
The Scots also made many prisoners; the disaster was complete, and the wrecks of the beaten army dispersed before reaching the border.
The Scots swept everything before them, ravaging the north at their will, and capturing Berwick.
Edward was allowed to raise an army for the siege of Berwick, and was lying before its walls, when the Scots, turning his flank, made a fierce foray into Yorkshire, and routed the shire-levy under Archbishop Melton at the battle of Myton.
The people called it the shameful peace of Northampton, and firmly believed that he had been bribed by the Scots.
This was Edward, the son of John Baliol, an adventurous baron who collected all the disinherited Scots lords, the members of the old English faction who had been expelled by Bruce, and invaded the realm at their head.
These terms so irritated the Scots, who had shown signs of submission up to this moment, that they refused to accept the pretender, and kept up a long guerilla warfare which ended in his final expulsion..
He fought relying on Battieof the tactics which had been tried against the Scots at - Dupplin and Halidon Hill, drawing up his army with masses of dismounted men-at-arms flai~iked on either side by archery.
The loss of their king and the destruction of a fine army took the heart out of the resistance of the Scots, who for many years to come could give their French allies little assistance.
sum could never be raised, and Edward always had it in his power to bring pressure to bear on the king of Scots by demanding the instalments, which were always in arrear.
The Scots had declared war, and there was every sign that the French would soon follow suit, for the War with ., -
A few months after the kings fortune seemed to take a turn for the better, when the Scots were defeated at Homildon Hill by the earl of Northumberland and ~~7~~ei, his son Henry Percy, the celebrated Hotspur.
After a desperate fight lasting the greater part of a day, the Scots were outmanceuvred and surrounded.
to his anti-papal policy, revived the feudal claim to suzerainty, won the battle of Solway Moss (1542), and then after Jamess death bribed and threatened the Scots estates into concluding a treaty of marriage between their infant queen and Henrys son.
In 1547 he won the great but barren victory of Pinkie Cleugh over the Scots, and attempted to push on the marriage and Admlnisunion by a mixture of conciliation and coercion.
France was, as ever, the backbone of the Scots resistance; men and money poured into Edinburgh to assist Mary of Guise and the French faction.
Misunderstandings broke out as to the interpretation of the treaty, and Charles having discovered that the Scots were intriguing with France, fancied that England, in hatred of its ancient foe, would now be ready to rally to his standard.
The Scots crossed the Tweed, and Charless army was Scottish well pleased to fly before them.
As an inducement, the Solemn League and Covenant was signed by all Parliamentarian Englishmen, the terms of which were interpreted by the Scots to bind England to submit to Presbyterianism, though the most important clauses had been purposely left vague, so as to afford a loophole of escape.
But the battle did not improve the Presbyposition of the Scots.
The principle advocated by the army, and opposed by the Scots and the majority of the House of Commons, was liberty of sectarithi association.
The next year (1646) he surrendered to the 7,~~ar Scots.
Then followed two years of fruitless negotiation, in which after the Scots abandoned the king to the English parliament, the army took him out of the hands of the parliament, whilst each in turn tried to find some basis of arrangement on which he might reign without ruling.
Freemans bias was peculiar; he is really a West Saxon of Godwines time reincarnated, and his Somerset hatred of French, Scots and Mercian foreigners sets off his robust loyalty to the house of Wessex.
Thomas, who as a lad had ridden on the barons' side at Evesham, followed the king's wars for half a century of his long life, flying his banner at Falkirk and at Bannockburn, in which fight he was taken by the Scots.
She was buried in the tomb of Mary Queen of Scots in.
Within its walls Mary Queen of Scots was crowned in 1543, when nine months old, and in the same year the earl of Arran, regent of Scotland, abjured Protestantism; in 1544 an assembly of nobles appointed Mary of Guise queen-regent; on the 29th of July 1567 James VI.
Several Scots parliaments met within its walls, notably that of 1326, the first attended by burgesses from the towns.
At the Reformation Mary Queen of Scots bestowed it on the rst earl of Mar (1562), who is said to have used the stones for his palace in Stirling.
It was known also as Snowdoun, which became the official title of the Scots heralds.
In 1174 it was handed over to the English in security for the treaty of Falaise, being restored to the Scots by Richard I.
Edward Baliol surrendered it in 1 334 in terms of his compact with Edward III., but the Scots regained it in 1339.
The Corporation buildings, a blend of the Scots Baronial and French Gothic styles, contain busts of several Scottish sovereigns a statue of Robert Burns, and Sir Noel Paton's painting of the "Spirit of Religion."
by charter of 1254-1255 granted the burgesses their town at an annual fee farm rent of 26 marks, of which they were acquitted in 1318 and 1327 " on account of the robberies and fires inflicted on them by the Scots."
The frontier was divided into the East, Middle and West Marches, each under the control of an English and a Scots warden.
Besides the works just mentioned see Sir Herbert Maxwell, History of Dumfries and Galloway (1896); George Ridpath, Border History of England and Scotland (1776); Professor John Veitch, History and Poetry of the Scottish Border (1877); Sir George Douglas, History of the Border Counties (Scots), (1899); W.
He disapproved of the rising of the Scots, but was none the less a severe critic of the government of Charles I.
It will have been observed that Scythia had a peculiar attraction for medieval Irish chroniclers on account of its resemblance to the name Scotti, Scots.
These movements coincide with the inroads of the Picts and Scots recorded by Roman writers.
We have also the statement of Prosper of Aquitaine that Palladius was sent by Pope Celestine as first bishop to the Scots that believe in Christ.
The circumstances which enabled the Scots to succeed in occupying Kintyre and Islay cannot now be ascertained.
Neither is it clear that bodies of Scots had not already migrated to Argyll.
The latter was driven out of the country by Domnall, whereupon Congal collected an army of foreign adventurers made up of Saxons, Dalriadic Scots, Britons and Picts to regain his lands and to avenge himself on the high-king.
Bede, speaking of a church built by Finan at Lindisfarne, says, " nevertheless, after the manner of the Scots, he made it not of stone but of hewn oak and covered it with reeds."
No English king again visited Ireland until James II., declared by his English subjects to have abdicated, and by the more outspoken Scots to have forfeited the crown, appealed to the loyalty or piety of the Catholic Irish.
Shane diplomatically acknowledged Elizabeth as his sovereign, and sometimes played the part of a loyal subject, wreaking his private vengeance under colour of expelling the Scots from Ulster.
The Scots in Rathlin were slaughtered wholesale.
Thus, and by the long war, the population was reduced to some 850,000, of whom 150,000 were English and Scots.
Jeremy Taylor began a persecution which stopped the influx of Scots into Ireland.