Ritschl claims to carry on the work of Luther and Schleiermacher, especially in ridding faith of the tyranny of scholastic philosophy.
Schleiermacher's Vertraute Briefe fiber Lucinde, 1800 (1907).
The same reason that made him depreciate Hegel made him praise Krause (panentheism) and Schleiermacher, and speak respectfully of English philosophy.
Wolff's influence made the usage habitual, 4 though Schleiermacher and Ritschl, like the Socinians earlier, deny the existence of a natural theology..
Hegel's theological followers, of every shade and party, represent the first, and Schleiermacher's the second.
Schleiermacher rejects natural religion in favour of the positive religions, while the school of A.
It was from the Moravians that Schleiermacher learnt his religion, and they even made a passing impression on Goethe; but both these men were repelled by their doctrine of the substitutionary sufferings of Christ.
HERMANN OLSHAUSEN (1796-1839), German theologian, was born at Oldeslohe in Holstein on the 21st of August 1796, and was educated at the universities of Kiel (1814) and Berlin (1816), where he was influenced by Schleiermacher and Neander.
So for Schleiermacher "miracle is neither explicable from nature alone, nor entirely alien to it."
What both Ritschl and Schleiermacher insist on is that the belief in miracles is inseparable from the belief in God, and in God as immanent in nature, not only directing and controlling its existent forces, but also as initiating new stages consistent with the old in its progressive development.
Here Schleiermacher was then lecturing.
Neander found in him the very impulse which he needed, while Schleiermacher found a pupil of thoroughly congenial feeling, and one destined to carry out his views in a higher and more effective Christian form than he himself was capable of imparting to them.
The impulse communicated by Schleiermacher was confirmed by Planck, and he seems now to have realized that the original investigation of Christian history was to form the great work of his life.
Neander's theological position can only be explained in connexion with Schleiermacher, and the manner in which while adopting he modified and carried out the principles of his master.
As a dogmatic writer he belonged to the school of Schleiermacher.
The influence of Schleiermacher, whose pupil Leonhard Usteri in his Entwickelung der paulinischen Lehrbegriffs (1824) expressed strong doubts as to Ephesians, carried weight.
He soon became intimate with Schleiermacher and de Wette, and was associated with them in 1819 in the redaction of the Theologische Zeitschrift.
In 1829 he went to Berlin, where Schleiermacher, Hengstenberg, Neander, Ranke and Raumer were among his teachers.
In his studies he had come under the influence of Schleiermacher, Hegel and Franz Baader; but he was a man of independent mind, and developed a peculiar speculative theology which showed a disposition towards mysticism and theosophy.
After spending some time at the university of Kiel, he went to Berlin, where, from 1814 to 1817, he studied under De Wette, Neander and Schleiermacher.
Besides discharging his duties in the theological seminary, he published two dissertations in Schleiermacher's and G.
Of Protestants, Germany produced Schleiermacher, Claus Harms, Tholuck and F.
He read philosophy at Berlin, Halle and Heidelberg, devoting himself mainly to the doctrines of Hegel and Schleiermacher.
Surrounded by friends, including Schlegel and Schleiermacher, he continued his literary work, perfecting the Wissenschaftslehre.
The ground of the modification, further, has been sought and apparently found in quite external influences, principally that of Schelling's Naturphilosophie, to some extent that of Schleiermacher.
How little his heart was with it was shown by the labour he soon undertook of translating and prefacing Schleiermacher's essay on the Gospel of St Luke.
The promotion was entirely the act of Lord Melbourne, an amateur in theology, who had read Thirlwall's introduction to Schleiermacher, and satisfied himself of the propriety of the appointment.
In 1829 he went to Germany, and after studying at Gottingen and Berlin (where he came under the influence of Heeren, Ottfried Muller, Schleiermacher, Neander and Bdckh) he accompanied Bunsen to Italy and Rome.
This name has been suggested by Schleiermacher's interpretation of Papias' fragment on Matthew (see Matthew, Gospel Of).
Other works: - Friedrich Schleiermacher.
Steffens was one of the so-called Philosophers of Nature, a friend and adherent of Schelling and Schleiermacher.
Not only did Schelling and Schleiermacher modify their theories in deference to his scientific deductions, but the intellectual life of his contemporaries was considerably affected.
Schleiermacher was so much struck by their excellence that he endeavoured, unsuccessfully, to obtain for Steffens a chair in the new Berlin University in 1804, in order that his own ethical teachings should be supported in the scientific department.
The general attitude of German theology, however, became gradually more and more hostile, and the works of Schleiermacher, though in a sense themselves rationalist, renewed the general desire for a positive Christianity.
For the view that a Paulinist was the author, see Schleiermacher, Ober den sogen.
The doctrine of eternal punishment has been opposed on many grounds, such as the disproportion between the offence and the penalty, the moral world should prepare itself for the descent of the and religious immaturity of the majority of men at death, the diminution of the happiness of heaven involved in the knowledge of the endless suffering of others (Schleiermacher), the defeat of the divine purpose of righteousness and grace that the continued antagonism of any of God's creatures would imply, the dissatisfaction God as Father must feel until His whole family is restored.
He concluded his years of preparation by a European tour, in the course of which he received kind attention from almost every distinguished man in the world of letters, science and art; among others, from Goethe, Humboldt, Schleiermacher, Hegel, Byron, Niebuhr, Bunsen, Savigny, Cousin, Constant and Manzoni.
Fries (1773-1843); and in 1810 was transferred to a similar chair in the newly founded university of Berlin, where he enjoyed the friendship of Schleiermacher.
He studied theology in the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin (1817-20) under Karl Daub (1765-1836), Schleiermacher and Neander, the philosophers and historians Georg Hegel, Friedrich Creuzer (1771-1858) and F.
Like Schleiermacher he combined with the keenest logical faculty an intensely religious spirit, while his philosophical tendencies were in sympathy rather with Hegel than with Schleiermacher, and theosophic mysticism was more congenial to him than the abstractions of Spinoza, to whom Schleiermacher owed so much.
Hence Rothe, unlike Schleiermacher, lays great stress, for instance, on the personality of God, on the reality of the worlds of good and evil spirits, and on the visible second coming of Christ.
On the other hand he criticized the school of Schleiermacher, who elevated feeling to a place in religion above systematic theology.
When, a few years after his appointment at Blaubeuren, he published his first important work, Symbolik and Mythologie oder die Naturreligion des Alterturns (1824-1825), it became evident that he had made a deeper study of philosophy, and had come under the influence of Schelling and more particularly of Friedrich Schleiermacher.
Meantime Baur had exchanged one master in philosophy for another, Schleiermacher for Hegel.
But Baur was a theologian and historian as well as a Biblical critic. As early as 1834 he published a strictly theological work, Gegensatz des Katholicismus and Protestantismus nach den Prinzipien and Hauptdogmen der beiden Lehrbegriffe, a strong defence of Protestantism on the lines of Schleiermacher's Glaubenslehre, and a vigorous reply to J.
August Detlev Christian Twesten (1789-1876), a Protestant theologian, succeeded Schleiermacher as professor in Berlin in 1835.
The second way of interpreting the antithesis of thought to what is thought of, was taken by a group of thinkers among whom a central and inspiring figure was Schleiermacher.
Thus Schleiermacher's posthumously published Dialektik (1839) may be characterized as an appeal from the absolutist element in Schelling's philosophy to the conception of that correlation or parallelism which Schelling had exhibited as flowing from and subsisting within his absolute, and therein as a return upon Kant's doctrine of limits.
Schleiermacher's conception of dialectic is to the effect that it is concerned with the principles of the art of philosophizing, as these are susceptible of a relatively independent treatment by a permissible abstraction.
Inference, curiously enough, falls under the technical side of dialectic concerned with knowledge in process or becoming, a line of cleavage which Ueberweg has rightly characterized as constituting a rift within Schleiermacher's parallelism.
Schleiermacher's formula obviously ascribes a function in knowledge to thought as such, and describes in a suggestive manner a duality of the intellectual and organic functions, resting on a parallelism of thought and being whose collapse into identity it is beyond human capacity to grasp. It is rather, however, a statement of a way in which the relations of the terms of the problem may be conceived than a system of necessity.
It may indeed be permitted to doubt whether its influence upon subsequent theory would have been a great one apart from the spiritual force of Schleiermacher's personality.
Some sort of correlationist conception, however, was an inevitable development, and the list' of those who accepted it in something of the spirit of Schleiermacher is a long one and contains many distinguished names, notably those of Trendelenburg and Ueberweg.
Beneke's philosophy is a striking instance of this, with application to Fries and affinity to Herbart conjoined with obligations to Schelling both directly and through Schleiermacher.
Schleiermacher's separation of inference from judgment and his attribution of the power to knowledge in process cannot find acceptance with Lotze.
For modern discussions of the subject see Schleiermacher (Theol.
Meanwhile he was feeling the influence to a certain degree of the romantic school, and of Schleiermacher and Hegel too, though he never sounded the depths of their systems. At length, in his twenty-first year, he finally decided to adopt the academical calling.
His Platon's Leben and Schriften (1816) was the first of those critical inquiries into the life and works of Plato which originated in the Introductions of Schleiermacher and the historical scepticism of Niebuhr and Wolf.
See Histories of the Ionian School by Ritten, Mallet; Schleiermacher, "Dissert.
In philosophy he heard Fichte and Schleiermacher.
Lessing, Goethe, Herder, Novalis and Schleiermacher, not to mention philosophers like Schelling and Hegel, united in recognizing the unique strength and sincerity of Spinoza's thought, and in setting him in his rightful place among the speculative leaders of mankind.
Schleiermacher, in his Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums, and again in his great System, Der christliche Glaube.
Harnack 1 praises Schleiermacher's description of dogmatic as "historical," he rather strains the meaning of the remark, and creates fresh confusion.
The epistle is not a compilation from the two others (as Schleiermacher thought), but it seems to denote a slightly later stage.
At Berlin he came under the influence of Schleiermacher and Hegel, whose influences are seen in his work Das Wesen der Religion (1847).
was at that time at the head of the educational department of the kingdom, and men like Fichte and Schleiermacher worked on the popular mind.
The professors of philosophy there failed to interest him, but he was strongly attracted by the writings of Schleiermacher, which awoke his keen dialectical faculty and delivered him from the vagueness and exaggerations of romantic and somnambulistic mysticism.
In October 1831 he resigned his office in order to study under Schleiermacher and Hegel in Berlin.
Hegel died just as he arrived, and, though he regularly attended Schleiermacher's lectures, it was only those on the life of Jesus which exercised a very powerful influence upon him.
His Christus des Glaubens and der Jesus der Geschichte (1865) is a severe criticism of Schleiermacher's lectures on the life of Jesus, which were then first published.
His other works include: Schleiermacher's Religionsbegriff (1868); Lehrbuch der neutestamentlichen Zeitgeschichte (1874; an earlier form of Gesch.
Beneke and Schleiermacher exercised most influence upon the development of his thought.
It is relation, therefore, as Schleiermacher expresses it, or reason, not speech or word.
Schleiermacher's Herakleitos der Dunkle; art.
So Ritschl, following Schleiermacher, Der Christliche Glaube, § 30.
In regard to the Trinity, Protestantism tart his- has nothing very new to say, though " Sabellianism " tors of is revived by Swedenborg and Schleiermacher.
Schleiermacher set himself to explain what is distinctive in religion.
Any type of highly wrought feeling may make a man religious, whether it be theistic or pantheistic; indeed, as a child of Romanticism, Schleiermacher puts a peculiarly high estimate upon the pantheistic type.
When he wrote his Glaubenslehre (1821) Schleiermacher had become much more of a Christian churchman.
It is little wonder if Schleiermacher attains a compromise rather than a unity.
But there is no Schleiermacher school.
Frank as making important modifications and sometimes corrections of the lines laid down by Schleiermacher, while J.
Candlish, representing a moderate Scottish Calvinism, was half inclined to welcome the reduced form of Schleiermacher's basis found in H.
Positively, the school build upon foundations laid in ethics by Kant and in philosophy of religion by Schleiermacher; so also R.
Their effort is to expound Christianity, not from the point of view of philosophy like the Hegelians, nor from that of an abstract conception of religion, tempered by regard for historical precedents, like Schleiermacher, but from its own, from the Christian point of view.
Like Schleiermacher he substitutes collective guilt for original sin; and he attaches great dogmatic value to the assertion that sin has two stages - ignorance, in which it is pardonable, and obduracy, when it is ripe for final sentence (probably annihilation).
Yet Ritschl claims that his doctrine of Christ as Head of the Church combines the lines of thought found separately in Anselm and Abelard, while Schleiermacher is said to have been one-sidedly Abelardian.
k The doctrine of " value judgments " which he substitutes for Schleiermacher's appeal to feeling, belongs to philosophy of religion and is thus analogous to natural theology.
This strain may be recognized, mingled with others, in Schleiermacher; it has found interesting expression in the contributions of H.
The most famous of all, however - Schleiermacher's Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums (1st ed.
Schleiermacher's treatise is highly individual.
In spite of what may be deemed eccentric in this standpoint, Schleiermacher's summary is full of interest.
the Government of the (national or international) Church; questions of relation to the State, &c. The reader will note Schleiermacher's peculiar way of dealing with Dogmatic as the belief of the Church - an unprecedented view, according to A.
It is singular that Schleiermacher on the whole sums up in the Kurze Darstellung against the separation of Christian Ethics from Dogmatics.
There are therefore three parallel studies, on all of which Schleiermacher published - Dogmatic or Glaubenslehre, Christian Ethics, Philosophical Ethics.
Curiously enough, it is from Schleiermacher's philosophical ethics that a threefold division - the Chief Good, Virtues, and Duty or the Law - passed into almost all text-books of Christian Ethics, till recently a rebellion rose against it on the ground of redundancy and overlapping.
It should also be noted that Schleiermacher's place for Apologetics is by no means undisputed.
His own Christian belief, sincere and earnest, was more the outcome of the common sense which, largely through him, moulded the prudential theology of England in the 18th century, than of the nobler elements present in More, Cudworth and other religious thinkers of the preceding age, or afterwards in Law and Berkeley, Coleridge and Schleiermacher.
FRIEDRICH DANIEL ERNST SCHLEIERMACHER (1768-1834), theologian and philosopher, was the son of a Prussian army chaplain of the Reformed confession, and was born on the 21st of November 1768 at Breslau.
From 1802 to 1804, Schleiermacher was pastor in the little Pomeranian town of Stolpe.
This work is a severe criticism of all previous moral systems, especially those of Kant and Fichte, Plato's and Spinoza's finding most favour; its leading principles are that the tests of the soundness of a moral system are the completeness of its view of the laws and ends of human life as a whole and the harmonious arrangement of its subject-matter under one fundamental principle; and, though it is almost exclusively critical and negative, the book announces clearly the division and scope of moral science which Schleiermacher subsequently adopted, attaching prime importance to a "Giiterlehre," or doctrine of the ends to be obtained by moral action.
In 1804 Schleiermacher removed as university preacher and professor of theology to Halle, where he remained until 1807, and where he quickly obtained a reputation as professor and preacher, and exercised a powerful influence in spite of the contradictory charges of his being atheist, Spinozist and pietist.
Though the work added to the reputation of its author, it naturally aroused the increased opposition of the theological schools it was intended to overthrow, and at the same time Schleiermacher's defence of the right of the church to frame its own liturgy in opposition to the arbitrary dictation of the monarch or his ministers brought upon him fresh troubles.
Schleiermacher's psychology takes as its basis the phenomenal dualism of the ego and the non-ego, and regards the life of man as the interaction of these elements with their interpenetration as its infinite destination.
Schleiermacher's doctrine of knowledge accepts the fundamental principle of Kant that knowledge is bounded by experience, but it seeks to remove Kant's scepticism as to knowledge of the Ding an sich, or Sein, as Schleiermacher's term is.
Schleiermacher defines ethics as the theory of the nature of the reason, or as the scientific treatment of the effects produced by human reason in the world of nature and man.
In contrast to Kant and Fichte and modern moral philosophers Schleiermacher reintroduced and assigned pre-eminent importance to the doctrine of the summum bonum, or highest good.
Starting with the idea of the highest good and of its constituent elements (Giiter), or the chief forms of the union of mind and nature, Schleiermacher's system divides itself into the doctrine of moral ends, the doctrine of virtue and the doctrine of duties; in other words, as a development of the idea of the subjection of nature to reason it becomes a description of the actual forms of the triumphs of reason, of the moral power manifested therein and of the specific methods employed.
Schleiermacher classifies the virtues under the two forms of Gesinnung and Fertigkeit, the first consisting of the pure ideal element in action and the second the form it assumes in relation to circumstances, each of the two classes falling respectively into the two divisions of wisdom and love and of intelligence and application.
It was only the first of the three sections of the science of ethics - the doctrine of moral ends - that Schleiermacher handled with approximate completeness; the other two sections were treated very summarily.
Rothe, amongst other moral philosophers, bases his system substantially, with important departures, on Schleiermacher's.
While therefore we cannot, as we have seen, attain the idea of the supreme unity of thought and being by either cognition or volition, we can find it in our own personality, in immediate self-consciousness or (which is the same in Schleiermacher's terminology) feeling.
At various periods of his life Schleiermacher used different terms to represent the character and relation of religious feeling.
It is the religion of mediatorial salvation, and, as Schleiermacher emphatically taught in his riper works, of salvation through the mediation of Christ; that is, its possessors are conscious of having been delivered by Jesus of Nazareth from a condition in which their religious consciousness was overridden by the sense-consciousness of the world and put into one in which it dominates, and everything is subordinated to it.
The marked feature of Schleiermacher's thought in every department is the effort to combine and reconcile in the unity of a system the antithetic conceptions of other thinkers.
Schleiermacher's collected works were published in three sections: (1) Theological (1 i vols.); (2) Sermons (io vols., ed.
i., 1870, the period from 1768-1804); Friedrich Schleiermacher, ein Lebensu.
Schaller, Vorlesungen fiber Schleiermacher (Halle, 1844); G.
Kirn, Schleiermacher and die Romantik (1895); H.
Fischer, Schleiermacher (1899); Lulmann, Das Bild des Christentums bei den grossen deutschen Idealisten (1901), and Schleiermacher der Kirchenvater der 19.
Kattenbusch, Von Schleiermacher zu Ritschl (1903); E.
Cramaussel, La Philosophic religieuse de Schleiermacher (1909).
Schleiermacher was an uncompromising opponent of the common belief.
Oehler admitted the composite authorship of the Pentateuch and the Book of Isaiah, and did much to counteract the antipathy against the Old Testament that had been fostered by Schleiermacher.
He was little more than five feet high; his breast was almost concave, and, like Schleiermacher, he was deformed in the right shoulder.
Schleiermacher was always somewhat reticent about fundamental constitutional questions.
Ritschl was professor of theology at Bonn (extraordinarius 1852; ordinarius 1859) and GÃƒ¶ttingen (1864; Consistorialrath also in 1874), his addresses on religion delivered at the latter university showing the impression made upon his mind by his enthusiastic studies of Kant and Schleiermacher.
His system shows the influence of Kant's destructive criticism of the claims of Pure Reason, recognition of the value of morally conditioned knowledge, and doctrine of the kingdom of ends; of Schleiermacher's historical treatment of Christianity, regulative use of the idea of religious fellowship, emphasis on the importance of religious feeling; and of Lotze's theory of knowledge and treatment of personality.
Schleiermacher applies the phrase " the immortality of religion " to the religious emotion of oneness, amid finitude, with the infinite and, amid time, with the eternal; denies any necessary connexion between the belief in the continuance of personal existence and the consciousness of God; and rests his faith on immortality altogether on Christ's promise of living fellowship with His followers, as presupposing their as well as His personal immortality.
So highly were his merits appreciated by his professors - Schleiermacher was accustomed to say that he possessed a special charisma for the science of "Introduction" - that in 1818 after he had passed the examinations for entering the ministry he was recalled to Berlin as Repetent or tutorial fellow in theology, a temporary post which the theological faculty had obtained for him.
Rothe, Geschichte der Predigt vom Anfang bis auf Schleiermacher (1881); J.
The great series of German thinkers, Lessing, Herder, Kant, Hegel, Fichte, Schleiermacher and their 1 This does not, of course, preclude the possibility of degeneration in particular instances.
Schleiermacher's fine apostrophe is well known, in which he calls upon us to "offer a lock of hair to the manes of the holy and excommunicated Spinoza."
This claim is an innovation, and finds no precedent in Schleiermacher.
Ere rationalismus vulgaris fell before the combined assault of Schleiermacher's subjective theology and the deeper historical insight of the Hegelians, it had found a refuge successively in the Kantian postulates of the practical reason, and in the vague but earnest faith-philosophy of Jacobi.
Beyschlag's earlier view, prac tically adopted by Dorner in his later days); Jesus the man who was absolutely filled with the consciousness of God (Schleiermacher) Jesus not to be defined in terms of " nature," either human or divine, but as the perfect fulfiller of God's absolute purpose (A.
Christian compassion, like contrition and gratitude, does have an element faintly reminiscent of Schleiermacher 's feeling of absolute dependence.
Concerning domestic politics: Schleiermacher was always somewhat reticent about fundamental constitutional questions.
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