All human sciences have traveled along that path.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
of Sciences, xx.
As patron of the Arts and Crafts Museum (1862-98), and as curator of the Academy of Sciences, he won a high reputation.
As patron of the Arts and Crafts Museum (1862-98), and as curator of the Academy of Sciences, he won a high reputation.
In regard to this question, history stands to the other sciences as experimental science stands to abstract science.
In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded.
Under the Reign of Terror he was arrested and imprisoned for nearly a year, during which he studied Condillac and Locke, and abandoned the natural sciences for philosophy.
On the motion of Cabanis he was named associate of the Institute in the class of the moral and political sciences.
In the same year Rainer became curator of the Academy of Sciences, a position which he filled till his death.
He became a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1863, and ten years afterwards entered the Academy of Sciences, of which he became perpetual secretary in 1889 in succession to Louis Pasteur.
But in addition to bringing forward a fundamental and philosophical view of morbid processes, which probably contributed more than any other single cause to vindicate for pathology the place which he claimed for it among the biological sciences, Virchow made many important contributions to histology and morbid anatomy and to the study of particular diseases.
The Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal in 5892, and selected him as Croonian lecturer in the following year, his subject being the position of pathology among the biological sciences; and in 1898 he delivered the second Huxley memorial lecture at Charing Cross Hospital.
wanted Descartes to draw up a code for a proposed academy of the sciences, and to give her an hour of philosophic instruction every morning at five.
They are also the direct antitheses to the scepticism of Montaigne and Pascal, to the materialism of Gassendi and Hobbes, and to the superstitious anthropomorphism which defaced the reawakening sciences of nature.
Descartes occasionally had not scrupled to interpret the Scriptures according to his own tenets, while still maintaining, when their letter contradicted him, that the Bible was not meant to teach the sciences.
Two important educational establishments are the Indian Institute for the education of civil service students for thecolonies, to which is attached an ethnographical museum; and the Royal Polytechnic school, which almost ranks as a university, and teaches, among other sciences, that of diking.
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.
Having at last got into trouble with the authorities he fled from Sicily, and visited in succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes - where he took lessons in alchemy and the cognate sciences from the Greek Althotas - and Malta.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
During the second period the pupil has a choice of four courses: (1) Latin and Greek; (2) Latin and sciences; (3) Latin and modern languages; (4) sciences and modern languages.
The faculties of letters and sciences, besides granting the Baccalaurat de lenseignement secondaire, confer the degrees of licentiate and doctor (la Licence, le Doctoral).
There are 2 faculties of Protestant theology (Paris and Montauban); 12 faculties of law (Paris, Aix, Bordeaux, Caen, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 3 faculties of medicine (Paris, Montpellier and Nancy), and 4 joint faculties of medicine and pharmacy (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Toulouse); 15 faculties of sciences (Paris, Besancon, Bor~ deaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 15 faculties of letters (at the same towns, substituting Aix for Marseilles).
The work of the faculties of medicine and pharmacy is in some measure shared by the icoles su~irieures de pharmacie (Paris, Montpellier, Nancy), which grant the highest degrees in pharmacy, and by the icoles de p1cm exercice de mdecine et de pharmacie (Marseilles, Rennes and Nantes) and the more numerous coles preparaloires de mdecine et de pharmacie; there are also coles preparatolres a lenseignement supirieur des sciences ci des lettres at Chambry, Rouen and Nantes.
The most important free institution in this class is the cole des Sciences Politiques, which prepares pupils for the civil services and teaches a great number of political subjects, connected with France and foreign countries, not included in the state programmes.
In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."
These were published in the Prix de l'Academie des Sciences.
de Maupertuis as associate geometer of the Academie des Sciences.
de Lesseps was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Sciences, of numerous scientific societies, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour and of the Star of India, and had received the freedom of the City of London.
In 1825 he migrated to Lemberg, where he taught the physical sciences.
In 1914 his preeminence had become so evident that a special position was created for him in Berlin, where he was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and given a sufficient stipend to enable him to devote all his time to research without any restrictions or duties whatsoever.
In 1833 he was appointed professor of Greek and Roman philosophy at the college of France and a member of the Academy of Sciences; he then published the Mélanges philosophiques (4th ed.
Steinheil communicated to the GÃ¶ttingen Academy of Sciences in September 1838 an account of his telegraph, which had been constructed about the middle of the preceding year.
C. Fraser's Gifford Lectures, or in earlier times in the writings of Christian Wolff, whose sciences, according to the slightly different nomenclature which Kant imposed on them, were " rational psychology," " rational cosmology," and " rational theology."
Of modern buildings may be mentioned the University (1826), the Palais de Justice (1844), and the new theatre (1848), all designed by Roelandt, and the Institut des Sciences (1890) by A.
In 1804 Vauquelin resigned his professorship at the College de France and successfully used his influence to obtain the appointment for Thenard, who six years later, after Fourcroy's death, was further elected to the chairs of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Faculte des Sciences.
The physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as regards the distribution of phenomena.
Thus geology, meteorology, oceanography and anthropology developed into distinct sciences.
The absurd attempt was, and sometimes is still, made by geographers to include all natural science in geography; but it is more common for specialists in the various detailed sciences to think, and sometimes to assert, that the ground of physical geography is now fully occupied by these sciences.
In 1881 Leroy-Beaulieu was elected professor of contemporary history and eastern affairs at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, becoming director of this institution on the death of Albert Sorel in 1906, and in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
Priscian the grammarian speaks of him as having attained the summit of honesty and of all sciences.
In 1741 he received his first public distinction in being admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences, to which he had previously presented several papers, including a Memoire sur le calcul integral (1739).
He wrote for that work the Discours preliminaire on the rise, progress and affinities of the various sciences, which he read to the French Academy on the day of his admission as a member, the 18th of December 1754.
One of his most important works was the Elements de Philosophic published in 1759, in which he discussed the principles and methods of the different sciences.
In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
4 Distrust of the natural sciences, Ed uca- even in their technical applications, and of Western ideas of free government; desire to make university don.
The steady tendency of Russian society towards increasing the number of secondary schools, where instruction would be based on the study of the natural sciences, is checked by the government in favour of the classical gymnasiums. 5 Sunday schools and public lectures are virtually prohibited.
of higher schools, in which careful instruction is given in natural and social sciences, have been opened in the chief cities under the name of " pedagogical courses."
The natural sciences are much cultivated in Russia.
The work achieved by Russian savants, especially in biology, physiology and chemistry, and in the sciences descriptive of the vast territory of Russia, is well known to Europe.
Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first-class both in the mathematical tripos and in the 2nd part of the moral sciences tripos, he remained at Cambridge as a lecturer, and became well known as a student of mathematical philosophy and a leading exponent of the views of the newer school of Realists.
In 1842 he was called as chief librarian to Berlin, where he shortly afterwards was made a privy councillor and a member of the Academy of Sciences.
On the 26th of October 1868 he communicated to the Paris Academy of Sciences, almost simultaneously with Dr P. J.
His works were published in 1693 by the Abbe Gallois, in the Recueil of the Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences.
He soon learned to call to his aid the subsidiary sciences of geography and chronology, and before he was quite capable of reading them had already attempted to weigh in his childish balance the competing systems of Scaliger and Petavius, of Marsham and Newton.
In 1834 he became a member of the Academie; from 1838 to 1848 he was professor to the faculty of sciences at Paris, and from 1848 to 1850 commandant of the Ecole polytechnique.
In 1875 he was elected member of the Academie des Sciences Morales, and in 1880 reluctantly accepted the post of director of the Ecole Normale.
For history, applied mathematics - for anything, in fact, outside the exact sciences - he felt something approaching to contempt.
" By this new departure (19th of October 1781) the Jews were permitted to learn handicrafts, arts and sciences, and with certain restrictions to devote themselves to agriculture.
Mathematics were cultivated by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, but nearly all the sciences based on the observation of nature, including medicine, have remained in a very backward condition.
In later life he was accustomed to say that he knew as much about mathematics when he was eighteen as ever he knew; but his reading embraced nearly the whole round of knowledge - history, travels, poetry, philosophy and the natural sciences.
Late in life he prepared a remarkable Essai sur la philosophie des sciences.
Two years later he passed the examination for the "baccalaureat es sciences" enabling him to become candidate for the Ecole normale.
So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille.
des sciences (Paris, 1768), Histoire, p. 167 (G.
des sciences, vii.
A report upon them was presented to the St Petersburg academy of sciences by O.
There are no limits to the good results of his introduction of a true method of reasoning into the moral and political sciences.
Mill remarks that the uncertainty hanging over the very elements of moral and social philosophy proves that the means of arriving at the truth in those sciences are not yet properly understood.
It was in 1837, on reading Whewell's Inductive Sciences and re-reading Herschel, that Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and joining on the new logic as a supplement to the old.
In the fifth of his early essays he asserted that the method a priori is the only mode of investigation in the social sciences, and that the method a posteriori "is altogether inefficacious in those sciences as a means of arriving at any considerable body of valuable truth."
In this article we propose therefore to confine ourselves to discussing the character and subject-matter of the science, indicating its relation to other sciences, and explaining the methods by which economists reach their conclusions.
The application of the a priori method in economics was an accident, due to its association with other subjects and the general backwardness of other sciences rather than any exceptional and peculiar character in the subject-matter of the science itself.
In common with other sciences, economics makes use of " abstractions"; but if for some problems we employ symbolic processes of reasoning, we must keep clearly in view the limits of their significance, and neither endow the symbols with attributes they can never possess, nor lose sight of the realities behind them.
Economic studies should be as relevant to existing needs as those of engineering and other applied sciences.
This school, of which the origin (though assigned to Athenagoras) is unknown, was the first and for a long time the only institution where Christians were instructed simultaneously in the Greek sciences and the doctrines of the holy Scriptures.
Even then his attainments in the whole circle of the sciences were extraordinary.
The discovery of the Rosetta Stone furnished the key to Egyptian hieroglyphics; and archaeology, no less than the more practical sciences, acknowledges its debt of gratitude to the man who first brought the valley of the Nile into close touch with the thought of the West.
After the death of the two anatomists just named, another series of similar descriptions of eight other species was found among their papers, and the whole were published in the Memoires of the French Academy of Sciences in 1733 and 1734.
This scheme was the work of Blasius Merrem, who, in a communication to the Academy of Sciences of Berlin on the t oth December 1812, which was published in its Abhandlungen for the following year (pp. 237-259), set forth a Tentamen systematis naturalis avium, no less modestly entitled than modestly executed.
Notice has next to be taken of a Memoir on the Employment of Sternal Characters in establishing Natural Families among Birds, which was read by De Blainville before the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1815, 5 but not published in full for more than five years later (Journal de physique.
At the very beginning of the year 1832 Cuvier laid before the Academy of Sciences of Paris a memoir on the progress of ossifi cation in the sternum of birds, of which memoir an cuvier abstract will be found in the Annales des sciences and naturelles (xxv.
An improvement on the old method of classification by purely external characters was introduced to the Academy of Sciences of Stockholm by C. J.
Next must be noticed a series of short treatises communicated by Johann Friedrich Brandt, between the years 1836 and 1839, to the Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, and published Brandt.
This thereat German comparative anato- Johannes great p mist did in two communications to the Academy of Sciences of Berlin, one on the 26th June 1845 and the other on the 14th May 1846, which, having been first briefly published in the Academy's Monatsbericht, were afterwards printed in full, and illustrated by numerous figures, in its Abhandlungen, though in this latter and complete form they did not appear in public until 1847.
It is now necessary to revert to the year 1842, in which Dr Cornay of Rochefort communicated to the French Academy of Sciences a memoir on a new classification of birds, of which, however, nothing but a notice has been preserved (Comptes rendus, xiv.
Andreas Wagner had sent to the Academy of Sciences of Munich (Sitzungsberichte, pp. 146-154; Ann.
He secured an excellent set of scientific apparatus and improved the instruction in the natural sciences; he introduced courses in Hebrew and French about 1772; and he did a large part of the actual teaching, having courses in languages, divinity, moral philosophy and eloquence.
In the following year he wrote to Bacon, ordering him notwithstanding any injunctions from his superiors, to write out and send to him a treatise on the sciences which he had already asked of him when papal legate.
The works sent to Clement he regarded as preliminaries, laying down principles which were afterwards to be applied to the sciences.
Experimental science, which in the Opus Tertium (p. 46) is distinguished from the speculative sciences and the operative arts in a way that forcibly reminds us of Francis Bacon, is said to have three great prerogatives over all other sciences: - (1) It verifies their conclusions by direct experiment; (2) It discovers truths which they could never reach; (3) It investigates the secrets of nature, and opens to us a knowledge of past and future.
All these large works Bacon appears to have looked on as preliminaries, introductions, leading to a great work which should embrace the principles of all the sciences.
and pamphlets), the Massachusetts Historical Society (founded 1791; 50,300), the Boston medical library (founded 1874; about 80,000), the New England Historic-Genealogical Society (founded 18 45; 33,750 volumes and 34,150 pamphlets), the state library (founded 1826; 140,000), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded 1780; 30,000), the Boston Society of Natural History (founded 1830; about 35,000 volumes and 27,000 pamphlets).
In 1890 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences.
Here his abilities were speedily recognized, and in 1823 he was appointed meteorological observer to the Academy of Sciences.
and extraordinary professor in the university of Berlin, and in 1839 member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
in 1460) is the oldest in Switzerland, and of late years has been extended by the construction of detached buildings for the study of the natural sciences, e.g.
In 1740 Maclaurin divided with Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli the prize offered by the French Academy of Sciences for an essay on tides.
Three years later, at an unusually early age, he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1804 he accompanied Gay Lussac on the first balloon ascent undertaken for scientific purposes.
He failed in his ambition of becoming perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences, but was somewhat consoled by his election as a member of the French Academy in 1856.
In 1877 he became professor of natural history at the College de France, in Paris, and in 1881 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
Oberlin is primarily an educational centre, the seat of Oberlin College, named in honour of Jean Frederic Oberlin, and open to both sexes; it embraces a college of arts and sciences, an academy, a Theological Seminary (Congregational), which has a Slavic department for the training of clergy for Slavic immigrants, and a conservatory of music. In 1909 it had twenty buildings, and a Memorial Arch of Indiana buff limestone, dedicated in 1903, in honour of Congregational missionaries, many of them Oberlin graduates, killed in China in 1900.
He was also the founder of the Rumford medal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Rumford professorship in Harvard University.
Ellis were published by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1870-75.
After Baha-uddin's death in 1231, Jalal-uddin went to Aleppo and Damascus for a short time to study, but, dissatisfied with the exact sciences, he returned to Iconium, where he became by and by professor of four separate colleges, and devoted himself to the study of mystic theosophy.
1719), and these were utilized in a Carte de France " as corrected from the observations of the members of the Academy of Sciences " (1666-1699), in a map of the world (1694) by D.
Immediately after her return the princess was appointed "directeur" of the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and Sciences; and in 1784 she was named the first president of the Russian Academy, which had been founded at her suggestion.
Not only literature, but the physical sciences, as then taught, had a charm for him; and he is said to have made considerable progress in medicine under the tuition of his father.
des sciences (1854), pp. 4 6 9-5 02; Blumner, Technologie and Terminologic der Gewerbe and Kiinste bei Griechen and Romern, i.
It would seem that "the general theory of discrete and continuous quantity" is the exact description of the topics of these sciences.
A complete classification of mathematical sciences, as they at present exist, is to be found in the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature promoted by the Royal Society.
The Greeks created the sciences of geometry and of number as applied to the measurement of continuous quantities.
The applied mathematical sciences of light, electricity and electromagnetism, ' Cf.
Clifford, The Common Sense of the exact Sciences (London, 1885); H.
The whole tone, sentiment and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized by the new school: varieties of poetry hitherto unknown have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new branch of literature, the drama, has arisen; while the sciences are now treated and seriously studied after the system of the West.
The reputation which he had gained in the physical sciences soon caused him to be raised to the position of rector of the university (for the first term of the year 1313).
In 1864 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Sorbonne, and elected a member of the academy of the moral and political sciences.
In 1753 he was elected a corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and shortly afterwards he became professor of philosophy in the Barnabite College of St Alexander at Milan.
His tastes were scholarly, and he was one of the founders of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
de l'academie des sciences de St-Petersbourg, vol.
PIERRE JULES CESAR JANSSEN (1824-1907), French astronomer, was born in Paris on the 22nd of February 1824, and studied mathematics and physics at the faculty of sciences.
Libri, see his Histoire des sciences mathimatiques en Italie, i.
The publication of a monumental edition of the letters and works of Huygens was undertaken at the Hague by the Societe Hollandaise des Sciences, with the heading ¦uvres de Christian Huygens (1888), &c. Ten quarto volumes, comprising the whole of his correspondence, had already been issued in 1905.
It was his mission to introduce a rational, common-sense point of view, and to bring the high matters of divine and human sciences into close and living contact with the everyday world.
Hahn, in Dechambre's Dictionnaire encyclope'dique des sciences me'dicales, 3rd series, torn.
His growing scientific reputation secured his election to the membership of the Academy of Berlin, of the Academy of Sciences of France and of the Royal Society of London.
By a decree of the president he was made a senator of France in 1852, and on the death of Arago (1853) he was chosen perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences.
Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).
Cigna, he founded in 1758 a society which became the Turin Academy of Sciences.
Rest and exercise, however, temporarily restored his health, and he gave proof of the undiminished vigour of his powers by carrying off, in 1764, the prize offered by the Paris Academy of Sciences for the best essay on the libration of the moon.
Bonaparte, who styled him "la haute pyramide des sciences mathematiques," loaded him with personal favours and official distinctions.
The first, second and third sections of this publication comprise respectively the papers communicated by him to the Academies of Sciences of Turin, Berlin and Paris; the fourth includes his miscellaneous contributions to other scientific collections, together with his additions to Euler's Algebra, and his Lecons elementaires at the Ecole Normale in 1795.
of the Inductive Sciences, ii.
4 "Prodrome d'une Nouvelle Distribution du Regne Animal," Bulletin des sciences par la Societe Philomatique de Paris (1816), p.113.
His correspondence with President Bouhier was published in 1885 by Ernest Petit; his other letters have been edited by the Societe des sciences historiqueset naturelles de l'Yonne (2 vols., 1866-1867).
John recoiled from the idle casuistry which occupied his own logical contemporaries; and, mindful probably of their aimless ingenuity, he adds the caution that dialectic, valuable and necessary as it is, is " like the sword of Hercules in a pigmy's hand " unless there be added to it the accoutrement of the other sciences.
In 1764 he removed to Berlin, where he received many favours at the hand of Frederick the Great and was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin, and in 1774 edited the Berlin Ephemeris.
At the head of the learned and scientific societies stands the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1830; the Kisfaludy Society, the Petofi Society, and numerous societies of specialists, as the historical, geographical, &c., with their centre at Budapest.
Of modern Hungarian dictionaries the best is that of the Academy of Sciences, containing 110,784 articles in 6 vols., by Czuczor and Fogarasi (Pest, 1862-1874).
The establishment of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 2 (17th November 1830) marks the commencement of a new period, in Academy the first eighteen years of which gigantic exertions were made as regards the literary and intellectual life of the period, nation.
Since its reorganization in 1869 the academy has, however, paid equal attention to the various departments of history, archaeology, national economy and the physical sciences.
Among the earlier publications of the academy were the Tudomdnytdr (Treasury of Sciences, 1834-1844), with its supplement Literatura; the KUlfoldi jdtPkszin (Foreign Theatres); the Magyar nyelv rendszere (System of the Hungarian language, 1846; 2nd ed., 1847); various dictionaries of scientific, mathematical, philosophical and legal terms; a Hungarian - German dictionary (1835-1838), and a Glossary of Provincialisms (1838).
naturalis et matheseos, 1472-1875 (Budapest, 1878), where the number of Magyar works bearing on the natural sciences and mathematics printed from the earliest date to the end of 1875 is stated to be 3811, of which 106 are referred to periodicals.
In a paper read before the Academy of Sciences, on the 10th of February 1773 (Mem.
Admitted to the Academy of Sciences as an associate in 1773, he became a member in 1785, having, about a year previously, succeeded E.
By his discovery that the attracting force in any direction of a mass upon a particle could be obtained by the direct process of differentiating a single function, Laplace laid the foundations of the mathematical sciences of heat, electricity and magnetism.
In the figure of the earth, the theory of attractions, and the sciences of electricity and magnetism this powerful calculus occupies a prominent place.
An edition entitled Les Ouvres completes de Laplace (1878), &c., which is to include all his memoirs as well as his separate works, is in course of publication under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences.
des sciences t.
Clifford, The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences (1885), chapters i.
In Europe the decline of Rome was succeeded by a period, lasting several centuries, during which the sciences and arts were all but neglected.
A little later the Academy of Sciences of Paris was established by Louis XIV.
lishing the doctrine of organic evolution by the introduction into the web of the zoological and botanical sciences of a new science.
Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
It was in 1812 that Cuvier communicated to the Academy of Sciences of Paris his views on the classification of animals.
Otric, suspecting that Gerbert erred in his classification of the sciences, sent one of his own pupils to Reims to take notes of his lectures, and, finding his suspicions correct, accused him of his error before Otto II.
The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.
On the other hand, the biological sciences are sharply marked off from the abiological, or those which treat of the phenomena manifested by not-living matter, in so far as the properties of living matter distinguish it absolutely from all other kinds of things, and as the present state of knowledge furnishes us with no link between the living and the not-living.
The broad distinctions which, as a matter of fact, exist between every known form of living substance and every other component of the material world, justify the separation of the biological sciences from all others.
He consequently was admitted a member both of the Academy of Inscriptions and of the Academy of Sciences; and in 1697 he became perpetual secretary to the latter body.
This office he actually held for the long period of forty-two years; and it was in this official capacity that he wrote the Histoire du renouvellement del' Academie des Sciences (Paris, 3 vols., 1708, 1717, 1722) containing extracts and analyses of the proceedings, and also the -loges of the members, written with great simplicity and delicacy.
member of the university of Kiev, and of the Prussian, Bavarian and Danish academies; he received the Prussian order Pour le Write, and was corresponding member of the Academie des sciences morales et politiques of the French Institute.
It includes no scientific idea, no knowledge of the natural sciences, and neglects even the most rudimentary instruction conveyed in a European education.
The outstanding feature in the history of pathology during the 19th century, and more particularly of the latter half of it, was the completion of its rescue from the thraldom of abstract philosophy, and its elevation to the dignity of one of the natural sciences.
He now settled at Paris, was elected to the Academie des Sciences in 1816, but in consequence of the opposition of Louis XVIII.
The theory of heat engaged his attention quite early, and in 1812 he obtained a prize offered by the Academie des Sciences with a memoir in two parts, Theorie des mouvements de la chaleur dans les corps solides.
Moreover, his works on natural history doubtless furthered the progress among the Greeks of sciences tributary to medicine, though the only specimens of such works which have come down to us from the Peripatetic school are those of Theophrastus, who may be considered the founder of the scientific study of botany.
The dispersion of Greek science and intellectual activity through the world by the conquests of Alexander and his successors led to the formation of more than one learned centre, in which medicine among other sciences was represented.
The revival of Galenic and Hippocratic medicine, though ultimately it conferred the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not immediately produce any important or salutary reform in practical medicine.
But it is on the combination of the two methods - that of Sydenham and of Morgagni - that modern medicine rests; and it is through these that it has been able to make steady progress in its own field, independently of the advance of physiology or other sciences.
Intellectual activity was not wanting, but the great achievements of the 18th century in philosophy and the moral sciences had fostered a love of abstract speculation; and some sort of cosmical or general system was thought indispensable in every department of special science.
The degradation of medicine between Galen and Harvey, if in part it consisted in the blind following of the authority of the former physician, was primarily due to other causes; and its new development was not due to the discovery of the experimental method alone: social and political causes also are concerned in the advance even of the exact sciences.
We see now that the practice of the experimental method endows with a new vision both the experimenter himself and, through his influence, those who are associated with him in medical science, even if these be not themselves actually engaged in experiment; a new discipline is imposed upon old faculties, as is seen as well in other sciences as in those on which medicine more directly depends.
Those physicians who had occupied themselves in the study of the exacter sciences, or more closely or more exclusively of the wreckage of the post mortem room, were the strongest men of this school, whether in England or abroad.
The Royal Institution, Albemarle Street, was founded in 1799, maintains a library and laboratories and promotes research in connexion with the experimental sciences.
As a foundation his education must be thorough in the natural and physical sciences and mathematics.
de la Soc. des sciences phys.
v., 1883), "Questions Heroniennes" (Bulletin des sciences math., ii.
In the 18th century the manufacture of vases de verre had become so neglected that the Academy of Sciences in 1 759 offered a prize for an essay on the means by which the industry might be revived (Labarte, Histoire des arts industriels).
Other works of Cournot's were Traite elementaire de la theorie des fonctions et du calcul infinitesimal (1841); Exposition de la theorie des chances et des probabilLites (1843); De l'origine et des limites de la correspondance entre l'algebre et la geometrie (1847); Traite de l'enchainement des idees fondamentales dans les sciences et dans l'histoire (1861); and Revue somma.ire des doctrines economiques (1877).
Rising each morning from his palace in the deep, he had given man the arts and sciences, the industries and manners of civilization.
Besides the Istituto di studii superiori there is the Istituto di scienze sociali "Cesare Alfieri," founded by the marchese Alfieri di Sostegno for the education of aspirants to the diplomatic and consular services, and for students of economics and social sciences (about 50 students); an academy of fine arts, a conservatoire of music, a higher female training-college with 150 students, a number of professional and trade schools, and an academy of recitation.
Educated abroad, with his elder brother Mikhail, at Copenhagen and Berlin, he especially distinguished himself in languages and the applied sciences.
In 1747 Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, director of the physical classes in the Academy of Sciences, Berlin, discovered the existence of common sugar in beetroot and in numerous other fleshy roots which grow in temperate regions.
was conferred upon him by Harvard University, and his scientific attainments were recognized by the American Philosophical Society and the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences.
The literature of the various sciences is dealt with elsewhere.
des sciences relig.
22 and 23 of the Revue generale des sciences (Paris, Nov.
Libri-Carucci dalla Sommaja (1803-1869), in his account of the invention of the camera obscura in Italy (Histoire des sciences mathematives en Italie, iv.
It includes dissertations on the various vices and virtues, the different arts and sciences, and carries down the history of the world to the sojourn in Egypt.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Earth sciences.
des Sciences, vii.
Duff gave much thought and time to the university of Calcutta, which owes its examination system and the prominence given to physical sciences to his influence.
Guizot, then Louis Philippe's minister, the important proposal to establish a chair of general history of the sciences.
thoughts to Comte, and that, in the portion of that work which treats of the logic of the moral sciences, a radical.
While through a great crisis due to the conflict of two 0 os g g PP Classifica= from a single trunk, - is to give to science the ensemble tion of sciences.
Comte's special object is a study of social physics, a science that before his advent was still to be formed; his second object is a review of the methods and leading generalities of all the positive sciences already formed, so that we may know both what system of inquiry to follow in our new science, and also where the new science will stand in relation to other knowledge.
The first step in this direction is to arrange scientific method and positive knowledge in order, and this brings us to another cardinal element in the Comtist system, the classification of the sciences.
It is the method and knowledge of the abstract sciences that the Positive Philosophy has to reorganize in a great whole.
Thus, too, each science rests on the truths of the sciences that precede it, while it adds to them the truths by which it is itself constituted.
This arrangement of the sciences, and the Law of the Three States, are together explanatory of the course of human thought and knowledge.
They are thus the double key of The double Comte's systematization of the philosophy of all the key of sciences from mathematics to physiology, and his positive analysis of social evolution, which is the base of philo= sociology.
" Thousands had cultivated science, and with splendid success; not one had conceived the philosophy which the sciences when organized would naturally evolve.
That he had every right to such a title is demonstrable to all who distinguish between the positive sciences and the philosophy which co-ordinated the truths and methods of these sciences into a doctrine."
Comte's classification of the sciences has been subjected to a vigorous criticism by Herbert Spencer.
Spencer's two chief points are these: (i) He denies that the principle of Criticism the development of the sciences is the principle of on Comte's decreasing generality; he asserts that there are as classifica= many examples of the advent of a science being tion.
Littre, by far the most eminent of the scientific followers of Comte, concedes a certain force to Spencer's objections, and makes certain secondary modifications in the hierarchy in consequence, while still cherishing his faith in the Comtist theory of the sciences.
Their value has usually been placed very low by the special followers of the sciences concerned; they say that the knowledge is second-hand, is not coherent, and is too confidently taken for final.
In these three volumes Comte took the sciences roughly as he found them.
This object is to show the sciences as branches remodel the whole science, yet not the less will they recognize the merit of the first work which has facilitated their labours."- Congreve.
Bridges' reply to Mill, The Unity of Comte's Life and Doctrines (1866); Herbert Spencer's essay on the Genesis of Science and pamphlet on The Classification of the Sciences; Huxley's " Scientific Aspects of Positivism," in his Lay Sermons; R.
On the death of Sir Hans Sloane in 1 753, Hales was chosen foreign associate of the French Academy of Sciences.
- For the official acts of the reign, the Catalogue des actes de Francois I", published by the Academie des Sciences morales et politiques (Paris, 1887-1907), is a valuable guide.
To the specialists in sciences which were advancing rapidly and in divergent directions to results which often reacted on and transformed their initial assumptions, Spencer has often appeared too much of a philosopher and defective in specialist knowledge.
Late in life he wrote to Oetinger that "he was introduced by the Lord first into the natural sciences, and thus prepared, and, indeed, from the year 1710 to 1745, when heaven was opened to him."
In 1731 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin, and was invited to Augsburg as pastor and senior minister of the church of St Ulrich.
Among the most representative are: the Popular Science Monthly, New York; the monthly Boston Journal of Education; the quarterly American Journal of Mathematics, Baltimore; the monthly Cassier's Magazine (1891), New York; the monthly American Engineer (1893), New York; the monthly House and Garden, Philadelphia; the monthly Astrophysical Journal, commenced as Sidereal Messenger (1882), Chicago; the monthly American Chemical Journal, Baltimore; the monthly American Naturalist, Boston; the monthly American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Philadelphia; the monthly Outing, New York; the weekly American Agriculturist, New York; the quarterly Metaphysical Magazine (1895) New York; the bi-monthly American Journal of Sociology, Chicago; the bi-monthly American Law Review, St Louis; the monthly Banker's Magazine, New York; the quarterly American Journal of Philology (1880), Baltimore; the monthly Library Journal (1876), New York; the monthly Public Libraries, Chicago; Harper's.
Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trevoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Me-moires pour servir d l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701-1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des Trevoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France.
It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts (1768-1775) by the abbe Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-1778), and as Journal de litterature, des sciences, et des arts (1779-1782) by the abbe Grosier.
Annuaire astronomique et meteorologique (1901); Bulletin astronomique (1884), formerly published under the title Bulletin des sciences mathematiques et astronomiques.
Mathematics.-Intermediaire des mathematic i ens (1894); Bulletin des sciences mathematiques (1896); Revue de mathematiques speciales (1890); Journal de mathematiques pures et appliquees, quarterly.
- Revue philosophique (1876), monthly; Annales des sciences psychiques (1891); L'Annee philosophique (1890), critical and analytical review of all philosophical works appearing during the year; L'Annee psychologique (1894); Journal de psychologie normale et pathologie (1904); Bulletin de l'institut general de psychologie (1903); Revue de l'hypnotisme et de la psychologie physiologique (1900); Revue de metaphysique et de morale (1893); Revue de philosophie (1900); Revue de psychiatrie (1897).
Physics and Chemistry.-Bulletin des sciences physiques (1888); L'Eclairage electrique (1894); Le Radium (1904); Revue generale des sciences pures et appliquees (1890); Revue pratique de l'electriciti (1892).
Science (General).-La Nature, weekly; Revue scientifique (1863), weekly; La Science francaise, monthly.-Science (Applied): Les inventions illustrees, weekly; Revue industrielle, weekly.-Science (Natural): Archives de biologie; Journal de botanique (1887); L'Annee biologique (1895); Revue des sciences naturelles de l'ouest (1891); Revue generale de botanique (1889); La Pisciculture pratique (1895).- Science (Political, Sociological and Statistical): Annales economiques (founded as La France commerciale in 1885); L'Annee sociologique (1896-1897); Bulletin de l'office du travail (1894); Bulletin de l'office international du travail (1902); Le Mouvement socialiste-international bi-monthly (1899); Notices et comptes rendus de l'office du travail (1892); L'Orient et l'abeille du Bosphore (1889) Revue politique et parlementaire (1894); Revue international de sociologie, monthly.
The Messager des sciences historiques (1833), at Ghent, was in repute on account of its historical and antiquarian character.
He was a member of the American Philosophical Society (1857) and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1863), and received the degree of LL.D.
It was a period of great intellectual development, and it only needed a powerful mind such as his to bring to bear upon medicine the same influences which were at work in other sciences.
In 1734 he was admitted a member of the London Royal Society, four years later he entered the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and in 1753 he was appointed to the newly-instituted chair of experimental physics in the College de Navarre.
de l'academie des sciences, 1745 (English translation 1745-1747).
In 1841 he obtained the chair of zoology and comparative anatomy at the Faculty of Sciences in Montpellier, of which he was in 1856 appointed dean.
de Villele," in Annales des sciences politiques (vol.
So far as the numerous works are concerned it is evident that the writers who posed as Rosicrucians were moral and religious reformers, and utilized the technicalities of chemistry (alchemy), and the sciences.
He and his brother Jean were the first two foreign associates of the Academy of Sciences of Paris; and, at the request of Leibnitz, they were both received as members of the academy of Berlin.
He was several times a successful competitor for the prizes given by the Academy of Sciences of Paris; the subjects of his essays being: - the laws of motion (Discours sur les lois de la communication du mouvement, 1727), the elliptical orbits of the planets, and the inclinations of the planetary orbits (Essai d'une nouvelle physique celeste, 1735).
With a success equalled only by Leonhard Euler, Daniel Bernoulli gained or shared no less than ten prizes of the Academy of Sciences of Paris.
He was thrice a successful competitor for the prizes of the Academy of Sciences of Paris.
In Italy he formed a friendship with Lorgna, professor of mathematics at Verona, and one of the founders of the Societe' Italiana for the encouragement of the sciences.
He purified the administration of justice; he encouraged the arts and sciences; he fostered national interests, and he induced other countries to recognize that independence which was in a great measure the fruit of his own exertions.
According to Ibn Khaqan, a contemporary writer, he became a student of the exact sciences and was also a musician and a poet.
In recent times, especially since the rapid increase in the study of the exact sciences during the 19th century, observations at sea with accurate instruments have become common, and the ships' logs of to-day are provided with headings for entering daily observations of the phenomena of the seasurface.
The efforts of individual scientific workers cannot as a rule produce such results in oceanography as in other sciences, but exceptions are found in the very special services rendered by the prince of Monaco, who founded the Oceanographical Institute in Paris and the Oceanographical Museum in Monaco; and by Professor Alexander Agassiz in the investigation of the Pacific.
Sciences (Paris, 1 859), 49, 4 6 3, 536.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
He is described as dwelling in the Persian Gulf, and rising out of the waters in the daytime and furnishing mankind instruction in writing, the arts and the various sciences.
In 1826 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in the same year was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society of London, whose Copley medal he was awarded in 1857.
He was a member of every important learned society in Europe; he was a member, and one of the managers, of the Royal Society, and was one of eight foreign members of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris.
Aristotle himself used "dialectic," as opposed to "science," for that department of mental activity which examines the presuppositions lying at the back of all the particular sciences.
The Aristotelian dialectic, however, deals with the universal laws (Kocval apxai) of reasoning, which can be applied to the particular arguments of all the sciences.
The sciences, for example, all seek to define their own species; dialectic, on the other hand, sets forth the conditions which all definitions must satisfy whatever their subject matter.
Again, the sciences all seek to educe general laws; dialectic investigates the nature of such laws, and the kind and degree of necessity to which they can attain.
In addition to his interest in politics and public improvements, he devoted much study to the natural sciences; among his published works are a Memoir on the Antiquities of Western New York (1818), and Letters on the Natural History and Internal Resources of New York (1822).
He was chosen a corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences in 1697.
Leeuwenhoek's contributions to the Philosophical Transactions amounted to one hundred and twelve; he also published twenty-six papers in the Memoirs of the Paris Academy of Sciences.
With all the great objects removed which could excite a true spirit of poetry, they devoted themselves to minute researches in all sciences subordinate to literature proper.
One other fact, not to be forgotten in forming a general estimate of the literary value of their productions, is, that the same writer was frequently or almost always distinguished in several special sciences.
the lost poem of Callimachus, called AZrca, were on the origin of myths and religious observances; others were on special sciences.
To perform their task adequately required from the critics a wide circle of knowledge; and from this requirement sprang the sciences of grammar, prosody, lexicography, mythology and archaeology.
These philological labours were of great indirect importance, for they led immediately to the study of the natural sciences, and in particular to a more accurate knowledge of geography andhistory.
The sciences of mathematics, astronomy and medicine were also cultivated with assiduity and success at Alexandria, but they can scarcely be said to have their origin there, or in any strict sense to form a part of the peculiarly Alexandrian literature.
He was a strenuous advocate of reform, especially in the teaching of sciences, and supported the claims of modern languages to a place in the curriculum.
This classification, though it is of high value in the clearing up of our conceptions of the essential contrasted with the accidental, the relation of genus, differentia and definition and so forth, is of more significance in connexion with abstract sciences, especially mathematics, than for the physical sciences.
This being so, not only were physics and mathematics impossible as sciences of necessary objective truth, but our apparent consciousness of a permanent self and object alike must be delusive.
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
The materials for studying the American man biologically are abundant in the United States National Museum in Washington; the Peabody Museum, at Cambridge, Massachusetts; the American Museum of Natural History, New York; the Academy of Sciences and the Free Museum of Arts and Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Field Museum in Chicago; the National Museum, city of Mexico, and the Museum of La Plata.
the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; the Field Museum, Chicago; the California Academy and the California University, San Francisco; and the Canadian Institute, Toronto, publish monographs and lists.
In 1786 the author became a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
His other writings are to be found chiefly in the Memoires concernant l'histoire, les sciences et les arts de Chinois (15 vols., Paris, 1776-1791).
At, the head of the scientific institutions of Haarlem may be placed the Dutch Society of Sciences (Hollandsche Maatschappij van Wetenschappen), founded in 1752, which possesses valuable collections in botany, natural history and geology.
In 1837 Arago pronounced his eloge before the Academie des Sciences.
During his residence at Hamilton, besides the arduous duties of medical practice, he found time to devote to the study of the natural sciences, and especially of chemistry.
It has a school of the industrial arts and sciences, grows good wine, and makes bricks.
In the city are an excellent public library, an Academy of Sciences, several turn-halls and other German social organizations, the Iowa soldiers' orphans' home, Brown business college, and several minor Roman Catholic institutions.
He recognizes political economy and statistics as alike sciences, and represents the distinction between them as having never been made before him, though he quotes what Smith had said of political arithmetic. While deserving the praise of honesty, sincerity and independence, he is inferior to his predecessor in breadth of view on moral and political questions.
The State College of Washington (1890) at Pullman, for instruction in agriculture, mechanical arts and natural sciences, includes an agricultural college, an experiment station and a school of science.
The reciprocal method was adopted in 1738 by a commission of the French Academy (Memoires de l'academie des sciences, (1738).
The investigation of triangles and other figures drawn upon the surface of a sphere is all-important in the sciences of astronomy, geodesy and geography.
The preparation of a complete critical edition has been undertaken by the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
The university includes a college of arts and sciences, a school of commerce, an art depart ment and colleges of law and of music. In 1910 the university had 51 instructors and 385 students.
Nor are its criticisms limited to theology alone: its care extends to philosophy, history and the natural sciences.
But a new system of musical notation which he thought he had discovered was unfavourably received by the Academie des sciences, where it was read in August 1742, and he was unable to obtain pupils.
The system of notation (by figures) concerning which he read a paper before the Academie des Sciences, August 22, 1742, was ingenious, but practically worse than useless, and failed to attract attention, though the paper was published in 1 743 under the title of Dissertation sur la musique moderne.
le duc regnant de SaxeCoburg et Gotha sur la theorie des probabilites appliquee aux sciences morales et politiques (of which Sir J.
The next years were much occupied with scientific work, especially the study of heat, light and electricity, on which he presented memoirs to the Academie des Sciences, but the academicians were horrified at his temerity in differing from Newton, and, though acknowledging his industry, would not receive him among them.
The laborious enterprise of drawing up the famous Tables du Cadastre was entrusted to his direction in 1792, and in 1794 he was appointed professor of the mathematical sciences at the Ecole Polytechnique, becoming director at the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees four years later.
I I), and for this discovery she received a gold medal from the King of Denmark, and was elected (1848) to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and (1850) to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
A society of arts and sciences (which possesses an excellent museum) was established in 1778, a royal physical society in 1850, and a society for the promotion of industry and agriculture in 1853.
At that period, and in the 19th century, Geneva was a centre of light, especially in the case of various of the physical sciences.
Zubaty) sciences might be mentioned.
Here Delambre observed and computed almost uninterruptedly, and in 17 9 0 obtained for his Tables of Uranus the prize offered by the academy of sciences, of which body he was elected a member two years later.
Lalande's Astronomie (1792), and republished in an improved form by the bureau of longitudes in 1817; Methodes analytiques pour la determination d'un arc du meridien (1799); Tables du soleil (publiees par le bureau des longitudes) (1806); Rapport historique sur les progres des sciences mathematiques depuis l'an 1789 (181o); A brege d'astronomie (1813); Astronomic theorique et pratique (1814); &c.
des sciences, t.
des sciences, x.
of Sciences, iv.
In 1826 he was elected to the Academie des Sciences, and in the following year was deputy for the department of the Aude.
The academy of sciences, founded in 1872, celebrated the bicentenary of the raising of the siege of Vienna by Sobieski by publishing the valuable Acta Joannis' III.
He calculated an orbit for the comet of 1 759 (Halley's), reduced Lacaille's observations of 515 zodiacal stars, and was, in 1763, elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
1 7791 7 82); Lettres sur l'origine des sciences (1777); Lettres sur l'Atlantide de Platon (1779); and Traite de l'astronomie indienne et orientale (1787).
Notices of his life are contained in the Eloges by Merard de Saint Just, Delisle de Salles, Lalande and Lacretelle; in a memoir by Arago, read the 26th of February 1844 before the Academie des Sciences, and published in Notices biographiques, t.
The philosophical works, occupying the first six and the last of the twenty-one volumes, are generally divided according to the Aristotelian scheme of the sciences, and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works, with supplementary discussions depending on the questions then agitated, and occasionally divergences from the opinions of the master.
xxiv., from which it was copied and reprinted in the Ada Eruditorum (1707), and also in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences at Paris; General Laws of Nature and Motion (1705), a work which is commended by Wolfius as illustrating and rendering easy the writings of Galileo and Huygens, and the Principia of Newton; An Institution of Fluxions, containing the First Principles, Operations, and Applications of that admirable Method, as invented by Sir Isaac Newton (1706).
FREDERIC WILLIAM MAITLAND (1850-1906), English jurist and historian, son of John Gorham Maitland, was born on the 28th of May 1850, and educated at Eton and Trinity, Cambridge, being bracketed at the head of the moral sciences tripos of 1872, and winning a Whewell scholarship for international law.
In these schools the subjects of study included mathematics and natural sciences, geography and history, and modern languages (especially French), with riding, fencing and dancing; Latin assumed a subordinate place, and classical composition in prose or verse was not considered a sufficiently courtly accomplishment.
More important still was the growing perception of the general uniformity of nature, which had forced itself with increasing insistence upon men's minds as the study of the natural sciences progressed in the 17th and 18th centuries.
He was decorated with the grand cross of the Legion of Honour, and became a member of the French Academy of Sciences.
He took much interest in natural philosophy, and presented various papers before the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of which he was one of the founders and, from 1780 to 1790, the first president.
Becoming interested in terrestrial magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugenie" on her voyage round the world in 1851-1853.
of Glasgow University in 1887 and elected a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1900.
In 1786 he was admitted a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences; in 1805 the king of Prussia conferred upon him the honorary title of a privy-councillor.
Bergman somehow neglected it, and this caused for a time a reluctance on Scheele's part to become acquainted with that savant, but the paper, through the instrumentality of Anders Johann Retzius (1742-1821), was ultimately communicated to the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm.
In 1775, the year in which he was elected into the Stockholm Academy of Sciences, he left Stockholm for Kdping, a small place on Lake Malar, where he became provisor and subsequently proprietor of a pharmacy.
Of the pieces preserved by his desire the most valuable is his tract on the history of astronomy, which he himself described as a "fragment of a great work"; it was doubtless a portion of the "connected history of the liberal sciences and elegant arts" which, we are told, he had projected in early life.
Similarly, he is of opinion that some probation, even in the higher and more difficult sciences, might be enforced as a condition of exercising any liberal profession, or becoming a candidate for any honourable office.
(1875) of the Verhandelingen of the Amsterdam Academy of Sciences, Bierens de Haan has given a list of 553 tables of logarithms. A previous paper of the same kind, containing notices of some of the tables, was published by him in the Verslagen en Mededeelingen of the same academy (Afd.
Like many other natural sciences, this study dawned among the Greeks.
In order to illustrate the grateful services which palaeontology through restoration may render to the related earth sciences let us imagine a vast continent of the past wholly unknown in its physical features, elevation, climate, configuration, but richly represented by fossil remains.
The history of this science, like that of all physical sciences, covers two parallel lines of development which have acted and reacted upon each other - namely, progress in exploration, research and discovery, and progress in philosophic interpretation.
IV.-Relations Of Palaeontology To Other Physical Earth Sciences Geology and Palaeophysiography.
A position as state official, at first as associate of the academy of sciences and secretary of the academy of arts, afterwards as secretary of the philosophical section of the academy of sciences, gave him ease and leisure.
He was finally elected a member of the Academie des Sciences morales et politiques on the 11th of December 1897, in place of the duc d'Aumale, of whose life he wrote an account (vol.
He had been elected a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques, re-established in 1832, and in 1837 was made the permanent secretary; he was also elected a member of the Academic Francaise in 1836, and sought no further honours.
See the eulogy of Mignet by Victor Duruy, delivered on entering the Academie Francaise on the 18th of June 1885, and the notice by Jules Simon, read before the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques on the 7th of November 1885.
of the Inductive Sciences, i.
des Sciences, iv.
Olcott, she founded the " Theosophical Society "with the object of (I) forming a universal brotherhood of man,(2) studying and making known the ancient religions, philosophies and sciences, (3) investigating the laws of nature and developing the divine powers latent in man.
des sciences math.
Elected on the 17th of November 1830 a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he took part in its first grand meeting; in 1832, he delivered his famous oration on Kazinczy, and in 1836 that on his former opponent Daniel Berzsenyi.
des Sciences morales et politiques, xxxii.
To suppose this preface, presupposing many sciences, to have been written in 356, when the Meteorologica had been already commenced, would be absurd; but equally absurd would it be to reject that date on account of the preface, which even a modern author often writes long after his book.
Aristotle rightly used all the sciences of his day, and especially his own physics, as a basis of his metaphysics.
Acting on this hint, not Aristotle but the Peripatetics inferred that all logic is an instrument (6pyavov) of all sciences; and by the time of Andronicus, who was one of them and sometimes called " the eleventh from Aristotle," the order, LogicPhysics-Metaphysics, had become established pretty much as we have it now.
The reason is that Aristotle was primarily a metaphysician half for and half against Plato, occupied himself with metaphysics all his philosophical life, made the science of things the universal basis of all sciences without destroying their independence, and so gradually brought round philosophy from universal forms to individual substances.
Aristotle calls all these investigations sciences (brcaT7)µac); but he also uses the term " sciences " in a narrower sense in consequence of a classification of their objects, which pervades his writings, into things necessary and things contingent, as follows: (A) The necessary (TO iv5Ex6yEvov i.AAws 'xEtv), what must be; subdivided into: (1) Absolutely (airX&os), e.g.
I' 2-3, K 3), more frequently he extends it to all three speculative philosophies (E 1, 1026 a 18, T peis Eta, cbxXoc04 iac OEcepujru ai, paOu,uaruo i, 4 wotei j, No- Ao-ycK r j), and to all three practical philosophies, as we see from the constant use of the phrase " political philosopher " in the Ethics; and in short applies it to all sciences except productive science or art.
He means that a sophist like Protagoras will teach superficially anything as wisdom for money; and that even a dialectician like Plato will write a dialogue, such as the Republic, nominally about justice, but really about all things from the generality of the form of good, instead of from appropriate moral principles; but that a primary philosopher selects as a definite subject all things as such without interfering with the special sciences of different things each in its kind (Met.
Aristotle at once maintains the primacy of metaphysics and vindicates the independence of the special sciences.
This is the real order of Aristotle's system, based on his own theory and classification of sciences.
It is a commentator's blunder to suppose that the founder of logic elaborated it into a system, and then applied it to the sciences.
He really left the Peripatetics to combine his scattered discourses and treatises into a system, to call it logic, and logic Organon, and to put it first as the instrument of sciences; and it was the Stoics who first called logic a science, and assigned it the first place in their triple classification of science into logic, physics, ethics.
4, 1 359 b To; cf, 1 35 6 b 9, 1 357 a 30, b 25); and in the Metaphysics he evidently refers to it as " the science which considers demonstration and science," which he distinguishes from the three speculative sciences, mathematics, physics and primary philosophy (Met.
The Analytics then, which from the beginning claims to deal with science, is a science of sciences, without however forming any part of the classification.
Dialectic is useful, for exercise, for conversation and for philosophical sciences, where by being critical it has a road to principles.
A year later he was entrusted with a course of chemical instruction at Miilhausen, and he remained in that town till 1865 as professor at the Ecole Superieure des Sciences.
The academy of sciences.
des sciences de St Petersbourg (1866), and " Entwickelungsgeschichte des Amphioxus lanceolatus," ibid.
Milne-Edwards, papers in the Annales des sciences naturelles (1841-1860).
de Lacaze-Duthiers, papers in the Annales des sciences naturelles, e.g.
The metaphysical or ontological part of psychology is in Wundt's view the actual part, and with this the science of nature and the science of mind are to be brought into relation, and thus constituted as far as possible philosophical sciences.
At the revolution of 1830 he was able to return to France, when he re-entered the Institute of France, of which he had been an original member, being admitted to the Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
The Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences has a museum in the public library building.
In 1833 he was appointed chevalier of the Legion of Honour, and in 1836 member of the Academy of Moral Sciences.
Professor Curie, who was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1905, was run over by a dray and killed instantly in Paris on the 19th of April 1906.
The educational institutions are numerous and of a high order, including a technical high school (with about 1100 students), which enjoys the privilege of conferring the degrees of doctor of engineering, doctor of technical sciences, &c., a veterinary college, a political-economic institution (Gehestiftung), with library, a school of architects, a royal and four municipal gymnasia, numerous lower grade and popular schools, the royal conservatorium for music and drama, and a celebrated academy of painting.
resolutions passed by international congresses or other congresses relating to agriculture or to sciences.
The prizes shall be awarded as follows: For physical science and chemistry, by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; for physiological or medical work, by the Caroline Institution at Stockholm; for literature, by the Stockholm Academy, and for peace work, by a committee of five members elected by the Norwegian Storthing.
He built temples, theatres, and mausoleums, promoted the arts and sciences, and bestowed honours and salaries upon the teachers of rhetoric and philosophy.
Peter attached himself to it as a volunteer sailorman, "Peter Mikhailov," so as to have greater facility for learning ship-building and other technical sciences.
One while he devoted himself to the sciences, " perfecting himself in music, arithmetic, geometry and ' Life, P. 93.
She read Latin and Greek, was a proficient in music, and in the sciences so far as they were then accessible.
In 1847 he began to devote his attention to astronomy; and from 1852 to 1861 he discovered fourteen asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, on which account he received the grand astronomical prize from the Academy of Sciences.
The mythic and religious legends of the people were preserved in chants, handed down from generation to generation; and in like poetic form was kept the knowledge of the people of botany, medicine and other sciences.
But with the decline of dogmatic belief and the spread of religious doubt - as the special sciences also grow more general, and the natural sciences become more speculative about matter and force, evolution and teleology - men begin to wonder again about the nature and origin of things, just as it was the decay of polytheism in Greek religion and his own discoveries in natural science which impelled Aristotle to metaphysical questions.
While he regards association as lying at the basis of all knowledge, he does not think it sufficient, and objects to Hume that he does not account for necessity, nor for substance and causation as known in the sciences.
Thi is Wundt's view, but only in the sense that reason passes from ideas to `'ideals," whether in the special sciences or in metaphysics.
When we combine his view of Nature under the first head that whatever is inferred in the natural sciences is ideas, with his view of knowledge under the second head that knowledge is experience, and experience, individual or universal, is of duality of subject and object in the unity of experience, it follows that all we could know from the data would be one experience of the race, one subject consisting of individual subjects, and in Nature single objects in the unity of this universal experience; and beyond we should be able to form conceptions dependent on the perceptions of individual experience in the unity of universal experience: that is all.
The argument may be shortly put as follows: As the Nature which is the object of mechanics and all natural sciences is not natural substances, but phenomena and ideas; as mass is not substance, and force is not cause; as activity is not in the physical but in the psychical world; as the laws of Nature are not facts but teleological conceptions, and Nature is teleological, as well as not mechanical but kinematical; as the category of causality is to be referred to " conation "; as, in short, " mind is active and matter inert," what then?
He must ask what are known things, and especially what has been discovered in the sciences; in mechanics, in order to find the essence of bodies which is neglected by idealism; in mental science, in order to understand consciousness which is neglected by materialism.
We want an answer to this question - What must we know by the senses in order to enable us to know what we infer by reason in the sciences?
See memoir by Emile Delerot and Arsene Legrelle in Memoires de la societe des sciences morales.
While thus engaged he determined to trace the history and describe the existing condition of each of the arts and sciences on which he was lecturing, being perhaps incited by the Bibliothecae of Albrecht von Haller.
In 1844 the British Museum possessed three, and the sale catalogue of the Rivoli Collection, which passed in 1846 to the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, includes a single specimen - probably the first taken to America.
Subsequently he became president of the Mechanics' Institute in Boston, and also of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
In 1904 he was the first British subject to receive the Lavoisier medal of the French Academy of Sciences, and in 1906 he was the first to be awarded the Matteucci medal of the Italian Society of Sciences.
Notices of Price's ethical system occur in Mackintosh's Progress of Ethical Philosophy, Jouffroy's Introduction to Ethics, Whewell's History of Moral Philosophy in England; Bain's Mental and Moral Sciences.
sciences and all the arts of peace, enjoyed only a brief pontificate, but his reign is not without importance, if only as an example of the generous patronage which the papacy - even in its darkest days - has lavished on literature and science.
He introduced a strictly ordered administration, encouraged the sciences, and enlarged the Vatican library, housing it in a splendid building erected for the purpose in the Vatican itself.
Rouse Ball, An Essay on Newton's Principia (1893); Whewell, History of the Inductive Sciences (1837); J.
In this work the laws or uniformities of the physical universe are dealt with in the articles on the various sciences.
to supervise education in Rome and the Papal States; since 1870 it has been exclusively concerned with the Catholic universities, so far as the sacred sciences are concerned.
It is the seat of Fort Worth University (coeducational), a Methodist Episcopal institution, which was established as the Texas Wesleyan College in 1881, received its present name in 1889, comprises an academy, a college of liberal arts and sciences, a conservatory of music, a law school, a medical school, a school of commerce, and a department of oratory and elocution, and in 1907 had 802 students; the Polytechnic College (coeducational; Methodist Episcopal, South), which was established in 1890, has preparatory, collegiate, normal, commercial, and fine arts departments and a summer school, and in 1906 had 12 instructors and (altogether) 696 students; the Texas masonic manual training school; a kindergarten training school; St Andrews school (Protestant Episcopal), and St Ignatius Academy (Roman Catholic).
His success in winning the prize of a thousand crowns offered for a dissertation on the cause of gravity by the Academy of Sciences of Paris secured his return to his native land in 1731.
Like most of the great metaphysicians of the 17th century, Malebranche interested himself also in questions of mathematics and natural philosophy, and in 1699 was admitted an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences.
Podmore, Studies in Psychical Research (1897); Proceedings American Society for Psychical Research (1889, Report on Phantasms and Presentiments); Annales des sciences psychiques (Jan.
Soc., 1905; Packard, Memoirs of National Academy of Sciences (1888); Pickering, Journ.
des sciences religieuses, x.
He retained, however, till his death the office of professor in the faculty of sciences in the Ecole Normale, to which he had been appointed in 1810.
The necessary royal assent was in 1823 refused to the election of Hachette to the Academie des Sciences, and it was not till 1831, after the Revolution, that he obtained that honour.
At the age of thirteen he entered King's College, Aberdeen, where the first prize in mathematics and physical and moral sciences fell to him.
He takes a keen interest in nature, and in the natural sciences, studying them in a way that was then new in Rome, while the small esteem in which studies of this kind were held does not deter him from endeavouring to be of service to his fellow countrymen (xxii.
Jacob Grimm, in the first paragraph of c. 37 of his Deutsche Mythologie, writing with his own fellow-countrymen in view, has commended Pliny for condescending, in the midst of his survey of the sciences of botany and zoology, to tell of the folklore of plants and animals, and has even praised him for the pains that he bestowed on his style.
It has departments of arts, sciences and medicine, and a library of 74,800 volumes and 3 2,936 pamphlets housed in the Billings Library, designed by H.
The Academy of Sciences and Arts on a vacancy nominates three candidates, from which one is selected by the king.
Six years previously he had been made a corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, and in 1830 he was elected as one of its eight foreign associates in place of Davy.
He founded the university of Halle, and the Academy of Sciences at Berlin; welcomed and protected Protestant refugees from France and elsewhere; and lavished money on the erection of public buildings.
Rabbe, L' Abbe Simon Foucher (1867); C. Jourdain in Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques (1875), pp. 557-559.
We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences.
Murithienne, soc. valaisienne des sciences nat., xxvii.
Massena, of the short-lived Roman republic; and he thence joined the expedition to Egypt, taking part with his friend Berthollet as well in various operations of the war as in the scientific labours of the Egyptian Institute of Sciences and Arts; they accompanied Bonaparte to Syria, and returned with him in 1798 to France.
The state has two Roman Catholic universities, Munich and Wurzburg, and a Lutheran, Erlangen; in Munich there are a polytechnic, an academy of sciences and an academy of art.
On the 13th of October 1825, he was succeeded by his son, Louis I, an enlightened patron of the arts and sciences, who transferred the university of Landshut to Munich, which, by his magnificent taste in building, he transformed into one of the most beautiful cities of the continent.
Of the numerous institutions for the encouragement of the sciences and the fine arts, the following are strictly national - the Royal Academy of Sciences (1855), the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1854), the National Academy of the Plastic Arts, the Royal School of Music, the National Archives, besides various other national collections and museums. Provincial scientific societies exist at Middelburg, Utrecht, 's Hertogenbosch and Leeuwarden, and there are private and municipal associations, institutions and collections in a large number of the smaller towns.
Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
Imp. des Sciences de St-Petersbourg, 7 serie, 36 (1888); Dittrich, "Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Helvellineen," Cohn's Beitr.
of Arts and Sciences, vol.
of Sciences, vol.
Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
He was made a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1895.
In 1756 he presented a Memoire sur le mouvement des projectiles to the Academy of Sciences, who elected him a member.
Borda contributed a long series of valuable memoirs to the Academy of Sciences.
Academies vied with each other in enrolling Leverrier among their members; the Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal; the king of Denmark sent him the order of the Dannebrog; he was named officer in the Legion of Honour, and preceptor to the comte de Paris; a chair of astronomy was created for his benefit at the Faculty of Sciences; he was appointed adjunct astronomer to the Bureau of Longitudes.
de l'Ac. des Sciences, tom.
In 1850 Homeyer was elected a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, in the Transactions of which he published various papers exhibiting profound learning (Ober die Heimat, 1852; Genealogic der Handschriften des Sachsenspiegels, 1859; Die Stadtbiicher des Mittelalters, 1860; Der Dreissigste, 1864, &c.).
Phillips Academy, opened in 1778 (incorporated in 1780), was the first incorporated academy of the state; it was founded through the efforts of Samuel Phillips (1752-1802, president of the Massachusetts senate in 1785-1787 and in 1788-1801, and lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts in 1801-1802), by his father, Samuel Phillips (1715-1790), and his uncle, John Phillips (1719-1795), "for the purpose of instructing youth, not only in English and Latin grammar, writing, arithmetic and those sciences wherein they are commonly taught, but more especially to learn them the great end and real business of living."
This achievement won for him, in 1878, the prix Lacaze and membership of the Academy of Sciences in France, and the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in England.
He started as an apothecary, but taking up teaching he acted as chemical assistant at the faculty of sciences of his native town, and then became professor of chemistry at the royal college and school of pharmacy and at the faculty of sciences.
Thenard in the chair of chemistry at the faculty of sciences in Paris, and in 1851 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the College de France, where he had M.
Foremost among German academies is the Academy of Sciences (Akademie der Wissenschaften) in Berlin, founded in 1700 on Leibnitzs great plan and opened in 17ff.
870 1606 sciences at Munich, 57 211 I 322 648 founded in 1759,
59 255 I 844 1709 divided into three 57 263 I 384 1578 classes, philosophical, 31 625 320 1382 historical and physical, ___________ and especially famous for its historical research; (2) the Society of Sciences (Geselischaft der Wissenschaften) in GÃ¶ttingen, founded in 1742; (3) that of Erfurt, founded 1758; (4) Grlitz (1779) and (5) the Royal Saxon Society of Sciences (Konigliche sdchsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften), founded in Leipzig in 1846.
The Prussian Academy of Sciences now made itself responsible for the continuance of the work, and a board of direction was appointed, the presidents of which were successively G.
38-40) All books concerned with the religious sciences and with ethics are submitted to preliminary censorship, and in, addition to this ecclesiastics have to obtain a personal authorization for all their books and for the acceptance of the editorship of a periodical (Nos.
des Sciences de Danemark, 1894, p. 148; (19) Kr.
Of these the most notable is the Fontes rerum Austriacarum, published under the auspices of the Historical Commission of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Vienna; the series, of which the first volume was published in 1855, is divided into two parts: (i.) Scriptores, of which the 9th vol.
For special study of particular sciences see F.
Returning to Germany in 1837 he was appointed archaeologist at the Royal Museum of Berlin, and in 1844 was chosen a member of the Academy of Sciences, and a professor in the university.
In 1728 he was elected into the French Academy of Sciences, and two years later into the Royal Society of London.
I he so-called sciences of magic, astrology and alchemy still flourish.
The need for a more spiritual and intellectual interpretation of the pantheon still remained, and gave rise to a number of theological sciences.
Amongst numerous other institutions for the furtherance of science and training of various kinds may be mentioned the large polytechnic schools; the high school for agriculture and veterinary art; the royal library; the royal society of sciences; the museum of northern antiquities; the society of northern antiquaries, &c. The art museums of Denmark are not considerable, except the museum of Thorvaldsen, at Copenhagen, but much is done to provide first-rate training in the fine arts and their application to industry through the Royal Academy of Arts, and its schools.
The society of sciences, that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanical societies, &c., publish their transactions and proceedings, but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I.
The university of Copenhagen, which had been destroyed by fire in 1728, was reopened in 1742, and under the auspices of the historian Hans Gram (1685-1748), who founded the Danish Royal Academy of Sciences, it inspired an active intellectual life.
The Academy of Sciences, which had fallen into contempt during his father's reign, he restored, infusing into it vigorous life; and he did more to promote elementary education than any of his predecessors.
If however the logical method of pragmatism is critically applied to all the sciences, many doctrines will be cut out which have little or no "pragmatic value."
Lagrange, in 1813, Poinsot was elected to his place in the Academie des Sciences; and in 1840 he became a member of the superior council of public instruction.
Since 1877 he had been professor of comparative law at the free school of the political sciences.
In 1901 he was elected member of the Academie, des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
At the head of the scientific societies stands the academy of sciences, founded in 1825, for the encouragement of the study of the Hungarian language and the various sciences except theology.
In 1766 he received a gold medal from the Academy of Sciences for an essay on the best means of lighting a large town; and among his early work were papers on the analysis of gypsum, on thunder, on the aurora and on congelation, and a refutation of the prevalent belief that water by repeated distillation is converted into earth.
In 1890 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
At one time Erfurt had a university, of which the charter dated from 1392; but it was suppressed in 1816, and its funds devoted to other purposes, among these being the endowment of an institution founded in 1758 and now called the royal academy of sciences, and the support of the royal library, which now contains 60,000 volumes and over loco manuscripts.
In the faculty of sciences, the three subjects of examination selected may, under a recent regulation, be taken separately.
In the faculty of sciences a candidate for the doctorate may submit two theses, or else submit one thesis and undergo an oral examination.
A myth (preserved by Berosus) records that Oannes (Hea) the fish-god came up from that part of the Erythraean Sea which borders on Babylonia, to teach the inhabitants of that country letters and sciences and arts of every kind.
2) gave it also the wider significance of the ultimate principles of thought which are behind all special sciences (e.g.
Besides philosophical studies, where he now added Aristotle to Plato, he read Homer and the Greek tragedians, made extracts from books, attended lectures on physiology, and dabbled in other sciences.
He interested himself in agriculture, horticulture and mining, which were of paramount importance to the welfare of the duchy, and out of these interests sprang his own love for the natural sciences, which took up so much of his time in later years.
The fact remains that when accepted tradition conflicts with more reliable evidence it stands upon a level by itself; 8 and it is certain that a compilation based upon the knowledge which modern research - whether in the exact sciences or in history - has gained would have neither meaning for nor influence upon the people whom it was desired to instruct.
He has published, besides the works already mentioned, Traite de mecanique rationnelle (1858); De l'analyse infinitesimale (1860, revised ed., 1881); Des pentes economiques en chemin de fer (1861); Emploi des eaux d'egout en agriculture (1869); Principes de l'assainissement des villes and Traite d'assainissement industriel (1870); Essai sur la philosophise des sciences (1896); La Question d'Egypte (1905); besides some remarkable "Pensees" contributed to the Contemporain under the pseudonym of "Alceste."
In 1882 he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1890 to the French Academy in succession to Emile Augier.
After five years he quitted the army and was admitted in 1723 a member of the Academy of Sciences.
On his release he returned to Berlin, and thence to Paris, where he was elected director of the Academy of Sciences in 1742, and in the following year was admitted into the Academy.
Returning to Berlin in 1744, at the desire of Frederick II., he was chosen president of the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1746.
Aihong other similar organizations are an Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences (1863); a national library, established in 1901, and having in 1908 about 40,000 volumes, including the finest collection in the world of materials for Cuban history; an anthropological society; various medical societies; and a Bar association.
A idler, under the auspices of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna, visited Sokotra, Abd-el-Kuri and some other islets of the group to investigate their geology and languages.
Jefferson carried with him from the college of William and Mary at Williamsburg, in his twentieth year, a good knowledge of Latin, Greek and French (to which he soon added Spanish, Italian and Anglo-Saxon), and a familiarity with the higher mathematics and natural sciences only possessed, at his age, by men who have a rare natural taste and ability for those studies.
In 1808 he became astronomer to the Bureau des Longitudes; and when the Faculte des Sciences was instituted in 1809 he was appointed professeur de la mecanique rationelle.
In 1832 he went to the university of Copenhagen, and shortly afterwards turned his attention to the natural sciences, especially geology.
In 1840 he was recalled to Paris by his appointment to the chair of chemistry in the Ecole Polytechnique; at the same time he was elected a member of the Academie des Sciences, in the chemical section, in room of P. J.
of the Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences.
John Dollond, to whom the Copley medal of the Royal Society had been the first inventor of the achromatic telescope; but it was ruled by Lord Mansfield that" it was not the person who locked his invention in his scrutoire that ought to profit for such invention, but he who brought it forth for the benefit of mankind."3 In 1747 Leonhard Euler communicated to the Berlin Academy of Sciences a memoir in which he endeavoured to prove the possibility of correcting both the chromatic and.
It was in vain that the French Academy of Sciences offered prizes for perfect disks of optical flint glass.
He devoted himself to the study of philosophy, hoping to regenerate the Italian people by withdrawing them from romanticism and rhetoric, and turning their attention to the positive sciences.
On the establishment of the national institute he was elected a member of the second group (moral and political sciences), and was soon afterwards employed in the office of the ministry of foreign affairs, profiting by his experience to write his Motifs des guerres et des traites de paix sous Louis XI V., Louis X V.
By the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences he was made correspondent (1857) and foreign associate (the first Englishman since Macaulay) (1864).
In this way the Presocratics and Sophists, and still more Socrates and Plato, threw out hints on sense and reason, on inferential processes and scientific methods which may be called anticipations of logic. But Aristotle was the first to conceive of reasoning itself as a definite subject of a special science, which he called analytics or analytic science, specially designed to analyse syllogism and especially demonstrative syllogism, or science, and to be in fact a science of sciences.
On the other hand, the demonstrations of mathematical sciences of his time, and the logical forms of deduction evinced in Plato's dialogues, provided him with admirable examples of deduction, which is also the inference most capable of analysis.
Logic is related to all the sciences, because it considers the common inferences and varying methods used in investigating different subjects.
But it is most closely related to the sciences of metaphysics and psychology, which form with it a triad of sciences.
These three sciences, of the objects of mind, of the operations of mind, of the processes used in the inferences of mind, are differently, but closely related, so that they are constantly confused.
The fact is that our primary consciousness of all mental operations is hardly equal to our secondary consciousness of the processes of the one operation of inference from premises to conclusions permeating long trains and pervading whole sciences.
Logic has to consider the things we know, the minds by which we know them from sense, memory and experience to inference, and the sciences which systematize and extend our knowledge of things; and having considered these facts, the logician must make such a science of inference as will explain the power and the poverty of human knowledge.
But the crowning absurdity is that, if all universals were hypothetical, Barbara in the first figure would become a purely hypothetical syllogism - a consequence which seems innocent enough until we remember that all universal affirmative conclusions in all sciences would with their premises dissolve into mere hypothesis.
In his definite classification of the sciences,'" into First Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, it has no place.
The speculative sciences, indeed, are classified according to their relation to form, pure, abstract or concrete, i.e.
In the sphere of the concrete sciences where law obtains only ws Eiri To 7roX6 this ideal of science can clearly find only a relative satisfaction with large reserves.
pr i nc i ples of special sciences, their " positions," viz.
Axioms, on the other hand, in which the sciences interconnect" through the employment of them in a parity of relation, seem to be implicit indeed in the psychological mechanism, but to come to a kind of explicitness in the first reflective reaction upon it, and without reference to any particular content of it.
Where new conceptions emerge, the imperfection of the instruments, mechanical and methodological, of the sciences renders them unfruitful, until their rediscovery in a later age.
sciences in which the substantive achievement of the school was to be found.
Aristotle was optimistic of great achievements over the whole range of the sciences.
But the divorce of science of nature from mathematics, the failure of biological inquiry to reach so elementary a conception as that of the nerves, the absence of chemistry from the circle of the sciences, disappointed the promise of the dawn and the relative achievement of the noon-day.
The mathematical sciences, at least, had not proved disappointing.
So long as the relation of the nominal to the real essence has no other background than Locke's doctrine of perception, the conclusion that what Kant afterwards calls analytical judgments a priori and synthetic judgments a posteriori exhaust the field follows inevitably, with its corollary, which Locke himself has the courage to draw, that the natural sciences are in strictness impossible.
Mill aspired after a doctrine of method such as should satisfy the needs of the natural sciences, notably experimental physics and chemistry as understood in the first half of the 19th century and, mutatis mutandis, of the moral sciences naturalistically construed.
Pure thinking or philosophizing is with a view to philosophy or knowledge as an interconnected system of all sciences or departmental forms of knowledge, the mark of knowledge being its identity for all thinking minds.
The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences embraces twenty-six departments, of which those of music, philology and the fine arts have each more than l000 members; the total membership of all departments in 1906 was 5894.
In 1905-1906 there were 497 students in the college of liberal arts, sciences and engineering, 548 in the preparatory school and 26 in the conservatory of music and arts, all in Fayetteville; 171 in the medical school and 46 in the law school in Little Rock; and 240 in the branch normal college at Pine Bluff.
Three years later he was elected to the Berlin Academy of Sciences, which in 1754 put him in charge of its chemical laboratory and in 1760 appointed him director of its physics class.
8 of California Academy of Sciences; consult also its Proceedings, Memoirs, and Occasional Papers; G.
These discoveries, subsequently amplified in his Le Stelle cadenti (1873) and in his Norme per le osservazioni dellestelle cadenti dei bolidi (1896) gained for him the Lalande prize of the Academy of Sciences, Paris, in 1868, and the gold medal and foreign associateship of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1872.
He raised the glory of Ferrara to its highest point, and was the patron of Tasso and Guarini, favouring, as the princes of his house had always done, the arts and sciences.
Pajol: Pajol general en chef (Paris, 1874); Thomas, Les Grands cavaliers du premier empire (Paris, 1892); and Choppin, in the Journal des sciences militaires (1890).
The learned men were monks and priests, the universities were Church institutions, and theology was the queen of the sciences.
Theology is the queen of the sciences, and nothing should be taught in school or university which contradicts its conclusions.
Its control of the sciences embroiled it with its own philosophers and scholars, while saints and pure-minded ecclesiastics attempted, without success, its reform from within.
At first it was persecuted by the state, then established by it, and finally dominated over it; so its teaching was at first alien to philosophy and despised by it, next was accepted by it and given form and rights through it, and finally became queen of the sciences as theology and ruled over the whole world of human knowledge.
But the triumph by its completeness ensured new conflicts; from the disorder of the middle ages arose states which ultimately asserted complete autonomy, and in like fashion new intellectual powers came forth which ultimately established the independence of the sciences.
des sciences mathematiques en Italie (1838), ii.
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