Does any section of science consider time travel a possibility?
Groups of people will do science this same way.
They didn't know about the science of surrogacy back then - but then, they didn't know about cesarean delivery either.
Though cases like these are not really how the science will be used, they illustrate the principle.
This is not science fiction.
The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.
Randy, a science buff, was in the top third of the graduates and was also his class president.
Dr. Bell is proficient in many fields of science, and has the art of making every subject he touches interesting, even the most abstruse theories.
Others contend, and feel they have science to support, that humans can live beyond five hundred.
The ability of science and technology to improve human life is known to us.
When Lotze published these works, medical science was still much under the influence of Schelling's philosophy of nature.
A co-ordinate woman's college, the William Smith school for women, opened in 1908, was endowed in 1906 by William Smith of Geneva, who at the same time provided for a Hall of Science and for further instruction in science, especially in biology and psychology.
His residence was generally divided into two parts - one his workshop for science, the other his reception-room for society.
When computers are in your clothes, medicine, eyeglasses, wallet, tires, walls, makeup, jewelry, cookware, tennis shoes, binoculars, and everything else you own, those things will do more than you can imagine—the stuff of science fiction.
With a penchant for medicine and science and my magic, I can cure what others could not.
This generation inclines a little to congratulate itself on being the last of an illustrious line; and in Boston and London and Paris and Rome, thinking of its long descent, it speaks of its progress in art and science and literature with satisfaction.
This contradiction arises from the fact that military science assumes the strength of an army to be identical with its numbers.
It's science one-oh-one.
It also becomes clear that only where such mental life really appears need we assign an independent existence, but that the purposes of everyday life as well as those of science are equally served if we deprive the material things outside of us of an independence, and assign to them merely a connected existence through the universal substance by the action of which alone they can appear to us.
He looked at the slight Natural with dark hair and eyes who happened to have a doctorate in every type of science he could name.
Vico was the first thinker who asked, Why have we a science of nature, but no science of history?
We are most interested when science reports what those men already know practically or instinctively, for that alone is a true humanity, or account of human experience.
Something about science experiments, Megan said, poking her head in.
Was she really a one night stand and science experiment he enjoyed toying with, like she told Damian?
Military science says that the more troops the greater the strength.
A small door—possibly leading to a bathroom or closet—was closed and blocked by one of Ully.s science toys the size of a copy machine.
Surely some would have devoted a life to science, dissecting the Mayan language or the searching out demise of the Anasazi Empire.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
From the standpoint from which the science of history now regards its subject on the path it now follows, seeking the causes of events in man's freewill, a scientific enunciation of those laws is impossible, for however man's free will may be restricted, as soon as we recognize it as a force not subject to law, the existence of law becomes impossible.
He swiped a badge to enter what she imagined was the Mecca of all science labs, with rows of stainless steel, machines, computers, and glass.
The science of Descartes was physics in all its branches, but especially as applied to physiology.
You can't trust the good guys, because they'll use you for science experiments, and the bad guys put you in Hell.
But just as the subject of every science is the manifestation of this unknown essence of life while that essence itself can only be the subject of metaphysics, even the manifestation of the force of free will in human beings in space, in time, and in dependence on cause forms the subject of history, while free will itself is the subject of metaphysics.
Science, he says, may be compared to a tree; metaphysics is the root, physics is the trunk, and the three chief branches are mechanics, medicine and Ouvres, viii.
Science would solve everything, prosperity would grow indefinitely, and people would thrive.
The book will contain four essays, all in French, with the general title of Project of a Universal science, capable of raising our nature to its highest perfection; also Dioptrics, Meteors and Geometry, wherein the most curious matters which the author could select as a proof of the universal science which he proposes are explained in such a way that even the unlearned may understand them.'
The highest wisdom has but one science--the science of the whole--the science explaining the whole creation and man's place in it.
From the first I was not interested in the science of numbers.
Well, go on," he continued, returning to his hobby; "tell me how the Germans have taught you to fight Bonaparte by this new science you call 'strategy.'"
The science of jurisprudence regards the state and power as the ancients regarded fire--namely, as something existing absolutely.
Religion, the common sense of mankind, the science of jurisprudence, and history itself understand alike this relation between necessity and freedom.
The Ibn Tibbon family thus rendered conspicuous services to European culture, and did much to further among Jews who did not understand Arabic the study of science and philosophy.
This will turbocharge science, which will no longer rely exclusively on slow observations in real time.
Of all the celebrated accomplishments of science, I think none is more significant than the end of certain diseases, especially the scourge of polio.
The division of labor applied to science will yield substantial results.
It is true, we are such poor navigators that our thoughts, for the most part, stand off and on upon a harborless coast, are conversant only with the bights of the bays of poesy, or steer for the public ports of entry, and go into the dry docks of science, where they merely refit for this world, and no natural currents concur to individualize them.
That assumption would destroy the possibility of the existence of laws, that is, of any science whatever.
All the contradictions and obscurities of history and the false path historical science has followed are due solely to the lack of a solution of that question.
It gives no evidence of science, he remarks, to possess a tolerable knowledge of the Roman tongue, such as once was possessed by the populace of Rome.'
He became teacher of science successively at the French gymnasium in Berlin, and at the military academy, and on the foundation of the university of Berlin in 1810 he was chosen professor of physics.
Instead of science proceeding at the slow speed of time, the only limit on its progress will be processor speed—and those two speeds hardly can be compared.
For a reply to these questions the common sense of mankind turns to the science of history, whose aim is to enable nations and humanity to know themselves.
Military science, seeing in history innumerable instances of the fact that the size of any army does not coincide with its strength and that small detachments defeat larger ones, obscurely admits the existence of this unknown factor and tries to discover it--now in a geometric formation, now in the equipment employed, now, and most usually, in the genius of the commanders.
Quinn resided in his own world, immersed in the science of things and not suited to lead.
The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
The true method of science which he possessed forced him to condemn as useless the entire form which Schelling's and Hegel's expositions had adopted, especially the dialectic method of the latter, whilst his love of art and beauty, and his appreciation of moral purposes, revealed to him the existence of a transphenomenal world of values into which no exact science could penetrate.
At the university he made rapid progress, especially in jurisprudence, though preferring the study of history, literature, juridical science and philosophy.
At odd hours of lessons she picked up a smattering of Latin, music and natural science, but most days were holidays and spent in country rambles and games with village children.
Science and faith together led him to try to make his way into the soul which he believed was born in Laura Bridgman as in every other human being.
Why not interpret at once and render intelligible the common conception originating in natural science, viz.
Why not interpret at once and render intelligible the common conception originating in natural science, viz.
In some twentieth-century science fiction visions of the future, humans created friendly robot sidekicks with data storage capacity and computational speed the human brain lacked.
I see far inland the banks which the stream anciently washed, before science began to record its freshets.
In the holy science of our order all is one, all is known in its entirety and life.
Whilst no small amount of observational work has been done in these new branches of atmospheric electricity, the science has still not developed to a considerable extent beyond preliminary stages.
You had a lab and science symposiums.
She introduced dry technicalities of science little by little, making every subject so real that I could not help remembering what she taught.
One of them is the precious science of patience, which teaches us that we should take our education as we would take a walk in the country, leisurely, our minds hospitably open to impressions of every sort.
What theory and science is possible about a matter the conditions and circumstances of which are unknown and cannot be defined, especially when the strength of the acting forces cannot be ascertained?
In regard to this question, history stands to the other sciences as experimental science stands to abstract science.
To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
It boggles the mind, especially when you consider that this science is in its infancy.
And that is how power is understood by the science of jurisprudence, that exchange bank of history which offers to exchange history's understanding of power for true gold.
Bad science fiction plots, speculating on futures which could not really happen, are the worst examples of this.
Doesn't seem like rocket science.
Gabriel didn't need to understand modern science.
Medicine isn't an exact science.
Owing to the historical past of Naples, and its social and economic condition at the end of the 17th century, the only study that really flourished there was that of law; and this soon penetrated from the courts to the university, and was raised to the level of a science.
He continued to take a keen interest in art and science.
After distinguishing himself at school in history and philosophy, he turned to the study of science.
On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.
Descartes laid down the lines on which modern philosophy and science were to build.
In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
Such in mere outline is the celebrated theory of vortices, which for about twenty years after its promulgation reigned supreme in science, and for much longer time opposed a tenacious resistance to rival doctrines.
His optical investigations are perhaps the subject in which he most contributed to the progress of science; and the lucidity of exposition which marks his Dioptrics stands conspicuous even amid the generally luminous style of his works.
There are also science and art schools.
In the Summa Catholicae Fidei contra Gentiles he shows how a Christian theology is the sum and crown of all science.
This work is in its design apologetic, and is meant to bring within the range of Christian thought all that is of value in Mahommedan science.
Fleeming Jenkin was educated at first in Scotland, but in 1846 the family went to live abroad, owing to financial straits, and he studied at Genoa University, where he took a first-class degree in physical science.
In 1817 a Roman Catholic theological faculty was added, with a seminary called the Konvikt, and there are now also faculties of law, medicine, philosophy, political economy and natural science.
Among public buildings, the Stephenson memorial hall (1879), containing a free library, art and science class-rooms, a theatre and the rooms of the Chesterfield Institute, commemorates George Stephenson, the engineer, who resided at Tapton House, close to Chesterfield, in his later life; he died here in 1848, and was buried in Trinity church.
The chief subjects of discussion were: the relations of faith and modern thought, the supply and training of the clergy, education, foreign missions, revision and "enrichment" of the Prayer-Book, the relation of the Church to "ministries of healing" (Christian Science, &c.), the questions of marriage and divorce, organization of the Anglican Church, reunion with other Churches.
Higher education is represented by the provincial university, which teaches science and mathematics, holds examinations, distributes scholarships, and grants degrees in all subjects.
In 1614 appeared the work which in the history of British science can be placed as second only to Newton's Principia.
The more one considers the condition of science at the time, and the state of the country in which the discovery took place, the more wonderful does the invention of logarithms appear.
When algebra had advanced to the point where exponents were introduced, nothing would be more natural than that their utility as a means of performing multiplications and divisions should be remarked; but it is one of the surprises in the history of science that logarithms were invented as an arithmetical improvement years before their connexion with exponents was known.
When Napier published the Canonis Descriptio England had taken no part in the advance of science, and there is no British author of the time except Napier whose name can be placed in the same rank as those of Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, or Stevinus.
In England, Robert Recorde had indeed published his mathematical treatises, but they were of trifling importance and without influence on the history of science.
in 1824 by Stephen van Rensselaer as a "school of theoretical and practical science," incorporated in 1826, and reorganized in 1849 as a general polytechnic institute.
The royal university of Parma, founded in 1601 by Ranuccio I., and reconstituted by Philip of Bourbon in 1768, has faculties in law, medicine and natural science, and possesses an observatory, and natural science collections, among which is the Eritrean Zoological Museum.
Science and Literature.-Though the university of Cordoba is the oldest but one in South America, it has made no conspicuous contribution to Argentine literature beyond the historical works of its famous rector, Gregorio Funes (1749-1830).
Both of these men made important contributions to science, and rendered an inestimable service to the country, not only through their publications but also through the interest they aroused in scientific research.
For higher and professional education there are two national universities at Buenos Aires and Cordoba, and three provincial universities, at La Plata, Santa Fe and Parana, which comprise faculties of law, medicine and engineering, in addition to the usual courses in arts and science.
There are five kinds of faculties: medicine, letters, science, law and Protestant theology.
The private faculties are at Paris (the Catholic Institute with a faculty of law); Angers (law, science and letters); Lille (law, medicine and pharmacy, science, letters); Lyons (law, science, letters); Marseilles (law); Toulouse (Catholic Institute with faculties of theology and letters).
Of the seven species of giant tortoises known to science (although at the discovery of the islands there were probably fifteen) all are indigenous, and each is confined to its own islet.
There are municipal schools of science, technology and art.
Astrology is in its nature an occult science, and there is no trace of a day of twenty-four hours among the ancient Hebrews.
He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofredus, of Hostiensis, and of Jacobus de Ravanis, the last of whom has the reputation of having first applied dialectical forms to legal science.
Science (1893); Tenison-Woods, The Fish and Fisheries of New South Wales (Sydney, 1883); Ogilvy, Catalogue of Australian Mammals (Sydney, 1892); Aflalo, Natural History of Australia (London, 1896); Flower and Lydekker, Mammals, Living and Extinct (London, 1891); J.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1866, that "we must educate our masters," 1 and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies.
Being especially interested in mathematical science, the father gave his son his first lessons; but the extraordinary mathematical powers of George Boole did not manifest themselves in early life.
Peacock's original contributions to mathematical science were concerned chiefly with the philosophy of its first principles.
But soon coming to the conclusion that engineering was not his vocation he abandoned it in favour of physical science, and in October 1878 began to attend the lectures of G.
Hertz himself gave an admirable account of the significance of his discoveries in a lecture on the relations between light and electricity, delivered before the German Society for the Advancement of Natural Science and Medicine at Heidelberg in September 1889.
By his premature death science lost one of her most promising disciples.
The "wisdom" personified by the moon-god is likewise an expression of the science of astrology in which the observation of the moon's phases is so important a factor.
But, from the national distrust of system, it has not been elaborated into a consistent metaphysic, but is rather traceable as a tendency harmonizing with the spirit of natural science.
Algiers possesses a college with schools of law, medicine, science and letters.
His most valuable contributions to science consist in the suggestion of the astatic combination of two needles for galvanometers, and in the invention of the so-called thermomultiplier used by him and M.
He founded no system; he contributed nothing of importance to philosophical science; he initiated nothing which has survived him.
OPTICS, the science of light, regarded as the medium of sight (Gr.
The university dates from 1307, and has faculties of law, science and medicine; it had 318 students in 1902-1903.
E14/YyaCa; Ev, in, €pyov, work), in physical science, a term which may be defined as accumulated mechanical work, which, however, may be only partially available for use.
"You are too good," said the master of Trinity, "to die of drinking punch in the torrid zone"; and Watson, instead of becoming, as he had flattered himself, a great orientalist, remained at home to be elected professor of chemistry, a science of which he did not at the time possess the simplest rudiments.
In 1867 and 1868 he was crowned by the Academy of Moral Science for his work on Plato and Socrates.
The strain of the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and mechanical standpoint of science.
"3 Schafer, Science Abstracts, 1901, 4, p.
Mathematics and natural science - 1,364 3,500
The senate consists of princes of the blood who have attained their majority, and of an unlimited number of senators above forty years of age, who are qualified under any one of twenty-one specified categoriesby having either held high office, or attained celebrity in science, literature, &c. In 1908 there were 318 senators exclusive of five members of the royal family.
At a subsequent period the demand for instruction in the sacrificial science called into existence a still more practical set of manuals, the so-called Kalpa-sutras, or ceremonial rules, detailing, in succinct aphorisms, the approved course of sacrificial procedure, without reference to the supposed origin or import of the several rites.
- We do not pretend that Law of Nature - the jurist's term, not of course that of inductive science - is strictly a synonym for theism.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
There is another conception of necessity which has established itself in the history of science and philosophy.
When we recollect the empiricist starting-point of science, it is curious to observe with what vehemence the average man of science now rejects free will.
Jevons's Principles of Science.
Seeley in Ecce Homo) to call Socrates the " creator of science."
He was even more definitely opposed to " final causes " than Francis Bacon, who excluded them from science but admitted them to theology.
Descartes was an expert; Bacon was the prophet of a great, if half comprehended, future; and the science they loved was struggling for its infant life against a mass of traditional prejudices, which sought to foreclose every question by confident assertions about the purposes of God and Nature.
Lotze was a man of considerable attainments in special science; perhaps he reveals here the bias of the scientific mind, and possibly even its limitations.
He holds - on grounds of fact and science - to the mechanical orderliness of nature, but claims that the Weltanschauung thus suggested may be reinterpreted in view of those undying human aspirations which MacTaggart dismisses to instant execution (unless they can dress themselves in syllogism).
He quotes pages from Mansel's Bampton Lectures in favour of his own type of agnosticism, which is to make peace between religion and science by permanently silencing the former.
Religion may " feel," like Tennyson's " man in wrath, " and may expatiate in an undefined awe; science alone is to possess the " knowable."
The element of naturalism stands for science with a leaning towards materialism (" explanation in terms of matter and motion ").
Popular scepticism - perhaps even Charles Darwin's; Huxley himself was a student of Hume - understands by agnosticism that science is certain while philosophy and theology are baseless.
Spencer goes much further in rejection of human knowledge: " The man of science more than any other truly knows that in its ultimate essence nothing can be known.
It would be difficult to say what branches of science had done most towards the establishment of this doctrine.
In this way we see that just as advancing natural science was preparing the way for a doctrine of physical evolution, so advancing historical research was leading to the application of a similar idea to the collective human life.
All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.
Rosenkranz, who in his work Hegel's Naturphilosophie seeks to develop Hegel's idea of an earthorganism in the light of modern science, recognizing in crystallization the morphological element.
Harvey in that remarkable work 1 which would give him a claim to rank among the founders of biological science, even had he not been the discoverer of the circulation of the blood.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
writings of Spencer embody the spirit of Descartes in the knowledge of our own day, and may be regarded as the Principes de la philosophic of the 19th century; while, whatever hesitation may not unfrequently be felt by less daring minds in following Haeckel in many of his speculations, his attempt to systematize the doctrine of evolution and to exhibit its influence as the central thought of modern biology, cannot fail to have a far-reaching influence on the progress of science.
No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.
It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.
7; Pearson, Grammar of Science; Romanes, Darwin and after Darwin; Sedgwick, Presidential Address to Section Zoology, Brit.
Conwentz in Natural Science, vol.
At that date the science of chemistry was very imperfectly known, and the real constituents of ordinary remedies so little understood that different virtues were attributed to different products containing the same constituents.
Degrees in science and pharmacy are granted by the universities of Manchester and Glasgow, and other universities were in 1910 considering the question of granting degrees.
The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.
Science Progress in the 20th Century (1909), vol.
v.; The Cell and some of its Constituent Structures, Science Progress (1897); Farmer and Moore, On the Melotic Phase in Animals and Plants, Quart.
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
The distinctive task of geography as a science is to investigate the control exercised by the crust-forms directly or indirectly upon the various mobile distributions.
Soon after his time, however, this conception was clearly established, and with so large a generalization the mental horizon was widened to conceive of a geography which was a science.
Aristotle left no work on geography, so that it is impossible to know what facts he associated with the science of the earth's surface.
dealing less with theories than with facts, and illustrating rather than formdating the principles of the science.
to form the starting-point of the science in modern times.
published in 1524, and subsequently edited and added to by Gemma Frisius under the title of Cosmographia, based the whole science on mathematics and measurement.
3 The treatise of Varenius is a model of logical arrangement and terse expression; it is a work of science and of genius; one of the few of that age which can still be studied with profit.
The absurd attempt was, and sometimes is still, made by geographers to include all natural science in geography; but it is more common for specialists in the various detailed sciences to think, and sometimes to assert, that the ground of physical geography is now fully occupied by these sciences.
In this way also the position of geography, at the point where physical science meets and mingles with mental science, is explained and justified.
The action of the society in supplying practical instruction to intending travellers, in astronomy, surveying and the various branches of science useful to collectors, has had much to do with advancement of discovery.
The science of geodesy is part of mathematical geography, of which the arts of surveying and cartography are applications.
This theory of crust blocks dropped by subsidence is opposed to Lapworth's theory of vast crust-folds, but geology is the science which has to decide between them.
But apart from the applied science, there is an aspect of pure geography which concerns the theory of the relation of economics to the surface of the earth.
It includes colleges of arts, philosophy and science, of education (for teachers), of engineering, of law, of pharmacy, of agriculture and domestic science, and of veterinary medicine.
In the same year he published Ober die Freiheit der Wissenschaft, in which he maintained the independence of science, whose goal was truth, against authority, and reproached the excessive respect for the latter in the Roman Church with the insignificant part played by the German Catholics in literature and philosophy.
contra unanimum consensum patrum ipsam scripturam sacram inter pretari audeat) is studiously moderate, and yet it seems to rule that under certain circumstances it is not permitted to the Church of later times to carry the science of biblical interpretation beyond the point which it had reached at the end of the patristic period.
18 (1903); C. Tiele, Elements of the Science of Religion (Gifford lectures,lect.
Though put into the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch, it is really an exposition of the kabbalistic view of the universe, and incidentally shows considerable acquaintance with the natural science of the time.
In June 1835 Airy was appointed Astronomer Royal in succession to John Pond, and thus commenced that long career of wisely directed and vigorously sustained industry at the national observatory which, even more perhaps than his investigations in abstract science or theoretical astronomy, constitutes his chief title to fame.
In so doing they slur over the real position and the real merit of the Saracens with regard to science and art.
He was educated for the law, but gave up his profession on the death of his father, and devoted four years to the study of literature, philosophy and science.
His later works on the relation of philosophy to science and to the thought of his time were more popular in character.
His favourite pursuits were scientific, and his authority on all questions of practical science was referred to by the senate of Venice.
He was offered the presidency of the academy of science of St Petersburg; but he declined, preferring the leisure and independence of life in Italy.
It has departments of pharmacy, chemistry, electrical wiring, lithography, house-painting, printing, carpentry, moulding, tile-setting, bricklaying, machinery and applied science.
Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasilievich (1711-1765), Russian poet and man of science, was born in the year 1711, in the village of Denisovka (the name of which was afterwards changed in honour of the poet), situated on an island not far from Kholmogori, in the government of Archangel.
There again his proficiency, especially in physical science, was marked, and he was one of the young Russians chosen to complete their education in foreign countries.
The most valuable of the works of Lomonosov are those relating to physical science, and he wrote upon many branches of it.
But Boetius belonged to the school of musical writers who based their science on the method of Pythagoras.
Matter and force (or energy) are infinite; the conservation of force follows from the imperishability of matter, the ultimate basis of all science.
If so, apologetics is literally a science, and it is pedantry to claim the defensive and pretend to throw the onus probandi upon objectors.
More visible dangers arise for the apologist in the region of science, historical or physical.
In 1746 and 1748 he published in the Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin "Recherches sur le calcul integral," a branch of mathematical science which is greatly indebted to him.
Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
l Bibliography: Memoirs, Izvestia and Geological Maps of the Committee for the Geological Survey of Russia; Memoirs and Sborniks of the Mineralogical Society, of the Academy of Science and of the Societies of Naturalists at the Universities; Mining Journal; Murchison's Geology of Russia; Helmersen's and MSller's Geological Maps of Russia and the Urals; Inostrantsev in Appendix to Russian translation of Reclus's Geogr.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
For more detailed bibliographical information see Apercu des travaux zoo-ge'ographiques, published at St Petersburg in connexion with the Exhibition of 1878; and the index Ukazatel Russkoi Literatury for natural science, mathematics and medicine, published since 1872 by the Society of the Kiev University.
" - Interview with Metchnikoff in Sir Ray Lankester's Science from an Easy Chair, p. 43 2 In 1767, when Catherine II.
Dixon, " Recent Railroad Commission Legislation," Political Science Quarterly, xx.
Yet, if there is not a mass of scientific evidence, there are a number of witnesses - among them distinguished men of science and others of undoubted intelligence --who have convinced themselves by observation that phenomena occur which cannot be explained by known causes; and this fact must carry weight, even without careful records, when the witnesses are otherwise known to be competent and trustworthy observers.
6 More recently several men of science, including Sir Oliver Lodge in England, Professor Charles Richet in France, and Professors Schiaparelli and Morselli in Italy, have convinced themselves of the supernormal chaeacter (though not of any spiritualistic explanation) of certain physical phenomena that have occurred in the presence of a Neapolitan medium, Eusapia Palladino, though it is known that she frequently practises deception. ?
of Science (July and Oct.
His leisure was devoted to the study of astronomy, and he was appointed in 1870 secretary to the duke of Devonshire's royal commission on science.
In 1875 he was transferred to the Science and Art Department at South Kensington, and on the foundation of the Royal College of Science he became director of the solar physics observatory and professor of astronomical physics.
Harbour and citadel have now quite disappeared, the latter having been used to fill up the former shortly after the British occupation; some gain to health resulted, but an irreparable loss to science.
He adds, what is not quite clear from one who so frankly acknowledges his limited acquaintance with the science, that he had reason to congratulate himself that he knew no more.
Archaeology has become a science.
His English works are an Inquiry into Speculative and Experimental Science (London, 1856); Introduction to Speculative Logic and Philosophy (St Louis, 1875), and a translation of Bretschneider's History of Religion and of the Christian Church.
The nebular theory is a noble speculation supported by plausible argument, and the verdict of science on the whole subject cannot be better expressed than in the words of S.
Should any one be sceptical as to the sufficiency of these laws to account for the present state of things, science can furnish no evidence strong enough to overthrow his doubts until the sun shall be found growing smaller by actual measurement, or the nebulae be actually seen to condense into stars and systems."
He wrote articles on free will, the philosophy of theism, on science, prayer and miracles for the Dublin Review.
One of Maxwell's last great contributions to science was the editing (with copious original notes) of the Electrical Researches of the Hon.
The subject has a special interest for Italy, which is devastated by malaria, and Italian science has contributed materially to the solution of the problem.
Instead of reading Aristotle and other naturalists, people went for information to commonplace books like those of Aelian, in which scraps of folk-lore, travellers' tales and fragments of misapprehended science were set forth in an elegant style.
The beginnings of modern thermochemistry, though made independently of the doctrine of the conservation of energy, are practically contemporaneous with the recognition of that law, and without it the science could scarcely have reached the degree of development which it rapidly attained.
When the first system then is transformed into the second, the excess of energy which the former possesses must appear in the shape of heat, light, electrical energy, mechanical energy, &c. It is for the most part a simple matter to obtain the excess of energy entirely in the form of heat, the amount of which is easily susceptible of measurement, and thus the existence of thermochemistry as a practical science is rendered possible.
At a time when men were attracted by the wisdom and science of the Greeks, he taught that all wisdom came from Yahweh who had chosen Israel to receive it in trust.
It caught the contagion of poetry, philosophy and science.'
Literature and affairs, science and statecraft, poetry and medicine, these various expressions of human nature and activity were so harmoniously balanced that they might be found in the possession of one and the same individual.
He employed his great influence to promote both art and science and Liberal views in his native country.
In 1828 the Astronomical Society, to mark their sense of the benefits conferred on science by such a series of laborious exertions, unanimously resolved to present her with their gold medal, and in 1835 elected her an honorary member of the society.
The extraordinary architectural skill, the sanitary and hydraulic science revealed in details of the building, bring us at the same time face to face with the power of mechanical invention with which Daedalus was credited.
He was the author of Institutiones Physiologicae (1787), and of a Handbuck der vergleichenden Anatomie (1804), both of which were very popular and went through many editions, but he is best known for his work in connexion with anthropology, of which science he has been justly called the founder.
The correct date of the Easter festival was to be calculated at Alexandria, the home of astronomical science, and the bishop of that see was to announce it yearly to the churches under his jurisdiction, and also to the occupant of the Roman see, by whom it was to be communicated to the Western churches.
To the university were added schools of pharmacy and of applied social science, and a department of religious education.
Of other institutions of higher education, Case school of applied science had 67 instructors and 690 students, St.
There are four Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic church, a synagogue, several schools, a natural science museum, containing a collection of Harz minerals, the Fenkner museum of antiquities and a number of small foundations.
He possesses the cool temperament of the man of science rather than the fervid Godward aspiration of the mystic proper; and the speculative impulse which lies at the root of this form of thought is almost entirely absent from his writings.
Modern science, however, has indicated a line of physical separation along the channel between Borneo and Celebes, called the Straits of Macassar, which follows approximately 120° E., to the west dl which the flora.
Mahommedan art is also largely architectural and has affected Literature, art, science.
As for science, astronomy was cultivated by the Babylonians at an early period, and it is probably from them that a knowledge of the heavenly bodies and their movements spread over Asia.
His mother belonged to the brilliant Gregory family (q.v.), which, in the 18th century, gave so many representatives to literature and science in Scotland.
It is on the service that he rendered to science in establishing the relations between electricity and magnetism, and in developing the science of electromagnetism, or, as he called it, electrodynamics, that Ampere's fame mainly rests.
Ptolemaei magnam compositionem (printed at Venice in 1496), and his own De Triangulis (Nuremberg, 1533), the earliest work treating of trigonometry as a substantive science.
His great plea for toleration is based on the impossibility of erecting theology into a demonstrable science.
Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet.
So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille.
But of this we may be sure, that science, in obeying the law of humanity, will always labour to enlarge the frontiers of life."
Even before this, however, he had shown a strong inclination for natural science, and this had been fostered by his intimacy with a "self-taught philosopher, astronomer and mathematician," as Sir Walter Scott called him, of great local fame - James Veitch of Inchbonny, who was particularly skilful in making telescopes.
was conferred upon Brewster by Marischal College, Aberdeen; in 1815 he was made a member of the Royal Society of London, and received the Copley medal; in 1818 he received the Rumford medal of the society; and in 1816 the French Institute awarded him one-half of the prize of three thousand francs for the two most important discoveries in physical science made in Europe during the two preceding years.
Brewster's own discoveries, important though they were, were not his only, perhaps not even his chief, service to science.
After parting company with Jameson, Brewster started the Edinburgh Journal of Science in 1824, sixteen volumes of which appeared under his editorship during the years 1824-1832, with very many articles from his own pen.
him into frequent communication with the most eminent scientific men, and he was naturally among the first to recognize the benefit that would accrue from regular intercourse among workers in the field of science.
In addition to the various works of Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned: - Notes and Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's Elements of Geometry (1824); Treatise on Optics (1831); Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott (1831); The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brake, and Kepler (1841); More Worlds than One (1854).
All this time he was studying various branches of science, and languages both ancient and modern.
For the history of institutions which, thanks largely to the writings of Sir Henry Maine, has become a new and interesting branch of science, Bentham cared nothing.
Of his numerous publications the following are of special importance: - Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes (1872); Principles of Comparative Philology (1874); Babylonian Literature (1877); Introduction to the Science of Language (1879); Monuments of the Hittites (1881); Herodotus i.-iii.
In 1864 he published a short paper on thermodynamics, and from that time his contributions to that and kindred departments of science became frequent and important.
Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
" Thomson and Tait," as it is familiarly called ("T and T" was the authors' own formula), was planned soon after Lord Kelvin became acquainted with Tait, on the latter's appointment to his professorship in Edinburgh, and it was intended to be an all-comprehensive treatise on physical science, the foundations being laid in kinematics and dynamics, and the structure completed with the properties of matter, heat, light, electricity and magnetism.
ager, field, and colere, to cultivate), the science, art and industry of utilizing the soil so as to produce the means of human subsistence, embracing in its widest sense the rearing of live-stock as well as the raising of crops.
It is the improvements in methods, implements and materials, brought about by the application of science, that distinguish the husbandry of the 10th century from that of medieval and ancient times.
In England the Agricultural Society was founded in 1838, with the motto " Practice with Science," and shortly afterwards incorporated by royal charter.
The county councils also expend sums varying at their own discretion on instruction in dairy-work, poultry-keeping, farriery and veterinary science, horticulture, agricultural experiments, agricultural lectures at various centres, scholarships at, and grants to, agricultural colleges and schools; the whole amount in 1904-1905 reaching £87,472.1 The sum spent by individual counties varies considerably.
Higher education is given at the Royal College of Science, Dublin; the Albert Agricultural College, Glasnevin; and the Munster Institute, Cork, for female students, where dairying and poultry-keeping are prominent subjects.
"Why is it," he asked, "that the multitude accept implicitly the decisions of the wisest, of the specially skilled, in physical science?"
Because in physical science there is all but complete agreement in opinion.
By 1831 the period of depression had passed; Mill's enthusiasm for humanity had been thoroughly reawakened, and had taken the definite shape of an aspiration to supply an unimpeachable method of search for conclusions in moral and social science.
It was characteristic of the closeness with which he watched current events, and of his zeal in the cause of "lucidity," that when the Reader, an organ of science and unpartisan opinion, fell into difficulties in 1865 Mill joined with some distinguished men of science and letters in an effort to keep it afloat.
The title of his work, Principles of Political Economy, with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy, though open to criticism, indicated a less narrow and formal conception of the field of the science than had been common amongst his predecessors.
And in the same spirit Mill desired, whilst incorporating all the results arrived at in the special science by Smith's successors, to exhibit purely economic phenomena in relation to the most advanced conceptions of his own time in the general philosophy of society, as Smith had done in reference to the philosophy of his century.
Sometimes he speaks of political economy as a department "carved out of the general body of the science of society;" whilst on the other hand the title of his systematic work implies a doubt whether political economy is a part of "social philosophy" at all, and not rather a study preparatory and auxiliary to it.
In Great Britain little attention is paid to this important branch of agricultural science, but in America and the British colonies the case is different.
In this article we propose therefore to confine ourselves to discussing the character and subject-matter of the science, indicating its relation to other sciences, and explaining the methods by which economists reach their conclusions.
We understand by economics the science which investigates the manner in which nations or other larger or smaller communities, and their individual members, obtain food, clothing, shelter and whatever else is considered desirable or necessary for the maintenance and improvement of the conditions of life.
It would certainly be impossible if we had to begin de novo to construct the whole fabric of economic science.
But, as we shall see, it is no more necessary to do this in the world of science than it is in the world of business or politics.
It is only as we approach more modern times that the conditions of economic study are realized and economic science, as we understand it, becomes possible.
In modern times the conditions which have made economic science possible have also made it necessary.
In most civilized countries except England this is recognized, and adequate provision is made for the study of economic science.
Experimental psychology may in course of time have an important bearing on economics, but the older science cannot be said to be of much significance except in its historical aspects.
Mathematics has influenced the form and the terminology of the science, and has sometimes been useful in analysis; but mathematical methods of reasoning, in their application to economics, while possessing a certain fascination, are of very doubtful utility.
There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.
The application of the a priori method in economics was an accident, due to its association with other subjects and the general backwardness of other sciences rather than any exceptional and peculiar character in the subject-matter of the science itself.
The growth of a science is much like the growth of a constitution.
If we take the mere popular view of what is meant by the " old Political Economy," that is, that a generation or so ago economics was comprised in a neatly rounded set of general propositions, universally accepted, which could be set forth in a question we have really to determine is how we can make the best use of the accumulated knowledge of past generations, and to do that we must look more closely into the economic science of the 10th century..
Any one who has taken the trouble to trace the history of one of the modern schools of economists, or of any branch of economic science, knows how difficult it is to say when it began.
We must include the pioneers of the historical school, the economic historians, the socialists, the statisticians, and others whose contributions to economics are now appreciated, and without whose labours the science as we know it now would have been impossible.
If by the " old Political Economy " we mean the methods and conclusions of certain great writers, who stood head and shoulders above their contemporaries and determined the general character of economic science, we are still under no obligation to define the attitude of the present generation with regard to them.
There has been no revolution in economic science, and is not likely to be any.
It is, in fact, quite true that many of them were more interested in practical aims than in the advancement of economic science.
Economics is therefore, on the whole, an intensely conservative science, in which new truths are cautiously admitted or incorporated merely as extensions or qualifications of those enunciated by previous writers.
This procedure has its advantages, but it may easily become dangerous by destroying the influence of the science it is meant to preserve.
The very effectiveness of modern criticism and analysis,which has brought great gains in almost all branches of economic theory, has made the science more difficult as a subject of ordinary study.
The extensions, the changes or the qualifications, of old doctrines, which at any rate in the works of responsible writers are rarely made without good if not always sufficient reason, have modified very considerably the whole science, and weakened the confidence of ordinary educated men in its conclusions.
It would perhaps be too much to say that the full consideration of this point has revolutionized the theory of value, but it has certainly created what seems almost a new science in close contact with the actual life of the modern.
If they could, by some happy chance, have been left for discovery by modern economists, they would without doubt have received different treatment, to the great advantage of economic science.
It must be clearly recognized that the functions of economic science in the present requirements of the world cannot possibly be discharged by treatises on economic theory.
But some change in this direction is necessary both in the interests of the science itself and of its practical utility.
The backwardness of economic science has been an index of the danger threatening the industrial and commercial supremacy of the United Kingdom.
It thus became the work of economic science ruthlessly to analyse the existing situation, explain the issues involved in the commercial policy of different countries, and point out the alternative methods of dealing with present difficulties, with their probable results.
Sensations, he argued, thus being representable by numbers, psychology may become an "exact" science, susceptible of mathematical treatment.
He is the father of the church's science; he is the founder of a theology which was brought to perfection in the 4th and 5th centuries, and which still retained the stamp of his genius when in the 6th century it disowned its author.
By proclaiming the reconciliation of science with the Christian faith, of the highest culture with the Gospel, Origen did more than any other man to win the Old World to the Christian religion.
But through all situations of his life he preserved his equanimity, his keen interest in science, and his indefatigable zeal for the instruction of others.
3 But the science of faith, as expounded by him, bears unmistakably the stamp both of Neo-Platonism and of Gnosticism.
Then it was, or perhaps at a slightly later date, that he became interested in the relations subsisting between political science and war.
General du Teil, the younger, who took part in the siege, thus commented on Bonaparte's services: "I have no words in which to describe the merit of Bonaparte: much science, as much intelligence and too much bravery..
Thereafter he resided successively at Toulon, St Tropez and Antibes, doing useful work in fortifying the coast and using his spare time in arduous study of the science of war.
In the domain of science the results of the expedition were of unique interest.
His next and most important publication was his famous paper "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances" (in two parts, 1876 and 1878), which, it has been said, founded a new department of chemical science that is becoming comparable in importance to that created by Lavoisier.
Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902.
He completed his education at Erlangen with the study of natural science.
The greater part by far of the insects existing in the world is still quite unknown to science.
of England, and probably written soon after 1121, as printed by the late Mr Thomas Wright, in his Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages (London, 1841).
During all this time little had been done in studying the internal structure of birds; 3 but the foundations of the science of embryology had been laid by the investigations into the development of the chick by the great Harvey.
Yet injustice would be done to one of the ablest of those now to be called the old masters of the science if mention.
" 1 We prefer giving them here in Swainson's version, because he seems to have set them forth more clearly and concisely than Macleay ever did, and, moreover, Swainson's application of them to ornithology - a branch of science that lay outside of Macleay's proper studies - appears to be more suitable to the present occasion.
Macleay indeed never pretended to a high position in this branch of science, his tastes lying in the direction of Entomology; but few of their countrymen knew more of birds than did Swainson and Vigors; and, while the latter, as editor for many years of the Zoological Journal, and the first secretary of the Zoological Society, has especial claims to the regard of all zoologists, so the former's indefatigable pursuit of Natural History, and conscientious labour in its behalf-among other ways by means of his graceful pencil-deserve to be remembered as a set-off against the injury he unwittingly caused.
The good effects of " Faunal " works such as those named in the foregoing rapid survey none can doubt, but important as they are, they do not of themselves constitute ornithology as a science; and an inquiry, no less wide and far more recondite, still remains.
Nitzsch's name was subsequently dismissed by Cuvier without a word of praise, and in terms which would have been applicable to many another and inferior author, while Temminck, terming Naumann's work an " ouvrage de luxe "-it being in truth one of the cheapest for its contents ever published-effectually shut it out from the realms of science.
science, long ago noticed, in 1833 brought out at Halle, where he was professor of Zoology, an essay with the title Pterylographiae Avium Pars prior.
own country, there were few to notice seriously what is certainly one of the most remarkable works ever published on the science, much less to pursue the investigations that had been so laboriously begun.
Of this contribution to science, as of all the rest which have since proceeded from him, may be said in the words he himself has applied (ut supra, p. 271) to the work of another labourer in a not distant field: " This is a model paper for unbiassed observation, and freedom from that pleasant mode of supposing instead of ascertaining what is the true nature of an anatomical element."
1 Indeed, the study of this memoir, limited though it be in scope, could not fail to convince any one that it proceeded from the mind of one who taught with the authority derived directly from original knowledge, and not from association with the scribes - a conviction that has become strengthened as, in a series of successive memoirs, the stores of more than twenty years' silent observation and unremitting research were unfolded, and, more than that, the hidden forces of the science of morphology were gradually brought to bear upon almost each subject that came under discussion.
Brief notices of his spoils appeared from time to time in various volumes of the American Journal of Science and Arts (Silliman's), but it is unnecessary here to refer to more than a few of them.
From what has before been said of his works it may be gathered that, while professedly basing his systematic arrangement of the groups of birds on their external features, he had hitherto striven to make his schemes harmonize if possible with the dictates of internal structure as evinced by the science of anatomy, though he uniformly and persistently protested against the inside being better than the outside.
Among other learned institutions we may mention the Ateneo Veneto, the Deputazione per la Storia Patria, and the Royal Institute of Science, Letters and Art, which has its seat in the Palazzo Loredan at Santo Stefano.
In order to lighten the palace the Venetian Institute of Science, Letters and Arts removed its headquarters and its natural history collection to Santo Stefano.
Sidlo, "Centralization in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science Review for November 1909.
DEMONOLOGY (DaL j ow, demon, genius, spirit), the branch of the science of religions which relates to superhuman beings which are not gods.
ROGER BACON (c. 1214 - c. 1294), English philosopher and man of science, was born near Ilchester in Somerset.
Physical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom.
Here he continued his labours in experimental science and also in the composition of complete treatises.
(pp. 445-477) treats of experimental science, domina omnium scientiarum.
Experimental science, which in the Opus Tertium (p. 46) is distinguished from the speculative sciences and the operative arts in a way that forcibly reminds us of Francis Bacon, is said to have three great prerogatives over all other sciences: - (1) It verifies their conclusions by direct experiment; (2) It discovers truths which they could never reach; (3) It investigates the secrets of nature, and opens to us a knowledge of past and future.
After that, apparently, logic was to be treated; then, possibly, mathematics and physics; then speculative alchemy and experimental science.
Bacon, it is now said, was not appreciated by his age because he was in advance of it; he is no schoolman, but a modern thinker, whose conceptions of science are more just and clear than are even those of his more celebrated namesake.'
Those who take up such an extreme position regarding his merits have known too little of the state of contemporary science, and have limited their comparison to the works of the scholastic theologians.
The funds for Simmons College were left by John Simmons in 1870, who wished to found a school to teach the professions and " branches of art, science and industry best calculated to enable the scholars to acquire an independent livelihood."
Evroµa, insects, and Xfryos, a discourse), the science that treats of insects, i.e.
The science of insects began with Aristotle, who included in a class "Entoma" the true insects, the arachnids and the myriapods, the Crustacea forming another class ("Malacostraca") of the "Anaema" or "bloodless animals."
In the history of the science, various lines of progress have to be traced.
v.) - he and his followers have laid the science generally under a deep obligation by their researches.
At New Haven also are published several weekly English, German and Italian papers, and a number of periodicals, including the American Journal of Science (1818), the Yale Law Journal (1890) and the Yale Review (1892), a quarterly.
Some of the United States planters are alert to take advantage of the application of science to industry, and in many cases even to render active assistance, and very successful results have been attained by the co-operation of the United States Department of Agriculture and planters.
Medical science has never gauged, perhaps never enough set itself to gauge the intimate connexion between moral fault and disease.
" The Jesus Christ presented to us in the New Testament would become a very different person if the miracles were removed " (Temple's Relations between Religion and Science).
Astrology, geography, physical science and natural theology were their favourite studies.
He was especially famed for his consummate knowledge of the science of sieges.
But the new field of poetic literature afforded by the Crusades is still more striking than this development of science.
He was thus able to throw himself into the spirit of modern experimental science.
In the course of his fifty-two years' editorship of the Annalen Poggendorff could not fail to acquire an unusual acquaintance with the labours of modern men of science.
He was wanting in mathematical ability, and never displayed in any remarkable degree the still more important power of scientific generalization, which, whether accompanied by mathematical skill or not, never fails to mark the highest genius in physical science.
Equally distinguishedin natural science,philosophy and the administration of civic affairs, he takes a high place among the versatile savants of the ancient Greek world.
As a geometer he is classed by Eudemus, the greatest ancient authority, among those who "have enriched the science with original theorems, and given it a really sound arrangement."
He was a most prolific writer, 364 papers appearing under his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue, and he carried on a large correspondence with other men of science, such as Berzelius, Faraday, Liebig and Wohler.
Chambers's West Florida and its Relation to the Historical Cartography of the United States (Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series 16, No.
The introduction is an elaborate treatise on the science of history and the development of society, and the autobiography contains the history, not only of the author himself, but of his family and of the dynasties which ruled in Fez, Tunis and Tlemcen during his lifetime.
Among institutions there are a specially fine public library, museums of geology and natural history and antiquities, mining and science schools, the West Cornwall Infirmary and a meteorological station.
With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
Numerous less distinguished adepts also practised the art, and sometimes were so successful in their deceptions that they gained the ear of kings, whose desire to profit by the achievements of science was in several instances rewarded by an abundant crop of counterfeit coins.
Increasing attention was paid to the investigation of the properties of substances and of their effects on the human body, and chemistry profited by the fact that it passed into the hands of men who possessed the highest scientific culture of the time, Still, belief in the possibility of transmutation long remained orthodox, even among the most distinguished men of science.
Virgil must have been a most remarkable man; in spite of his leanings toward science he held his own against Boniface, and was canonized after his death.
His researches extended to almost every branch of physical science, but his most important work was of an optical character.
Taking up his residence in New York, he was in 1832-1839 president of the National Bank (afterwards the Gallatin Bank) of New York, but his duties were light, and he devoted himself chiefly to the congenial pursuits of science and literature.
The native archaeologists of the present day hold a recognized position in the scientific world; the patriotic sentiment of former times, which prompted their zeal but occasionally warped their judgment, has been merged in devotion to science for its own sake, and the supervision of excavations, as well as the control of the art-collections, is now in highly competent hands.
If Athens lost her supremacy in the fields of science and scholarship to Alexandria, she became more than ever the home of philosophy, while Menander and the other poets of the New Comedy made Athenian life and manners known throughout the civilized world.
in 1892; he was made a corresponding member of the French Academy of Moral and Political Science and a fellow of the British Academy.
The Carnegie Institute in the decade increased the extent of its service to the community; its central library, with 464,313 volumes, had 8 branches, 16 stations, 128 school stations, 10 club stations and 8 playground stations, with a circulation of 1,363,365 books; both the scientific museum and the art department added greatly to their collections; in the school of technology the enrolment grew from 2,102 students in 1909 to 4,982 students in 1920, including those in the departments of science and engineering, arts, industries and the Margaret Morrison school for women.
xvueia; for derivation see Alchemy), the natural science which has for its province the study of the composition of substances.
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.
- This section is confined to tracing the general trend of the science from its infancy to the foundations of the modern theory.
From the Alexandrians the science passed to the Arabs, who made discoveries and improved various methods of separating substances, and afterwards, from the 11th century, became seated in Europe, where the alchemical doctrines were assiduously studied until the 15th and 16th centuries.
The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable transitions and developments in all branches of natural science,and the facts accumulated by preceding generations during their generally unordered researches were re placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction.
From the mazy and incoherent alchemical and iatrochemical doctrines, the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science arose - the study of the composition of substances.
It is unnecessary in this place to recapitulate the many results which had accumulated by the end of the 18th century, or to discuss the labours and theories of individual workers since these receive attention under biographical headings; in this article only the salient features in the history of our science can be treated.
Berzelius elevated this theory to an important position in the history of our science.
In the above sketch we have briefly treated the history of the main tendencies of our science from the earliest times to the Summary.
We Su have seen that the science took its origin in the arts practised by the Egyptians, and, having come under the influence of philosophers, it chose for its purpose the isolation of the quinta essentia, and subsequently the " art of making gold and silver."
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
The principles outlined above constitute the foundations of our science; and although it may happen that experiments may be made with which they appear to be not in complete agreement, yet in general they constitute a body of working hypotheses of inestimable value.
But the real founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction the model of all others.
This institution was taken over by the Government in 1853, becoming the Royal College of Chemistry, and incorporated with the Royal School of Mines; in 1881 the names were changed to the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines, and again in 1890 to the Royal College of Science.
In 1907 it was incorporated in the Imperial College of Science and Technology.
In this article the development of this branch of the science is treated historically.
del Rio; subsequent elaborate researches by Sir Henry Roscoe showed many inaccuracies in the conclusions of earlier workers (for instance, the substance considered to be the pure element was in reality an oxide) and provided science with an admirable account of this element and its compounds.
BENJAMIN THOMPSON RUMFORD, Count (1753-1814), British-American man of science, philanthropist and administrator, was born at Woburn, in Massachusetts, on the 26th of March 1753.
And several, especially in France and Germany, made the great sacrifice which summarily closed lives and extinguished brains of great value to science.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
The Ptolemaic court, with the museum attached to it, is so prominent in the literary and scientific history of the age that it is unnecessary to give a list of the philosophers, the men of letters and science, who at one time or other ate at King Ptolemy's table.
Thomson Paton; the county and municipal buildings; handsome public baths and gymnasium, presented to the town by Mr David Thomson; the accident hospital; the fever hospital; the museum of the Natural Science and Archaeological Society; the academy, the burgh school and a secondary school with the finest technical equipment in Scotland, given by Mr A.
about the middle of the 7th century B.C. Among the visitors to Egypt, there were, no doubt, some who took an interest in the science of the Egyptians.
Not only had French men of science and scientific travellers done excellent work as explorers in different parts of the world, but France could also boast of two men, Guillaume Delisle and J.
In Denmark, on the proposal of the Academy of Science, a survey was carried out in 1766-1825, but the maps issued by the Danish general staff depend upon more recent surveys.
Engler on the flora in the Sitzungsberichte of the Prussian Academy of Science, Nos.
A man of literary taste and culture, familiar with the classics, a facile writer of Latin verses' as well as of Ciceronian prose, he was as anxious that the Roman clergy should unite human science and literature with their theological studies as that the laity should be educated in the principles of religion; and to this end he established in Rome a kind of voluntary school board, with members both lay and clerical; and the rivalry of the schools thus founded ultimately obliged the state to include religious teaching in its curriculum.
He always showed the greatest interest in science and in literature, and he would have taken a position as a statesman of the first rank had he held office in any secular government.
His studies and sympathies embraced almost every human interest, except pure science.
"In history and in science, as well as in theology, he is before all things the Christian thinker and student."
In 1811 Morse, whose tastes during his early years led him more strongly towards art than towards science, became the pupil of Washington Allston, and accompanied his master to England, where he remained four years.
Rankine was the earliest of the three founders of the modern science of Thermodynamics on the bases laid by Sadi Carnot and J.
The public institutions include the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, whose museum, in the Grecian style, was opened in 1830, and the free library in the building of the York Institute of Science and Art.
The study of instinct is in the genetic treatment of evolutionary science a study in heredity.
Prominent among the " nine hundred theses " which Mirandola had placarded in Rome, and which he undertook to defend in the presence of all European scholars, whom he invited to the Eternal City, promising to defray their travelling expenses, was the following: " No science yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the Kabbalah."
Old Semitic philosophy was a science not of ontology in the modern sense of the term, but of practical life.
paOiµarLK1), sc. TEXvn or E7rio'7-)µ17; from AecO a, "learning" or "science"), the general term for the various applications of mathematical thought, the traditional field of which is number and quantity.
It has been usual to define mathematics as "the science of discrete and continuous magnitude."
Even Leibnitz,' who initiated a more modern point of view, follows the tradition in thus confining the scope of mathematics properly so called, while apparently conceiving it as a department of a yet wider science of reasoning.
consideration of some leading topics of the science will exemplify both the plausibility and inadequacy of the above definition.
Accordingly, at first sight it seems reasonable to define geometry in some such way as "the science of dimensional quantity."
Thus every subdivision of mathematical science would appear to deal with quantity, and the definition of mathematics as "the science of quantity" would appear to be justified.
But now the difficulty of confining mathematics to being the science of number and quantity is immediately apparent.
For there is no self-contained science of cardinal numbers.
Also it is purely arbitrary to erect the consequences of these six principles into a separate science.
Here also it can be seen that the science of the finite ordinals is a particular subdivision of the general theory of classes and relations.
But on the assumption that "mathematics" is to denote a science well marked out by its subject matter and its methods from other topics of thought, and that at least it is to include all topics habitually assigned to it, there is now no option but to employ "mathematics" in the general sense' of the "science concerned with the logical deduction of consequences from the general premisses of all reasoning."
Peirce, "Mathematics is the science which draws necessary conclusions" (Linear Associative Algebra, § i.
In one sense there is no science of applied mathematics.
Thus rational mechanics, based on the Newtonian Laws, viewed as mathematics is independent of its supposed application, and hydrodynamics remains a coherent and respected science though it is extremely improbable that any perfect fluid exists in the physical world.
In "applied mathematics" the "deductions" are given in the shape of the experimental evidence of natural science, and the hypotheses from which the "deductions" can be deduced are sought.
But the complexity of the idea of number is practically illustrated by the fact that it is best studied as a department of a science wider than itself.
The great abstract ideas (considered directly and not merely in tacit use) which have dominated the science were due to them - namely, ratio, irrationality, continuity, the point, the straight line, the plane.
Also such ideas as those of invariants, groups and of form, have modified the entire science.
Poincare, La Science et l'hypothese (Paris, 1st ed., 1902), English translation under the title, Science and Hypothesis (London, 1905); L.
Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung (Prague, 1883), English translation under the title, The Science of Mechanics (London, 1893) K.
Pearson, The Grammar of Science (London, 1st ed., 1892; 2nd ed., 1900, enlarged); A.
He was a naturalist, but absolutely devoid of the pedantry of science; a keen observer, but no retailer of disjointed facts.
For superior education there is (1) the university of Constantinople, with its four faculties of letters, science, law and medicine; and (2) special schools, including (a) the normal school for training teachers, (b) the civil imperial school, (c) the school of the fine arts and (d) the imperial schools of medicine.
Special state schools of medicine, arts, science, crafts, &c., have been created successively, and in 1901 a university was founded.
In literature, art and science, it divided the supremacy of the world with Cordova; in commerce and wealth it far surpassed that city.
In 1907-1908 Western Reserve University had 193 instructors and 914 students (277 in Adelbert College; 269 in College for Women; 20 in graduate department; and 102 in medical, 133 in law, 75 in dental and 51 in Library school); and the Case School of Applied Science 40 instructors and 440 students.
The college has departments for arts, pure and applied science and technology, medicine, public health, music, and for the training of men and women teachers for elementary and secondary schools.
The Act of 1872 provided for five or more colleges or departments: a college of science, literature and the arts, which offers (for the degree of Bachelor of Arts) a four-years course, is entirely elective (except that a certain number of " long courses " must be selected) after the first year, and in which the only restriction is upon the range of subjects from which the student's choice may be made; a college of agriculture (including military tactics), which is now a " department," including a college and a school of agriculture, a short course for farmers, a dairy school, the Crookston school of agriculture, a main experiment station at St Anthony Park, between Minneapolis and St Paul, and sub-stations 1 m.
In addition to these departments provided for in the organic act, the university included in 1909 colleges of dentistry (three-year course), pharmacy (two-year and three-year courses), a school of mines (1891; four-year course, leading to the degree of Engineer of Mines or Metallurgical Engineer), a school of analytical and applied chemistry (four-year courses, leading to the degree of Bachelor in Science in Chemistry, or in Chemical Engineering), a college of education (1906; three-year course, after two years of college work, leading to a Master's degree), a graduate school (with courses leading to the degrees of Master of Arts, of Science and of Laws, and of Doctor of Philosophy, of Science and of Civil Law), and a university summer school.
Protestants have condemned these formulae as so much magic, and in this modern science tends to agree with them; but to orthodox Protestants at least Catholics have a perfect right to reply that, in taking this line, they are but repeating the accusation brought by the Pharisees against Christ, viz.
Its work is primarily that of the investigation of the fisheries of northern Europe, but its general methods are oceanographical, and its published results have formed an immense contribution to the science.
More and more the science seeks to discover periodicities and to correlate these with others.
Murray, The Ocean (1913); The Science of the Sea (1912); H.
Schlozer's activity was enormous, and he exercised great influence by his lectures as well as by his books, bringing historical study into touch with political science generally, and using his vast erudition in an attempt to solve practical questions in the state and in society.
(2nd ed., GÃ¶ttingen, 1792-1801); and in several works he helped to lay the foundations of statistical science.
Its natural form is the aphorism, and to this and to its epigrammatic brilliance, vigour, and uncompromising revolt against all conventions in science and conduct it owes its persuasiveness.
Before the study of ethnic psychology had become a science, Jellinek devoted attention to the subject.
Southport has also a free library and art gallery, a literary and philosophical institute, and a college (Trinity Hall) for the daughters of Wesleyan ministers; and a museum and schools of science and art.
He was also a member of the Academy, and of the Academy of Moral and Political Science, and curator of the Department of Antiquities at the Louvre (from 1870).
But already, on the occasion of the death of Ernest Renan, October 1892, the attempts made to clear up the main principles and results of biblical science, first by Mgr d'Hulst, rector of the Institut Catholique, in his article "La Question biblique" (Le Correspondant, Jan.
von Hugel, The Papal Commission and the Pentateuch (London, 1907) discuss Rome's attitude towards biblical science.
His lucid style and the perfection of his experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at his house with a small circle of young students.
In 1649 he accompanied the mission of Henry, count of Nassau, to Denmark, and in 1651 entered the lists of science as an assailant of the unsound system of quadratures adopted by Gregory of St Vincent.
Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired some skill in painting.
Glanvill supported a much more honourable cause when he undertook the defence of the Royal Society of London, under the title of Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement of Science since the time of Aristotle (1668), a work which shows how thoroughly he was imbued with the ideas of the empirical method.
2 His tastes were all for such studies as history, antiquities, and especially geography and natural science.
The present article is a digest, mainly from an experimental standpoint, of the leading facts and principles of magnetic science.
In Englishspeaking countries the ore is commonly known as magnetite, and pieces which exhibit attraction as magnets; the cause to which the attractive property is attributed is called magnetism, a name also applied to the important branch of science which has been evolved from the study of phenomena associated with the magnet.
Thomson has demonstrated the existence under many different conditions of particles more minute than anything previously known to science.
The foundations of the modern science of magnetism were laid by William Gilbert.
Careful experiment and observation, not the inner consciousness, are, he insists, the only foundations of true science.
New light was thrown upon many important details of magnetic science by A.
Thomson in 1897 and 1898 4 resulted in the establishment of the electron theory, which has already effected developments of an almost revolutionary character in more than one branch of science.
(2nd ed., Leipzig, 1905; the most exhaustive compendium of magnetic science yet published, containing references to all important works and papers on every branch of the subject).
By Ancillon he was grounded in religion, in history and political science, his natural taste for the antique and the picturesque making it easy for his tutor to impress upon him his own hatred of the Revolution and its principles.
The Introduction to the Science of Medicine (V.
Kishinouye, " Development of Limulus longispina," Journal of the Science College of Japan, vol.
Idem, " Degeneration, a Chapter in Darwinism," 1878, reprinted in the Advancement of Science (Macmillan, 1890); 20.
where he took the first prize in mathematics and physics; at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he stood first at the exit examination in 1819; and at the Ecole des Mines (1819-1822), where he began to show a decided preference for the science with which his name is associated.
The theory has not found general acceptance, but it proved of great value to geological science, owing to the extensive additions to the knowledge of the structure of mountain ranges which its author made in endeavouring to find facts to support it.
Probably, however, the best service Elie de Beaumont rendered to science was in connexion with the geological map of France, in the preparation of which he had the leading share.
The long series of memoirs - some of them complete treatises of great moment in the history of science - communicated by Lagrange to the Berlin Academy between the years 1767 and 1787 were not the only fruits of his exile.
Thus a universal science of matter and motion was derived, by an unbroken sequence of deduction, from one radical principle; and analytical mechanics assumed the clear and complete form of logical perfection which it now wears.
To Lagrange, perhaps more than to any other, the theory of differential equations is indebted for its position as a science, rather than a collection of ingenious artifices for the solution of particular problems. To the calculus of finite differences he contributed the beautiful formula of interpolation which bears his name; although substantially the same result seems to have been previously obtained by Euler.
Besides this most important contribution to the general fabric of dynamical science, we owe to Lagrange several minor theorems of great elegance, - among which may be mentioned his theorem that the kinetic energy imparted by given impulses to a material system under given constraints is a maximum.
In Aristotle the Xl yos of a thing is its definition, including its formal cause, while the ultimate principles of a science are apxal, the "reasons" (in a common modern sense) which explain all its particular facts.'
In spite of his almost incessant controversies with the Aristotelians, he found time to make a comprehensive study of contemporary science.
In 1844, having graduated as doctor of medicine and doctor of science, he was appointed to organize the new faculty of science at Besancon, where he acted as dean and professor of chemistry from 1845 to 1851.
In science Brazil has accomplished very little, although many eminent foreign naturalists have spent years of study within her borders.
These explorations cover every branch of natural science and resulted in publications of inestimable scientific value.
The Royal Scottish Museum, structurally united to the university, contains collections illustrative of industry, art, science and natural history; and Minto House college and Heriot-Watt college are practically adjuncts of the university.
Its graduates also give lectures on the various branches of medicine and science requisite for the degree of doctor of medicine, and those extra-academical courses are recognized, under certain restrictions, by the University Court, as qualifying for the degree.
Meanwhile the progress of letters, science and learning manifested the recovery of the city.
Of these a brief summary, beginning with the department of general literature and passing on to history and science, is subjoined.
Its educational establishments include the university with its faculties of science and letters and a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, an artillery school, the lycee Victor Hugo for boys, a lycee for girls, an ecclesiastical seminary, training colleges for teachers, and schools of watch-making, art, music and dairywork.
He wrote poems of all kinds in a language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history, law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European culture at the moment.
The university provides instruction and grants degrees in arts, law, medicine, science and engineering; instruction in theology, however, is given, not by the university, but by the different affiliated colleges.
Survey, Natal and Zululand (Pietermaritzburg, 1901; London, 1904); and " Science in South Africa," Handbook, Brit.
Such language was excusable in the men of the Renaissance, fighting the battle of classic form and beauty and of the manysidedness of life against the barbarous terminology and the monastic ideals of the schools, or in the protagonists of modern science.
Roger Bacon was rather a pioneer of modern science than a Scholastic, and persecution and imprisonment were the penalty of his opposition to the spirit of his time.
Occam denied the title of a science to theology, emphasizing, like Scotus, its practical character.
Philosophy, as Haureau finely says, was the passion of the 13th century; but in the 15th humanism, art and the beginnings of science and of practical discovery were busy creating a new world, which was destined in due time to give birth to a new philosophy.
They brought from their native Italy a thorough knowledge of the science of government as the middle ages understood it, and the decimation of the Hungarian magnates during the civil wars enabled them to re-create the noble hierarchy on a feudal basis, in which full allowance was made for Magyar idiosyncracies.
In the second year of his reign he undertook personally the gigantic task of providing Hungary with an army adequate to her various needs on the model of the best military science of the day.
Almost simultaneously with the formation of the above-mentioned committee of the academy, the " Natural Science Association " showed signs of renewed animation, and soon advanced with rapid strides in the same direction, but with a more popular aim than the academy.
Young men of science found in him an active benefactor.
"He would have completed the science of the skies," Baron Fourier remarked,".
had the science been capable of completion."
The science which B.
His chief work, the Six livres de la Republique (Paris, 1576), which passed through several editions in his lifetime, that of 1583 having as an appendix L'A pologie de Rene Herpin (Bodin himself), was the first modern attempt to construct an elaborate system of political science.
de la science polit.
These attempts at the unification of algebra, and its separation from other branches of mathematics, have usually been accompanied by an attempt to base it, as a deductive science, on certain fundamental laws or general rules; and this has tended to increase its difficulty.
Neither mathematics itself, nor any branch or set of branches of mathematics, can be regarded as an isolated science.
The science of graphics is closely related to that of mensuration.
Graphic representation thus rests on the principle that equal numerical quantities may be represented by equal lengths, and that a quantity mA may be represented by a length mL, where A and L are the respective units; and the science of graphics rests on the converse property that the quantity represented by pL is pA, i.e.
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