They have continued to be worn, however, by the bishops of the Scandinavian Lutheran Y P Churches.
Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
State operation and ownership is a system which originated in Belgium at the beginning of railway enterprise, and has been consistently carried out by the Scandinavian countries and by Hungary.
The mistletoe figures also in Scandinavian legend as having furnished the material of the arrow with which Balder (the sun-god) was slain by the blind god Hoder.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
One of the most learned men of his day, he devoted his spare time to history, and discovered that many of the oldest and most cherished Scandinavian MSS.
In the Scandinavian heartland, a picturesque village known as Skagen thrives amid nature's gifts as well as her wrath.
Christ has objected to terming the arctic flora Scandinavian, but the name implies nothing more than that Scandinavia has been its chief centre of preservation.
Scandinavian merchants brought the products of India to England and Ireland.
By the end of it, any traces of heathen faith, and even of Scandinavian speech, must have been mere survivals.
The new creed, the new speech, the new social system, had taken such deep root that the descendants of the Scandinavian settlers were better fitted to be the armed missionaries of all these things than the neighbours from whom they had borrowed their new possessions.
After some time spent in travel and a successful lecturing tour in Norway and Sweden, he settled in Copenhagen, and produced a series of novels and collections of short stories, which placed him in the front rank of Scandinavian novelists.
Eberian influence in the south-west, Ligurian on the shores of the Mediterranean, Germanic immigrations from east of the Rhine and Scandinavian immigrations in the north-west have tended to produce ethnographical diversities which ease of intercommunication and other modern conditions have failed to obliterate.
The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.
Taking the whole arctic flora at 762 species, Hooker found that 616 occurred in arctic Europe, and of these 586 are Scandinavian.
Settled in Gaul, the Scandinavian from a seafaring man became a landsman.
But it was balanced by another quality which Geoffrey does not speak of, one which is not really inconsistent with the other, one which is very prominent in the Norman character, and which is, no less than the other, a direct heritage from their Scandinavian forefathers.
In 870 Dumbarton was attacked and destroyed after four months' siege by the Scandinavian king Ivarr, and for some time after this the country was exposed to ravages by the Norsemen.
FIR, the Scandinavian name originally given to the Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris), but at present not infrequently employed as a general term for the whole of the true conifers (Abietineae); in a more exact sense, it has been transferred to the "spruce" and "silver firs," the genera Picea and A bies of most modern botanists.
In all the Scandinavian countries it is known as the Gran or Grann.
He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562-70), which did so much to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden.
Crusaders from the Low Countries, England and the Scandinavian north took the coast route round western Europe; and it was natural that, landing for provisions and water, they should be asked, and should consent, to lend their aid to the natives against the Moors.
The substances occur, in very minute quantity, in a large number of sparingly-distributed and comparatively rare minerals - euxenite, samarksite, cerite, yttrotantalite, &c. Scandinavian specimens of these minerals were examined by J.
NARWHAL, the Scandinavian name of a cetacean (Monodon inonoceros), characterized by the presence in the male of a long horn-like tusk.
The people, more remote and less accessible to external influences, retained their Scandinavian characteristics longer than the Orcadians.
It frequents the Scandinavian coasts, entering the Baltic in the summer; and is found as far north as Baffin's Bay and as far west as the coasts of the United States.
From the Scandinavian peninsula and the British Islands the range of the fox extends eastwards across Europe and central and northern Asia to Japan, while to the south it embraces northern Africa and Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and the northwestern districts of India and the Himalaya.
during the stress of the Scandinavian Seven Years' War compelled him, in 1566, to recall the great financier, when his confiscated estates were restored to him and he was reinstated in all his offices and dignities.
LUDVIG HOLBERG HOLBERG, Baron (1684-1754), the great Scandinavian writer, was born at Bergen, in Norway, on the 3rd of December 1684.
What the Northmen were to the Western powers in the 8th and 9th the Wends were to the Scandinavian lands in the 11th and 12th centuries.
A change, however, came about towards the end of the century, when the Scandinavian freebooters known as Danes began to harry the coasts.
One of Ethelstan's first public acts was to hold a conference at Tamworth with Sihtric, the Scandinavian king of Northumbria, and as a result Sihtric received Ethelstan's sister in marriage.
Embassies passed between Ethelstan and Harold Fairhair, first king of Norway, with the result that Harold's son Haakon was brought up in England and is known in Scandinavian history as Haakon Adalsteinsf6stri.
The body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal thought.
They are uniformly worded in English, while continental laws, apart from the Scandinavian, are all in Latin.
The Scandinavian invasions brought in many northern legal customs, especially in the districts thickly populated with Danes.
The Scandinavian newcomers coalesced easily and quickly with the native population.
A more widely accepted theory derives gilds wholly or in part from the early Germanic or Scandinavian sacrificial banquets.
Germans were early pushing as permanent settlers into the Scandinavian towns, and in Wisby, on the island of Gothland, the Scandinavian centre of Baltic trade, equal rights as citizens in the town government were possessed by the German settlers as early as the beginning of the 13th century.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
The last wars of the League with the Scandinavian powers in the 16th century, which left it shorn of many of its privileges and of any pretension to control of the Baltic basin eliminated it as a factor in the later struggle of the Thirty Years' War for that control.
Ridings are Scandinavian institutions.
It is curious that in English, Frankish and Scandinavian works they are never mentioned, and there can be little doubt that they were known, especially among the western Teutonic peoples, by some other name.
The names of these ambassadors are preserved and they point to the Scandinavian origin of Oleg's host; there is not a Slavonic name among them.
Meanwhile he supported himself by teaching on a very small scale, but his progress was such that at sixteen he had a good knowledge of Hungarian, Latin, French and German, and was rapidly acquiring English and the Scandinavian languages, and also Russian, Servian and other Slavonic tongues.
Scyld Scefing," the protector with the sheaf ") lands on the Anglian or Scandinavian coast when a child, in a rudderless ship, asleep on a sheaf of grain, symbolical of the means whereby his kingdom shall become great; the son indicates the blessings of a fixed habitation, secured against the attacks of the sea.
2 45, 1874) in proper meaning is noise, clamour, the season being one of rejoicing at the turning of the year among Scandinavian peoples before Christian times.
His work on palaeontology shows him the predecessor of all the Scandinavian geologists, and his contributions in this field alone would have been sufficient to perpetuate his fame.
One of the most noteworthy Scandinavian periodicals has been the Nordisk Universitets Tidsskrift (1854-1864), a bond of union between the universities of Christiania, Upsala, Lund and Copenhagen.
Among later periodicals we may mention Skandia (1833-1837); Literaturbladet (1838-1840); Stallningar och Forhallanden (1838) of Crusenstolpe, a monthly review of Scandinavian history; Tidskrift for Litteratur (1850); Norsk Tidsskrift (1852), weekly, Forr och Nu; and the Revue suedoise (1858) of Kramer, written in French.
YGGDRASIL, in Scandinavian mythology, the mystical ash tree which symbolizes existence, and binds together earth, heaven and hell.
Equally triumphant was Frederick in his war with Sweden, though here the contest was much more severe, lasting as it did for seven years; whence it is generally described in northern history as the Scandinavian Seven Years' War.
He aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean.
Probably it was also usual for them to signify their approval of a proposal by the clash of their arms, as was the practice among the Scandinavian peoples.
Even so she owes her natural frontiers in the Scandinavian peninsula to Charles X.
The story of Roland's birth from the union of Charles with his sister Gilles, also found in German and Scandinavian versions, has abundant parallels in mythology, and was probably transferred from mythology to Charlemagne.
Hjort and Helland-Hansen in the Scandinavian fjords.
Important current and temperature charts of the ocean and occasional memoirs are published for the Admiralty by the Meteorological Office in London, by the U.S. Hydrographic Office in Washington, the Deutsche Seewarte in Hamburg, and also at intervals by the French, Russian, Dutch and Scandinavian admiralties.
Flom, Chapters on Scandinavian Immigration to Iowa (Iowa City, 1907).
Sifrit), the hero of the Nibelungenlied, and of a number of Scandinavian poems included in the older Edda, as well as of the prose V iilsunga Saga, which is based upon the latter.
According to both the German and Scandinavian authorities he was the son of a certain Sigmundr (Siegmund), a king in the Netherlands, or the "land of the Franks."
According to the Scandinavian story Sigmundr was slain in battle before the birth of Sigurd, but the German story makes him survive his son.
According to the Scandinavian version he was slain by his brother-in-law Guttorm, according to the German version by the knight Hagen.
The Scandinavian version of the story attributes the deed to Atli's lust for gold.
Relics of this, and perhaps of other Irish religious settlements, were found by the permanent Scandinavian colonists of Iceland in the 9th century.
Dicuil's knowledge of the islands north and west of Britain is evidently intimate; his references to Irish exploration and colonization, and to (more recent) Scandinavian devastation of the same, as far as the Faeroes, are noteworthy, like his notice of the elephant sent by Harun al-Rashid (in 801) to Charles the Great, the most curious item in a political and diplomatic intercourse of high importance.
There are also a Roman Catholic church, and one for German and Scandinavian seamen.
The white foreign element is small; what there is is chiefly Scandinavian, German and Dalmatian.
In Holland and the Scandinavian countries the organization is more modern and fairly adequate.
N., were discovered, in 1639 and 1734 respectively, two golden horns of the Scandinavian period; these were stolen in 1802 from the Museum of Northern Antiquities in Copenhagen, where they had been treasured, and have never been recovered.
In Hoboken are the piers of the North German Lloyd, the Hamburg American, the Netherlands American, the Scandinavian and the Phoenix steamship lines.
Germany, too, was the starting-point for the conversion of the Scandinavian countries, which was completed by English priests with the assistance of native princes.
Its name, derived from the Scandinavian Thingvollr, " field or meetingplace of the thing," or local assembly, preserves the Norse origin of the town; its Gaelic designation is Inverpefferon,"the mouth of the Peffery."
With all the means at her disposal cheerfully placed in the hands of such valiant and capable ministers, it would have been no difficult task for the Republic to have wrested the best part of the Baltic littoral from the Scandinavian powers, and driven the distracted Muscovites beyond the Volga.
The name of Iseult's father, Gormond, is distinctly Scandinavian; she, herself, is always noted for her golden hair, and it is quite a misrendering of the tradition to speak of her as a dark-haired Irish princess.
This poet was an Anglo-Norman named Thomas; and, although little over 3000 lines of his poem have been preserved, we have three translations; a German, by Gottfried von Strassburg; a Scandinavian, by a certain Brother Robert; and an English, by Thomas, sometimes identified with Thomas of Ercildoune, though this is doubtful.
it contains the highest mountain in the Scandinavian Peninsula - GaldhOpiggen (8399 ft.) - and several others but little inferior.
FENRIR, or Fenris, in Scandinavian mythology, a waterdemon in the shape of a huge wolf.
We may put out of the question the Scandinavian sea-rovers who sailed to Greenland about the 10th century.
1002-1007), Scandinavian explorer, leader of the chief medieval expedition for American colonization.
Two days after this they sighted land to the right hand, and came to a cape, where they found the keel of a ship - perhaps a relic of some earlier, possibly Scandinavian explorer - and which they called therefore Kialames (Keelness; Cape Breton, or some adjacent point?); the long bleak sandy shores of this coast they called the Wonderstrands (on the east coast of Cape Breton Island?).
999-1000), Scandinavian explorer, of Icelandic family, the first known European discoverer of "Vinland," "Vineland" or "Wineland, the Good," in North America.
He was a son of Eric the Red (Eirikr hinn raudi Thorvaldsson), the founder of the earliest Scandinavian settlements - from Iceland - in Greenland (985).
Its use, however, survived in the Lutheran churches; and though in those of Germany it is no longer worn, it still forms part of the liturgical costume of the Scandinavian Evangelical churches.
In the 6th century Scandinavian hordes poured in with their northern idolatry and lust of plunder, but in time they adopted the language and faith of the islanders.
Adam's Historia - known also as Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, Bremensium praesulum Historia, and Historia ecclesiastica - is a primary authority, not only for the great diocese of Hamburg-and-Bremen, but for all North German and Baltic lands (down to 1072), and for the Scandinavian colonies as far as America.
More than half the shipping entering and leaving the ports of the United States in 1908 was British; Germany, the Scandinavian countries, France, Holland and Italy ranking next in order; the United States, although ranking after Great Britain, contributed less than a seventh of the total.
Flotta (372), east of Hoy, was the home for a long time of the Scandinavian compiler of the Codex Flotticensis, which furnished Thorrnodr Torfaeus (1636-1719), the Icelandic antiquary, with many of the facts for his History of Norway, more particularly with reference to the Norse occupation of Orkney.
It possesses several examples of Pictish and Scandinavian antiquities, such as the "Odin stone" and the broch of Burrowstone.
On the very eve of the war, immediately after the rising of the Chambers on July 15 1914, Poincare set out on a State visit to Russia and the Scandinavian countries, arriving at Kronstadt on July 20.
The town appears to have been frequently chosen as the meetingplace of the rulers and delegates of the three northern kingdoms; and under the union of Kalmar it was appointed to be the place for the election of a new Scandinavian monarch whenever necessary.
It is my express desire that, in awarding the prizes, no account shall be taken of nationality, in order that the prize may fall to the lot of the most deserving, whether he be Scandinavian or not."
GLADSHEIM (Old Norse Gladsheimr), in Scandinavian mythology, the region of joy and home of Odin.
2, though common in Scandinavian countries, is hardly to be met with south of the Elbe.
In its earliest form, as it appears in inscriptions on various articles found in Schleswig and in Scandinavian countries, it consisted of twenty-four letters, all of which occur in abecedaria in England.
It is probable also that the belief in the spirit world and in a future life was of a somewhat similar kind to what we find in Scandinavian religion.
LEMMING, the native name of a small Scandinavian rodent mammal Lemmus norvegicus (or L.
The progress may last from one to three years, according to the route taken, and the distance to be traversed until the sea-coast is reached, which in a country so surrounded by water as the Scandinavian peninsula must be the ultimate goal of such a journey.
On the whole, however, the skeletons found in German and Scandinavian tombs dating even from the earliest period do not show any very remarkable differences from those of the present day.
The results of investigations in prehistoric archaeology are treated in the articles Germany and Scandinavian Civiliza Tion.
How far the Teutonic peoples extended northwards at this time cannot be determined with certainty, but it is clear that they occupied at least a considerable part of the Scandinavian peninsula.
Lastly, from the very beginning of the 9th century bodies of Scandinavian warriors began to found kingdoms and principalities in all parts of Europe.
Their settlements in Greenland and Canada likewise came to an end, but Iceland, which was formerly uninhabited, remained a Scandinavian colony.
On the other hand, in Scandinavian countries it continued in use through the greater part of the middle ages - in Gotland till the 16th century; indeed, the knowledge of it seems never to have wholly died out.
In Scandinavian lands the change noted by Icelandic writers may be dated about the 5th and 6th centuries, though inhumation was certainly not altogether unknown before that time.
In contrast with later Scandinavian usage Tacitus states that the ancient Germans had no images of the gods.
For further references see Britain (Anglo-Saxon), Germany (Ethnography and Early History), and Scandinavian Civilization.
See also Britain (Anglo-Saxon), Germany (Archaeology) and Scandinavian Civilization.
In Scandinavian records there is a reference to the nautical use of the magnet in the Hauksbok, the last edition of the LandndmabOk (Book of the Colonization of Iceland): - "Floki, son of Vilgerd, instituted a great sacrifice, and consecrated three ravens which should show him the way (to Iceland); for at that time no men sailing the high seas had lodestones up in northern lands."
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
While large portions of Germany were lost to the Church the revolt from Rome proceeded apace in Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries.
He was a traveller, a linguist, well versed in Scandinavian literature and philology, the author of mystical poems entitled Improvisations from the Spirit (1857), a social and medical reformer, and a convinced opponent of vivisection and also of vaccination.
But his whole Scandinavian policy was so irritating and vexatious that Swedish statesmen made up their minds that a war with Denmark was only a question of time; and in the spring of 1643 it seemed to them that the time had come.
In military and naval use "to rake" means to enfilade, to fire so that the shot may pass lengthwise along a ship, a line of soldiers, entrenchments, &c. In the nautical sense of the projection or slope of a ship's bows or stern or the inclination of a mast, the word is apparently an adaptation of the Scandinavian raka, to reach, in the sense of reach forward.
9 But the devoted Anskar (801-865) went forth and sought out the Scandinavian Viking, and handed on the torch of self-denying zeal to others, who saw, after the lapse of many years, the close of the monotonous tale of burning churches and pillaged monasteries, and taught the fierce Northman to learn respect for civilized institutions.
Thus the " gospel of (the kingdom" was successively proclaimed to the Roman, the Celtic, the Teutonic and the Scandinavian world.
The appearance of northern shells in the upper divisions of the Pliocene series indicates the approach of the Glacial period, and glacial drift containing Scandinavian boulders now covers much of the country east of the Zuider Zee.
The university library, incorporated with the former Classen library, collected by the famous merchants of that name, contains about 200,000 volumes, besides about 4 000 manuscripts, which include Rask's valuable Oriental collection and the Arne-Magnean series of Scandinavian documents.
replied that "the three crowns" signified not Sweden in especial, but the three Scandinavian kingdoms, and that their insertion in the Danish shield was only a reminiscence of the union of Kalmar.
This passage offers important corroboration of the Icelandic accounts of the Vinland voyages, and is, furthermore, interesting "as the only undoubted reference to Vinland in a medieval book written beyond the limits of the Scandinavian world" (Fiske).
The discovery of new lands in the West by the Norsemen came in the course of the great Scandinavian exodus of the 9th, 10th and firth centuries - the Viking Age - when Norsemen, Swedes and Danes swarmed over all Europe, conquering kingdoms and founding colonies.
The best modern scholarship gives the precedence to the Hank's Book narrative, as it harmonizes better with well-established facts of Scandinavian history, and is besides a more plausible account.
The university, founded in 1389 by the sole efforts of the citizens, soon gained a great reputation; in the 15th century its students numbered much more than a thousand, and its influence extended to Scotland and the Scandinavian kingdoms. Its decline began, however, from the moment when the Catholic sentiment of the city closed it to the influence of the Reformers; the number of its students sank to vanishing point, and though, under the influence of the Jesuits, it subsequently revived, it never recovered its old importance.
His neutrality treaty with Sweden (17th of March 1794), for protecting their merchantmen by combined squadrons, was also extremely beneficial to the Scandinavian powers, both commercially and politically.
With characteristic caution Louis Philippe refused to commit himself by any overt pretensions, and announced his intention of going to America; but in the hope that something might happen in France to his advantage, he postponed his departure, travelling instead through the Scandinavian countries as far north as Lapland.
Ever since Russia had become the dominant Baltic power, as well as the state to which the Gottorpers looked primarily for help, the necessity for a better understanding between the two Scandinavian kingdoms had clearly been recognized by the best statesmen of both, especially in Denmark from Christian VI.'s time; but unfortunately this sound and sensible policy was seriously impeded by the survival of the old national hatred on both sides of the Sound, still further complicated by Gottorp's hatred of Denmark.
These are in part of glacial origin, and contain Scandinavian boulders; but fluviatile and aeolian deposits also occur.
The Scandinavian data, from the wealth of observations, are probably the most representative, and even in the most northern district of Scandinavia the smallness of the excess of the frequencies in December and January over those in March and October suggests that some influence tending to create maxima at the equinoxes has largely counterbalanced the influence of sunlight and twilight in reducing the frequency at these seasons.
This island agrees in geological structure with the southern part of Sweden, and forms, in fact, the southernmost portion of the Scandinavian system.
The upheaval of the country, a movement common to a large part of the Scandinavian peninsula, still continues, though slowly, north-east of a line drawn in a south-easterly direction from Nissumfjord on the west coast of Jutland, across the island of Fyen, a little south of the town of Nyborg.
Bandhotm aPPet A Danes are a yellow-haired and blue-eyed Teutonic race of middle stature, bearing traces of their kinship with the northern Scandinavian peoples.
The separation from the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, which were more than half German, intensified the national character; the Danes are intensely patriotic; and there is no portion of the Danish dominions except perhaps in the West Indian islands, where a Scandinavian language is not spoken.
In Scandinavian tradition the next great figure is Frole the peace-king, but it is not before the 5th century that we meet with the names of any kings which can be regarded as definitely historical.
The Danes, the southernmost branch of the Scandinavian family, referred to by Alfred (c. 890) as occupying Jutland, the islands and Scania, were, in 777, strong enough to defy the Frank empire by harbouring its fugitives.
Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth Danis expansion.
(1513-1523), Margaret's splendid dream of a Scandinavian empire seemed, finally, about to be realized.
Denmark was indisputably the leading Scandinavian power.
Twice during this period Denmark and Sweden measured their strength in the open field, on the first occasion in the " Scandinavian Seven Years' War " (1562-70), on the second in the " Kalmar War " (1611-13), and on both occasions Denmark prevailed, though the temporary advantage she gained was more than neutralized by the intense feeling of hostility which the unnatural wars, between the two kindred peoples of Scandinavia, left behind them.
Frederick II., in his later years (1571-1588), aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he was able to enforce the rule that all foreign ships should strike their topsails to Danish men-of-war as a token of his right to rule the northern seas.
Denmark, moreover, was above all things a Scandinavian power.
On the other hand, if Denmark had emerged from the war with her honour and dignity unimpaired, she had at the same time tacitly surrendered the dominion of the North to her Scandinavian rival.
B.) Literature The present language of Denmark is derived directly from the same source as that of Sweden, and the parent of both is the old Scandinavian (see Scandinavian Languages).
Pram (1756-1821), author of Staerkodder, a romantic epic, based on Scandinavian legend, and Edvard Storm (1749-1794), were associates and mainly fellowstudents at Copenhagen, where they introduced a style peculiar to themselves, and distinct from that of the true Danes.
The old Scandinavian mythology lived in the hands of Ohlenschldger exactly as the classical Greek religion was born again in Keats.
He aroused in his people the slumbering sense of their Scandinavian nationality.
He adopted the idea of introducing the Old Scandinavian element into art, and even into life, still more earnestly than the older poet.
Martin Frederik Arendt (1773-1823), the botanist and archaeologist, did much for the study of old Scandinavian records.
Karl Ferdinand Allen (1811-1871) began a comprehensive history of the Scandinavian kingdoms (5 vols., 1864-1872).
Horn, History of the Scandinavian North from the most ancient times to the present (English translation by Rasmus B.
And though for the present the north-eastern half of England, including London, remained in the hands of the Danes, in reality the tide had turned, and western Europe was saved from the danger of becoming a heathen Scandinavian power.
was his alliance with the German Evangelical princes, as a counterpoise to the persistent hostility of Charles V., who was determined to support the hereditary claims of his nieces, the daughters of Christian II., to the Scandinavian kingdoms. War was actually declared against Charles V.
Polotesk or Poltesk is mentioned in 862 as one of the towns given by the Scandinavian Rurik to his men.
Malocello's enterprise not only marks the beginning of the oversea expansion of western Europe in exploration, conquest and colonization (after the age of Scandinavian world-roving had passed); it is also probably not unconnected with the great Genoese venture of 1291 (in search of a waterway to India, which soon follows), with which this attempt at Canarian discovery and dominion has been by some unjustifiably identified.
The wild Scandinavian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) may be regarded as the typical form of the species.
The Scandinavian reindeer is identified by Mr Grant with the barren-ground type.
761), was victorious while in his prime, and then consolidated Pictland; but (802-83'9) the Scandinavian sea-rovers began to hold large territories in Scotland,weakened the Picts, and made easy their conquest by Kenneth MacAlpine of Kintyre, the king of the Dalriad Scots of Argyll.
Malcolm the Maiden, before his early death in 1165, had put down the menacing power of Somerled, lord of the Isles, a chief apparently of mixed Celtic and Scandinavian blood, the founder of the great clan of Macdonald, whose chiefs, the lords of the Isles, were almost royal; Malcolm also subdued the Celts of Galloway, sometimes called Picts, but at this time Gaelic in speech.
Both appear first in the 15th century, probably as results of the war for the Toggenburg inheritance (1436-50); for the intense hatred of Austria, greatly increased by her support of the claims of Zurich, favoured the circulation of stories which assumed that Swiss freedom was of immemorial antiquity, while, as the war was largely a struggle between the civic and rural elements in the Confederation, the notion that the (rural) Schwyzers were of Scandinavian descent at once separated them from and raised them above the German inhabitants of the towns.
How it came to be localized in Uri we do not know; possibly, through the story of the Scandinavian colonization of Schwyz, the tale was fitted to some real local hero.
Historians of the north have distinguished as the " Viking Age " (Vikingertiden) the time when the Scandinavian folk first by their widespread piracies brought themselves forcibly into the notice of all the Christian peoples of western Europe.
The reason for using " viking " in a more generic sense than is warranted by the actual employment of the word in Old Norse literature rests on the fact that we have no other word by which to designate the early Scandinavian pirates of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century.
" Normanner " is used by some Scandinavian writers (as by Steenstrup in his classical work Normannerne).
Although, outside the information we get from Christian chroniclers, this age is for the people of the north one of complete obscurity, it is evident that the Viking Age corresponds with some universal disturbance or unrest among the Scandinavian nations, strictly analogous to the unrest among more southern Teutonic nations which many centuries before had heralded the break-up of the Roman empire, an epoch known as that of the Folk-wanderings (V olkerwanderungen).
impulse which was driving part of the Norse and Danish peoples to piracies in the west was also driving the Swedes and perhaps a portion of the Danes to eastward invasion, which resulted in the establishment of a Scandinavian kingdom (GarOariki) in what is now Russia, with its capital first at Novgorod, afterwards at Kiev.
If we could know the Viking Age from the other, the Scandinavian side, it would doubtless present far more interest than in the form in which the Christian chroniclers present it.
In Ireland, besides the important and successful Turgesius, we read of a Saxulf who early met his death, as well as of Ivar (Ingvar), famous also in England and called the son of Ragnar Lodbrog, and of Oisla, Ivar's comrade; finally (the vikings in Ireland being mostly of Norse descent) of the wellknown Olaf the White, who became king of all the Scandinavian settlements in Ireland.
We see then that in virtue of some quite historical misfortune to the viking invaders, connected with a mist and with a great sickness which invaded the army, the place they have come to (in reality Paris) is in Scandinavian tradition identified with the mythic Bjarmaland; and later, in the history of Saxo Grammaticus, it is identified with the geographical Bjarmaland or Perm.
We know that at the same time that some Scandinavian folk were harrying all the western lands, others were founding Garbariki (Russia) in the east; others were pressing still farther south till they came in contact with the eastern empire in Constantinople, which the northern folk knew as MikillgarOr (Mikklegard); so that when Hasting and Bjorn had sailed to Luna in the gulf of Genoa the northern folk had almost put a girdle round the Christian world.
In the constitution of the Jomborg state and again in that of the eastern Vaerings (a Scandinavian body in the service of the East Roman Empire) we see a constitution which looks like the foretaste of that of the Templars or the Teutonic Knights.
We do read frequently of kings in the accounts of their hosts; but their power may not have extended beyond the leadership of the expedition; they may have been kings ad hoc. On the other hand, the whole character of northern tradition (Teutonic and Scandinavian tradition alike) forbids us to suppose that any would be elected to that office who was not of noble or princely blood.
To the last, judging by the specimens of Scandinavian boats which have come down to us, they must have been not very seaworthy; they were shallow, narrow in the beam, pointed at both ends, and so eminently suitable for manoeuvring (with oars) in creeks and bays.
References to the Viking Age in a general way are to be found in a vast number of books, especially histories of the Scandinavian countries, of which Munch's Det Norske Folks Historie (1852, &c.) is the most distinguished; J.
Bugge's Vikingerne (1904-6) is a study of the moral and social side of the vikings, or, one should rather say, of the earliest Scandinavian folk.
The principal foreign element was German, the Teutonic immigration being especially large in the decade ending in 1860; the immigrants from the United Kingdom were second in importance, those from the Scandinavian countries third, and those from southern Europe fourth.
A large part of the population is of Scandinavian birth or descent.
Towards the end of the 15th century the power of the Hanseatic League began to decline, owing to the rise of Burgundy in the west, of Poland and Russia in the east and the emancipation of the Scandinavian kingdom from the union of Calmar.
This word is Scandinavian in origin, and is connected with Dan.
The name thoria (after the Scandinavian god Thor) was first given in 1815 by Berzelius to a supposed new earth which he had extracted from several rare Swedish minerals.
TYR, the Scandinavian god of battle.
The constitutions of the Scandinavian towns were largely modelled on those of Germany, but the towns never attained anything like the same independence.
As for the Scandinavian towns, the best guide is perhaps the book by K.
Having attracted the notice of the German king, Henry III., Adalbert probably served as chancellor of the kingdom of Italy, and in 1045 was appointed archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, his province including the Scandinavian countries, as well as a larger part of North Germany.
In 1069 he was recalled by Henry, when he made a further attempt to establish a northern patriarchate, which failed owing to the hostility of the papacy and the condition of affairs in the Scandinavian kingdoms. He died at Goslar on the 16th or 17th of March 1072, and was buried in the cathedral which he had built at Bremen.
His French thesis for the doctorate of letters, Etude sur les pamphlets politiques et religieux de Milton (1848), showed that he was attracted towards foreign history, a study for which he soon qualified himself by mastering the Germanic and Scandinavian languages.
In 1348 it attacked Spain, northern Italy and Rome, eastern Germany, many parts of France including Paris, and England; from England it is said to have been conveyed to the Scandinavian countries.
the people, called in Scandinavian records Gautar, from whom a part of southern Sweden has received its present name Gotland.
There are other points of contact between Beowulf on the one hand and the Scandinavian records on the other, confirming the conclusion that the Old English poem contains much of the historical tradition of the Gautar, the Danes and the Swedes, in its purest accessible form.
But the name (the Icelandic form of which is Bjolfr) is genuinely Scandinavian.
There are, indeed, some reasons for suspecting that the blending of the stories of the mythic Beaw and the historical Beowulf may have been the work of Scandinavian and not of English poets.
Sarrazin has pointed out the striking resemblance between the Scandinavian legend of Bodvarr Biarki and that of the Beowulf of the poem.
On the one hand, it is possible that the English epic, which unquestionably derived its historical elements from Scandinavian song, may be indebted to the same source for its general plan, including the blending of history and myth.
On the other hand, considering the late date of the authority for the Scandinavian traditions, we cannot be sure that the latter may not owe some of their material to English minstrels.
The conjecture that most naturally presents itself to those who have made no special study of the question, is that an English epic treating of the deeds of a Scandinavian hero on Scandinavian ground must have been composed in the days of Norse or Danish dominion in England.
The forms under which Scandinavian names appear in the poem show clearly that these names must have entered English tradition not later than the beginning of the 7th century.
The hypothesis that Beowulf is in whole or in part a translation from a Scandinavian original, although still maintained by some scholars, introduces more difficulties than it solves, and must be dismissed as untenable.
The other Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, appear, like Sweden itself in the present day, to bear in their age-distribution distinct marks of the emigration of adults, or, at least, the temporary absence from home of this class at the time of enumeration.
In Finland the death-rate at the earlier period taken for the comparison was abnormally swollen by epidemic disease, and if it be set on one side the decline appears to have been in harmony with that in its Scandinavian neighbours.
But when Wladislaus, their lawful possessor, imposed similar tolls in the interests of the republic, Danzig protested and appealed to the Scandinavian powers.
BRAGI, in Scandinavian mythology, the son of Odin, and god of wisdom, poetry and eloquence.
At the Scandinavian sacrificial feasts a horn consecrated to Bragi was used as a drinkingcup by the guests, who then vowed to do some great deed which would be worthy of being immortalized in verse.
Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c. Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong, hardy race, of low stature, with almost round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat nose, protruding mouth, thick lips, neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape; beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now brown, red and even fair; complexion also somewhat brown.
The place - names throughout the Principality may be said to group themselves roughly into four divisions: (i.) Pure and unaltered Celtic names; (ii.) Corrupted or abbreviated Celtic names; (iii.) English names; (iv.) Scandinavian and foreign names.
Scandinavian influence can easily be traced at various points of the coast-line, but particularly in south Pembrokeshire, wherein occur such place-names as Caldy, Tenby, Goodwick, Dale, Skokholm, Hakin and Milford Haven.
The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now rent the country, which was continually also a prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea.
From the 9th century the towns of Volhynia-Vladimir, Ovruch, Lutsk and Dubno were ruled by descendants of the Scandinavian or Varangian chief Rurik, and the land of Volhynia remained independent until the 14th century, when it fell under Lithuania.
The Vedic deities of the nobler sort, the shining devas, the asuras (the " breathers " or living, perhaps to be identified with the Scandinavian cesir) rose above a vast multitude of demonic powers, many of them doubtless derived from the local customs and beliefs of the native races whom the immigrant Aryans subdued.
This is mainly occupied by Djurgarden (the deer-park), a beautiful park containing the buildings of the northern museum, a collection of Scandinavian costumes and domestic and agricultural utensils, and a biological museum housed in a wooden building imitating the early Norwegian timber churches (stavekirke).
WODEN, a deity of the Anglo-Saxons, the name being the Anglo-Saxon counterpart of the Scandinavian Odin.
Owing to the very small amount of information which has come down to us regarding the gods of ancient England and Germany, it cannot be determined how far the character and adventures attributed to Odin in Scandinavian mythology were known to other Teutonic peoples.
'SWEDEN' [Sverige], a kingdom of northern Europe, occupying the eastern and larger part of the Scandinavian peninsula.
The backbone of the Scandinavian peninsula is a range, or series of masses, of mountains (in Swedish Kolen, 1 the keel) extending through nearly the whole length of the peninsula towards the western side.
- The climate of the Scandinavian peninsula as a whole is so far tempered by the warm Atlantic drift from the south-west as to be unique in comparison with other countries of so high a latitude.
The same effect is well shown by the linguiform isotherms. In January, for example, the isotherm of 14°, after skirting the north coast of the Scandinavian peninsula, turns southward along the Keel, crossing the upper part of the district of the great northern lakes.
The Swedish people belong to the Scandinavian branch, but the population includes in the north about 20,000 Finns and 7000 Lapps.
During the 9th century extensive Scandinavian settlements were made on the east side of the Baltic, and even as early as the reign of Louis I.
Proofs of extensive Scandinavian settlement in Russia are to be found partly in the Russian names assigned to the Dnieper rapids by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, partly in references to this people made by foreign representatives at the court of Byzantium.
The fact that many of the names which occur in Russian chronicles seem to be peculiarly Swedish suggests that Sweden was the home of the settlers, and the best authorities consider that the original Scandinavian conquerors were Swedes who had settled on the east coast of the Baltic.
In 1388, at the request of the Swedes themselves, Albert was driven out by Margaret, regent of Denmark Union of and Norway; and, at a convention of the repre- Kalmar, sentatives of the three Scandinavian kingdoms held 1397.
But even so she was but of subordinate importance in Scandinavian politics.
But now, when everything depended on a concentration of forces, Charles's imprudent assumption of the title of " King of the Lapps of Nordland," which people properly belonged to the Danish Crown, involved him in another war with Denmark, a war known in Scandinavian history as the war of Kalmar because the Swedish fortress of Kalmar was the chief theatre of hostilities.
The wars with Denmark and Russia had been almost exclusively Scandinavian wars; the Polish war was of world-wide significance.
Gustavus regarded the Scandinavian kingdoms as the two chief pillars on which the Evangelical religion reposed.
The one bright side of this gloomy and sordid period was the rapprochement between the Scandinavian kingdoms during the revolutionary wars.
had endeavoured to form an anti-Prussian league with Denmark; and after the defeat of Denmark he projected a Scandinavian union, in order, with the help of France, to oppose Prussian predominance in the north - a policy which naturally collapsed with the overthrow of the French Empire in 1870.
The oldest form in which Swedish exists as a written language (see Scandinavian Language) is the series of manuscripts known as Landskapslagarne, or " The Common Laws."
4 But he was a patient antiquary, and advanced the knowledge of ancient Scandinavian mythology and language very considerably.
His mystical lyrics, entitled Liljor i Saron (" Lilies in Sharon "; 1820), and his sonnets, which are the best in Swedish, may be recommended as among the most delicate products of the Scandinavian mind.
In 1811 certain young men in Stockholm founded a society for the elevation of society by means of the study of Scandinavian antiquity.
Nowhere more abundant than in the Scandinavian peninsula, this tree is the true fir (fur, fura) of the old Norsemen, and still retains the name among their descendants in Britain, though botanically now classed as a pine.
The evidence for this view is derived partly from English and Danish traditions dealing with persons and events of the 4th century (see below), and partly from the fact that striking affinities to the cult of Nerthus as described by Tacitus are to be found in Scandinavian, especially Swedish and Danish, religion.
In English tradition this person is connected with "Scedeland" (pl.), a name which may have been applied to Sjaelland as well as Skane, while in Scandinavian tradition he is specially associated with the ancient royal residence at Leire in Sjaelland.
BERSERKER (from the "Sark" or shirt of the "bear," or other animal-skins worn by them), in Scandinavian mythology, the name of the twelve sons of the hero Berserk, grandson of the eight-handed Starkadder and Alfhilde.
In Old Norse the term berserker thus became synonymous with reckless courage, and was later applied to the bodyguards of several of the Scandinavian heroes.
It thus stands midway not only geographically but also in physical features between the " Teutonic " type of Scandinavian and the so-called "Mediterranean race" with its long head, long face, its rather broad nose, dark brown or black hair, dark eyes, and slender form of medium height.
Zhitomir is a very old city, tradition tracing its foundation as far back as the times of the Scandinavian adventurers, Askold and Dir (9th century).
Taken in 890 by the Scandinavian chief, Rollo, it was soon after peopled by the Normans and became a residence of the dukes of Normandy, one of whom, Richard I., built about 960 a castle which survived till the 18th century.
It has been observed with truth that so many populous nations can hardly have sprung from the Scandinavian peninsula; on the other hand, the existence of these traditions certainly requires some explanation.
Possibly, however, many of the royal families may have contained an element of Scandinavian blood, a hypothesis which would well accord with the social conditions of the migration period, as illustrated, e.g., in Volsunga Saga and in Hervarar Saga ok Heib'reks Konungs.
A powerful influence in Scandinavian religion was exercised by the belief in "the nornir, or Fates, usually thought of as three sisters."
Some of them were even in direct contravention of the charter; and the old Scandinavian spirit of independence was deeply wounded by the preference given to the Dutch.
English influence is all-pervading, though in the northern and north-midland counties this influence has been encroached upon by Scandinavian influence.
The form caster is found in the north and east, under Scandinavian influence, e.g.
In names like Chesterton, Chesterford, Chesterholm, Woodchester, the second element shows that the names are of later English or Scandinavian formation.
Scandinavian.-The following suffixes are Scandinavian in origin, some of them being also used independently: -beck (O.N.
Tarn (a mountain pool), grain and sike (mountain streams) are also Scandinavian terms.
The Scandinavian red-deer is the typical form of the species.
"Moul" is a Scandinavian word, cf.
On receiving this appointment, he paid a second visit of some fifteen months to Europe, this time devoting special attention to the Scandinavian countries and Switzerland.
HAVERFORDWEST (Welsh Hwlfordd, the English name being perhaps a corruption of the Scandinavian Hafna-Fjord), the chief town of Pembrokeshire, S.
Vigfusson, Gudbrandr (1828-1889), the foremost Scandinavian scholar of the 19th century, was born of a good and old Icelandic family in Breibafjord in 1828.
In 1866, after some months in London, he settled down in Oxford, which he made his home for the rest of his life, only quitting it for visits to the great Scandinavian libraries or to London (to work during two or three long vacations with his fellow-labourer, F.
He held the office of Reader in Scandinavian at the university of Oxford (a post created for him) from 1884 till his death.
DANELAGH, the name given to those districts in the north and north-east of England which were settled by Danes and other Scandinavian invaders during the period of the Viking invasions.
The grouping of shires round a county town as distinct from the old national shires is probably of Scandinavian origin, and so certainly is the division of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire into "ridings."
The highly developed Scandinavian legal system has also left abundant traces in this district.
There can be no doubt that these "lawmen," who can be shown to form a close parallel to and indeed the ultimate source of our jury, were of Scandinavian origin.
Many other legal terms can be definitely traced to Scandinavian sources, and they are first found in use in the district of the Danelagh.
The whole of the place nomenclature of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Northern Northamptonshire is Scandinavian rather than native English, and in the remaining districts of the Danelagh a goodly proportion of Danish place-names may be found.
tele), a variety of duck, whose name is of uncertain origin, but doubtless cognate with the Dutch Taling (formerly Talingh and Telingh), and this apparently with the Scandinavian Atteling-And (Briinnich, Ornithol.
But he brought his Bretwaldaship to a good end by inflicting a crushing defeat on them at Hingston Down, hard by the Tamar, probably in 836, and died ere the year was out, leaving the ever-growing problem to his son A~lthelwu1f The cause of the sudden outpouring of the Scandinavian deluge upon the lands of Christendom at this particular date is one of the puzzles of history.
The emperor seemed to be threatening the independence of the North, and in terror and resentment the Scandinavian peoples turned first to strike at the encroaching Frank, and soon after to assail the other Christian kingdoms which lay behind, or on the flank of, the Empire.
Aslong as he lived England was the centre of a great Northern empire, for Canute reconquered Norway, which had lapsed into independence after his fathers death, and extended his power into the Baltic. Moreover, all the so-called Scandinavian colonists in the Northern Isles and Ireland owned him as overlord.
for his subjects was an increased share of the trade to the Scandinavian countries.
That, on account of the earth's rotation, the main part of the Baltic Stream must keep close to the coast of the Scandinavian peninsula.
Jdnkoping was afterwards the scene of many events of moment in Scandinavian history - of parliaments in 1 357, 1 439, and 1599; of the meeting of the Danish and Swedish plenipotentiaries in 1448; and of the death of Sten Sture, the elder, in 1503.
The British who fled before the Teutonic and Scandinavian invasions of the 6th and 8th centuries, had carried with them to Armorica, and fondly cherished, the remembrance of Arthur and his deeds, which in time had become interwoven with traditions of purely Breton origin.
These are from the Scandinavian Skraape or Skrofa, and considering Skeat's remarks (Etym.
The Scandinavian portion of Lapland presents the usual characteristics of the mountain plateau of that peninsula - on the west side the bold headlands and fjords, deeply-grooved valleys and glaciers of Norway, on the east the long mountain lakes and great lake-fed rivers of Sweden.
and 4.75 ft., respectively (Archivio 1 Hence they have been supposed by many to be the originals of the "little folk" of Scandinavian legend.
Superficially at least the great bulk of the Lapps have been Christianized - those of the Scandinavian countries being Protestants, those of Russia members of the Greek Church.
In education the Scandinavian Lapps are far ahead of their Russian brethren, to whom reading and writing are arts as unfamiliar as they were to their pagan ancestors.
That it began at a very early period to enrich itself with Scandinavian words is shown by the use it still makes of forms belonging to a linguistic stage older even than that of Icelandic. Daben has subjected the vocabulary to a very interesting analysis for the purpose of discovering what stage of culture the people had reached before their contact with the Norse.
Agricultural terms, the names of the metals and the word for smith are all of Scandinavian origin, and the words for "taming" and "milk" would suggest that the southern strangers taught the Lapps how to turn the reindeer to full account.
It has been maintained that they were formerly spread over the whole of the Scandinavian peninsula, and they have even been considered the remnants of that primeval race of cave-dwellers which hunted the reindeer over the snow-fields of central and western Europe.
The relations of the Lapps to their more powerful neighbours were complicated by the rivalry of the different Scandinavian kingdoms. After the disruption of the Calmar Union (1523) Sweden began to assert its rights with vigour, and in 1595 the treaty of Teusina between Sweden and Russia decreed "that the Lapps who dwell in the woods between eastern Bothnia and Varanger shall pay their dues to the king of Sweden."
Charles of Sweden took the title of "king of the Kajans and Lapps," and left no means untried to establish his power over all Scandinavian Lapland.
Other monasteries were gifted 1 The view that the Lapps at one time occupied the whole of the Scandinavian peninsula, and have during the course of centuries been driven back by the Swedes and Norwegians is disproved by the recent investigations of Yngvar Nielsen, K.
It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.
The characteristics of this Western school are no doubt the result of the contact of Scandinavian colonists of the Viking-tide, living lives of the wildest adventure, with an imaginative and civilized race, that exercised upon them a very strong and lasting influence (the effects of which were also felt in Iceland, but in a different way).
The frequent intermarriages which mingled the best families of either race are sufficient proof of the close communion of Northmen and Celts in the 9th and 10th centuries, while there are in the poems themselves traces of Celtic mythology, language and manners.1 When one turns to the early poetry of the Scandinavian continent, preserved in the rune-staves on the memorial stones of Sweden, Norway and Denmark, in the didactic Havamal, the Great Volsung Lay (i.e.
A few books relating the history of other Scandinavian realms will complete this survey.
A scholastic sketch of the rise of the Scandinavian empire, the Foundation of Norway, dating c. 1120, is prefixed to the whole.
Anderson's translation (Chicago, 1884) of Winkel Horn's History of the Literature of the Scandinavian North; and W.
They had all attended the lectures of Georg Brandes, the great reformer of Scandinavian literature, and, influenced by his literary theories, they chose their models in the realistic school.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about Scandinavian writers.
FLINT (a word common in Teutonic and Scandinavian languages, possibly cognate with the Gr.
The story was already connected with the Nibelungen when it found its way to the Scandinavian north by way of Germany.
The figure of Turgeis has given rise to considerable discussion, as there is no mention of him in Scandinavian sources.
The Scandinavian settlements were almost wholly confined to the seaport towns, and except Dublin included none of the surrounding territory.
A flourishing commerce, however, soon grew up in the Scandinavian towns; mints were established, and many foreign traders - Flemings, Italians and others - settled there.
It was through these Scandinavian trading communities that Ireland came into contact with the rest of Europe in the iith and 12th centuries.
If evidence were needed it is only necessary to point to the names of three of the Irish provinces, Ulster, Leinster, Munster, which are formed from the native names (Ulaid, Laigin, Muma-n) with the addition of Norse staor; and the very name by which the island is now generally known is Scandinavian in form (Ira-land, the land of the Irish).
The settlers in the Scandinavian towns early came to be looked upon by the native Irish as so many septs of a tribe added to the system of petty states forming the Irish political system.
The latter in turn acted in similar capacities with the Irish-Norwegian chiefs, Irish tribes often forming part of the Scandinavian armies in Britain.
From this time it is possible to speak of a Scandinavian kingdom of Dublin, a kingdom which lasted almost without interruption until the Norman Conquest.
Between 920 and 970 the Scandinavian power in Ireland reached its zenith.
Donoban was married to the daughter of a Scandinavian king of Waterford, and his own daughter was married to Ivar of Waterford.
In the spring of 1014 Maelmorda and Sigtrygg had collected a considerable army in Dublin, consisting of contingents from all the Scandinavian settlements in the west in addition to Maelmorda's own Leinster forces, the whole being commanded by Sigurd, earl of Orkney.
887), appears to have aimed at the supreme command of all the Scandinavian settlements of the west, and in the course of a few years conquered the kingdom of the Isles, Sutherland, Ross, Moray and Argyll.
This great struggle finally disposed of the possibility of Scandinavian supremacy in Ireland, but in spite of this it can only be regarded as a national misfortune.
Collingwood, Scandinavian Britain (London, 1908).
Hitherto the Scandinavian section of the church in Ireland had been most decidedly inclined to receive the hierarchical and diocesan as distinguished from the monastic and quasi-tribal system.
A Scandinavian witch does the same in the Egil saga.
The myths of Qat's adventures, however, are very crude, though not so wild as some of the Scandinavian myths about Odin and Loki, while they are less immoral than the adventures of Indra and Zeus.
In his youth he shot a supernatural crane, and can always fly about in its feathers, like Odin and Loki in Scandinavian myth.
So far the peculiar mark of the wilder American tribe legends is the bestial character of the divine beings, which is also illustrated in Australia and Africa, while the bestial clothing, feathers or fur, drops but slowly off Indra, Zeus and the Egyptian Ammon, and the Scandinavian Odin.
Like most gods, they had struggles for pre-eminence with Titanic opponents, the Asuras, who partly answer to the Greek Titans and the Hawaiian foes of the divine race, or to the Scandinavian giants and the enemies who beset the savage creative beings.
The Scandinavian myths of the gods are numerous and interesting, but the evidence on which they have reached us demands criticism for which we lack space.
The Scandinavian cosmogonic myth (with its parallels among races savage and civilized) is given elsewhere.
On the whole, the Scandinavian gods are a society on an early human model, of beings indifferently human, animal and divine - some of them derived from elemental forces personified, holding sway over the elements, and skilled in sorcery.
Keary's Mythology of the Eddas (1882); Pigott's Manual of Scandinavian Mythology (1838); and Laing's Early Kings of Norway may be consulted by English students.
The Scandinavian cosmogonic myth starts from the abyss, Ginnungagap, a chaos of ice, from which, as it thawed, was produced the giant Ymir.
Ymir is the Scandinavian Purusha.
Probably it is no mere accident that the first appearance, or rather reappearance, of Scandinavian pirates in the west took place shortly after the overthrow of the Frisians.
FATHOM (a word common, in various forms, to Scandinavian and Teutonic languages; cf.
On his return journey he privately met at Stockholm Herr Warburg, the head of the Scandinavian section of the German Committee on Food Supplies.
The name of Tenby is undoubtedly a corrupted form of Daneby, recalling the Scandinavian origin of the place.
In any case the Breton lays offer abundant evidence of traditions from Scandinavian and Oriental sources.
The former Charlton Athletic defender, who joined the bluebirds this summer, missed the start of their Scandinavian tour with a sore knee.
The bourse Director believes that Norway already has the prerequisites for building up a Norwegian or Scandinavian energy bourse.
Agency working is largely deregulated in the three Scandinavian countries but temps are protected by strong employer and trade union agreements.
gneiss region, Scandinavian Caledonides.
flow variability in the Scandinavian ice sheet: modeling the coupling between ice sheet flow and hydrology.
Star Alliance members Air Canada, Lufthansa German Airlines, SAS Scandinavian Airlines and United Airlines currently hold anti-trust immunity.
In some South American field mice and the Scandinavian wood lemming, XY females are commonplace.
A choice of Scandinavian lodges with up to 3 bedrooms and 2 bathrooms sleeping 7 people.
These include a Scandinavian buffet luncheon party at CA House on the first Sunday of the London Boat Show.
oversteer, understeer, handbrake turns, left foot braking and Scandinavian flicks - real rallying, real rally cars - really good fun!
Specific investigations of Scandinavian ice masses and Canadian permafrost and periglacial processes will be undertaken.
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The latter took in references to George Formby, the novels of LP Hartley and the Scandinavian sea lanes of the Kattegat.
seamanchurches today The Scandinavian churches in London are still linked with the seamen's missions.
The first recorded name for the island came from the Scandinavian settlers to the area.
Every log cabin in our range is machined from premium quality Scandinavian softwood.
white pineections of bedroom furniture offer contemporary oak furniture, painted white, solid pine and Scandinavian pine furniture.
BALDER, a Scandinavian god, the son of Odin or Othin.
Thus the characteristic assemblage of plants to which Sir Joseph Hooker has given the name Scandinavian is present in every latitude of the globe, and is the only one that is so (Trans.
We thus see in the Scandinavian settlers in Gaul, after they had put on the outward garb of their adopted country, a people restless and enterprising above all others, adopting and spreading abroad all that they could make their own in their new land and everywhere else - a people in many ways highly gifted, greatly affecting and of Sicily modifying at the time every land in which they settled, but, wherever they settled, gradually losing themselves among the people of the land.
On his release Valdemar attempted to retrieve his position by force of arms, but was utterly defeated at the battle of Bornhoved (22nd of July 1227), which deserves a place among the decisive battles of history, for it destroyed at once and for ever the Danish dominion of the Baltic and established the independence of Lubeck, to the immense detriment in the future of all the Scandinavian states.
The bladder-nose seal (Cystophora cristata), for instance, may be said to be a GreenlandAmerican species, while a Scandinavian species, such as the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), appears to be very rare both in Greenland and America.
The derivation of the word has been obscured by a connexion in sense with the verb "cow," to instil fear into, which is derived from old Norse kuga, a word of similar meaning, and with the verb "cower," to crouch, which is also Scandinavian in origin.'
The Domesday survey of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, Norfolk, &c., shows remarkable deviations in local organization and justice (lagmen, sokes), and great peculiarities as to status (socmen, freemen), while from laws and a few charters we can perceive some influence on criminal law (nidingsvaerk), special usages as to fines (lahslit), the keeping of peace, attestation and sureties of acts (faestermen), &c. But, on the whole, the introduction of Danish and Norse elements,apart from local cases, was more important owing to the conflicts and compromises it called forth and its social results, than on account of any distinct trail of Scandinavian views in English law.
Dortmund held aloof from the Cologne Confederation on the ground that it had no concern in Scandinavian politics.
As crown-prince, Charles's brusque and downright manners had led many to regard his future accession with some apprehension, yet he proved to be one of the most popular of Scandinavian kings and a constitutional ruler in the best sense of the word.
He took some part in the political complications of the Scandinavian kingdoms, but the early years of his reign were mainly spent in the administration of his electorate, where by stern and cruel measures he succeeded in restoring some degree of order (see Brandenburg).
One of the earliest German names for the bird, Kalekuttisch Hun (whence the Scandinavian Kalkon), must have arisen through some mistake at present inexplicable; but this does not refer, as is generally supposed, to Calcutta, but to Calicut on the Malabar coast (cf.
See also Brandes, Kritiker og Portraiter (1870); Brandes, Danske Ditgere (1877); Marie Herzfeld, Die Skandinavische Litteratur and ihre Tendenzen (Berlin and Leipzig, 1898); Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, Essays on Scandinavian Literature (London, 18 95); Edmund Gosse, Studies in the Literature of Northern Europe (new ed., London, 1883); Vilhelm Andersen, Litteraturbilleder (Copenhagen, 1903); A.
The same effect is well shown by the linguiform isotherms. In January, for example, the isotherm of 14Ã‚°, after skirting the north coast of the Scandinavian peninsula, turns southward along the Keel, crossing the upper part of the district of the great northern lakes.
The Indo-European or Indo-Germanic languages are divided by Brugmann into (1) Aryan, with sub-branches (a) Indian, (b) Iranian; (2) Armenian; (3) Greek; (4) Albanian; (~) Italic; (6) Celtic; (7) Germanic, with sub-branches (a) Gothic, (b) Scandinavian, (c) West Germanic; and (8) Balto-Slavonic. (See INDO-EUROPEAN.) The Aryan family (called by Professor Sievers the Asiatic base-language) is subdivided into (1) Iranian (Eranian, or Erano-Aryan) languages, (2) Pisacha, or non-Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages, (3) Indo-Aryan, or Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages (for the last two see INDO-ARYAN) Iranian being also grouped into Persian and non-Persian.
Under his name of Etzel, Attila plays a great part in Teutonic legend (see Nibelungenlied) and under that of Atli in Scandinavian Saga, but his historic lineaments are greatly obscured in both.
His later series of editions (1874-85) included Orkneyinga and Hdconar Saga, the great and complex mass of Icelandic historical sagas, known as Sturlunga, and the Corpus Poeticum Boreale, in which he edited the whole body of classic Scandinavian poetry.
It is probable that until the end of the 10th century Scandinavian dialects were almost the sole language spoken in the district of the Danelagh, and when English triumphed, after an intermediate bilingual state, large numbers of words were adopted from the earlier Scandinavian speech.
In five generations the viking settlers of Normandy had not only completely forgotten their old Scandinavian tongue, but had come to look upon those who spoke the kindred English idiom not only as aliens but as inferiors.
Also stock wide variety of Scandinavian recliner sofas and reclining chairs.
The churches today The Scandinavian churches in London are still linked with the seamen 's missions.
Ferry - Scandinavian Seaways sail into Newcastle (2 hours drive from Edinburgh) from Germany, Sweden and Holland.
Our collections of bedroom furniture offer contemporary oak furniture, painted white, solid pine and Scandinavian pine furniture.
Simple, clean lines define the Scandinavian design approach, guided by functionality, natural materials and minimal ornamentation.
When looking for simple, Scandinavian furnishings there are several different options--from inexpensive at IKEA to pricier, lasting pieces from iconic designers at Scandinaviandesign.com.
There are many Scandinavian design aficionados in the furniture world and, if you are interested in learning more, there is a plethora of information waiting online and in the library.
This is a Scandinavian line designed with comfort in mind.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 34 (June 2002): 474-77.
The American Scandinavian Foundation: This organization hires American college students to work as English language teaching assistants in the Finnish school system, colleges, and private institutions throughout the country.
Some Scandinavian countries have a clothing optional policy at all beaches, and European countries tend to be more tolerant of nudity overall.
"Thor's Oak" of Scandinavian mythology and "Yggdrasil," the "Tree of Life," of the early Germanic tribes closely resemble the modern Christmas tree.
Designs exhibit a solid Scandinavian influence that you will easily recognize by the severe shoe cuts and almost clog-like men's shoes.
The Sanitia Pirate clog, with its tradition of excellence and Scandinavian history, is a great addition to any shoe wardrobe.
Throughout Scandinavian cultures, many of the superstitions that were tied to a very real belief in these creatures still exist today.
The pope or his legate, however, took no steps to remove abuses or otherwise reform the Scandinavian churches.
The swan played a part in classical mythology as the bird of Apollo, and in Scandinavian lore the swan maidens, who have the gift of prophecy and are sometimes confused with the Valkyries, reappear again and again.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.