In 934'Ethelstan invaded Scotland as far as the Tay.
Other leading industries are hosiery, tanning (with the largest yards in Scotland), dyeing, iron and brass founding, engineering and boot-making.
LOCH ERICHT, a lake partly in Inverness-shire and partly in Perthshire, Scotland, lying between the districts of Badenoch on the N.
MARGARET (1489-1541), queen of Scotland, eldest daughter of Henry VII., king of England, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV., was born at Westminster on the 29th of November 1 4 89.
high, large remains of a circular cyclopean tower, called Dun-Aengus, ascribed to the Fir-bolg or Belgae; or, individually, to the first of three brothers, Aengus, Conchobar and Nil, who reached Aran Islands from Scotland in the 1st century A.D.
Scotland was divided mainly into two parties, one in favour of alliance with England, and the other with France.
of Scotland, whose support of the pretender Perkin Warbeck it was hoped to avert by such an alliance.
In April, upon the king's declaration that he was resolved to send for James from Scotland, Shaftesbury advised the popular leaders at once to leave the council, and they followed his advice.
CALLANDER, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, 16 m.
In the summer of 1516 Margaret went to her brother's court in London, while Angus, much to his wife's displeasure, returned to Scotland, where he made his peace with Albany and was restored to his estates.
Fleeming Jenkin was educated at first in Scotland, but in 1846 the family went to live abroad, owing to financial straits, and he studied at Genoa University, where he took a first-class degree in physical science.
This was specially true of the Reformers in Switzerland, France, Scotland, Holland and in some parts of Germany.
Its evolution and the thorough application of its principles to actual church life came later, not in Saxony or Switzerland, but in France and Scotland; and through Scotland it has passed to all English-speaking lands.
William Gilpin, who is so admirable in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
He was back in Scotland towards the end of June.
The woollen manufactures, dating from the close of the 16th century, are the most important in Scotland, though now mainly confined to the weaving of tweeds.
When he reached Scotland everybody was eager to hear him tell of his adventures, and he soon found himself famous.
The marriage of this youth to James IV.'s widow on the 6th of August 1514 did much to identify the Douglases with the English party in Scotland, as against the French party led by Albany, and incidentally to determine the political career of his uncle Gavin.
When Albany returned to Scotland in 1521 his association with Margaret gave rise to the accusation that it was with the intention of marrying her himself that he favoured her divorce from Angus, and it was even suggested that she was Albany's mistress.
Two years later she was reconciled to her husband, by whom she had no children; and, continuing to the end to intrigue both in Scotland and England, she died at Methven Castle on the 18th of October 1541.
Bain (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1890); John Leslie, History of Scotland, ed.
In 1138 he made a truce at Roxburgh between England and Scotland, and took active part in gathering together the army which defeated the Scots at the Battle of the Standard in August 1138.
In 1068, after the failure of the first rising of the north, Edgar retired to Scotland, when his sister Margaret married the Scottish king, Malcolm Canmore.
He took the first steps towards the canonization of Queen Margaret of Scotland, and sent missionaries under Portuguese auspices to the Congo.
It had been known in Scotland since the close of the 16th century (the Glasgow kirk session fulminated an edict against Sunday bowls in 1595), but greens were few and far between.
In 1848 and 1849, however, when many clubs had come into existence in the west and south of Scotland (the Willowbank, dating from 1816, is the oldest club in Glasgow), meetings were held in Glasgow for the purpose of promoting a national association.
Mitchell (1803-1884), who prepared a code that was immediately adopted in Scotland as the standard laws.
In Ireland the game took root very gradually, but in Ulster, owing doubtless to constant intercourse with Scotland, such clubs as have been founded are strong in numbers and play.
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
In Scotland the public greens are selfsupporting, from a charge, which includes the use of bowls, of one penny an hour for each player; in London the upkeep of the greens falls on the rates, but players must provide their own bowls.
It is interesting for its connexion with the 15th-century romance of Perceforest, since in it Alexander visits Britain, where he bestows Scotland on Gadifer and England on Betis (otherwise Perceforest).
LANARK, a royal, municipal and police burgh, and county town of Lanarkshire, Scotland, standing on high ground about half a mile from the right bank of the Clyde, 31 m.
In Scotland the title of justiciar was borne, under the earlier kings, by two high officials, one having his jurisdiction to the north, the other to the south of the Forth.
Classified according to place of birth, the principal nationalities were as follows in 1901: Canada, 180,853; England, 20,392; Scotland, 8099; Ireland, 4537; other British possessions, 490; Germany, 229,; Iceland, 54 0 3; Austria, 11,570; Russia and Poland, 8854; Scandinavia, 1772; United States, 6922; other countries, 4028.
The remainder of the population is chiefly made up of English-speaking people horn the other provinces of the Dominion, from the United States, from England and Scotland and the north of Ireland.
In 1582 Sir Archibald was appointed master of the mint in Scotland, with the sole charge of superintending the mines and minerals within the realm, and this office he held till his death in 1608.
As already stated, John Napier was born in 1550, the year in which the Reformation in Scotland may be said to have commenced.
The legend with regard to the origin of the name Napier was given by Sir Alexander Napier, eldest son of John Napier, in 1625, in these words: "One of the ancient earls of Lennox in Scotland had issue three sons: the eldest, that succeeded him to the earldom of Lennox; the second, whose name was Donald; and the third, named Gilchrist.
In one sense tt may be said to stand to theological literature in Scotland in something of the same position as that occupied by the Canon Mirificus with respect to the scientific literature, for it is the first published original work relating to theological interpretation, and is quite without a predecessor in its own field.
It has been asserted (by Sir Thomas Urquhart) that the piece of artillery was actually tried upon a plain in Scotland with complete success, a number of sheep and cattle being destroyed.
Scotland had produced nothing, and was perhaps the last country in Europe from which a great mathematical discovery would have been expected.
But there was no shepherd in Scotland that could have done better than Sirrah did that night.
Visit the Grand Canyon, travel to Scotland, hot air balloon ride.
The declaration of war by England against Scotland, in answer to the recent Franco-Scottish negotiations, prevented his return.
DUFFTOWN, a municipal and police burgh of Banffshire, Scotland, on the Fiddich, 64 m.
of Aberdeen by the Great North of Scotland railway.
The place has become an important junction of the Great North of Scotland railway system.
LOCH AWE, the longest freshwater lake in Scotland, situated in mid-Argyllshire, 116 ft.
On the 25th of March he made a striking speech upon the state of the nation, especially upon the dangers to Protestantism and the misgovernment of Scotland and Ireland.
In pursuance of his patronage of Monmouth, Shaftesbury now secured for him the command of the army sent to suppress the insurrection in Scotland, which he is supposed to have fomented.
The then king of Scotland having wars, did convocate his lieges to battle, amongst whom that was commanded was the earl of Lennox, who, keeping his eldest son at home, sent his two sons to serve for him with the forces that were under his command...
In Scotland there once lived a poor shepherd whose name was James Hogg.
In 1961 in Perthshire, Scotland, a white barn cat named Susie was found at a farm.
The rivalry between the French and English factions in Scotland was complicated by private feuds of the Hamiltons and Douglases, the respective heads of which houses, Arran and Angus, were contending for the supreme power in the absence of Albany in France, where at the instance of Henry VIII.
Anlaf Godfreyson returned to Ireland and died in 94194 2 in a raiding expedition in the south of Scotland.
GALASHIELS, a municipal and police burgh of Selkirkshire, Scotland.
C. Baur; and afterwards in England and Scotland.
He was suspected of bringing about a revolt in Scotland.
3.-Skins Of The European Wild Cat, From Ross-Shire, Scotland.
Next year he returned to take part in the second rising, but, this proving no more successful than the first, he again took refuge in Scotland.
The village was founded by David Dale (1739-1806) in 1785, with the support of Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning-frame, who thought the spot might be made the Manchester of Scotland.
In 1617 Napier published his Rabdologia, 4 a duodecimo of one hundred and fifty-four pages; there is prefixed to it as preface a dedicatory epistle to the high chancellor of Scotland.
Scotland, as the history is fully covered under the separate headings of Church of Scotland, and allied articles.
Its constitution has spread to Holland, Scotland (Ireland, England), and to the great American (and Colonial) churches.
In 1640 Henderson, Baillie, Blair and Gillespie came to London as commissioners from the General Assembly in Scotland, in response to a request from ministers in London who desired to see the Church of England more closely modelled after the Reformed type.
The ministers were mostly Puritans; by their ordination, &c., Episcopalian; and for the most part strongly impressed with the desirability of nearer agreement with the Church of Scotland, and other branches of the Reformed Church on the Continent.
As compared with Scotland, English Presbyterianism had more of the lay element.
In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.
10 have been imported principally from Scotland.
There are in England fourteen congregations in connexion with the Church of Scotland, six of them in London and the remainder in Berwick, Northumberland, Carlisle and Lancashire.
Their ministers, silenced by Wentworth, after an ineffectual attempt to reach New England, fled to Scotland, and there took a leading part in the great movement of 1638.
This presbytery supplied ministers to as many congregations as possible; and for the remainder ministers were sent from Scotland.
In 1679 the rising in Scotland which ended in the battle of Bothwell Bridge brought trouble on the Irish Presbyterians in spite of their loyal addresses disowning it.
It was removed to Princeton in 1755, funds for its aid being received from England, Ireland and Scotland.
The Presbyterians from the Scotch Established Church combined with the American Presbyterian Church, but the separating churches of Scotland organized independent bodies.
The Burgher Synod in 1764 sent Thomas Clarke of Ballybay, Ireland, who settled at Salem, Washington county, New York, and in 1776 sent David Telfair, of Monteith, Scotland, who preached in Philadelphia; they united with the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; in 1771 the Scotch Synod ordered the presbytery to annul its union with the Burghers, and although Dr Clarke of Salem remained in the Associate Presbytery, the Burgher ministers who immigrated later joined the Associate Reformed Church.
WEST KILBRIDE, a town on the coast of Ayrshire, Scotland, near the mouth of Kilbride Burn, 4 m.
1152), a son of King David I., and became king of Scotland on the death of his brother, Malcolm IV., in December 1165, being crowned at Scone during the same month.
After his accession to the throne William spent some time at the court of the English king, Henry II.; then, quarrelling with Henry, he arranged in 1168 the first definite treaty of alliance between France and Scotland, and with Louis VII.
By this arrangement the king and his nobles, clerical and lay, undertook to do homage to Henry and his son; this and other provisions placing both the church and state of Scotland thoroughly under the suzerainty of England.
In 1188 William secured a papal bull which declared that the Church of Scotland was directly subject only to the see of Rome, thus rejecting the claims to supremacy put forward by the English archbishop. This step was followed by the temporal independence of Scotland, which was one result of the continual poverty of Richard I.
In December 1189, by the treaty of Canterbury, Richard gave up all claim to suzerainty over Scotland in return for 10,000 marks, the treaty of Falaise being thus definitely annulled.
Soon after John's accession in 1199 the Scottish king asked for the earldom of Northumberland, which Richard I., like his father, had refused to restore to Scotland.
Both these treaties seem to have been more favourable to England than to Scotland, and it is possible that William acknowledged John as overlord of his kingdom.
important reign is a very mportant period in the early history of Scotland, and may almost be said to mark an epoch in every department of public life.
Robertson, Scotland under her Early Kings (Edinburgh, 1862); Lord Hailes, Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819); A.
(190o); also SCOTLAND: History.
Returning to Scotland in 1819, he lived partly on his estate of Auchengray and partly in Edinburgh, and like his brother took an active part,.
BALQUHIDDER (Gaelic, "the farm in the back-lying country"), a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland.
It is a species of cannel coal, somewhat similar to the Boghead mineral of Scotland, but yielding a much larger percentage of volatile hydro-carbon than the Scottish mineral.
His ancestors, it is believed, came from Scotland, and settled at Bayonne when that region was occupied by the English.
He then marched north into Scotland, following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the Argyle faction at Edinburgh; replying to the Independents who disapp-oved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired "union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ...
Meanwhile Cromwell had hurried home to deal with the royalists in Scotland.
He entered Scotland in July, Wo rcester.
Monk completed the subjugation of Scotland by 1654.
Large steps were made towards the union of the two kingdoms by the representation of Scotland in the parliament at Westminster; free trade between the two countries was established, the administration of justice greatly improved, vassalage and heritable jurisdictions abolished, and security and good order maintained by the council of nine appointed by the Protector.
In 1658 the improved condition of Scotland was the subject of Cromwell's special congratulation in addressing parliament.
But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.
of Ireland and Scotland and the union of the three kingdoms, the relief of poor prisoners, and the maintenance of the highways.
By March 1652 the whole of the territory governed by the Stuarts had submitted representatives from Scotland and from Ireland.
The greatest feat of Turenne was the rescue of one province in 1674-1675; Cromwell, in 1648 and again in 1651, had two-thirds of England and half of Scotland for his theatre of war.
North of the fiftieth parallel the depths diminish towards the north-east, two long submarine ridges of volcanic origin extend north-eastwards to the southwest of Iceland and to the Faeroe Islands, and these, with their intervening valleys, end in a transverse ridge connecting Greenland, through Iceland and the Faeroe Islands, with Northwestern Scotland and the continental mass of Europe.
He stood between Scotland and France and Germany and France; and, though his expositions are vitiated by loose reading of the philosophers he interpreted, he did serviceable, even memorable work.
In Ireland imprisonment for debt was abolished by the Debtors Act (Ireland) 1872, and in Scotland by the Debtors (Scotland) Act 1880.
The word thane was used in Scotland until the 15th century, to describe an hereditary non-military tenant of the crown.
GRANTOWN, the capital of Speyside, Elginshire, Scotland.
of Forres by the Highland railway, with a station on the Great North of Scotland's Speyside line connecting Craigellachie with Boat of Garten.
The town, built of grey granite, presents a handsome appearance, and being delightfully situated in the midst of the most beautiful pine and birch woods in Scotland, with pure air and a bracing climate, is an attractive resort.
CARNOUSTIE, a police burgh and watering-place of Forfarshire, Scotland.
Barry Links, a triangular sandy track occupying the south-eastern corner of the shire, are used as a camping and manoeuvring ground for the artillery and infantry forces of the district, and occasionally of Scotland.
Other experiments in inductive telegraphy were made by Preece, aided by the officials of the British Postal Telegraph Service, in Glamorganshire in 1887; at Loch Ness in Scotland in 1892; on Conway Sands in 1893; and at Frodsham, on the Dee, in 1894.
Cadmium does not occur naturally in the uncombined condition, and only one mineral is known which contains it in any appreciable quantity, namely, greenockite, or cadmium sulphide, found at Greenock and at Bishopton in Scotland, and in Bohemia and Pennsylvania.
In Scotland Pope Gregory X.
The pope insisted upon the tax being collected according to the true value, and Boiamund returned to Scotland to superintend its collection.
The actual taxation to which this fragment refers was not the tenth collected by Boiamund but the tenth of all ecclesiastical property in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland granted by Pope Nicholas IV.
Although no contemporary copy of Bagimond's Roll is known to exist, at least three documents give particulars of the taxation of the Church of Scotland in the 16th century, which are based upon the original roll.
king of Scotland.
The Church had the same jurisdiction in Scotland, and exercised it through similar courts to those which she had in Ecciesias= England and France, till about 1570.
As late as 1566 ticalJuris= Archbishop Hamilton of Glasgow, upon his appointment, had restitution of his jurisdiction in the probate Scotland.
It does not judge ministers (Brodie-Innes, Comparative Principles of the Laws of England and Scotland, 1903, p. 144).
Matrimonial matters and those relating to wills and succession (called in Scotland " consistorial " causes) were in 1563 taken from the old bishops' courts and given to " commissaries " appointed by the crown with an appeal to the court of session, which by act 1609, c. 6, was declared the king's great consistory.
BrodieInnes, Comparative Principles of the Laws of England and Scotland (1903); R.
MUSSELBURGH, a municipal and police burgh of Midlothian, Scotland, 52 m.
Loretto School, one of the foremost public schools in Scotland, occupies the site of the chapel of Our Lady of Loretto, which was founded in 1534 by Thomas Duthie, a hermit from Mt Sinai.
In 1138 David of Scotland made it a centre of military operations, and it was ravaged by Wallace in 1296, by Bruce in 1312, and by David II.
He was responsible for the Universities of Scotland Act of 1858, and in the same year he was elevated to the bench as lord justice clerk.
In 1867 he was made lord justice general of Scotland and lord president of the court of session, taking the title of Lord Glencorse.
(1802); Orpheo and Heurodis from the Auchinleck MS. in David Laing's Select Remains of the Ancient Popular Poetry of Scotland (new ed., 1885); and Kyng Orfew from the Ashmolean MS. in J.O.
In central Scotland, forests occur of Pinus sylvestris; and, in south-eastern England, extensive plantations and self-sown woods occur of the same species.
Watson showed that Scotland primarily, and to a less extent the north of England, possessed species which do not reach the south.
The oak in turn has been almost superseded in Denmark by the beech, which, if we may trust Julius Caesar, had not reached Britain in his time, though it existed there in the pre-glacial period, but is not native in either Scotland or Ireland.
and is one of the most valuable food fishes of Europe, both fresh and smoked, the "finnan haddie" of Scotland being famous.
Geikie, The Scenery and Geology of Scotland (London, 2nd ed., 1887); Lord Avebury (Sir J.
James Hepburn succeeded in 1556 to his father's titles, lands and hereditary offices, including that of lord high admiral of Scotland.
In December he was sent by the queen dowager to secure Stirling, and in 1560 was despatched on a mission to France, visiting Denmark on the way, where he either married or seduced Anne, daughter of Christopher Thorssen, whom he afterwards deserted, and who came to Scotland in 1563 to obtain redress.
After these adventures he returned to Scotland in March 1565, but withdrew once more before the superior strength of his opponents to France.
He now stood forth as her champion; Mary took refuge with him at Dunbar, presented him, among other estates, with the castle there and the chief lands of the earldom of March, and made him the most powerful noble in the south of Scotland.
A portrait was taken of the head of the body found therein, now in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland.
He was lord high admiral of Scotland, and was a person of some importance at the court of James VI.
of Scotland, by G.
of Scotland (1873); A.
of Scotland, ii.
of State Papers, Foreign, Scottish, Venetian, vii; Exchequer Rolls of Scotland, xix.
Finally a clause said that "no person born out of the kingdoms of England, Scotland or Ireland, or the dominions thereunto belonging (although he be naturalized or made a denizen) except such as are born of English parents, shall be capable to be of the Privy Council, or a member of either House of Parliament, or enjoy any office or place of trust, either civil or military, or to have any grant of lands, tenements or hereditaments from the Crown to himself, or to any other or others in trust for him."
Scotland accepted the Act of Settlement by Art.
Sir John Howard served in Edward II.'s wars in Scotland and Gascony, was sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk and governor of Norwich Castle.
In his seventieth year, as lieutenant-general of the North, he led the English host on the great day of Flodden, earning a patent of the dukedom of Norfolk, dated 1 February 1513/4, and that strange patent which granted to him and his heirs that they should bear in the midst of the silver bend of their Howard shield a demi-lion stricken in the mouth with an arrow, in the right colours of the arms of the king of Scotland.
An unsuccessful diplomatist, his chief services in arms were the butchery in the north after the Pilgrimage of Grace and the raid into Scotland which ended with the rout of Solway Moss.
Her father's line and the royal Stewards of Scotland sprang from one forefather, Alan, son of Flaald the Breton.
After three such good fortunes by marriage Norfolk in his folly looked for a crown with a fourth match, listening to the laird of Lethington when he set forth the scheme by which the duke was to marry a restored queen of Scots and rule Scotland with her who should be recognized as Elizabeth's successor.
(1451-1488), king of Scotland, eldest son of James II., was born on the 10th of July 1451.
recognized him as king of Scotland by the gift of the king of England.
James IV Of Scotland >>
It is abundant in many of the streams of the south of England, but is unknown in Scotland and Ireland.
From England, moreover, he spread into Scotland, Wales and Ireland, and in each land his settlement put on a somewhat different character, according to the circumstances of the land.
In Scotland he was not a conqueror, but a mere visitor, and oddly enough he came as a visitor along with those whom he had himself overcome in England.
Both Normans and English came to Scotland in crowds in the days of Margaret, Edgar and David, and Scottish national feeling sometimes rose up against them.
In Scotland again the Norman settlers were lost in the mixed nationality of the country, but not till they had modified many things in the same way in which they modified things in England.
They gave Scotland nobles and even kings; Bruce and Balliol were both of the truest Norman descent; the true Norman descent of Comyn might be doubted, but he was of the stock of the Francigenae of the Conquest.
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
As a wild bird it breeds constantly, though locally, throughout the greater part of Scotland, and has frequently done so in England, but more rarely in Ireland.
The work of Fordun is the earliest attempt to write a continuous history of Scotland.
Skene in The Historians of Scotland.
COWDENBEATH, a police burgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, 54 m.
So in Scotland, Thomas Erskine and Thomas Chalmers - the latter in contradiction to his earlier position - hold that the doctrine of salvation, when translated into experience, furnishes " internal evidence " - a somewhat broader use of the phrase than when it applies merely to evidence of date or authorship drawn from the contents of a book.
of Aberdeen by rail, on the Great North of Scotland railway.
It also contains the workshops of the Great North of Scotland railway.
LERWICK, a municipal and police burgh of Shetland, Scotland, the most northerly town in the British Isles.
CRIEFF, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, capital of Strathearn, 171 m.
LOCHGILPHEAD, a municipal and police burgh of Argyllshire, Scotland, at the head of Loch Gilp, a small arm on the western side of Loch Fyne.
During the summer of 1400 Henry made a not over-successful expedition to Scotland.
Mowbray and Scrope were taken and beheaded; Northumberland escaped into Scotland.
From 1889 to 1892 he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in the Conservative Government, and from 1895 to 1903 (when he resigned as a Free Trader opposed to tariff reform) Secretary for Scotland.
He published in 1911 The Rise and Development of Presbyterianism in Scotland.
But in the north of England and in Scotland the edge-rail was held in greater favour, and by the third decade of the century its superiority was generally established.
The example of the Stockton & Darlington line was followed by the Monklands railway in Scotland, opened in 1826, and several other small lines - including the Canterbury & Whitstable, worked partly by fixed engines and partly by locomotives - quickly adopted steam traction.
The total paid-up railway capital of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1908, to £1,310,533,212, or an average capitalization of £56,476 per route mile, though it should be noted that this total included £196,364,618 of nominal additions through " stock-splitting," &c. Per mile of single track, the capitalization in England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom, is shown in Table VIII.
a mile or less, and the money obtained from third-class travellers forms by far the most important item in the revenue from passenger traffic. Since the Midland railway's action in 1875 several other English companies have abandoned second-class carriages either completely or in part, and in Scotland they are entirely unknown.
CASTLE DOUGLAS, a burgh of barony and police burgh of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland.
Its auction marts for sheep and cattle sales are the largest in the south-west of Scotland; at an autumn sale as many as 15,000 sheep and 1400 cattle are disposed of in one day.
There he gained an acquaintance with the Lutheran hymns, which he turned to account on his return to Scotland.
and the known leanings of the regent, the earl of Arran, to reform, encouraged many exiles, Wedderburn among them, to revisit Scotland.
He returned to Scotland in 1546.
To judge by the osteological remains which the researches of geologists have brought to light, there was perhaps scarcely a county in England or Wales in which, at one time or another, wolves did not abound, while in Scotland and Ireland they must have been still more numerous.
In Scotland, as might be supposed from the nature of the country, the wolf maintained its hold for a much longer period.
In 1845 he entered the ministry of the Church of Scotland, and after holding several livings accepted the chair of divinity at Glasgow in 1862.
During these years he won a foremost place among the preachers of Scotland.
Lawsoniana, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of Too ft., was introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage.
Among other occurrences of the name of Avon in Great Britain there may be noted - in England, a stream flowing south-east from Dartmoor in Devonshire to the English Channel; in South Wales, the stream which has its mouth at Aberavon in Glamorganshire; in Scotland, tributaries of the Clyde, the Spey and the Forth.
Having roused the ire of Sir Henry Bagnal (or Bagenal) by eloping with his sister in 1591, he afterwards assisted him in defeating Hugh Maguire at Belleek in 1593 and then again went into opposition and sought aid from Spain and Scotland.
He commanded a troop of horse in Scotland in 1639; was involved in army plots in 1641, for which he was committed to the Tower, but escaped abroad; and on the outbreak of the Civil War returned to England and served with Prince Rupert, being present at Marston Moor, the second battle of Newbury and Naseby.
at the Hague, and took part in the expedition to Scotland and the Scotch invasion of England in 1652.
By the law of Scotland, as it originally stood, the punishment of blasphemy was death, but by an act of 1825, amended in 1837, blasphemy was made punishable by fine or imprisonment or both.
BLACKWATER, the name of a number of rivers and streams in England, Scotland and Ireland.
LOCH SHIEL, a lake near the Atlantic seaboard of Scotland, lying between the district of Moidart in Inverness-shire and the districts of Ardgour and Sunart in Argyllshire.
FORRES (Gaelic, far uis, " near water"), a royal and police burgh of Elginshire, Scotland.
It is one of the most ancient towns in the north of Scotland.
high, probably the finest sculptured monolith in Scotland, stands in a field to the east of the town.
The town is amongst the healthiest in Scotland and has the lowest rainfall in the county.
In 1154 the diocese of Sodor was formed to include the Hebrides and other islands west of Scotland.
Four years later he removed to another shop, in the neighbouring Luckenbooths, where he opened a circulating library (the first in Scotland) and extended his business as a bookseller.
It passed through several editions, and was performed at the theatre in Edinburgh; its title is still known in every corner of Scotland, even if it be no longer read.
He was already on terms of intimacy with the leading men of letters in Scotland and England.
Theword "prelacy," meaning no more originally than the office and dignity of a prelate, came to be applied in Presbyterian Scotland and Puritan England - especially during the 17th century - to the episcopal form of church government, being used in a..
While Scotland and England were preparing for the " First Bishops' War," Henderson drew up two papers, entitled respectively The Remonstrance of the Nobility and Instructions for Defensive Arms. The first of these documents he published himself; the second was published against his wish by John Corbet (1603-1641), a deposed minister.
During Charles's second state-visit to Scotland, in the autumn of 1641, Henderson acted as his chaplain, and managed to get the funds, formerly belonging to the bishopric of Edinburgh, applied to the metropolitan university.
In 1642 Henderson, whose policy was to keep Scotland neutral in the war which had now broken out between the king and the parliament, was engaged in corresponding with England on ecclesiastical topics; and, shortly afterwards, he was sent to Oxford to mediate between the king and his parliament; but his mission proved a failure.
Unlike the " National Covenant " of 1638, which applied to Scotland only, this document was common to the two kingdoms. Henderson, Baillie, Rutherford and others were sent up to London to represent Scotland in the Assembly at Westminster.
He sailed to Scotland, and eight days after his arrival died, on the lath of August 1646.
He was buried in Greyfriars churchyard, Edinburgh; and his death was the occasion of national mourning in Scotland.
Henderson is one of the greatest men in the history of Scotland and, next to Knox, is certainly the most famous of Scottish ecclesiastics.
He has made a deep mark on the history, not only of Scotland, but of England; and the existing Presbyterian churches in Scotland are largely indebted to him for the forms of their dogmas and their ecclesiastical organization.
He is thus justly considered the second founder of the Reformed Church in Scotland.
Burton's History of Scotland; D.
of Scotland (1907), vol.
STRANRAER, a royal and police burgh and seaport of Wigtownshire, Scotland.
DALBEATTIE, a police burgh of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland.
Arbuthnot must not be confused with his contemporary and namesake, the Edinburgh printer, who produced the first edition of Buchanan's History of Scotland in 1582.
Aldus in his edition of Cicero's De universitate (1583), dedicated to Crichton, laments the 3rd of July as the fatal day; and this account is apparently confirmed by the Mantuan state papers recently unearthed by Mr. Douglas Crichton (Proc. Soc. of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1909).
Bibliography.-Sir Thomas Urquhart's Discovery of a most excellent jewel (1652; reprinted in the Maitland Club's edition of Urquhart's Works in 1834) is written with the express purpose of glorifying Scotland.
It is generally distributed in all suitable localities throughout England, but is limited to a few lakes and ponds in the south of Scotland and in Ireland.
In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
STRATHCLYDE, the name given in the 9th and 10th centuries to the British (Welsh) kingdom, which from the 7th century onwards was probably confined to the basin of the Clyde, together with the adjacent coast districts, Ayrshire, &c., on the west of Scotland.
Of the origin of the kingdom of the North Britons we have no information, but there seems little reason to doubt that they were the dominant people in southern Scotland before the Roman invasion.
Skene, Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh, 1876); and Sir John Rhys, Celtic Britain (London, 1904).
His mother belonged to the brilliant Gregory family (q.v.), which, in the 18th century, gave so many representatives to literature and science in Scotland.
He was the first moderator of the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland, having previously been moderator of the Free General Assembly.
In December 1806 he was elected a representative peer for Scotland, and took his seat as a Tory in the House of Lords, but for some years he took only a slight part in public business.
During the ensuing thirteen years Aberdeen took a less prominent part in public affairs, although he succeeded in passing the Entail (Scotland) Act of 1825.
of Scotland, and in the same year he pleased Henry by the extraordinary expedition with which he crossed and recrossed the Channel on an errand connected with the king's proposal of marriage to Margaret of Savoy.
He represented the English Parliament in Scotland in 1643, and attended the parliamentary commissions at the Uxbridge Conference in 1645.
The only cultivable soil occurs in the valleys of the large rivers, but the deer-forest and the shootings on moor and mountain are among the most extensive in Scotland.
There were, at the date of the Restoration, about seventy Presbyterian ministers in the north of Ireland, and most of these were from the west of Scotland, and were imbued with the dislike of Episcopacy which distinguished the Covenanting party.
DUMFRIES (Gaelic, "the fort in the copse"), a royal and parliamentary burgh and capital of the county, Dumfriesshire, Scotland.
Dumfries is beautifully situated and is one of the handsomest county towns in Scotland.
The town became embroiled in the struggles that ended in the independence of Scotland.
of Scotland was there received by his intended bride; and Charles V.
The grout, which he mentions as " coming over to us in Holland ships," about which he desires information, was probably the same as shelled barley; and mills for manufacturing it were introduced into Scotland from Holland towards the beginning of the 18th century.
Of the state of agriculture in Scotland in the 16th and the greater part of the 17th century very little is known; no professed treatise on the subject appeared till after the Revolution.
Ray, who made a tour along the eastern coast in that year, says, " We observed little or no fallow ground in Scotland; some ley ground we saw, which they manured with sea wreck.
It is probable that no great change had taken place in Scotland from the end of the i 5th century, except that tenants gradually became possessed of a little stock of their own, instead of having their farm stocked by the landlord.
The very laws which were made during successive reigns for protecting the tillers of the soil from spoil are the best proofs of the deplorable state of the husbandman."' In the r7th century those laws were made which paved the way for an improved system of agriculture in Scotland.
Of the progress of the art in Scotland, till towards the end of the 17th century, we are almost entirely ignorant.
The first Awe work, written by James Donaldson, was printed in culture in 1697, under the title of Husbandry Anatomized; or, Scotland an Inquiry into the Present Manner of Tilling and in the 18th Manuring the Ground in Scotland.
The next work on the husbandry of Scotland is The Countryman's Rudiments, or an Advice to the Farmers in East Lothian, how to labour and improve their Grounds, said to have been written by John Hamilton, 2nd Lord Belhaven about the time of the Union, and reprinted in 1723.
Such was the state of the husbandry of Scotland in the early part of the 18th century.
The first attempts at improvement cannot be traced farther back than 1723, when a number of landholders formed themselves into a society, under the title of the Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture in Scotland.
In 1757 Maxwell issued another work entitled The Practical Husbandman; being a collection of Miscellaneous papers on Husbandry, F&'c. In it the greater part of the Select Transactions is republished, with a number of new papers, among which an Essay on the Husbandry of Scotland, with a proposal for the improvement of it, is the most valuable.
In this he lays it down as a rule that it is bad husbandry to take two crops of grain successively, which marks a considerable progress in the knowledge of modern husbandry; though he adds that in Scotland the best husbandmen after a fallow take a crop of wheat; after the wheat, peas; then barley, and then oats; and after that they fallow again.
The enlargement of farms, and in Scotland the letting of them under leases for a considerable term of years, continued to be a marked feature in the agricultural progress of the country until the end of the century, and is to be regarded both as a cause and a consequence of that progress.
In Scotland the opening up of the country by the construction of practicable roads, and the enclosing and subdividing of farms by hedge and ditch, was now in active progress.
The agriculture of Great Britain, as a whole, advanced with rapid strides during this period; hint nowhere was the change so great as in Scotland.
Previous to this period the husbandry of Scotland was still in a backward state as compared with the best districts of England, where many practices, only of recent introduction in the north, had been in general use for generations.
The land in Scotland was now, with trifling exceptions, let on leases for terms varying from twenty to thirty years, and in farms of sufficient size to employ at the least two or three ploughs.
The Highland Society having early extended its operations to the whole of Scotland, by and by made a corresponding addition to its title, and as the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland gradually extended its operations.
A reas of Cereal and Potato Crops in England, Wales and Scotland, and in Great Britain, in 1905.
Scotland possesses nearly one-third of the area of oats and nearly one-fourth of that of potatoes.
The mangel crop also is mainly English, the summer in most parts of Scotland being neither long enough nor warm enough to bring it to maturity.
Ireland, she possessed six times as many sheep. The cattle population of England alone slightly exceeded that of Ireland, but cattle are more at home on the broad plains of England than amongst the hills and mountains of Wales and Scotland, which are suitable for sheep. Hence, whilst in England sheep were not three times as numerous as cattle, in Wales they were nearly five times, and in Scotland nearly six times as many.
English and Irish, and England possessed more than six times as many pigs as Wales and Scotland together, the number in the last-named country being particularly small.
One English county alone, Suffolk, maintained more pigs than the whole of Scotland.
Under the act, as supplemented by an order of the Board of Agriculture in 1905, there were in that year 26 scheduled places in England and 10 in Scotland, or 36 altogether, from which returns were obtained.
The numbers for Scotland are greater throughout than those for England, 72% of the fat cattle entering the scheduled markets in Scotland in 1905 2 having been weighed, while in England the proportion was only 20 7 0.
ck Cattle Society, the Polled Cattle Society (for the Aberdeen-Angus breed), the English AberdeenAngus Cattle Association, the Galloway Cattle Society, the Ayrshire Cattle Herd Book Society, the Highland Cattle Society of Scotland and the Dairy Shorthorn Association.
The trouble with this disease has been mainly in England, the outbreaks in Wales and Scotland being comparatively few.
In Scotland higher agricultural instruction is given at: Edinburgh and East of Scotland Agricultural College.
West of Scotland Agricultural College, Glasgow.
Aberdeen and North of Scotland Agricultural College.
A B In Great Britain the flea beetles (Halticidae) are one of the most serious enemies; one of these, the turnip flea (Phyllotreta nemorum), has in some years, notably 1881, caused more than 500,00o loss in England and Scotland alone by eating the young seedling turnips, cabbage and other Cruciferae.
BUCCLEUCH The substantial origin of the ducal house of the Scotts of Buccleuch dates back to the large grants of lands in Scotland to Sir Walter Scott of Kirkurd and Buccleuch, a border chief, by James in consequence of the fall of the 8th earl of Douglas (1452); but the family traced their descent back to a Sir Richard le Scott (1249-1285).
ROBERT I., "THE Bruce" (1274-1329), king of Scotland, was the son of the 7th Robert de Bruce, earl of Carrick by right of his wife Marjorie, daughter of Niel, or Nigel, earl of Carrick, and was the eighth in direct male descent from a Norman baron who came to England with William the Conqueror.
After the death of Margaret, the "maid of Norway," in 1290, Bruce's grandfather, the 6th Robert de Bruce, lord of Annandale, claimed the crown of Scotland as the son of Isabella, the second daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, and greatgranddaughter of King David I.; but John de Baliol, grandson of Margaret, the eldest daughter of Earl David, was preferred by the commissioners of Edward I.
At an age when the mind is quick to receive the impressions which give the bent to life he must have watched the progress of the great suit for the crown of Scotland.
Yet, when Edward was forced by home affairs to quit Scotland, Annandale and certain earldoms, including Carrick, were excepted from the districts he assigned to his followers, Bruce and other earls being treated as waverers whose allegiance might still be retained.
About 1299 a regency was appointed in Scotland in the name of Baliol, and a letter of Baliol mentions Robert Bruce, lord of Carrick, as regent, along with William of Lamberton, bishop of St Andrews, and John Comyn the younger, a strange combination - Lamberton the friend of Wallace, Comyn the enemy of Bruce, and Bruce a regent in name of Baliol.
to the suzerainty of Scotland, is not to be credited, though his father may have been there.
In the campaign of 1304, when Edward renewed his attempt on Scotland and reduced Stirling, Bruce supported the English king, who in one of his letters to him says, "If you complete that which you have begun, we shall hold the war ended by your deed and all the land of Scotland gained."
Edward hoped still to conciliate the nobles and gain Scotland by a policy of clemency to all who did not dispute his authority.
A parliament in London in September 1305 to which Scottish representatives were summoned, agreed to an ordinance for the government of Scotland, which, though on the model of those for Wales and Ireland, treating Scotland as a third subject province under an English lieutenant, was in other respects not severe.
It was not their first encounter, for a letter of 1299 to Edward from Scotland describes Comyn as having seized Bruce by the throat at a meeting at Peebles, where they were with difficulty reconciled by the regents.
Within little more than six weeks Bruce, collecting his adherents in the south-west, passed from Lochmaben to Glasgow and thence to Scone, where he was crowned king of Scotland on the 27th of March 1306.
of France, and in 1310, in a general council at Dundee, the clergy of Scotland, all the bishops being present, recognized Bruce as king.
felt that if Scotland was not to be lost a great effort must be made.
The details of the day, memorable in the history of war as well as of Scotland, have been singularly well preserved, and redound to the credit of Bruce, who had studied in the school of Wallace as well as in that of Edward I.
On his return Bruce addressed himself to the siege of Berwick, a standing menace to Scotland.
Moved by this language and conscious of the weakness of Edward, the pope exhorted him to make peace with Scotland, and three years later Randolph, now earl of Moray, procured the recognition of Bruce as king from the papal see by promising aid for a crusade.
became king of England, and one of the first acts of the new reign, after a narrow escape of the young king from capture by Moray, was the treaty of York, ratified at Northampton in April 1328, by which it was agreed that "Scotland, according to its ancient bounds in the days of Alexander III., should remain to Robert, king of Scots, and his heirs free and divided from England, without any subjection, servitude, claim or demand whatsoever."
For the documents of the time reference should be made to the Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, edited by J.
Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819); P. F.
Tytler, History of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1841-43); J.
Robert II Of Scotland >>
There are many fine trees in Scotland; one near Roseneath, figured by Strutt in his Sylva Britannica, then measured more than 22 ft.
and afterwards regent of Scotland, was born at Bar on the 22nd of November 1515.
Mary, who was made by adoption a daughter of France, received a papal dispensation for her marriage with James, which was celebrated by proxy in Paris (May 1538) and at St Andrews on her arrival in Scotland.
The assassination of Beton left her the cleverest politician in Scotland.
On her way back to Scotland she was driven by storms to Portsmouth harbour and paid a friendly visit to Edward VI.
An English army under Lord Grey entered Scotland on the 29th of March 1560, and the regent received an asylum in Edinburgh castle, which was held strictly neutral by John Erskine.
Bain (Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1890-1899); Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots,1547-1603 (Edinburgh, 2 vols., 1898-1900), &c. There is a Life in Miss Strickland's Queens of Scotland (vols.
After enduring great hardships he goes through the course and leaves a son Connlaech behind in Scotland by another amazon, Aife.
Schists, as a rule, are found in regions composed mainly of metamorphic rocks, such as the Central Alps, Himalayas, and other mountain ranges, Saxony, Scandinavia, the Highlands of Scotland and north-west of Ireland.
In 1684 Sibbald in his Scotia illustrate published the earliest Fauna of Scotland.
On the and of February 1825 the presbytery of Brechin licensed him as a preacher in connexion with the Church of Scotland, and in 1826 he was in Paris studying natural philosophy, chemistry, and comparative anatomy.
His advocacy of temperance had much to do with securing the passing of the Forbes Mackenzie Act, which secured Sunday closing and shortened hours of sale for Scotland.
He was a descendant of John, 1st or 6th earl of Mar, regent of Scotland in the reign of James VI., a grandson of Colonel John Erskine of Carnock.
There can be no doubt that they enter the North Sea from the English Channel, and return by the same route, but others travel round the north of Scotland and appear in rather small numbers off the east coast of that country.
The law of England - and the laws of Scotland and Ireland agree with it on this point - recognizes no absolute private ownership of land.
The law of Scotland as to landlord and tenant may be considered under two main heads: - I.
(Trusts [Scotland] Act 1867, s.
The Agricultural Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1883 and 1900, already referred to incidentally, contain provisions - similar to those of the English acts - as to a tenant's right to compensation for unexhausted improvements, removal for non-payment of rent, notice to quit at the termination of a tenancy, and a tenant's property in fixtures.
The Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1886, 1887 and 1888, confer on " crofters " special rights.
The Small Holdings Act 1892 applies to Scotland.
Under the law of Scotland down to 1880, a landlord had as security for rent due on an agricultural lease a " hypothec " - i.e.
It was abolished in 1880 as regards all leases entered into after the 11th of November 1881, where the land demised exceeded two acres in extent, and the landlord was left to remedies akin to ejectment (Hypothec Abolition, Scotland, Act 1880).
Extensive powers of entering into such leases have been given by statute to trustees subject to the authority of the Court (Trusts [Scotland] Act 1867, s.
holograph or duly tested, do not exceed 31 years, or, except as regards leases of mines and minerals, and of lands held by burgage tenure, relate to an extent of land exceeding 50 acres, and contain provisions for renewal, they may be recorded for publication in the Register of Sasines, and such publication has the effect of possession (Registration of Leases [Scotland] Act 1857).
KINGHORN, a royal and police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland.
Scotland, North of England, and Midlands, Wales, France, Belgium, Carniola, Moravia, Elsass, Saxony, Perm, Sizran, China, Cape Colony, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Kansas, Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Tasmania, Victoria (Permo-Carboniferous), West Australia (Permo-Carboniferous).
Scotland, Devonshire, Spain, Hanover, Archangel, Vitebsk, Athabasca, Mackenzie, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Kentucky.
At the Union, while the national functions of the lord high admiral were merged in the English office it was provided by the Act of Union that the Court of Admiralty in Scotland should be continued "for determination of all maritime cases relating to private rights in Scotland competent to the jurisdiction of the Admiralty Court."
Maclaurin was married in 1733 to Anne, daughter of Walter Stewart, solicitorgeneral for Scotland.
He was called to the Scottish bar in 1857, and in 1871 was appointed parliamentary draughtsman for Scotland.
on remarkable revival services in Western New York, in Philadelphia (1828), in New York City (1829-1830 and 1832, the New York Evangelist being founded to carry on his work), in Boston (1831, 1842-1843, 1856-1857), in London (1849-1850) and throughout England and Scotland (1858).
Colomb, was born in Scotland, on the 29th of May 1831.
In Scotland the word "slug" is absent from the vernacular vocabulary, both shell-bearing and shell-less inland molluscs being known as snails.
The white and black varieties of this species were cultivated in England and Scotland from remote times, and are still grown as a crop in Orkney and Shetland.
Henry was connected with the royal house of Scotland through his mother Margaret, a sister of William the Lion; an alliance which no doubt assisted him to obtain the earldom of Hereford from John (1199).
The bishop also influenced the king's policy with regard to France, Scotland and Wales; was frequently employed on business of the highest moment; and was the royal mouthpiece on several important occasions.
LOCKERBIE, a municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, in the district of Annandale, 142 m.
It has long been famous for its cattle and sheep sales, but more particularly for the great August lamb fair, the largest in Scotland, at which as many as 126,000 lambs have been sold.
MOFFAT, a burgh of barony, and police burgh, of Upper Annandale, Dumfriesshire, Scotland.
This is occasioned by the y-sound with which u now begins, and is carried further in dialect than in the literary language, sue and suit, for example, being pronounced in Scotland like the Eng.
ALLOA, a municipal and police burgh and seaport of Clackmannanshire, Scotland.
Thomson Paton; the county and municipal buildings; handsome public baths and gymnasium, presented to the town by Mr David Thomson; the accident hospital; the fever hospital; the museum of the Natural Science and Archaeological Society; the academy, the burgh school and a secondary school with the finest technical equipment in Scotland, given by Mr A.
England, Scotland, France, Belgium and Germany.
Thence it has spread, partly by man's agency, northwards throughout temperate western Europe, increasing rapidly wherever it gains a footing; and this extension is still going on, as is shown by the case of Scotland, where early in the 19th century rabbits were little known, while they are now found in all suitable localities up to the extreme north.
Speed (Theatrum of Great Britain, 1610), Timothy Pont and Robert Gordon of Strathloch (map of Scotland, 1608), and A.
A Bathymetrical Survey of the Freshwater Lochs of Scotland, under the direction of Sir John Murray and L.
(1084-1153), king of Scotland, the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and (Saint) Margaret, sister of Edgar .Ã†theling, was born in 1084.
On the death of Edgar, king of Scotland, in 1107, the territories of the Scottish crown were divided in accordance with the terms of his will between his two brothers, Alexander and David.
Alexander, together with the crown, received Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde, David the southern district with the title of earl of Cumbria.
In 1141 he joined Matilda in London and accompanied her to Winchester, but after a narrow escape from capture he returned to Scotland.
David II of Scotland >>
Quakerism was preached in Scotland; very soon after its rise in England; but in the north and south of Scotland there existed, independently of and before this, preaching, groups of persons who were dissatisfied with the national form of worship and who met together in silence fordevotion.
See also works mentioned at the close of sections on Adult Schools and on Quakerism in America, Scotland and Ireland, and elsewhere in this article; also Fox, George.
in his Scottish campaigns, and on Edward Bruce's invasion of Ulster in 1315 Richard marched against him, but he had given his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to Robert Bruce, afterwards king of Scotland, about 1304.
His name first came before the public in 1683, when a prospectus was published in Edinburgh entitled An Account of the Scottish Atlas, stating that "the Privy Council of Scotland has appointed John Adair, mathematician and skilfull mechanick, to survey the shires."
In 1703 he published the first part of his Description of the Sea Coasts and Islands of Scotland, for the use of seamen.
The establishment of a diocesan hierarchy in Scotland had been decided upon before the death of Pius IX., but the actual announcement of it was made by Leo XIII.
As these waste places have been gradually brought under the plough, in England and Scotland particularly, the haunts and means of subsistence of the linnet have been curtailed, and hence its numbers have undergone a very visible diminution throughout Great Britain.
On the death of Archbishop James Beaton in 1539, the cardinal was raised to the primatial see of Scotland.
In the same year he was raised to the office of chancellor of Scotland, and was appointed protonotary apostolic and legate a latere by the pope.
for the subjugation of Scotland would have earned him the lasting gratitude of his countrymen.
Wishart had returned to Scotland, after an absence of several years, about the end of 1544.
1539), archbishop of Glasgow and St Andrews, was lord treasurer of Scotland before he became archbishop of Glasgow in 1509, was chancellor from 1513 to 1526, and was appointed archbishop of St Andrews and primate of Scotland in 1522.
In 1552 he was consecrated archbishop of Glasgow, but from 1560 until his death in 1603 he lived in Paris, acting as ambassador for Scotland at the French court.
of the Reformation in Scotland, ed.
of the Church of Scotland (Spottiswoode Soc., 1847-1851); Art.
of Scotland, vols.
Wesley's first visit to Scotland was in 1751.
Other ordinations for the administration of the sacraments in Scotland, the colonies and England followed.
from Edinburgh University in 1771, and served as moderator of the general assembly of the church of Scotland in 1774, he was appointed one of the ministers of the Old Greyfriars' Church, Edinburgh, in 1776, remaining in this charge until his death on the 24th of November 1790.
SHETLAND, or ZETLAND, a group of islands constituting a county of Scotland, and the most northerly British possession in Europe.
The geological characters of this group of islands resemble those of the northern part of Scotland.
The females numbered 15,753, or 127 to every loo males, considerably the largest proportion to any county in Scotland.
York was frequently visited by the kings of England on the way to Scotland, and several important parliaments were held there, the first being that of 1175, when Malcolm, king of Scotland, did homage to Henry II.
BEN NEVIS, the highest mountain in the British Isles, in Inverness-shire, Scotland.
From the summit every considerable peak in Scotland is visible.
Returning to Scotland, he lived at Whittingehame, near Edinburgh, till his death in 1750.
A submarine ridge, about 300 fathoms deep at its deepest, unites Greenland with Iceland (across Denmark Strait), the Faeroes and Scotland.
Norway, Scotland, British Columbia 5 and Alaska, Patagonia and Chile, and even Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, whose west coasts are far more indented than their east ones.
It is possible that some of these rocks are also of Huronian age, but it is doubtful whether the rocks so designated by the geologists of the " Alert " and " Discovery " expedition are really the rocks so known in Canada, or are a continuous portion of the fundamental or oldest gneiss of the north-west of Scotland and the western isles.
On the south coast of the same island are coarse-grained, brownish micaceous and light-coloured calcareous sandstone and marls, containing fossils, which render it probable that they are of the same age as the coal-bearing Jurassic rocks of Brora (Scotland) and the Middle Dogger of Yorkshire.
His Manual of the Law of Scotland (1839) brought him into notice; he joined Sir John Bowring in editing the works of Jeremy Bentham, and for a short time was editor of the Scotsman, which he committed to the cause of free trade.
His last work, The History of the Reign of Queen Anne (1880), is very inferior to his History of Scotland.
It was his great good fortune to find abundant unused material for his Life of Hume, and to be the first to introduce the principles of historical research into the history of Scotland.
BLANTYRE (Gaelic, "the warm retreat"), a parish of Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Peachtrees require protection, especially at the period of blossoming, particularly in the north of England and in Scotland.
In 1875 appeared, anonymously, his Appeal to the Clergy of the Church of Scotland, and in that year he made the first of many visits to the forest of Fontainebleau.
Stevenson made no attempt to practice at the bar, and the next years were spent in wanderings in France, Germany and Scotland.
In the autumn of 1880 he returned to Scotland, with his wife and stepson, who were received at once into the Edinburgh household of his parents.
He spent the summer months in Scotland, writing articles, poems, and above all his first romance, The Sea-Cook, afterwards known as Treasure Island; but he was driven back to Davos in October.
His two winters at Davos had done him some good, but his summers in Scotland invariably undid the benefit.
BRECHIN, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Forfarshire, Scotland.
erected it into a bishopric in 1150, and it is still a see of the Episcopal Church of Scotland.
The modern stained glass in the chancel is reckoned amongst the finest in Scotland.
In Scotland simony is an offence both by civil and ecclesiastical law.
JOSEPH HUME (1777-1855), British politician, was born on the 22nd of January 1777, of humble parents, at Montrose, Scotland.
Rather than give way, Charles prepared in 1640 to invade Scotland.
When Charles visited Scotland to give his formal assent to the abolition of Episcopacy, Montrose communicated to him his belief that Hamilton was a traitor.
Hamilton's impracticable policy of keeping Scotland neutral for long stood in the way of Charles's consent.
He set out to invade Scotland with about 1000 men.
Now Montrose found himself apparently master of Scotland.
In the name of the king, who now appointed him lord-lieutenant and captain-general of Scotland, he summoned a parliament to meet at Glasgow on the 10th of October, in which he no doubt hoped to reconcile loyal obedience to the king with the establishment of a non-political Presbyterian clergy.
to the now nominal lieutenancy of Scotland.
In 1424 Chartier was sent on an embassy to Germany, and three years later he accompanied to Scotland the mission sent to negotiate the marriage of Margaret of Scotland, then not four years old, with the dauphin, afterwards Louis XI.
The story of the famous kiss bestowed by Margaret of Scotland on la precieuse bouche de laquelle sont issus et sortis taut de bons mots et vertueuses paroles is mythical, for Margaret did not come to France till 1436, after the poet's death; but the story, first told by Guillaume Bouchet in his Annales d'Aquitaine (1524), is interesting, if only as a proof of the high degree of estimation in which the ugliest man of his day was held.
DUNSTAFFNAGE, a ruined castle of Argyllshire, Scotland, 3 m.
- Ventral view of a restoration of Palaeophonus Hunteri, Pocock, the Silurian scorpion from Lesmahagow, Scotland.
48, 49), one in Gothland and one in Scotland, Restored after Thorell's indications by R.
In June, on the occasion of the Covenanters' rising in Scotland, he attacked Lauderdale personally in full council.
Howard, too, expressly declared that Russell had urged the entering into communications with Argyll in Scotland.
ELIE, a village and watering-place of Fifeshire, Scotland, on the shore of the Firth of Forth.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
Skoon; Gaelic, skene, "a cutting"), a parish of Perthshire, Scotland, containing Old Scone, the site of an historic abbey and palace, and New Scone, a modern village (pop. 1585), 2 m.
A short engagement in Spain, as tutor to the son of Marshal de Saint Luc, was terminated by another quarrel; and Dempster now returned to Scotland with the intention of asserting a claim to his father's estates.
He now set out once more for Scotland, but was intercepted by the Florentine cardinal Luigi Capponi, who induced him to remain at Bologna as professor of Humanity.
The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.
DOUNE, a police burgh of Perthshire, Scotland, 84 m.
STEVENSTON, a manufacturing town of Ayrshire, Scotland.
There are coalmines, several ironworks - one is among the largest in Scotland - and, on the sandhills along the shore, the works of Nobel's Explosives Company, which cover an area of a mile, the separatehut principle being adopted to minimize the risks attendant upon so dangerous an occupation.
DUNKELD, a town of Perthshire, Scotland, on the left bank of the Tay, 152 m.
EDINBURGH, a city and royal burgh, and county of itself, the capital of Scotland, and county town of Edinburghshire, or Midlothian, situated to the south of the Firth of Forth, 396 m.
Here also are deposited the Scottish regalia (" The Honours of Scotland "), with the sword of state presented to James IV.
by Pope Julius II., and the jewels restored to Scotland on the death (1807) of Cardinal York, the last of the Stuarts.
The picture gallery is associated with the festive scenes that occurred during the short residence of Prince Charles in 1745; and in it the election of representative peers for Scotland takes place.
The Advocates' library is the finest in Scotland.
The General Register House for Scotland, begun in 1 774 from designs by Robert Adam, stands at the east end of Princes Street.
The Royal Institution, in the Doric style, surmounted by a colossal stone statue of Queen Victoria by Sir John Steell, formerly furnished official accommodation for the Board of Trustees for Manufactures and the Board of Fishery, and also for the school of art, and the libraries and public meetings of the Royal Society (founded in 1783), and the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (founded in 1780).
Before the building of the Forth Bridge the customary approach to Fifeshire and the north-east of Scotland was by means of a steam ferry from Granton to Burntisland, which is still used to some extent.
During the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland, Edinburgh was the seat of a bishop, and the ancient collegiate church of St Giles rose to the dignity of a cathedral.
But the annual meeting of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland at Edinburgh is now the public manifestation of the predominance of Presbyterianism as the national church.
In 1621 an act of the Scottish parliament accorded to the university all rights and privileges enjoyed by other universities in the kingdom, and these were renewed under fresh guarantees in the treaty of union between England and Scotland, and in the Act of Security.
The Astronomer-Royal for Scotland also holds the chair of practical astronomy.
Since the amalgamation of the United Presbyterian and the Free Churches, under the designation of the United Free Church of Scotland, New College is utilized by both bodies.
The Church of Scotland and the United Free Church have training colleges.
The numerous bowling-greens are regularly frequented and are among the best in Scotland - the first Australian team of bowlers that visited the mother country (in 1901) pronouncing the green in Lutton Place the finest on which they had played.
Rugby football is in high favour, Edinburgh being commonly the scene of the international matches when the venue falls to Scotland.
Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank of Scotland, and the British Linen Company's Bank are in St Andrew Square, the Bank of Scotland is at the head of the Mound.
JAMES LORRAINE GEDDES (1827-1887), American soldier and writer, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 19th of March 1827.
In his boyhood he was taken to Canada, but in 1843 he returned to Scotland; then studied at Calcutta in the military academy, entered the army, and after distinguishing himself in the Punjab campaign, returned to Canada, whence in 1857 he removed to Vinton, Iowa.
From Scotland the king turned to Maine, which had profited by the troubles of 1069 to expel the Norman garrisons.
Knox also provided the Church of Scotland with superintendents or visitors, as well as readers and exhorters, offices which soon fell into disuse.
His labours were as various as they were incessant - now guiding the councils of the league, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural districts and challenging the landlords to meet him in the presence of their own farmers, to discuss the question in dispute, and now encountering the Chartists, led by Feargus O'Connor.
FORT WILLIAM, a police burgh of Inverness-shire, Scotland.
Certainly, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Church of England, while rigorously enforcing the episcopal model at home, and even endeavouring to extend it to Presbyterian Scotland, did not regard foreign non-episcopal Churches otherwise than as sister communions.
BROUGHTY FERRY, a municipal and police burgh, seaport and watering-place of Forfarshire, Scotland, on the Firth of Tay, 4 m.
Among the ten thousand Scottish dead were all the leading men in the kingdom of Scotland, and there was no family of importance that had not lost a member in this great disaster.
DYSART, a royal and police burgh and seaport of Fifeshire, Scotland, on the shore of the Firth of Forth, 2 m.
During the time of the alliance between Scotland and Holland, which was closer in Fifeshire than in other counties, Dysart became known as Little Holland.
He was lord high commissioner of Scotland (1680-1682), where he occupied himself in a severe persecution of the Covenanters.
The nation showed its loyalty by its firm adherence to him during the rebellions of Argyll in Scotland and Monmouth in England (1685).
James I Of Scotland >>
Dunbar had meanwhile (about 1 joo) returned to Scotland, and had become a priest at court, and a royal pensioner.
He is spoken of as the Rhymer of Scotland in the accounts of the English privy council dealing with the visit of the mission for the hand of Margaret Tudor, rather because he wrote a poem in praise of London,than because, as has been stated, he held the post of laureate at the Scottish court.
By later criticism, stimulated in some measure by Scott's eulogy that he is "unrivalled by any which Scotland has produced," he has held the highest place among the northern makars.
For critical accounts see Irving's History of Scottish Poetry, Henderson's Vernacular Poetry of Scotland, Gregory Smith's Transition Period, J.
Millar's Literary History of Scotland, and the Cambridge History of English .Literature, vol.
In Scotland, Brown so far won the sympathy of the students that riotous conflicts took place between his partisans and opponents.
Although many names of scarcely less note might be mentioned among the London physicians of the early part of the century, we must pass them over to consider the progress of medicine in Scotland and Ireland.
The founding of new teaching universities, in which England, and even France, had been at some disadvantage as compared with Scotland and Germany, strengthened the movement in favour of enlarging and liberalizing technical training, and of anticipating technical instruction by some broader scientific discipline; though, as in all times of transition, something was lost temporarily by a departure from the old discipline of the grammar school before a new scheme of training the mind in scientific habits and conceptions was established or fully apprehended.
Harcourt (first commissioner of works), and Captain John Sinclair (secretary for Scotland) completed the ministry, a place of prominence outside the cabinet being found for Mr Winston Churchill as under-secretary for the colonies.
STROMNESS, a police burgh and seaport, in the island of Pomona, county of Orkney, Scotland.
The deep-sea fishery attracts hundreds of boats from the north of Scotland, and most of the catch is cured for the English, German and Dutch markets.
MAXWELLTOWN, a burgh of barony and police burgh of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland.
Its public buildings include a court-house, the prison for the south-west of Scotland, and an observatory and museum, housed in a disused windmill.
CREETOWN, a seaport of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland.
Fn Scotland the highway system is regulated by the Roads and Bridges Act 1878 and amending acts.
The history of the Jacobites, culminating in the risings of 1715 and 1745, is part of the general history of England, and especially of Scotland, in which country they were comparatively more numerous and more active, while there was also a large number of Jacobites in Ireland.
The chief collections of Jacobite poems are: Charles Mackay's Jacobite Songs and Ballads of Scotland, 1688-1746, with Appendix of Modern Jacobite Songs (1861); G.
Allardyce (Aberdeen, 1895-1896); James Hogg, The Jacobite Relics of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819-1821); and F.
Desolate bogs, incapable of cultivation, alternate with the mountains; and the inhabitants earn a scanty subsistence by fishing and tillage, or by seeking employment in England and Scotland during the harvesting.
There The name Glasites or Glassites was generally used in Scotland; in England and America the name Sandemanians was more common.
They gradually made their way into Hampshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Staffordshire, Northumberland, Scotland and Ireland.
There were 105 factories in England, io in Scotland and io in Ireland.
In Scotland there were works in Glasgow, Leith and Portobello.
His great work, The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution, was published in two volumes in1721-1722(new ed.
He left two other works in MS. - Memoirs of Reformers and Ministers of the Church of Scotland, and Analecta: or Materials for a History of Remarkable Providences, mostly relating to Scotch Ministers and Christians.
In 934 he invaded Scotland by land and sea, perhaps owing to an alliance between Constantine and Anlaf Sihtricsson.
Simeon of Durham speaks of a submission of Scotland as a result; if it ever took place it was a mere form, for three years later we find a great confederacy formed in Scotland against Ethelstan.
This confederacy of 937 was joined by Constantine, king of Scotland, the Welsh of Strathclyde, and the Norwegian chieftains Anlaf Sihtricsson and Anlaf Godfredsson, who, though they came from Ireland, had powerful English connexions.
1301), and fought in the English army both in France and Scotland during the later years of the reign of Edward I.
For the promulgation of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the doctrines of the standards of the national church of Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the course of the investigations which followed he affirmed still more explicitly his belief that "every national church established by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions upon the subject of church government which amounted to a repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan type of Independency.
In 1739 the General Assembly, without any application from him, removed the sentence of deposition which had been passed against him, and restored him to the character and function of a minister of the gospel of Christ, but not that of a minister of the Established Church of Scotland, declaring that he was not eligible for a charge until he should have renounced principles inconsistent with the constitution of the church.
There are also royal chaplains in Scotland and Ireland.
The Indian civil service appoints a number of clergymen of the Church of England and the Church of Scotland.
He returned to Scotland in 1639, and established communications with the Covenanters and the Opposition in England, and as member for Banbury in both 'the Short and Long Parliaments he took a prominent part in the attacks upon the church.
He took a leading part in the examination into the army plot; was one of the commissioners appointed to attend the king to Scotland in August 1641; and was nominated one of the committee of safety in July 1642.
In Scotland there were public almsmen supported by the king and expected in return to pray for his welfare and that of the state.
They were privileged to ask alms throughout Scotland.
coast of Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
of Aberdeen, from which there is a branch line, of which it is the terminus, of the Great North of Scotland railway.
high, ornamented by the royal and Fraser arms. The port is one of the leading stations of the herring fishery in the north of Scotland and the head of a fishery district.
In addition to this "statute" or "imperial acre," other "acres" are still, though rarely, used in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and certain English counties.
In the same year there appears in the accounts of the chamberlain of Scotland a payment at the rate of is.
DON, a river in the south of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, rising in peat-moss to the east of Glen Avon on the borders of Banffshire, at a height of nearly 2000 ft.
KIRKWALL (Norse, Kirkjuvagr, " church bay"), a royal, municipal and police burgh, seaport and capital of the Orkney Islands, county of Orkney, Scotland.
of Scotland with his subjects.
There is no exact parallel in England to the conflict between these two classes in Scotland in the 16th century, or to the great continental revolution of the 13th and 14th centuries, by which the crafts threw off the yoke of patrician government and secured more independence in the management of their own affairs and more participation in the civic administration.
BADENOCH, a district of south-east Inverness-shire, Scotland, bounded on the N.
AIRDRIE, a municipal and police burgh of Lanarkshire, Scotland.
The public buildings comprise the town hall, county buildings, mechanics' institute, academy, two fever hospitals and free library, the burgh having been the first town in Scotland to adopt the Free Library Act.
In Shropshire this series is represented by the Caradoc and Chirbury Series; in southern Scotland by the Hartfell and Ardmillan Series, and by similar rocks in Ireland.
The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of manjak.
Upon the denuded edges of the Scotland beds lies the Oceanic series.
Even the Scotland series probably belongs to the Tertiary system, but owing to the want of characteristic fossils, it is impossible to determine with any degree of certainty the precise homotaxis of the several formations.
Jukes-Browne and Harrison ascribe the Scotland beds to the Eocene or Oligocene period, the Oceanic series to the Miocene, the Bissex Hill marls to the Pliocene, and the coral limestones partly to the Pliocene and partly to the Pleistocene.
Sandstone, and clays suitable for brick-making, are found in the district of Scotland, so called from a fancied resemblance to the Highlands of North Britain.
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