And skew the scientific results?
Quinn remained in his lab, cleaning up the remnants of his scientific adventures.
Isn't seeking medical or scientific help a prudent course to take?
This will be a scientific announcement for the ages, more than DNA, cloning, everything!
We were content to allow him this small title of uniqueness knowing it was killing him to be so close to a scientific miracle with hands tied and mouth gagged against announcing his findings to the world.
According to Hagenbeck's estimate, this elephant, which came from the French Congo, was about six years old at the time it came under scientific notice.
In the spring of 1792 he received the rank of marechal de camp in command of the cavalry in the army of the north; but the influence of the extremists becoming predominant he took indefinite leave of absence, and settled at Auteuil, where, with Condorcet and Cabanis, he devoted himself to scientific studies.
In all parts of history in which he was best versed Vico pursues a stricter and more scientific method, and arrives at safer conclusions.
His scientific jubilee was celebrated in Paris in 1901.
Among the public buildings are the town hall, classic in style; the market house, and literary and scientific institution, with a museum containing a fossil collection from the limestone of the locality.
For this latter purpose he had chosen as his thesis the constitution of the free Lombard cities in the middle ages, the province in which he was destined to do most for the scientific study of history.
His father, Johann Reinhold Forster, a man of great scientific attainments but an intractable temper, was at that time pastor of the place; the family are said to have been of Scottish extraction.
The want of books and scientific apparatus at Cassel induced him to resort frequently to Gottingen, where he became betrothed to Therese Heyne, the daughter of the illustrious philologist, a clever and cultivated woman, but illsuited to be Forster's wife.
After a few years' residence at Wilna he resigned his appointment to participate in a scientific expedition projected by the Russian government, and upon the relinquishment of this undertaking became librarian to the elector of Mainz.
FLOWERS Imitations of natural flowers are sometimes made for scientific purposes (as the collection of glass flowers at Harvard University, which illustrates the flora of the United States), but more often as articles of decoration and ornament.
Besides his mastery in the traditional Law, which added much to the growing reputation of the Rabbinic Academy of his native town, Samuel was famed for his scientific attainments.
Subsequently he entered Berlin University as a student of theology, but soon turned to scientific subjects.
His financial affairs he had entrusted to the care of the abbe Picot, and as his literary and scientific representative he adopted Mersenne.
Its object is a practical one, to determine by scientific considerations the shape of lens best adapted to improve the capabilities of the telescope, which had been invented not long before.
This Volkerpsychologie (folkor comparative psychology) is one of the chief developments of the Herbartian theory of philosophy; it is a protest not only against the so-called scientific standpoint of natural philosophers, but also against the individualism of the positivists.
On the European continent the game can scarcely be said to be played on scientific principles.
For the scientific construction of a green, the whole ground must be excavated to a depth of 18 in.
Printing, book-selling, the manufacture of surgical and scientific instruments, chemicals, gloves and vinegar, and the cultivation of hops, fruit and vines are among the leading occupations of the inhabitants.
The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent in the service of Abu Ya`far 'Ala Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns.
Albania is perhaps the least-known region in Europe; and though more than a hundred years have passed since Gibbon described it as "a country within sight of Italy, which is less known than the interior of America," but little progress has yet been made towards a scientific knowledge of this interesting land and its inhabitants.
Scientific exploration began in 1849, and systematic geological investigation about 1875.
It is certainly the most scientific method of steam-heating, and heat can be made to travel a greater distance by its aid than by any other means.
In one sense tt may be said to stand to theological literature in Scotland in something of the same position as that occupied by the Canon Mirificus with respect to the scientific literature, for it is the first published original work relating to theological interpretation, and is quite without a predecessor in its own field.
He took immense pains with his work, and to some degree anticipated the modern scientific method of writing history.
26), who had seen a specimen in the Lisbon museum; and, though knowing it had already been received into scientific nomenclature, he called it anew Microdactylus marcgravii.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
Both of these men made important contributions to science, and rendered an inestimable service to the country, not only through their publications but also through the interest they aroused in scientific research.
Not only has scientific study advanced at the university of Buenos Aires, but scientific research is promoting the development of the country; examples are the geographical explorations of the Andean frontier, and especially of the Patagonian Andes, by Francisco P. Moreno.
C. Poggendorff, thus starting the series of that scientific periodical which is familiarly cited as Wied.
Since 1860 several visits have been paid to the group by scientific investigators - by Dr Habel in 1868; Messrs Baur and Adams, and the naturalists of the "Albatross," between 1888 and 1891; and in 1897-1898 by Mr Charles Harris, whose journey was specially undertaken at the instance of the Hon.
There are museums of mineralogy and geology, a lower school of mining, model room and scientific library.
The numerous scientific memoirs in which his original work is set forth were collected under his own editorship in four large volumes, the last of which was published in 1903.
For a popular but authentic account of some of Lord Rayleigh's scientific work and discoveries, see an article by Sir Oliver Lodge in the National Review for September 1898.
This article is confined to summarizing the philosophical or scientific arguments for, and objections to, the doctrine of the persistence of the human soul after death.
This town, which was laid out on an exceptionally fine site according to a scientific plan by the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, soon rose to considerable importance, and attracted much of the Aegean and Levantine commerce which had hitherto been in Athenian hands.
Hardly of less scientific interest is the Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus).
The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the yield.
Mimaut, consul-general of France at Alexandria, sent him several books, among which was the memoir written upon the Suez Canal, according to Bonaparte's instructions, by the civil engineer Lapere, one of the scientific members of the French expedition.
de Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, of numerous scientific societies, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour and of the Star of India, and had received the freedom of the City of London.
He was a fellow of the Royal, Royal Astronomical, Geological and other scientific societies.
Hertz's scientific papers were translated into English by Professor D.
The highest form of the doctrine is scientific materialism, by which term is meant the doctrine so commonly adopted by the physicist, zoologist and biologist.
The horns, usually present in both sexes, are small and straight, situated far back on the forehead; and between them rises the crest-like tuft of hair from which the genus takes its scientific name.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
At a scientific meeting of the Zoological Society of London, on the 17th of December 1901, Mr Oldfield Thomas read a letter from Mr G.
- The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the "Vulgate"), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848.
In 1768 he had published Institutiones metallurgicae, intended to give a scientific form to chemistry by digesting facts established by experiment into a connected series of propositions.
For editions of texts and the innumerable articles in scientific journals see the bibliographies and references in the above works.
All these older methods have, however, been thrown into the background and rendered antiquated by inventions which have grown out of Hertz's scientific investigations on the production of electric waves.
Thus Joseph Henry (Scientific Writings, vol.
In France the scientific study of the subject was advanced by the work of Blondel, Tissot, Ducretet and others, and systems called the Ducretet and Rochefort set in operation.
The scientific study of electric wave telegraphy has necessitated the introduction of many new processes and methods of electrical measurement.
An immense mass of information has been gathered on the scientific processes which are involved in electric wave telegraphy.
The evidence of date derived from changes in the language is more difficult to formulate, and the inquiry calls for the most diligent use of scientific method and critical judgment.
Reis caused a membrane to open and close an electric 2 See his Scientific Papers, P. 47.
The line of circuit passed through the secondary of the induction coil I to the line, from that to the telephone T at the receiving station, 'See Journal of the Telegraph, New York, April 1877; Philadelphia Times, 9th July 1877; and Scientific American, August 181 This term was used by Wheatstone in 1827 for an acoustic apparatus intended to convert very feeble into audible sounds; see his Scientific Papers, p. 32.
As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.
Of the secondary and higher educatory methods, in the normal schools and licei the state provides for the payment of the staff and for scientific material, and often largely supports the ginnasi and technical schools, which should by law be supported by the communes.
The institutions which co-operate with the universities are the special schools for engineers at Turin, Naples, Rome and Bologna (and others attached to some of the universities), the higher technical institute at Milan, the higher veterinary schools of Milan, Naples and Turin, the institute for higher studies at Florence (Istituto di studi superiori, pratici e di perfezionamento), the literary and scientific academy of Milan, the higher institutes for the training of female teachers at Florence and Rome, the Institute of Social Studies at Florence, the higher commercial schools at Venice, Ban and Genoa, the commercial university founded by L.
Giuseppe Ferraris Rivoluzioni d haIfa (1858) deserves notice as a work of singular vigour, though no great scientific importance, and Cesare Balbos Sommario (Florence, 1856) presents the main outlines of the subject with brevity and clearness.
Yet the natural or physical theology of the philosophers - in contrast to mere myths or mere statecraft - seems a straightforward effort to reach faith in God on grounds of scientific reason.
But you can never, at any one point, say, from the scientific or mechanical or materialistic standpoint, this " had to be."
Pure scientific theory cannot tell you when you have got such a cause, or whether you ever get it at all.
The valid or scientific but metaphysically untrustworthy knowledge, to which Kant shut us up, was knowledge of a mechanical universe.
In Anselm's case we have the further sanguine hope of justifying not theism merely but all Christian doctrine to the scientific reason.
Lotze was a man of considerable attainments in special science; perhaps he reveals here the bias of the scientific mind, and possibly even its limitations.
Granted that, ideally, scientific knowledge ought to be able to demonstrate all truth, is it safe, or humane, for a being who is imperfectly started in the process of knowledge to fling away with scorn those unanalysed promptings and misgivings " Which, be they what they may, Are yet the fountain light of all our day, Are yet a master light of all our seeing.
It required for its formation an amount of scientific knowledge which could only be very gradually acquired.
- In the speculative writings of the middle ages, including those of the schoolmen, we find no progress towards a more accurate and scientific view of nature.
In the system of Giordano Bruno, who sought to construct a philosophy of nature on the basis of new scientific ideas, more particularly the doctrine of Copernicus, we find the outlines of a theory of cosmic evolution conceived as an essentially vital process.
Careful attempts, based on new scientific truths, an made to explain the genesis of the world as a natural process.
We see how different this metaphysical conception is from that scientific notion of cosmic evolution in which the lower stages are the antecedents and conditions of the higher.
Only spirit has a history; in nature all forms are contemporaneous.2 Hegel's interpretation of mind and history as a process of evolution has more scientific interest than his conception of nature.
as conditioned in time by lower forms. In this respect it resembles Leibnitz's idea of the world as a development; the idea of evolution is in each case a metaphysical as distinguished from a scientific one.
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, 17 94), though a zealous evolutionist, can hardly be said to have made any real advance on his predecessors; and, notwithstanding the fact that Goethe had the advantage of a wide knowledge of morphological facts, and a true insight into their signification, while he threw all the power of a great poet into the expression of his conceptions, it may be questioned whether he supplied the doctrine of evolution with a firmer scientific basis than it already possessed.
If we seek for the reason of the difference between the scientific position of the doctrine of evolution in the days of Lamarck and that which it occupies now, we shall find it in the great accumulation of facts, the several classes of which have been enumerated above, under the second to the eighth heads.
In later years the attention of the best palaeontologists has been withdrawn from the hodman's work of making " new species " of fossils, to the scientific task of completing our knowledge of individual species, and tracing out the succession of the forms presented by any given type in time.
Naturalists who deal specially with museum collections have been compelled, it is true, for other reasons to attach an increasing importance to what is called the type specimen, but they find that this insistence on the individual, although invaluable from the point of view of recording species, is unsatisfactory from the point of view of scientific zoology; and propositions for the amelioration of this condition of affairs range from a refusal of Linnaean nomenclature in such cases, to the institution of a division between master species for such species as have been properly revised by the comparative morphologist, and provisional species for such species as have been provisionally registered by those working at collections.
Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber.
The chemists and druggists, recognizing that no institution for the systematic education and examination of chemists and druggists existed in England, and that no proof could be given that each individual possessed the necessary qualifications, decided that this objection must be met, and that pharmacy must be placed upon a more scientific footing.
Robinson published a number of papers in scientific journals, and the Armagh catalogue of stars (Places of 5345 Stars observed from 1828 to 1854 at the Armagh Observatory, Dublin, 1859), but he is best known as the inventor (1846) of the cup-anemometer for registering the velocity of the wind.
Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.
As a scientific engineer and practical architect Wren was perhaps more remarkable than as an artistic designer.
scientific botanysuch, for instance, as Nageli, San.io and De Bary.
It is only in a general sense like Schimpers that such ecological terms as xerophytes have any value; and it is not possible, at least at present, to frame ecological classes, which shall have a high scientific value, on a basis of this nature.
The earliest scientific result of the study of plants was the recognition of the fact that the various parts of the body are associated with the performance of different kinds of physiological work; that they are, in fact, organs discharging special functions.
circare, to go round in a circle, to explore), the act of searching into a matter closely and carefully, inquiry directed to the discovery of truth, and in particular the trained scientific investigation of the principles and facts of any subject, based on original and first-hand study of authorities or experiment.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
The Pythagorean school of philosophers adopted the theory of a spherical earth, but from metaphysical rather than scientific reasons; their convincing argument was that a sphere being the most perfect solid figure was the only one worthy to circumscribe the dwellingplace of man.
To Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) must be given the distinction of founding scientific geography.
scientific geography than the laborious feeling out of the coast-line of Africa.
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.
Arabia received very careful attention, in the 18th century, from the Danish scientific mission, which included Carsten Niebuhr among its members.
de Lacerda, an accomplished astronomer, was appointed to command a scientific expedition of discovery to the north of the Zambesi.
In South America scientific exploration was active during this period.
The 18th century saw the Arctic coast of North America reached at two points, as well as the first scientific attempt to reach the North Pole.
Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."
Marr, The Scientific Study of Scenery (London, 3900); Sir A.
Thus the whole classification becomes a rounded-off phylogenetic system, which, at least in its broad outlines, seems to approach the natural system, the ideal goal of the scientific ornithologist.
8vo., 1809), and contributed thirty-one papers to scientific collections.
The town possesses a literary and scientific institute (1850).
In the first half of the 14th century lived the two translators Qalonymos ben David and Qalonymos ben Qalonymos, the latter of whom translated many works of Galen and Averroes, and various scientific treatises, besides writing original works, e.g.
In his Me'or t Enayim (Mantua, 1573) Dei Rossi endeavoured to investigate Jewish history in a scientific spirit, with the aid of non-Jewish authorities, and even criticizes Talmudic and traditional statements.
1655), wrote almost entirely on scientific subjects.
He became first a postmaster near Lyons, and in 1841 was appointed, through the influence of some of his friends who had risen to posts of power, member of a scientific commission on Algeria, which led him to engage in researches concerning North Africa and colonization in general.
The Hegelian identity of being and thought is also abandoned and the truth of realism acknowledged, an attempt being made to exhibit idealism and realism as respectively incomplete but mutually complementary systems. Ulrici's later works, while expressing the same views, are 1 :trgely occupied in proving the existence of God and the soul from the basis of scientific conceptions, and in opposition to the materialistic current of thought then popular in Germany.
His favourite pursuits were scientific, and his authority on all questions of practical science was referred to by the senate of Venice.
Theodoric had a profound respect for his scientific abilities.
Buchner was much less concerned to establish a scientific metaphysic than to protest against the romantic idealism of his predecessors and the theological interpretations of the universe.
Essays and Reviews (1860) was a vehement announcement of scientific results - startling English conservatism awake for the first time.
And in the scientific region the great apologetic classics, like Butler, are hopelessly out of date.
The admission is now general that the Bible cannot be expected to use the language of scientific astronomy.
We are offered a philosophical rather than a scientific speculation when E.
C. Baur and his school - important as the first scientific attempt to conceive New Testament conditions and literature as a whole - has been abandoned.
The scientific works of Alembert have never been published in a collected form.
Arneth was an indefatigable worker, and, as director of the archives, his broad-minded willingness to listen to the advice of experts, as well as his own sound sense, did much to promote the more scientific treatment and use of public records in most of the archives of Europe.
His scientific temper and the special facilities which he enjoyed for drawing from original sources give to his numerous historical works a very special value.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
The fauna of the Baltic provinces is described in full in the Memoirs of the scientific bodies of these provinces.
It is of comparatively recent foundation (1860), and is carried on largely with French and Belgian capital, with modern appliances and with modern scientific knowledge.
majority of these accounts have scarcely any scientific value.
Yet, if there is not a mass of scientific evidence, there are a number of witnesses - among them distinguished men of science and others of undoubted intelligence --who have convinced themselves by observation that phenomena occur which cannot be explained by known causes; and this fact must carry weight, even without careful records, when the witnesses are otherwise known to be competent and trustworthy observers.
The interest in spiritualism, apart from scientific curiosity and mere love of the marvellous, is partly due to the belief that trustworthy information and advice about mundane matters can be obtained through mediums - to the same impulse in fact which has in all ages attracted inquirers to fortune-tellers.
This work for the first time made possible the existence of the modern school of scientific historians of medieval Germany.
JOHN FISKE (1842-1901), American historical, philosophical and scientific writer, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 30th of March 1842, and died at Gloucester, Massachusetts, on the 4th of July 1901.
There are many industries in the town, especially silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture of cutlery and scientific instruments.
His contributions to scientific societies began in his fifteenth year, when Professor J.
They were confirmed, but met with little acceptance in the scientific world, which was preoccupied with the claims of a subsequently discredited Bacillus malariae.
An old popular belief current in different countries, and derived from common observation, connected mosquitoes with malaria, and from time to time this theory found support in more scientific quarters on general grounds, but it lacked demonstration and attracted little attention.
Thus we get a complete scientific demonstration of the causation of malaria in three stages: (1) the discovery of the parasite by Laveran; (2) its life-history in the human host and connexion with the fever demonstrated by the Italian observers; (3) its life-history in the alternate host, and the identification of the latter with a particular species of mosquito by Ross and Manson.
(2) Much attention has been directed in scientific circles to the possibility of "stamping out" epidemic malaria by administrative measures.
Gersonides was also the author of a commentary on the Pentateuch and other exegetical and scientific works.
Now the early Christian centuries were anything but a period of scientific research.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
The first scientific historical work was by H.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
It has been easy to confuse the study of the Old Testament in its relation to modern religious needs with the technical scientific study of the much edited remains of the literature of a small part of the ancient East.
Robert of Aragonvicar-general of the papal states - in particular encouraged the Jews and supported them in their literary and scientific ambitions.
A new school of scientific study of Judaism emerged, to be dignified by the names of Leopold Zunz, H.
50 3): " Since their emancipation the Jews have taken an active part in the political, industrial, scientific and artistic life of Hungary.
The scientific determination of the Quetzal-bird of Central America seems to have been first made by C. L.
In 1832 the Registro Trimestre, a literary and scientific journal printed at Mexico, contained a communication by Dr. Pablo de la Llave, describing this species (with which he first became acquainted before 1810, from examining more than a dozen specimens obtained by the natural-history expedition to New Spain and kept in the palace of the Retiro near Madrid) under the name by which it is now known, Pharomacrus mocino.3 Quezal, male and female.
Ex Ploration The progress of geodetic surveys in Russia had long ago extended across the European half of the great empire, St Petersburg being connected with Tiflis on the southern slopes of the Caucasus by a direct system of triangulation carried out with the highest scientific precision.
Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
Turning our attention westwards, no advance in the progress of scientific geography is more remarkable than that recorded on the northern and north-western frontiers of India.
It has rather been a wide extension of scientific geographical mapping.
In these professional labours the Indian surveyors have been assisted by such scientific geographers as General Sir A.
In no other period of the world's history, of equal length of time, has so much scientific enterprise been directed towards the field of General Asiatic inquiry.
The steady advance of scientific inquiry into every corner of Persia, backed by the unceasing efforts of a new school of geographical explorers, has left nothing unexamined that can be subjected to superficial observation.
Much the same, however, might have been said of Europe until two centuries ago, and the scientific knowledge of the Arabs under the earlier Caliphates was equal or superior to that of any of their contemporaries.
And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of the principles in question by reference to "the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to "the structure and grammar of all languages."
Here he continued to prosecute his scientific researches and his multifarious studies with unabated diligence.
In addition, he wrote a number of scientific memoirs and papers, including two on the integration of partial differential equations (Jour.
This was the first work covering that period based on a scientific study of the archival sources.
What was the secret power which enabled him to bring under the domain of scientific laws phenomena of disease which had so far baffled human endeavour?
Empiricism, hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connexion of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished for ever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.
The results of his investigations were communicated from time to time in papers to the Philosophical Transactions of London and other scientific journals, and were admirably and impartially summarized by James D.
The work was strongest in the scientific department, and many of its most valuable articles were from the pen of the editor.
him into frequent communication with the most eminent scientific men, and he was naturally among the first to recognize the benefit that would accrue from regular intercourse among workers in the field of science.
In estimating Brewster's place among scientific discoverers the chief thing to be borne in mind is that the bent of his genius was not characteristically mathematical.
He at once retired to la Roche-Gtiyon, the château of the duchesse d'Enville, returning shortly to Paris, where he spent the rest of his life in scientific and literary studies, being made vice-president of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres in 1777.
In 1639 he accompanied Pedro Texiera in his second exploration of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, and draw up a report for the Spanish government.
But he soon after returned to the neighbourhood of Milan, to devote himself to scientific agriculture.
Like his greater contemporary, Pomponazzi, he was a lecturer on medicine at Pisa (1546-1552), and in later life gave up purely scientific study for speculation on the nature of man.
The first scientific paper that appears under Tait's name only was published in 1860.
Many other inquiries conducted by him might be mentioned, and some idea may be gained of his scientific activity from the fact that a selection only from his papers, published by the Cambridge University Press, fills three large volumes.
The introduction of new plants, which made it possible to dispense with the bare fallow, and still later the application to husbandry of scientific discoveries as to soils, plant constituents and manures, brought about a revolution in farming.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
The scientific and mechanical improvements of the first half of the century were widely adopted, while the prices of the protectionist period showed little decline.
The fattening of animals was conducted on more scientific principles.
The greater freedom of cropping and the less close adherence to the formal system of rotation of crops, which characterize the early years of the 10th century, rest upon a scientific basis.
It was in 1837, on reading Whewell's Inductive Sciences and re-reading Herschel, that Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and joining on the new logic as a supplement to the old.
We have seen, for example, that he was led to investigate the subject of logic because he found in attempting to advance his humanitarian schemes in politics an absence of that fundamental agreement which he recognized as the basis of scientific advance.
In our own day we have had many illustrations of the manner in which special circumstances may at once bring an almost unnoticed series of scientific investigations into direct and vital relation with the business world.
This involves great industry on the part of many scientific workers.
This obvious condition of scientific inquiry is very far from being completely realized even at the present time.
It is easy to understand, therefore, why we trace the beginnings of economics, so far as England is concerned, in the 16th century, and why the application of strict scientific tests in this subject of human study has become possible only in comparatively recent times.
From the close of the middle ages until the middle of the 18th century thousands of pamphlets and other works on economic questions were published, but the vast majority of the writers have little or no scientific importance.
It is also possible to find in them many anticipations of the views of the economists of later times; but such statements were as a rule generated merely by the heat of controversy on some measure or event of practical importance, and when the controversy died down were seldom regarded or incorporated in a scientific system.
Economics, therefore, under modern conditions, is not only a subject which may usefully occupy the attention of a leisured class of scientific men.
In every age economists have applied the methods ordinarily in use amongst scientific men.
The scientific and historical movement of the 19th century was revolutionary in character.
As in modern problems, so in those of past times, a man requires for success qualities quite distinct from those conferred by merely academic training and the use of scientific methods.
In modern countries it takes myriads of forms, from the sweating of parasitic trades to the organization of scientific research.
It must be clear to every observer that the economists of the classical period, with the one exception of Adam Smith, will speedily share the fate of nearly all scientific writers.
Adams Smith's Wealth of Nations, if it has ever been, has long ceased to be a scientific text-book.
But great as the achievements of this school have been, it has not developed any scientific machinery which can take the place of theory in economic investigation.
It would be of immense advantage from a scientific point of view if this could be taken for granted, if for a time the work of the classical economists could be considered final so far as it goes, and for the purposes of investigation regarded as the theoretical counterpart of the modern industrial system.
Modern economic criticism and analysis has destroyed the authority of the " old Political Economy " as a scientific system.
In fact, there never was a scientific system at all.
What was mistaken for it was fashioned in the heat of controversy by men whose interests were practical rather than scientific, who could not write correct English, and revealed in their reasoning the usual fallacies of the merely practical man' So the " old Political Economy " lies shattered.
They are not expressed in terms which satisfy our canons of scientific accuracy.
For these problems we want, not a few old-established general principles which no one seriously calls in question, but genuine constructive and organizing capacity, aided by scientific and detailed knowledge of particular institutions, industries and classes.
The refinements of economic analysis, as distinguished from its broader achievements, should be reserved for special studies, in which a technical scientific terminology, specially devised, can be used without danger of misconception.
The scientific study of practical problems and difficulties is (generally speaking, and with honourable exceptions) far more advanced in almost every civilized country than it is in England, where the limited scale upon which such work is carried on, the indifference of statesmen, officials and business men, and the incapacity of the public to understand the close relation between scientific study and practical success, contrast very unfavourably with the state of affairs in Germany or the United States.
The scientific study of the economics of local administration is, however, in its infancy, and requires to be taken up in earnest by economists.
These questions of commercial policy and local government are closely bound up with the scientific study of the transport system.
Still, the idea of the exact measurement of sensation has been a fruitful one, and mainly through his influence on Wundt, Fechner was the father of that "new" psychology of laboratories which investigates human faculties with the aid of exact scientific apparatus.
It was Origen who created the dogmatic of the church and laid the foundations of the scientific criticism of the Old and New Testaments.
however, was broken by many journeys, undertaken partly for scientific and partly for ecclesiastical ob j ects.
This work, which was composed before 228, is the first attempt at a dogmatic at once scientific and accommodated to the needs of the church.
A biographical sketch will be found in his collected Scientific Papers (2 vols., 1906).
When the diet closed he withdrew to Bruckberg and occupied himself partly with scientific study, partly with the composition of his Theogonie (1857).
dpoE, a pickaxe, hence applied to the animal), the scientific name of a group of African antelopes of relatively large size with long straight or scimitar-shaped horns, which are present in both sexes, and long tufted tails.
He takes no rank as a scientific theologian, being a man of activity rather than of speculation or of much insight.
His work is a kind of commonplace book kept without scientific discrimination.
Here there is only space to name Bontius, Clusius, Hernandez (or Fernandez), Marcgrave, Nieremberg and Piso, 6 whose several works describing the natural products of both the Indies - whether the result of their own observation or compilation - together with those of Olina and Worm, produced a marked effect, since they led up to what may be deemed the foundation of scientific ornithology.'
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
The classification was modified, chiefly on the old lines of Willughby and Ray, and certainly for the better; but no scientific nomenclature was adopted, which, as the author subsequently found, was a change for the worse.
In 1783 Boddaert printed at Utrecht a Table des planches enlumineez, 9 in which he attempted to refer every species of bird figured in that extensive series to its proper Linnaean genus, and to assign it a scientific name if it did not already possess one.
But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
1 His earlier work under the title of Petinotheologie can hardly be deemed scientific.
Hayes's Natural History of British Birds, a folio with forty plates, appeared between 1771 and 1775, but was of no scientific value.
It has passed through a far greater number of editions than any other work on natural history in the whole world, and has become emphatically an English classic - the graceful simplicity of its style, the elevating tone of its spirit, and the sympathetic chords it strikes recommending it to every lover of Nature, while the severely scientific reader can scarcely find an error in any statement it contains, whether of matter of fact or opinion.
et des todiers, which, though belonging to the same category as all the former, differs from them in its more scientific treatment of the subjects to which it refers; and, in 1808, K.
Scientific names are assigned to the species figured; but no text Lear.
Nevertheless a scientific character was so adroitly assumed that scientific men - some of them even ornithologists - have thence been led to believe the text had a scientific value, and that of a high class.
34 find favour with his scientific superiors, and for the time things remained as though his investigations had never been carried on.
In so large and so homogeneous a group as that of the true Passerines, a constant 1 An abstract is contained in the Minute-book of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society, 26th June and 10th July 1838.
Moreover, Dr Cornay's, scheme was not given to the world with any of those adjuncts that not merely please the eye but are in many cases necessary, for, though on a subject which required for its proper comprehension a series of plates, it made even its final appearance unadorned by a single explanatory figure, and in a journal, respectable and wellknown indeed, but one not of the highest scientific rank.
This method, which in process of time was dignified by the title of a Physiological Arrangement, was insisted upon with more or less pertinacity by the author throughout a long series of publications, some of them separate books, some of them contributed to the memoirs issued by many scientific bodies of various European countries, ceasing only at his death, which in July 1857 found him occupied upon a Conspectus, Generum Avium, that in consequence remains unfinished.
The division seems to have been instituted by this author a couple of years earlier in the second edition of his Handbuch der Naturgeschichte (a work not seen by the present writer), but not then to have received a scientific name.
This paper is indeed little more than an English translation of one published by the author in the annual volume (Arsskrift) of the Scientific Society of Upsala for 1860, and belonging to the pre-Darwinian epoch should perhaps have been more properly treated before, but that at the time of its original appearance it failed to attract attention.
His scientific achievements would probably have been more striking if they had been less varied.
The investigation was carried out with scrupulous scientific rigour upon samples of water taken in every part of the city, at all states of the tide and under various atmospheric conditions.
His Griechische Gotterlehre (3 vols., GÃ¶ttingen, 1857-1862) may be regarded as the first scientific treatise on Greek religion.
He secured an excellent set of scientific apparatus and improved the instruction in the natural sciences; he introduced courses in Hebrew and French about 1772; and he did a large part of the actual teaching, having courses in languages, divinity, moral philosophy and eloquence.
The scientific training which Bacon had received, mainly from the study of the Arab writers, showed him the manifold defects in the systems reared by these doctors.
Here, off the coast of Greenland, the expedition passed two winters, accomplishing much useful geographical, as well as scientific, work, including the attainment of what was to remain for sixteen years the highest northern latitude, 80° 35' N.
The leading educational institutions are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the largest purely scientific and technical school in the country, opened to students (including women) in 1865, four years after the granting of a charter to Prof. W.
When nominalism was revived in the 14th century by the English Franciscan, William of Occam, it gave evidence of a new tendency in thought, a distrust of abstractions and an impulse towards direct observation and inductive research, a tendency which had its fulfilment in the scientific movement of the Renaissance.
By the end of 1771 his scientific reputation was such that he was suggested for the post of "astronomer" to Captain Cook's second expedition to the South Seas, but his unorthodox opinions were objectionable to certain members of the board of longitude and the appointment was not ratified.
There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.
Priestley was a most voluminous writer, and his works (excluding his scientific writings) as collected and edited by his friend J.
But his theological writings are forgotten, and he is chiefly remembered as a scientific investigator who contributed especially to the chemistry of gases.
Within a week Ranke received the promise of a post at Berlin, and in less than three months was appointed supernumerary professor in the university of that city, a striking instance of the promptitude with which the Prussian government recognized scientific merit when, as in Ranke's case, it was free from dangerous political opinions.
We need not be surprised that he failed; men desired not the scientific treatment of politics, but satire and invective.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
The " cracking " process, whereby a considerable quantity of the oil which is intermediate between kerosene and lubricating oil is converted into hydrocarbons of lower specific gravity and boiling-point suitable for illuminating purposes, is one of great scientific and technical interest.
While a new spirit which compares and tolerates thus sprang from the Crusades, the large sphere of new knowledge and experience which they gave brought new material at once for scientific thought and poetic imagination.
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