He became one of the most famous scholars in the world.
The ethnography of ancient Italy is a very complicated and difficult subject, and notwithstanding the researches of modern scholars is still involved in some obscurity.
They provided for a head and 70 scholars, but the latter were divided into 40 fellows and 30 scholars called demies, because their commons were half .those of the fellows.
With his hospitable intellect he embraces children, beggars, insane, and scholars, and entertains the thought of all, adding to it commonly some breadth and elegance.
He did not, however, leave behind him many scholars of superior faculty.
The number of scholars was largely increased by an election of 25 new ones on the 26th of September 1444, the income being then 946, of which the king contributed £120 and Waynflete or more than half his stipend of X30 a year.
Though no bishops abandoned it, a few priests, suc as Father Hyacinthe Loyson, and a few scholars at the Ger an universities refused their adhesion.
He was in trouble because his scholars would not study.
There have been good Pali scholars there since late medieval times.
Various scholars, while agreeing on the actual divisions of the text, differ on the question of priority.
She thought of Elise's security detail and then of the Vice President, the President's staff, the renowned scholars and businessmen taking refuge there.
He is credited with having taken half the scholars and fellows of Winchester to Eton to start the school there.
In fact, five scholars and perhaps one commoner left Winchester for Eton in 1443, probably in July, just before the election.
The male scholars at the secondary schools amounted in 1900 to 2.74 per woo inhabitants.
For some of these we have no certain information, and regarding others the tales narrated in the early records are so hard to reconcile with present knowledge that they are better fitted to be the battle-ground of scholars championing rival theories than the basis of definite history.
Even into his mythological learning he breathes a life to which these dry scholars are strangers.
He was the friend and patron of scholars, caused manuscripts to be copied and medieval poems to be collected.
He and his friend Sir John Cheke were the great classical scholars of the time in England.
According to the returns for 1905 there were 7292 state schools, with 15,628 teachers and 648,927 pupils, and the average attendance of scholars was 446,000.
Besides state schools there were 2145 private schools, with 7825 teachers and 137,000 scholars, the average number of scholars in attendance being 120,000.
It shows that the " sobriety " of the Antiochene scholars can be predicated only of their exegesis; their style of piety was as exaggerated in its devotion to the ideals of monasticism as was that of their monophysite opponents.
The teachers in 1901-1902 numbered 65,739 (exclusive of 576 non-teaching directors and 322 teachers of special subjects) or about 415 scholars per teacher.
Their number and that of their scholars have, however, decreased since the withdrawal of state subsidies.
In 1871-1872 there were 375,947 scholars at the evening schools and 154,585 at the holiday schools, while in 1900-1901 these numbers had fallen to 94,510 and 35,460 respectively.
In 1895 they numbered 4245, with 138,181 scholars.
But the number of scholars has considerably increased, and shows a ratio superior to the general increase of the population.
The greatest of all medieval Jewish scholars was Moses ben Maimon (Rambam), called Maimonides by Christians.
In the 19th century the modernizing tendency continued to grow, though always side by side with a strong conservative opposition, and the most prominent names on both sides are those of scholars rather than literary men.
maintained in his commentary on Genesis (edition of 1892), has now been abandoned by nearly all scholars of repute.
Modern scholars, who accept this view, assign him to about 550 B.C.; others regard him as purely mythical.
and the scholars of the Netherlands combined to do him honour; even Herder regarded him as a greater poet than Horace.
Only two fellows, 4 choristers, 2 scholars and 2 almsmen were named in the charter and probably were only colourably members.
This was so nearly correct that the usage has been followed by other European scholars, and is being increasingly adopted.
Of these, eleven volumes had by 1910 been edited for the Pali Text Society by various scholars, the Jatakas and two other treatises had appeared elsewhere, and two works (one a selection of lives of distinguished early Buddhists, and the other an ancient commentary), were still in MS.
Still more diversity of opinion prevails as to the southern gold-exporting port of Ophir, which some scholars place in Arabia, others at one or another point on the east coast of Africa.
It does not seem that any maritime trade followed these discoveries, and indeed it is doubtful whether his contemporaries accepted the truth of Pytheas's narrative; Strabo four hundred years later certainly did not, but the critical studies of modern scholars have rehabilitated the Massilian explorer.
5 The term patres apostolici is due to the patristic scholars of the 17th century: see Lightfoot, St Clement of Rome, i.
c. 1090), who says that his account of the solemn translation to Canterbury in 1023 was received from the dean, Godric, one of Alphege's own scholars.
The results of these investigations show that in Ceylon from the 3rd century B.C. onwards there has been a continuous succession of teachers and scholars.
Antonius Gnipho, and Ateius Praetextatus to the authorship have been supported by modern scholars.
But against these disadvantages may be set the unique services which the fathers still render to Christian scholars.
HEBREW RELIGION (I) Introductory.-To trace the history of the religion of the Hebrews is a complex task, because the literary sources from which our knowledge of that history is derived are themselves complex and replete with problems as to age and authorship, some of which have been solved according to the consensus of nearly all the best scholars, but some of which still await solution or are matters of dispute.
Some scholars, identifying Iasion with Jason, regard Thessaly as the original home of the legend, and the union with Demeter as the iEpen 'yaµos of mother earth with a health god.
Physiologus had been abandoned by scholars, and left to take its chance among the tales and traditions of the uneducated mass.
At this period he made provision for twelve fellows and above forty scholars in Emmanuel College.
Scholars are now almost unanimously agreed that the internal features are best explained by the Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis.
Stade, although varying greatly in standpoint, are among the most valuable by recent scholars; H.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
To deny their historical character is to reject them as trustworthy accounts of the age to which they are ascribed, and even those scholars who claim that they are essentially historical already go so far as to concede idealization and the possibility or probability of later revision.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
It is also recognized by many scholars that in the present account of the exodus there are indications of the original prominence of traditions of Kadesh, and also of a journey northwards in which Caleb, Kenites and others took part (§ 5).
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.
Although these and other phenomena cannot yet be safely placed in a historical frame, the methodical labours of past scholars have shed much light upon the obscurities of the exilic and post-exilic ages, and one must await the more comprehensive study of the two or three centuries which are of the first importance for biblical history and theology.
And as we were staying in Asia at the time, the man cast up at the same place and interviewed us and other scholars, making trial of their wisdom.
Most noted of recent Jewish scholars in Italy was S.
Low, Jellinek, Kaufmann, as scholars in the Jewish field; as poets and novelists, Kompert, Franzos, L.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about classical scholars.
Malory's version of the Charrette adventure differs in many respects from any other extant form, and the source of this special section of his work is still a question of debate among scholars.
A consort Antum (or as some scholars prefer to read, Anatum) is assigned to him, on the theory that every deity must have a female associate, but Antum is a purely artificial product - a lifeless symbol playing even less of a part in what may be called the active pantheon than Anu.
in 1528, and was one of the Cambridge scholars whom Wolsey wished to transplant to his newly founded Cardinal College at Oxford.
The Hexapla was probably never fully written out, but excerpts were made from it by various scholars at Caesarea in the 4th century; and thus large sections of it have been saved.'
It is true that many scholars (e.g.
The pupils at Brienne, far from receiving a military education, were grounded in ordinary subjects, and in no very efficient manner, by brethren of the order, or society, of Minims. The moral tone of the school was low; and Napoleon afterwards spoke with contempt of the training of the "monks" and the manner of life of the scholars.
Nothing whatever is known of their language, but some scholars explain the names Toramana and Jauvla as Turkish.
He corresponded with some of the most eminent scholars of his time on mathematical subjects; and his house was generally full of pupils from all quarters.
The funds for Simmons College were left by John Simmons in 1870, who wished to found a school to teach the professions and " branches of art, science and industry best calculated to enable the scholars to acquire an independent livelihood."
The Lowell Institute, established in 1839 (by John Lowell, Jr., who bequeathed $237,000 for the purpose), provides yearly courses of free public lectures, and its lecturers have included many of the leading scholars of America and Europe.
The great majority of names in the long list of worthies of the commonwealth-writers, statesmen, orators, artists, philanthropists, reformers and scholars, are intimately connected with Boston.
Pico's works cannot now be read with much interest, but the man himself is still interesting, partly from his influence on Reuchlin and partly from the spectacle of a truly devout mind in the brilliant circle of half-pagan scholars of the FlOrentine renaissance.
His public lectures, indeed, were never largely attended, but in his more private classes, where he dealt with the technical work of a historian, he trained generations of scholars.
The majority, however, were laymen, of all kinds and degrees - nobles, artisans, scholars, students, labouring men.
Harnack, both as lecturer and writer, was one of the most prolific and most stimulating of modern critical scholars, and trained up in his "Seminar" a whole generation of teachers, who carried his ideas and methods throughout the whole of Germany and even beyond its borders.
The poem first came to be known by scholars about 1873, and has been edited by M.
Nine-tenths of the scholars are in the schools of the French Protestant Mission, which are conducted by English, or English-speaking, missionaries.
brought him into early notice with the chief scholars of Florence.
These compositions belonged to a species which, since Petrarch set the fashion, were very popular among Italian scholars.
Hadrian was fond of the society of learned men - poets, scholars, rhetoricians and philosophers - whom he alternately humoured and ridiculed.
Yet when Conference met at Tunstall in the latter year to celebrate its jubilee it could report 675 ministers and 11,384 local preachers, 132,114 members, 2267 chapels, 167,533 scholars and 30,988 teachers.
Statistics for 1909 show 1178 ministers, 16,158 local preachers, 212,168 members, 4484 chapels, 465,531 Sunday scholars, 59,557 teachers.
As to the date of the book, though there are still differences of opinion among scholars, there is a gradual approach to a consensus.
The reign of Herod, a period of despotism and terror, and of strife between Jewish religious parties, is preferred by some scholars (Gratz, Cheyne and others) as best answering to the social situation depicted in the book, while still others (as Renan) decide for the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (10478 B.
The claim of sacredness made for it was warmly contested by some Jewish scholars.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
He wrote and edited many works for the use of his scholars.
His accuracy, which has been called in question by some scholars, has been remarkably vindicated by recent excavations at Athens and elsewhere.
The museums, enriched by a constant inflow of works of art and inscriptions, have been carefully and scientifically arranged, and afford opportunities for systematic study denied to scholars of the past generation.
Athens has thus become a centre of learning, a meeting-place for scholars and a basis for research in every part of the Greek world.
The supreme importance of a study of Greek antiquities on the spot, long understood by scholars in Europe and in America, has gradually come to be recognized in England, where a close attention to ancient texts, not always adequately supplemented by a course of local study and observation, formerly fostered a peculiarly conservative attitude in regard to the problems of Greek archaeology.
Since the foundation of the German Institute in 1874, Athenian topography has to a large extent become a speciality of German scholars, among whom Wilhelm DOrpfeld occupies a pre-eminent position owing to his great architectural attainments and unrivalled local knowledge.
Many of his bold and novel theories have provoked strenuous opposition, while others have met with general acceptance, except among scholars of the more conservative type.
by 212), the upper portion of which is cut out of the rock, while the lower is enclosed by a semicircular wall of massive masonry; the theory of these scholars, however, that the whole precinct was a sanctuary of the Pelasgian Zeus cannot be regarded as proved, nor is it easy to abandon the generally received view that this was the scene of the popular assemblies of later times, notwithstanding the apparent unsuitability of the ground and the insufficiency of room for a large multitude.
This identification has been hotly contested by many scholars, and the question must still be regarded as undecided.
In 1870 the Greek Archaeological Society undertook a series of excavations in the Outer Ceramicus, which had already been partially explored by various scholars.
3 7 tions numbers some distinguished scholars among its members, and displays great activity in the conduct of excavations.
This interesting historical monument was demolished by the Greek authorities in 1874, notwithstanding the protests of Penrose, Freeman and other scholars.
In 1857 he undertook with other scholars a Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk, to which he contributed commentaries on the first four books of the Pentateuch, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Matthew, Mark, Revelation.
Closely associated with oriental scholars, and a.
Holtzmann's elaborate and very ingenious theory (1872) that Colossians has been expanded, on the basis of a shorter letter of Paul, by the same later hand which had previously written the whole of Ephesians, has not met with favour from recent scholars.
With regard to the changed state of affairs in the Church, it must be said that this can be a conclusive argument only to one who holds the view of the Tubingen scholars, that the Apostolic Age was all of a piece and was dominated solely by one controversy.
They were no doubt expelled or absorbed by the Hittites, but we have the proof of their existence and of the fallacy of the statement that the Semite never crossed the Taurus, in the cuneiform tablets written in their language which have been found near Kaisariyeh and are now being published by various scholars.
Scholars are very much divided as to the date of his life, some holding that he lived in the 6th century, others in the 7th or 8th.
At the end of 1909 there were in connexion with the Friends' First-Day School Association 240 schools with 2722 teachers and 25,215 scholars, very few of whom were the children of Friends.
While the translation was still in progress Ficino from time to time submitted its pages to the scholars, Angelo Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Demetrios Chalchondylas and others; and since these men were all members of the Platonic Academy, there can be no doubt that the discussions raised upon the text and Latin version greatly served to promote the purpose of Cosimo's foundation.
Lorenzo Valla and Angelo Poliziano, almost alone among the scholars of that age, showed a true critical perception.
Ficino, like nearly all the scholars of that age in Italy, delighted in country lfe.
His tastes were of the simplest; and while scholars like Filelfo were intent on extracting money from their patrons by flattery and threats, he remained so poor that he owed the publication of all his many works to private munificence.
Squeezes of the inscription were sent to Europe, where various scholars discussed the meaning, which is as follows: "His Majesty, Piyadassi, came here in the 21st year of his reign and paid reverence.
But two words are new, and scholars are not agreed in their interpretation of them.
Prominent among the " nine hundred theses " which Mirandola had placarded in Rome, and which he undertook to defend in the presence of all European scholars, whom he invited to the Eternal City, promising to defray their travelling expenses, was the following: " No science yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the Kabbalah."
That eminent scholars both in the synagogue and in the church should have been induced to believe in its antiquity is owing to the fact that the Zohar embodies many older opinions and doctrines, and the undoubted antiquity of some of them has served as a lever in the minds of these scholars to raise the late speculations about the En Soph, the Sephiroth, &c., to the same age.
by the end of the 5th century B.C.; it became the object of study, and thus arose a class of scholars, among whom were some who, under the influence of the general culture of the time, native and foreign, pushed their investigations beyond the limits of the national law and became students and critics of life.
I-11) that it was the custom for scholars to travel abroad and, like the scholars of medieval Europe, to increase their knowledge by personal association with wise men throughout the world.
Scholars were held in honour in those days by princes and people, and Ben-Sira frankly adduces this fact as one of the great advantages of the pursuit of wisdom.
Several interpretations of the legend have been put forward by modern scholars.
The beliefs of Clement have caused considerable difference of opinion among modern scholars.
Widely varying views have been held by modern scholars with regard to his activity, some going so far as to treat all the accounts of his labours as the fictitious creation of a later age.
In 1908 its statistics showed 2343 chapels with accommodation for 714,793 persons, 848 ministers and 5621 local preachers, 165,463 church members and 332,756 Sunday scholars; there were 55 foreign missionaries, and about 30,000 church members and probationers in the foreign field.
He was widely known as an eloquent preacher, and his scholarly attainments won for him the friendship and esteem of some of the ablest scholars in the colonies.
The other objections, however, remain, and have provoked a variety of theories from Old Testament scholars, of which three call for special notice.
7, a text which, in the wake of a line of scholars from Erasmus downwards, Abbe Paulin Martin had, in 1887, exhaustively shown to be no older than the end of the 4th century A.D.
Yet in October 1902 he established a "Commission for the Progress of Biblical Studies," preponderantly composed of seriously critical scholars; and even one month before his death he still refused to sign a condemnation of Loisy's Etudes evangeliques.
His lucid style and the perfection of his experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at his house with a small circle of young students.
It is not likely, as many scholars have thought, that Akkad was ever used geographically as a distinctive appellation for northern Babylonia, or that the name Sumer denoted the southern part of the land, because kings who ruled only over Southern Babylonia used the double title "king of Sumer and Akkad," which was also employed by northern rulers who never established their sway farther south than Nippur, notably the great Assyrian conqueror Tiglath pileser III.
Trained scholars were sent there annually by the French government: Cagnat, Saladin, Poinssot, La Blanchere, S.
Toutain, Esperandieu, Gauckler, Merlin, Homo and many others, to say nothing of German scholars, such as Willmans and Schulten, and especially of a great number of enthusiastic officers of the army of occupation, who explored all the ancient sites, and in many cases excavated with great success (for their results see the works quoted above).
Crippled and distorted by gout from his childhood, he was deprived of the use of his legs; but, in spite of this, he became one of the most learned men of his time, and exercised a great personal and intellectual influence on the numerous band of scholars he gathered round him.
But other scholars, such as Zahn, Schiirer, Porter, state that the secret books with which we have been dealing formed a class by themselves and were called " Genuizim " (a+r
In any case the classification must be to some extent provisional, since scholars are still divided as to the original language, date and place of composition of some of the books which must come under our classification.'
- Though the Latin version of this book was thrice printed in the 16th century (in 1527, 1550 and 1599), it was practically unknown to modern scholars till it was recognized by Conybeare and discussed by Cohn in the Jewish Quarterly Review, 1898, pp. 2 79-33 2.
As to the language of this original, scholars are divided.
The book is variously dated by different scholars: Zahn assigns it to the years A.D.
The date is placed by some scholars as early as 70-79, by others as late as the early years of the emperor Hadrian, 117.
Other scholars give yet other dates: see the particulars in the elaborate work of Merx.
He founded museums, libraries and schools, and inaugurated scholarships and a fund from which deserving scholars desirous of studying in England and America could obtain their expenses.
The territories of the state were enlarged; a friendly alliance was maintained with Florence; trade flourished; in 1321 the university was founded, or rather revived, by the introduction of Bolognese scholars; the principal buildings now adorning the town were begun; and the charitable institutions, which are the pride of modern Siena, increased and prospered.
Together with these historians we must mention the learned scholars Celso Cittadini (d.
This theory is clearly stated by Cranmer: " In the New Testament he that is appointed bishop or priest needed no consecration, by the Scripture, for election or appointment thereto is sufficient."2 This view, widely held among modern scholars, has strong support in the fact that the words used for ordination in the first three centuries (xaporov€ v, xaOcvTav€CV, «Afpova9at, constituere, ordinare) also expressed appointment to civil office.
Unfortunately these editions, brought out in great haste and often edited by superficial scholars, do not come up to the requirements of modern criticism.
He bequeathed his estates to Cambridge University for the purpose of maintaining two divinity scholars (-C30 a year each) at St John's College, of founding a prize for a dissertation, and of instituting the offices of Christian advocate and of Christian preacher or Hulsean lecturer.
In 1908 there were 52 government schools and 472 schools under inspection; 304 European, 21 coloured, 168 native and 31 Indian, with an aggregate attendance of 30,598 scholars.
He endeavoured to attract to his court the best scholars of Britain and Ireland, and by imperial decree (787) commanded the establishment of schools in connexion with every abbey in his realms. Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York were his advisers, and under their care the opposition long supposed to exist between godliness and secular learning speedily disappeared.
The university of Paris, with its scholars of all nations numbered by thousands, was a symbol of the intellectual unity of Christendom; a.nd in the university of Paris, it may almost be said, Scholasticism was reared and flourished and died.
The bishops prided themselves on being great statesmen, great scholars, great financiers, great diplomatists - anything, in fact, but good Christians.
They lavished money on the embellishment of their capital, Gyulafehervar, which became a sort of Protestant Mecca, whither scholars and divines of every anti-Roman denomination flocked to bask in the favour of princes who were as liberal as they were pious.
(d) Biographical: In Magyar, the great serial entitled Hungarian Historical Biographies (Budapest, 1884, &c.), edited by Sandor Szilagyi, is a collection of lives of famous Hungarian men and women from the earliest times by many scholars of note, finely illustrated.
Other and more general dictionaries for German scholars are those of Marton, Lexicon trilingue Latino-Hungarico-Germanicum (Vienna, 1818-1823), A.
l An extraordinary stimulus was given to literary enterprise by King Matthias Corvinus, who attracted both foreign and native scholars to his court.
The most distinguished of the native scholars was John Cesinge, alias Janus Pannonius, who composed Latin epigrams, panegyrics and epic poems. The best edition of his works was published by Count S.
The literary world marvelled at the encyclopaedic learning displayed by the author, and supposed that the French Academy, or some other society of scholars, must have combined their powers in its production.
Chiswick Hall, no longer extant, was formerly a country seat for the masters and sanatorium for the scholars of Westminster school.
of the Sodalitas Celtica founded by the poet Konrad Celtes, and corresponded with many of the leading scholars of his day, to whom he showed himself a veritable Maecenas.
The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
Among the works of older Christian scholars since the revival of letters, the commentary of Calvin (1557) full of religious insight and sound thought - and the laborious work of M.
State schools for white children were established by the Boer government, and in the last year (1898) before the British occupation there were 509 schools and 14,700 scholars, the education vote that year being £226,000.
In 1909 there were 670 government elementary schools, with more than 42,000 scholars.
The tradition, dating from the 15th century and supported by the weighty authority of the Strassburg historian Karl Schmidt (Nicolaus von Basel, Vienna, 1866), identified him with Nicholas, but is now discredited by all scholars.
His object is (as most scholars, probably, believe) to warn, stimulate or console the captive Jews, some full believers, some semi-believers, some unbelievers or idolaters.
[True, there was not so much said about Babylon as we should have expected even in the first book; the paucity of references to the local characteristics of Babylonia is in fact one of the negative arguments urged by older scholars in favour of the Isaianic origin of the prophecy.] Israel himself, with all his inconsistent qualities, becomes the absorbing subject of the prophet's meditations.
A very different character from Jacob's was that of Sergius of Ras'ain, one of the best Greek scholars and ablest translators whom Syria has produced.
Bishop Stubbs belongs to the front rank of historical scholars both as an author and a critic. Among Englishmen at least he excels all others as a master of every department of the historian's work, from the discovery of materials to the elaboration of wellfounded theories and literary production.
Both in England and America Bishop Stubbs was universally acknowledged as the head of all English historical scholars, and no English historian of his time was held in equal honour in European countries.
The passages relating to Map cited above have been frequently quoted by scholars, e.g.
He reversed the Hippocratic maxim "art is long," promising his scholars to teach them the whole of medicine in six months, and had inscribed upon his tomb iaTpovLKc, 7 r, as being superior to all living and bygone physicians.
There is no doubt that his work is chiefly a compilation; and Daremberg, with other scholars, has traced a large number of passages of the Latin text to the Greek originals from which they were translated.
For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.
Jewish scholars, often under the patronage of Christian bishops, were especially active in the work.
The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.
Since a knowledge of Greek was still confined to a small body of scholars, and a still smaller proportion of physicians, the first task was to translate the Greek classics into Latin.
In the field of the History of Medicine the work of scholars such as Francis Adams of Banchory (1796-1861), William A.
The total number of public elementary schools was 963 in 1905, with 752,487 scholars on the register.
He remained there for several years, acting as curate in one of the lowest districts, preparing his Manual of Prayers for the use of the Scholars of Winchester College (first published in 1674), and composing hymns.
Layard's discovery of the library of Assurbani-pal put the materials for reconstructing the ancient life and history of Assyria and Babylonia into the hands of scholars.
scholars have seen that of the Hebrew deity Yahweh.
- In the early days of the decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions, the reading of the proper names borne by Babylonians and Assyrians occasioned great difficulties; and though most of these difficulties have been overcome and there is general agreement among scholars as to the principles underlying both the formation and the pronunciation of the thousands of names that we encounter in historical records, business documents, votive inscriptions and literary productions, differences, though mostly of a minor character, still remain.
Some time must elapse before absolute uniformity in the transliteration of these proper names is to be expected; and since different scholars still adopt varying spellings of Babylonian and Assyrian proper names, it has been considered undesirable in this work to ignore the fact in individual articles contributed by them.
Until, therefore, through parallel passages or through explanatory lists prepared by the Babylonian and Assyrian scribes in large numbers as an aid for the study of the language, 5 the exact phonetic reading of these divine names was determined, scholars remained in doubt or had recourse to conjectural or provisional readings.
It is therefore not surprising that scholars should differ considerably in the reading of Sumerian names, where we have not helps at our command as for Babylonian and Assyrian names.
Thus the name of a king of Ur, generally read Ur-Bau until quite recently, is now read Ur-Engur; for Lugal-zaggisi, a king of Erech, some scholars still prefer to read Ungal-zaggisi; the name of a famous political and religious centre generally read Shir-pur-la is more probably to be read Shir-gul-la; and so forth.
Opinions differ as to the true import of these glosses; some scholars hold that the Salic Law was originally written in the Frankish vernacular, and that these words are remnants of the ancient text, while others regard them as legal formulae such as would be used either by a plaintiff in introducing a suit, or by the judge to denote the exact composition to be pronounced.
The majority of scholars has always regarded the Hittites proper as, at any rate, non-Semitic, and some leading authorities have called them proto-Armenian, and believed that they have modern descendants in the Caucasus.
But much of their secular or religious custom lived on to be recorded by Greek writers, and regarded by modern scholars as typically " Anatolian."
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
It springs from the same school of thought as the Apocalypse of Baruch, and its affinities with the latter are so numerous and profound that scholars have not yet come to any consensus as to the relative priority of either.
200, though James and other scholars assign it to the 3rd century.
The date of the book is also quite uncertain, though several scholars have ascribed it to the 3rd century.
Martin Luther regarded Apollos as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and many scholars since have shared his view.
A native of Apamea in Syria and a pupil of Panaetius, he spent after his teacher's death many years in travel and scientific researches in Spain (particularly at Gades), Africa, Italy, Gaul, Liguria, Sicily and on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. When he settled as a teacher at Rhodes (hence his surname "the Rhodian") his fame attracted numerous scholars; next to Panaetius he did most, by writings and personal intercourse, to spread Stoicism in the Roman world, and he became well known to many leading men, such as Marius, Rutilius Rufus, Pompey and Cicero.
16, which enjoins the duty of study and of scrupulousness in the observance of religious ordinances, only a very remarkable characterization of the different natures of the scholars remains (Aboth di R.
He loved discussing the sense of single portions of the Bible with other scholars, and made many fine expositions of the text.
Kirby's Winchester Scholars; R.
1613), a mild divine, who had written a treatise on persuasion in religion, urging that as to it "men could be led, not driven"; Lambert Danaeus, who deserves remembrance as the first to discuss Christian ethics scientifically, apart from dogmatics; Johannes Drusius, the Orientalist, one of the most enlightened and advanced scholars of his day, settled later at Franeker; Johann Kolmann the younger, best known by his saying that high Calvinism made God "both a tyrant and an executioner."
Scholars are not yet agreed as to what would have been their result if their natural development had not been cut off by the violent introduction of Frankish feudalism with the Norman conquest, whether the historical feudal system, or a feudal system in the general sense.
Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard's are among the bestwritten books of travel in the language.
The suspicion of some earlier scholars that the Praefatio and the Versus might be a modern forgery is refuted by the occurrence of the word vitteas, which is the Old Saxon fittea, corresponding to the Old English fitt, which means a "canto" of a poem.
The general opinion of scholars is that the latter part, which represents the poet as having received his vocation in a dream, is by a later hand, and that the sentences in the earlier part which refer to the dream are interpolations by this second author.
Gaston Paris endeared himself to a wide circle of scholars outside his own country by his unfailing urbanity and generosity.
These opinions must overrule the view of some Christian scholars that the writer often blunders in Jewish matters, the fact being that his knowledge is derived from the Judaism of Alexandria' rather than Palestine.
A few are historical, but being (with few and late exceptions) undated, have given rise to much controversy among scholars.
- Arabia is a land of Semites, and is supposed by some scholars to have been the original home of the Semitic peoples.
Although this cannot be said to be proved, the studies, linguistic and archaeological, of Semitic scholars have shown it to be probable.
At the same time the facts that the inscriptions are undated until a late period, that few are historical in their contents, and for the most part yield only names of gods and rulers and domestic and religious details, and that our collection is still very incomplete, have led to much serious disagreement among scholars as to the reconstruction of the history of Arabia in the pre-Christian centuries.
All scholars, however, are agreed that the inscriptions reach as far back as the 9th century B.C. (some say to the 16th) and prove the existence of at least four civilized kingdoms during these centuries.
As to the Sabaean kingdom there is fair agreement among scholars.
Other scholars think, with D.
aong after this date, when all scholars drew mainly from books, the old forms were still kept up. Tabari, for example, when he cites a book expresses himself as if he had heard what he quotes from the master with whom he read the passage or from whose copy he transcribed it.
The materials were supplied in the first place by oral tradition, in the second by the dictata of older scholars, and finally by various kinds of documents, such as treaties, letters, collections of poetry and genealogical lists.
1039) wrote a History of Ispahan, chiefly of the scholars of that city; Tha`alibi (d.
1176) a History of Damascus and her Scholars, which is of great value, and exists in whole or in part in several libraries.
His disciples were not all of one school, but many eminent scholars who apparently have been untouched by his influence have in fact developed some of the many ideas which he suggested.
Gesch., 3rd ed., p. 160) rejects the earlier foundation; on the other hand, he insists, with the majority of scholars and against Kosters, on the actual return of exiles in 537 to form the nucleus of the post-exilic community (loc. cit., p. 157 n.).
To that end he filled it with celebrated scholars, and, leaving only a few chairs of letters and philosophy in Florence, compelled the Florentines to resort to Pisa for the prosecution of their studies.
The form Jehovah was used in the 16th century by many authors, both Catholic and Protestant, and in the 17th was zealously defended by Fuller, Gataker, Leusden and others, against the criticisms of such scholars as Drusius, Cappellus and the elder Buxtorf.
The Samaritans, who otherwise shared the scruples of the Jews about the utterance of the name, seem to have used it in judicial oaths to the scandal of the rabbis.4 The early Christian scholars, who inquired what was the true name of the God of the Old Testament, had therefore no great difficulty in getting the information they sought.
Recent scholars, accordingly, with but few exceptions, are agreed that the ancient pronunciation of the name was Yahweh (the first h sounded at the end of the syllable).
Modern scholars have sometimes found in the name the expression of the aseity 14 of God; sometimes of his reality, in contrast to the imaginary gods of the heathen.
A serious objection to this theory in every form is that the verb hayah, " to be," has no causative stem in Hebrew; to express the ideas which these scholars find in the name Yahweh the language employs altogether different verbs.
The derivation of Yahweh from hawah is formally unimpeachable, and is adopted by many recent scholars, who proceed, however, from the primary sense of the root rather than from the specific meaning of the nouns.
Scholars are now agreed that, so far as Yahu or Yah occurs in Babylonian texts, it is as the name of a foreign god.
Assuming that Yahweh was primitively a nature god, scholars in the 19th century discussed the question over what sphere of nature he originally presided.
The angry tyrant, unable to refute her arguments himself, sent for pagan scholars to argue with her, but they were discomfited.
Of all these marvellous incidents very little, by the universal admission of Catholic scholars, has survived the test of modern criticism.
with the Burgundian king Gundahari (Gunther, Gunnar) and the overthrow of his house and nation by the Huns; the scholars have exercised considerable ingenuity in attempting to identify him with various historical figures.
Both sexes dressed with Puritan plainness; husbands and wives quitted their homes for convents; marriage became an awful and scarcely permitted rite; mothers suckled their own babes; and persons of all ranks - nobles, scholars and artists - renounced the world to assume the Dominican robe.
The longer Christina ruled, the more anxious for the future fate of her empire grew the men who had helped to build it up. Yet she gave fresh privileges to the towns; she encouraged trade and manufactures, especially the mining industries of the Dales; in 1649 she issued the first school ordinance for the whole kingdom; she encouraged foreign scholars to settle in Sweden; and native science and literature, under her liberal encouragement, flourished as they had never flourished before.
That these two accounts are absolutely contradictory is now generally recognized by Biblical scholars, and it is to the former (and later) of them that the simple story of Samuel's youth at Shiloh will belong.
After he had been two years at the Ecole Polytechnique he took a foremost part in a mutinous demonstration against one of the masters; the school was broken up, and Comte like the other scholars was sent home.
Although himself a stranger to letters he welcomed scholars to his court and eagerly seconded the efforts of his brother Bruno to encourage learning; and while he neither feared nor shirked battle, he was always ready to secure his ends by peaceable means.
This, the Perceval story proper, has been recognized by scholars as a variant of a widespread folk-tale theme, designated by J.
This distinguishes the story from that of Lancelot, with which some modern scholars have been inclined to identify it; for Lancelot's parentage is never in doubt, he is fis du roi.
But the evidence of old documents seems to show that these syllabaries had a gradual evolution and that neither was the outcome of a single scholars inventive genius.
But scholars were immediately able to construct the following:
and its consequent accessibility, there arose a galaxy of scholars under whose influence the archaic style and the ancient Japanese traditions entered a period of renaissance.
Against this hybrid faith several, Japanese scholars arrayed themselves in the j7th and 18th centuries, the greatest of them being Mabuchi and Motoori.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
Men and women of all ranks began to visit it; the emperor himself consented (f 887) to witness a performance by the great stars of the stage at the private residence of Marquis Inouye; a dramatic reform association was organized by a number of prominent noblemen and scholars; drastic efforts were made to purge the old historical dramas of anachronisms and inconsistencies, and at length a theatre (the Yurabu-za) was built on purely European lines, where instead of sitting from morning to night witnessing one long-drawn-out drama with interludes of whole farces, a visitor may devote only a few evening-hours to the pastime.
To this may be attributed the appearance of a group of nien known as kangakusha (Chinese scholars).
These Chinese scholars made no secret of their contempt for Buddhism, and in their turn they were held in aversion by the Buddhists and the Japanese scholars (wagakusha), so that the second half of the i8th century was a time of perpetual wrangling and controversy.
The principal archives of Poland and Hungary were ransacked for the purpose, and in his account of his own times Dlugosz's intimate acquaintance with the leading scholars and statesmen of his day stood him in good stead.
The most prominent members of the family were Mircea (1386-1418), who accepted Turkish suzerainty; Neagoe, the founder of the famous cathedral at Curtea de Argesh; Michael, surnamed the Brave (1592-1601); and Petru Cercel, famous for his profound learning, who spoke twelve languages and carried on friendly correspondence with the greater scholars and poets of Italy.
He studied at Leiden university, where he became intimate with the most famous scholars of the age - J.
There is much difference of opinion among scholars regarding the attitude of imperial Athens towards her allies.
The majority of modern scholars are agreed that the prophet prepares for the work of those reformers (Ezra, 458; Nehemiah, 444, 43 2 B.C.).
But the comparative study of religions has suggested the lines of reconstitution and the careful analysis of survivals embedded in literature and the evidence of monumental remains, and in particular of the old calendars, has enabled modern scholars to make good progress in the task of separating the elements due to different periods and influences.
As has been well said by a learned Baptist theologian, Dr Green: " It was by a true divine instinct that the early theologians made Christ Himself, in His divine-human personality, their centre of the creeds."' The fundamental questions of Christianity, exhibited in theApostles' Creed, should be marked In response to an invitation issued by the archbishop of Canterbury, acting on a resolution of the Lambeth Conference of 1908, a committee of eminent scholars met in April and May 1909 for the purpose of preparing a new translation.
Lucaris, who died in 1638 as patriarch of Constantinople, had corresponded with Western scholars and had imbibed Calvinistic views.
Curiously enough, the synod refused to believe that the heretical confession it refuted was actually by a former patriarch of Constantinople; yet the proofs of its genuineness seem to most scholars overwhelming.
Here he did most of his literary work and, throwing aside his unfinished plan of a translation from Origen's Hexaplar text, translated the Old Testament directly from the Hebrew, with the aid of Jewish scholars.
But when a committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, with George Grote at its head, decided that the translations of an Assyrian text made independently by the scholars just named were at once perfectly intelligible and closely in accord with one another, scepticism was silenced, and the new science was admitted to have made good its claims. Naturally the early investigators did not fathom all the niceties of the language, and the work of grammatical investigation has gone on continuously under the auspices of a constantly growing band of workers.
For most of the period in question Thucydides is the only source; and despite the inherent merits of a great writer, it can hardly be doubted that the tribute of almost unqualified praise that successive generations of scholars have paid to Thucydides must have been in some measure qualified if, for example, a Spartan account of the Peloponnesian War had been preserved to us.
It is not too much, then, to say that failure to find such a monument has caused deep disappointment to Bible scholars everywhere.
The acute interest which they excited when George Smith deciphered their contents in 1872 has to some extent abated, but this is only because scholars are now pretty generally agreed as to their bearing on the corresponding parts of Genesis.
However disconcerting such a revelation as this would have been to the theologians of an elder day, the Bible scholars of our own generation are able to regard it with entire composure.
When the annalistic tablet of Cyrus was translated, it was made to appear, to the consternation of Bible scholars, that the city of Babylon had capitulated to the Persian - or more properly to the Elamite - conqueror without a struggle.
Being a man of wealth, he printed at his own expense the numerous papers which he wrote on various branches of this science, and communicated them to scholars in almost every country of Europe.
Such was the first encounter of the two scholars.
Before long the school connected with the monastery became famous, and among its earlier scholars it numbered Sturm, abbot of Fulda, and Megingod, second bishop of Wiirzburg.
He is the patron saint of Russia; the special protector of children, scholars, merchants and sailors; and is invoked by travellers against robbers.
Bitter, however, as was the opposition to his views, it was not long before his results were accepted by scholars.
But no substantial philosophy of any kind emerged from humanism; the political lucubrations of the scholars were, like their ethical treatises, for the most part rhetorical.
5.5 and some modern scholars) would place 2 See further H.
The vast extent of this donation, which, moreover, included territories not owning Charles's authority, and the fact that the king did not execute, or apparently attempt to execute, its provisions, has caused many scholars to look upon the passage as a forgery; but the better opinion would appear to be that it is genuine, or at least has a genuine basis.
He delighted in the society of scholars - Alcuin, Angilbert, Paul the Lombard, Peter of Pisa and others, and in this company the trappings of rank were laid aside and the emperor was known simply as David.
The atmosphere of these schools was strictly ecclesiastical and the questions discussed by the scholars were often puerile, but the greatness of the educational work of Charles will not be doubted when one considers the rude condition of Frankish society half a century before.
With the exception of Methodius and Pamphilus the book was not received by Eastern scholars.
It is from these scholars that subsequent writers of Revelation have learnt how to study this book scientifically.
2 This method was adopted and developed by Grotius, 3 Hammond, Clericus, Semler, Corredi and Eichhorn, Dicke, Bleek and Ewald, and the consciousness that Rome and not Jerusalem was the object of attack in Revelation became increasingly clear in the works of these scholars.
Against the date assigned to the opening verses of this chapter modern scholars can make no objection, but, if this be the date of the entire work, then many passages in it are hopelessly inexplicable; for the latter just as certainly demand a date subsequent to A.D.
Now modern scholars have with varying success used in turn these three hypotheses with a view to the solution of the problems of the New Testament Apocalypse.
The labours of these scholars, though to the superficial student they seem to prove that everything is possible and nothing certain, have certainly thrown great light on the literary character of the Apocalypse.
Most scholars are agreed that this chapter is not, except in the case of a few sentences, the work of our author.
Four continental scholars, Fritzsche, Benary, Hitzig and Reuss, independently recognized that Nero was referred to under the mystical number 666.
The above solution may be regarded as established, though several scholars, as Oscar Holtzmann (Stade's Geschichte des Volkes Israel, ii.
Some scholars are of opinion that this writer identified Domitian with the eighth emperor, the Nero redivivus, the beast from the abyss.
With Dean Church he may be said to have restored the waning influence of the Tractarian school, and he succeeded in popularizing the opinions which, in the hands of Pusey and Keble, had appealed to thinkers and scholars.
Tarrasa is now mostly a modern industrial town, with fine public buildings, including the royal college, built in 1864 for 450 students besides day scholars, the school of arts and handicrafts, the industrial institute, chamber of commerce, hospitals, town hall, clubs, theatres and many large textile factories.
The testimony which it affords to the Ignatian Epistles is so striking that those scholars who regard these letters as spurious are bound to reject the Epistle of Polycarp altogether, or at any rate to look upon it as largely interpolated.
Some modern scholars (among whom Harnack was formerly numbered, though he has modified his views on the point) feel a difficulty about the peremptory tone which Ignatius adopts towards Polycarp. There was some force in this argument when the Ignatian Epistles were dated about 140, as in that case Polycarp would have been an old and venerable man at the time.
argument Harnack has the support of a considerable number of modern scholars who deny the Ephesian residence of John the apostle.
Although concerned principally with ecclesiastical affairs scholars agree in regarding the Historiae as one of the ablest and most valuable writings of its kind.
Some scholars, indeed, hold that the entire work is practically an adaptation of the lost Pratum of Suetonius.
Scholars were not agreed whether any Greek original really existed; but all doubt on the point was removed by the discovery of a fragment in Greek amongst the papyri found by B.
The text of Bengel long enjoyed a high reputation among scholars, and was frequently reprinted.
In1909-1910there were in the Anglican schools over 36,000 scholars, of whom 17,000 were girls.
Of the total number of scholars over 26,000 were in the kingdom of Buganda.
The Roman Catholic schools had in 1909 over 11,000 scholars.
But although he was one of the greatest scholars Iceland has produced, he was still greater as a politician.
Some scholars, as Burmann, Dressler and L.
The founder of the mathematical school was the celebrated Euclid (Eucleides); among its scholars were Archimedes; Apollonius of Perga, author of a treatise on Conic Sections; Eratosthenes, to whom we owe the first measurement of the earth; and Hipparchus, the founder of the epicyclical theory of the heavens, afterwards called the Ptolemaic system, from its most famous expositor, Claudius Ptolemaeus.
Singularly enough it is the modern Catholic scholars, Johannes Janssen above all, who, in their efforts further to discredit the Protestant revolt by rehabilitating the institutions which the reformers attacked, have done most to explain the success of the Reformation.
Johann Reuchlin, a well-known scholar, who had been charged by the Dominicans with heresy, not only received the support of the newer type of scholars, who wrote him encouraging letters which he published under the title Epistolae clarorum virorum, but this collection suggested to Crotus Rubianus and Ulrich von Hutten one of the most successful satires of the ages, the Epistolae obscurorum virorum.
He, at least, among the well-known scholars eagerly espoused Luther's cause, as he understood it.
Scholars, like Colet, read the New Testament in Greek and lectured on justification by faith before they knew of Luther, and More included among the institutions of Utopia a rather more liberal and enlightened religion than that which he observed around him.
Erasmus was read and approved, and his notion of reform by culture no doubt attracted many adherents among English scholars.
1527) and others, some of whom were well-trained scholars capable of maintaining with vigour and effect their ideas of an apostolic life as the high road to salvation.
Though accepted by some modern scholars, this derivation of the word is rendered improbable by the fact that Ares was not worshipped on the Areopagus.
of Spain founded a university here, in which several English scholars were given chairs; and in connexion with this William Allen in 1568 founded the celebrated English college.
It is now commonly recognized by scholars that when Gregory the Great became a monk and turned his palace on the Caelian Hill into a monastery, the monastic life there carried out was fundamentally based on the Benedictine Rule.
Scholars, guessing from isolated passages in classic writers, or arguing on general principles, had held that the "Indies" could be reached by sailing due west.
The opinions of scholars, and the fantasies of poets, became an enthusiastic belief in the mind of Columbus.
He has brought together, in the Bureau of American Ethnology in Washington, many hundreds of manuscripts, written by travellers, traders, missionaries, and scholars; and, better still, in response to circulars, carefully prepared vocabularies, texts and long native stories have been written out by trained collectors.
His learning made him the equal and the friend of Grotius, and of the foremost contemporary scholars.
as EV, "his people," but Ammon is read by the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac and Vulgate Versions and some Hebrew MSS., and is accepted by many modern scholars.
Hengstenberg and other Christian scholars.
Moreover, it had come to be suspected by several scholars that a lost book, variously entitled The Two Ways or The Judgment of Peter, had been freely used in a number of works, of which mention must presently be made.
It might have been best to surrender the term " dogma " to the dogmatists; but few scholars have consented to do so.
Much more like Chrismann's view is the " generally accepted position " among Protestant scholars, as its leading representative to-day, F.
Michaelis, he was compensated for this by the esteem of Frederick the Great, of Lessing, Karsten Niebuhr, and many foreign scholars.
There were, besides, branches at Turin (i temple, 2 pasteurs and 750 members), in other parts of Italy, including Sicily (46 temples and as many pasteurs, v?hile the number of members was 5613, of day scholars 2704, and of Sunday school scholars 3707).
It is also reckoned that in Uruguay and the Argentine Republic there are about 6000 Waldensians; of these 1253 were in 1900 full members, while the day scholars numbered 364 and the Sunday school children 670.
Hence scholars are now agreed that the term "Chaldee" is a misnomer, and that the dialect so called is really the language of the SouthWestern Arameans, who were the immediate neighbours of the Jews (W.
In 1907 the figures were, for Great Britain as a whole: Churches, branch churches and mission stations, 4928; sittings, 1,801,447; church members, 49 8, 953; Sunday school scholars, 729,347, with 69,575 teachers; ministers (with or without pastoral charge), 3197, together with 299 evangelists and lay pastors; lay preachers, 5603.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions reported for the year ending August 31, 1907: 579 missionaries and 4135 native workers; 580 churches with 68,00o communicants and 65,000 scholars.
Roman Catholics support about 150 clerical day schools attended by about 11,500 scholars.
Among its masters were Buchanan, afterwards the teacher of James I., and Muretus, one of the first scholars of the age.
The Sla y s were driven back, the domestic policy of Henry the Fowler was continued, the Saxon court became a centre of learning visited by Italian scholars, and in 968 an archbishopric was founded at Magdeburg for the lands east of the Elbe.
The etymology of rivus and ripa is disputed; some scholars refer both to the root ri-, to drop, flow; others take ripa to be from the root seen in Gr.
Under Austria, since everywhere that 40 scholars of one nationality were to be found within a radius of 5 km.
The number of elementary schools increased from 19,016 in two to 24,713 in 1913; the number of scholars from 3,49 0, 000 in 1900 to 4,630,000 in 1913.
In conjunction with other scholars Waitz took a leading part in the publication of the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte (Munich, 1862 seq.), and in the Nordalbingische Studien, published in the Proceedings of the Schleswig-Holstein Historical Society (Kiel, 1844-1851).
For many years Peckham taught at Paris, coming into contact with the greatest scholars of the day, among others St Thomas Aquinas.
This book raised Zunz to the supreme position among Jewish scholars.
Two scholarships of £300 a year each for four years are annually competed for by the scholars of these schools, the winners of which proceed to Europe to study a subject of their own selection which shall fit them for the future service of their country.
Historical scholars ridiculed his mistakes, and Freeman, the most violent of his critics, never let slip a chance of hitting at him in the Saturday Review.
1 i: after stating the qualifications necessary for deacons the writer adds, "Women in like manner must be grave - not slanderers," &c.; the Authorized Version took the passage as referring to deacons' wives, but many scholars think that by "women" deaconesses are meant.
In editing a father, or a classic, he had in view the practical utility of the general reader, not the accuracy required by the gild of scholars.
There is no proper ground for regarding it, as some Biblical scholars of a former generation did, through a false interpretation of the book of Jonah, as a part or suburb of Nineveh.
Polemic interest led a number of Lutheran scholars of the 16th century to publish the Magdeburg Centuries (1 559 ff.), in which they undertook to show the primitive character of the Protestant faith in contrast with the alleged corruptions of Roman Catholicism.
The opposite thesis was maintained by Baronius (Annales Ecclesiastici, 1588 ff.), whose work was continued by a number of Roman Catholic scholars.
735) were the first scholars of the period.
It was as little original as that of Bede; for on the continent, too, scholars were content to think what those of old had thought before them.
He acted as one of the missi dominici, and spent some time at the court of Charlemagne, where he was known by the assembled scholars as Aquila, and his name appears as one of the signatories to the emperor's will.
These scholars have been influenced by Gebhardt's statement that in the Greek Legend there is not a trace of iii.
At Cambridge he was one of the most brilliant classical scholars of his time.
Scholars desiring to explore for themselves the sources of Polish history from the nth century to the 18th have immense fields of research lying open before them in the Acta historica res gestas Poloniae illustrantia (1878, &c.), the Scriptores rerum polonicarum (1872, &c.), and the Historical Dissertations (Pol., 1874, &c.), all three collections published, under the most careful editorship, by the University of Cracow.
His real name was Jodokus (Jobst) Koch, which he changed according to the common custom of German scholars in the 16th century, when at the university of Erfurt.
He founded or endowed various professorships, including those of Hebrew and Arabic, and the office of public orator, encouraged English and foreign scholars, such as Voss, Selden and Jeremy Taylor, founded the university printing press, procuring in 1633 the royal patent for Oxford, and obtained for the Bodleian library over 1300 MSS., adding a new wing to the building to contain his gifts.
Reinkens, afterwards bishop of the Old Catholic Church in Germany, Knoodt, and other distinguished scholars.
" While the scholars of Alexandria were mainly interested in the verbal criticism of the Greek poets, a wider variety of studies was the characteristic of the school of Pergamum, the literary rival of Alexandria.
88), with critical symbols resembling those invented by the Alexandrian scholars.
The lives of Roman poets and scholars were among the many subjects that exercised the literary skill of Hadrian's private secretary, Suetonius.
The most memorable name, however, among the scholars of this century is that of Eustathius, whose philological studies at Constantinople preceded his tenure of the archbishopric of Thessalonica (1175-1192).
The scholars of these times are the natural precursors of the earliest representatives of the Revival of Learning in the West.
The scholars of the Byzantine age cannot be compared with the great Alexandrians, but they served to maintain the continuity of tradition by which the Greek classics selected by the critics of Alexandria were transmitted to modern Europe.
735), some of the scholars who still survived were "as familiar with Greek and Latin as with their mother-tongue."
Among Latin scholars of the next generation we have Giraldus Cambrensis (d.
Another generation passed, and the scholars of the East and West met at the council of Florence (1439) One of the envoys of the Greeks, Gemistus Pletho, then inspired Cosimo dei Medici with the thought of founding an academy for the study of Plato.
The translation of Aristotle was entrusted to three of the learned Greeks who had already arrived in Italy, Trapezuntius, Gaza and Bessarion, while other authors were undertaken by Italian scholars such as Guarino, Valla, Decembrio and Perotti.
Among the scholars of Italian birth, probably the only one in this age who rivalled the Greeks as a public expositor of their own literature was Politian (1454-1494), who lectured on Homer and Aristotle in Florence, translated Herodian, and was specially interested in the Latin authors of the Silver Age and in the text of the Pandects of Justinian.
The cause of the Ciceronians was defended by the elder Scaliger in 1531 and 1536, and by Etienne Dolet in 1535, and the controversy was continued by other scholars down to the year 1610.
One of the younger scholars of the day was William Lilye, who picked up his Greek at Rhodes on his way to Palestine and became the first high-master of the school founded by Colet at St Paul's (1510).
Among natives of Germany the leading scholars have been, in Greek, C. F.
Among the scholars.
Lane were prominent American classical scholars.
Scholars have been enabled to realize in their own experience some of the enthusiasm that attended the recovery of lost classics during the Revival of Learning.
Greek he absolutely proscribes, reserving a knowledge of that language to the learned and the lettered, and to professional scholars.
The scholars attending primary schools number about 150,000 (over ioo,000 being Europeans and some 15,000 Jewish) and those at secondary schools about 6000.
The reputation of Elias Levita and Buxtorf led to this view of Ezra's activity being adopted by other scholars, and so it acquired general currency.
- The traditions current among the Israelites respecting the origins and early history of their nation - the patriarchal period, and the times of Moses and Joshua - were probably first cast into a written form in the 10th or 9th century B.C. by a prophet living in Judah, who, from the almost exclusive use in his narrative of the sacred name " Jahveh " (" Jehovah "), - or, as we now commonly write it, Yahweh, - is referred to among scholars by the abbreviation " J."
Its compilation can hardly have been finally completed before the 3rd century B.C.; if it is true, as many scholars think, that there are psalms dating from the time of the Maccabee struggle (Ps.
The book will not have finally reached its present form before the 4th century B.C. Some scholars believe that it dates entirely from the Greek period (which began 332 B.C.); but it may be doubted whether there are sufficient grounds for this conclusion.
The date at which it was written is uncertain; there are features in it which point to its having been the work of a poet living in north Israel, and writing at an early date; but most recent scholars, on account chiefly of certain late expressions occurring in it, think that it cannot have been written earlier than the 4th or 3rd century B.C. In the graceful and tender idyll of Ruth, it is told how Ruth, the Moabitess, and a native consequently of a country hostile theocratically to Israel, adopted Israel's faith (i.
the Massoretic. 'This text was the work of a special gild of trained scholars called Massoretes (main 'Sys) or " masters of tradition " (n p 7 or less correctly n-m), 1 whose aim was not only to preserve and transmit the consonantal text which had been handed down to them, but also to ensure its proper pronunciation.
The position of Christian (and Jewish Alexandrian) scholars was considerably worse; for, with rare exceptions, down to the 5th century, and practically without exception between the 5th and 15th centuries, their study was exclusively based on translations.
Beneath the ancient Greek version, the Septuagint, there certainly underlay an earlier form of the Hebrew text than that perpetuated by Jewish tradition, and if Christian scholars could have worked through the version to the underlying Hebrew text, they would often have come nearer to the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries.
But this they could not do; and since the version, owing to the limitations of the translators, departs widely from the sense of the original, Christian scholars were on the whole kept much farther from the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries, who used the Hebrew text; and later, after Jewish grammatical and philological study had been stimulated by intercourse with the Arabs, the relative disadvantages under which Christian scholarship laboured increased.
Jerome, perceiving the unsatisfactory position of Latin-speaking Christian scholars who studied the Old Testament at a double remove from the original - in Latin versions of the Greek - made a fresh Latin translation direct from the Hebrew text then received among the Jews.
knowledge of Hebrew was rare indeed among Christian scholars.
Yet even so the publication of the Hebrew text by Christian scholars marks an important stage; henceforth the study of the original enters increasingly into Christian Biblical scholarship; it already underlay the translations which form so striking a feature of the 16th century.
At first, and indeed down to the middle of the 17th century, Jewish traditions and methods in the study of Hebrew dominated Christian scholars; but in the 17th and 18th centuries the study of other Semitic languages opened up that comparative linguistic study which was systematized and brought nearer to perfection in the 19th century (which also witnessed the opening up of the new study of Assyrian) by scholars such as Gesenius, Ewald, Olshausen, Renan, Noldeke, 'Stade and Driver.
Even in the 16th and 17th centuries scholars like Grotius and Michaelis met with violent opposition for the same cause.
Biblical criticism is part of a wider critical movement, but it is noticeable how, from stage to stage, Biblical scholars adopted the various critical methods which as applied to other literatures have been proved valid, rather than themselves initiated them.
The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.
This fact was, naturally enough and under the same dogmatic stress, denied by those scholars who maintained that the vowels were an integral part of the text.
libris occurrent lectionibus, written in 1634, much studied in MS. by scholars before its publication in 1650, and unavailingly criticized by Buxtorf the younger in his Anticritica see vindiciae veritatis hebraicae (1653).
For collection of material the edition of Holmes and Parsons (Oxford, 1798-1827), with its magnificent critical apparatus, is pre-eminent; the preparation of a similar edition, on a rather smaller scale but embodying the results of fresh and more careful collation, was subsequently undertaken by Cambridge scholars.'
Conjectural emendations were offered by Capellus in the 17th, and by scholars such as C. F.
Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, edited by various scholars, was designed to present, when complete, a critical text of the entire Old Testament with critical notes.
Nevertheless criticism advanced by slow degrees among individuals, now in the Roman Church, now in the number of those who sat loosely to the restrictions of either Roman or Protestant authority, and now among Protestant scholars and theologians.
Except in strangely making Zephaniah contemporary with Isaiah, Hobbes' conclusions, in so far as they differ from the traditional views, have been confirmed by the more thorough criticism of subsequent scholars.
Much of the voluminous detailed work in this and other works is naturally enough provisional, but in the Introduction there emerge most of the broad conclusions of literary criticism (sometimes incomplete) which, after more than a century of keen examination by scholars unwilling to admit them, have passed by more or less general consent into the number of historical certainties or high probabilities.
Inherent in this view of religious development and the new critical position were far-reaching changes in the literary, historical and religious criticism of the Old Testament: these have been gradually rendered clear as the fundamental positions on which they rest have been secured by the manifold work of two generations of scholars.
It is one thing for scholars to reach conclusions: it is another for these conclusions to exercise a wide influence in the Churches and over general culture.
dicta of the Reformers challenging traditional opinions on the origin and character of the Old Testament; in the 17th century, among certain isolated scholars, elementary critical surveys of the whole field, which exercised, however, no C r extensive influence.
But Eichhorn's Introduction appealed to more than technical scholars: its influence was great, and from that time forward criticism gradually or even rapidly extended its sway in Germany.
Very different was the case in England; after Geddes and Lowth, at the close of the 18th, till far down into the 19th century, the attitude even of scholars (with rare exceptions) was hostile to critical developments, and no independent critical work was done.
No less rapid has been the change in America during the same period, nor less numerous the scholars well equipped to pursue the detailed investigation involved in critical study or those who have shown ability in popular presentations of the critical standpoint.'
Brown, one of the most eminent of American scholars, S.
Other important works in which English and American scholars have co-operated are the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903) and Hastings' Bible Dictionary (1898-1904) - the latter less radical, but yet on the whole based on acceptance of the fundamental positions of Vatke, Graf, Wellhausen.
Cheyne, Founders of Old Testament Criticism (pp. 1-247, biographical sketches of critical scholars since the middle of the 18th century; pp. 2 48-37 2, criticism of Driver's Introduction).
The majority of scholars hold the same view in regard also to (I); but Dillmann gives here the preference to the figures of the Sam.
10 (which places the fall of Samaria in Hezekiah's 6th year) is correct; but some scholars (as Wellhausen, Kamphausen, and Stade) suppose that the date in ver.
This may be said to be the position generally taken up by the leading English scholars; it differs slightly in a conservative direction, but not widely, from that of Harnack, a little more from that of Pincher, and again a little more from that of von Soden.
2 Thessalonians is still questioned by scholars of some note; but when Pincher can say that no question could be raised if it were not for the existence of I Thessalonians (assumed to be genuine), this is practically giving up the whole case, because the objections drawn from I Thessalonians are, at least to the present writer, only an example of faulty criticism.
Gregory's notation is more generally used, and Scrivener's, though still followed by a few English scholars, is likely to become obsolete.
Its text in the Old Testament is thought by some scholars to show signs of representing the Hesychian recension, but this view seems latterly to have lost favour with students of the Septuagint.
There are now but few, if any, scholars who think that the Peshito is an entirely separate version, and the majority have been convinced by Burkitt and recognize (1) that the Peshito is based on a knowledge of the Old Syriac and the Diatessaron; (2) that it was made by Rabbula with the help of the contemporary Greek text of the Antiochene Church.
The importance of both the Stephanus and Elzevir editions is that they formed a definite text for the purposes of comparison, and so prepared the way for the next stage, in which scholars busied themselves with the investigation and collation of other MSS.
Gregory after Tischendorf's death, is the standard critical edition which is used by scholars all over the world.
Hort (commonly quoted as WH), the Cambridge scholars, supplied the deficiencies of Lachmann, and without giving up the advantages of his system, and its development by Tischendorf, brought back the study of the text of the New Testament to the methods of Griesbach.
These two scholars have done much work in trying to identify smaller groups of MSS.
Nestle, however, and other scholars think that the lines in B are merely indications of a division of the text into senseparagraphs and have nothing to do with any harmony.
Sanday, followed by Chase and a few other English scholars, has suggested that the Old Latin may have been made originally in Antioch, but this paradoxical view has met with little support.
This document is by many scholars identified with the " Logia," mentioned by Papias (Eusebius, Ch.
It is now recognized that the compiler of the former has used many novel narratives of a particular edifying and didactic stamp, and scholars are practically unanimous that these are subsequent to the age of the Israelite monarchy and present a picture of historical and religious conditions which (to judge from earlier sources) is untrustworthy.
Francia had more than 200 scholars.
In 1698 there were loo orphans under his charge to be clothed and fed, besides Soo children who were taught as day scholars.
Translations or revisions in scores of languages are still being carried on by companies of scholars and representative missionaries in different parts of the world, organized under the society's auspices and largely at its expense.
Of the numerous churches the chief are the Hooglandsche Kerk, or the church of St Pancras, built in the 15th century and restored in 18851 9 02, containing the monument of Pieter Andriaanszoon van der Werf, and the Pieterskerk (1315) with monuments to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other famous scholars.
The presence within half a century of the date of its foundation of such scholars as Justus Lipsius, Joseph Scaliger, Francis Gomarus, Hugo Grotius, Jacobus Arminius, Daniel Heinsius and Guardas Johannes Vossius, at once raised Leiden university to the highest European fame, a position which the learning and reputation of Jacobus Gronovius, Hermann Boerhaave, Tiberius Hem sterhuis and David Ruhnken, among others, enabled it to maintain down to the end of the 18th century.
Instruction in the principles of the metric system, and in the advantages to be gained from uniformity in the method of forming multiples and sub-multiples of the unit, are, under this Code, to be given to the scholars in Standards IV., V., VI.
The circumstances which led to his admission into the apostolic circle are not stated; while the motives by which he was actuated in enabling the Jewish authorities to arrest Jesus without tumult have been variously analysed by scholars.
18, 19 have attracted the attention of biblical scholars, ever since Papias, in his fourth book, of which a fragment has been preserved, discussed the subject.
Most scholars, it is true, following an old tradition, reckon Bardesanes among the Valentinians.
Thus actual documents of native Aztec history, or copies of them, are still open to the study of scholars, while after the conquest interpretations of these were drawn up in writing by Spanish-educated Mexicans, and histories founded on them with the aid of traditional memory were written by Ixtilxochitl and Tezozomoc. In Central America the rows of complex hieroglyphs to be seen sculptured on the ruined temples probably served a similar purpose.
The authorship of this version is doubtful, being by some scholars attributed to King Alfred (d.
In order to carry out this purpose he repaired in July or August 1523 to London, and to the famous protector of scholars and scholarship, Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall.
When this large body of scholars were set down to their task, an elaborate set of rules was drawn up for their guidance, which contained a scheme of revision as well as general directions for the execution of their work.
Negotiations were opened with the leading scholars of the Protestant denominations in America, with the result that similar companies were formed in the United States.
The critical resources at the disposal of scholars in 1611 were very meagre, and the few early manuscripts with which they were acquainted failed to receive the attention they deserved.
It had long been the opinion of all competent scholars that a thorough revision was necessary.
These two scholars were members of the committee which prepared the Revised Version, and on the question of various readings they appear to have exercised a predominating influence.
But it is scarcely necessary to say that the Revised Version is not the work of one or two scholars.
It need mean no more (Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion, 172 seq.) than narratives of (or concerning) the Lord; on the other hand, the phrase is capable of a much more definite meaning, and there are many scholars who hold that it refers to a document which contained a collection of the sayings of Jesus.
The papyri of the " sayings " date from the 3rd century and most scholars agree that the " sayings " themselves go back to the and.
(a) Some scholars maintain that the collection goes back to the 1st century and represents one of the earliest attempts to construct an account of the teaching of Jesus.
He was one of that band of young scholars, among whom were also Ernest Lavisse, Gabriel Monod and Gaston Paris, whose enthusiasm was aroused by the principles and organization of scientific study as applied beyond the Rhine, and who were ready to devote themselves to their cherished plan of remodelling higher education in France.
It should be added that what we know of Saka history is mostly derived from coins and inscriptions which admit of various interpretations and that scholars are by no means agreed as to" names and dates.
The corporation consists of a provost, 7 senior fellows, 25 junior fellows and 70 scholars.
The scholars on the foundation (or "of the House") are chosen from among the undergraduates, for merit in classics, mathematics or experimental science.
Nevertheless he found many friends among Italian scholars, and formed a close friendship with another exiled poet whose circumstances were similar to his own, Olivier de Magny.
Most modern scholars since F.
In Rome itself between 370 and 4 4 0 Manichaeism gained a large amount of support, especially among the scholars and public teachers.
illust., 72; though this is doubted by modern scholars) into Greek, and soon afterwards into Latin.
The "outer school," to the north of the convent area, contains a large schoolroom divided across the middle by a screen or partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, termed the dwellings of the scholars.