Traill professes to hold the scales equally.
Often the bones, teeth and scales of fishes are to FIG.
In the spruce firs (Picea), the cones are pendent when mature and their scales persistent; the leaves are arranged all round the shoots, though the lower ones are sometimes directed laterally.
It is almost made up of fragments of spines, teeth and scales of ganoid fish.
The scales of the images formed in the focus of the eyepiece common to both microscopes shall be identical.
The cones, about the size of a small walnut, bear spirally arranged imbricated scales which subtend the three-angled winged seeds.
The wings in nearly all species have a dappled or speckled appearance, owing to the occurrence of blotches on the front margin and to the arrangement of the scales covering the veins in alternating light and dark patches (Austen).
So he nudged the scales back in the right direction, sometimes pushing evil, sometimes good, sometimes pissing off both.
The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.
The heads of the dragonettes were as big as barrels and covered with hard, greenish scales that glittered brightly under the light of the lanterns.
The scales showed seven pounds less, he was eating baskets of fruit and goody-goody health food, plus he'd laid off the booze completely.
His agenda was one born of experience: if the scales between the White and Black Gods tipped too far one way, life was bad.
The male scales differ in form from the female; the adult male is winged, and is rarely seen.
But suddenly a storm came on, chromatic scales and diminished sevenths were heard in the orchestra, everyone ran off, again dragging one of their number away, and the curtain dropped.
Their cones are composed of thin, rounded, closely imbricated scales, each with a more or less conspicuous bract springing from the base.
Their absolute freedom from diffraction, the perfect control of the illumination and thickness of the lines, and the accuracy with which it will be possible to construct scales for zone observations will be important features of the new method.
Its fundamental principle is that, by a combination of glass scales with a micrometer screw, " the chief part of the distance to be measured is read off on the scale; the fractional part of the scalespace is not estimated but measured by the screw."
Outside this are three arcs of large cells showing characters typical of the endodermis in a vascular plan.t; these are interrupted by strands ofnarrow, elongated, thick-walled cells, which send branches into the little brown scales borne by the rhizome.
Stumps thirty or forty years old, at least, will still be sound at the core, though the sapwood has all become vegetable mould, as appears by the scales of the thick bark forming a ring level with the earth four or five inches distant from the heart.
The scales of its cones are winged, and have a hook at the apex.
The bone-bed of Axmouth in Devonshire and Westbury and Aust in Gloucestershire, in the Penarth or Rhaetic series of strata, contains the scales, teeth and bones of saurians and fishes, together with abundance of coprolites; but neither there nor at Lyme Regis is there a sufficient quantity of phosphatic material to render the working of it for agricultural purposes remunerative.
In central Europe it thrives best in enclosed, preserved waters, with a clayey or muddy bottom and with an abundant vegetation; it avoids clear waters with stony ground, and is altogether absent from rapid streams. The tench is distinguished by its very small scales, which are deeply imbedded in a thick skin, whose surface is as slippery as that of an eel.
The model " form of regulation " lays down the scales of the drawings and the information to be shown thereon.
These scales breed very rapidly; Howard states one may give rise to a progeny of 3,216,080,400 in one year.
If the reading for coincidence of the movable with the fixed webs is known, we then obtain from the single reading of S the difference from coincidence of the divisions of the two scales.
The elongated cylindrical cones grow chiefly at the ends of the upper branches; they are purplish at first, but become afterwards green, and eventually light brown; their scales are slightly toothed at the extremity; they ripen in the autumn, but seldom discharge their seeds until the following spring.
The cones, produced in great abundance, are short and oval in shape, the scales with rugged indented edges; they are deep purple when young, but become brown as they ripen.
The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.
The yew-like leaves spread laterally, and are of a deep green tint; the cones are furnished with tridentate bracts that project far beyond the scales.
The large cones stand erect on the branches, are cylindrical in shape, and have long bracts, the curved points of which project beyond the scales.
Wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, covered with flattened scales.
colias, which is distinguished by a somewhat different pattern of coloration, the transverse black bands of the common mackerel being in this species narrower, more irregular or partly broken up into spots, while the scales of the pectoral region are larger, and the snout is longer and more pointed.
Such instruments can be made to have equidivisional scales and to read from zero upwards.
She is usually represented with a pair of scales and a crown of stars.
to introduce two scales of latitude on his map of the northern Atlantic (1504; fig.
to a mile (1: 10,560), it was determined in 1840, after the whole of England and Wales, with the exception of Lancashire and Yorkshire, had been completed on one-inch scales, to adopt that scale for the whole of the United Kingdom.
Finally, in 1854, a cadastral survey of the whole of the United Kingdom, only excepting uncultivated districts, was resolved upon, on a scale of 1: 2500, still larger scales (1: 500 or 1: 1000) being adopted for town plans.
The surveys are made on scales varying according to the necessities of the case or the nature of the country, and they have been extended since 1862 beyond the boundaries of India proper.
The surveys are made on the scales of 1: 4000, 1:31,680 and 1:63,360.
The geographical section of the British general staff is publishing maps of all Africa on scales of i: 250,000 and i: 1,000,000.
Algeria has been in course of survey since 1868, Tunis since 1878, and the results have been published on scales of I :50,000 and 1:250,000.
As regards British East Africa and Uganda, the surveys in the latter (on scales of i:io,000 and 1:125,000) have made considerable progress.
Of Italian Eritrea we have excellent maps on various scales of i :ioo,000, 1:200,000 and 1:500,000, based upon surveys made between 1888 and 1900.
There are likewise maps on smaller scales, which undergo frequent revision.
The surveyor-general issues also " sectional maps " (1:190,000 and 1:40,000) and so-called " Standard " topographical maps for the thinly peopled west, on scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,000.
The intelligence branch of the Canadian department of military defence is publishing since 1904 topographical maps on scales of 1:63,366 and 1:126,730, with contours.
The scales around the throat of the corolla protect the pollen and honey from wet or undesirable visitors, and by their difference in colour from the corolla-lobes, as in the yellow eye of forget-me-not, may serve to indicate the position of the honey.
Thus in the theory of masses we must know that two pounds of lead when put together will counterbalance in the scales two pounds of sugar, or a pound of lead and a pound of sugar.
He moderated the lord-deputy's policy of deporting the Irish, and unlike him he paid some attention to the interests of the English settlers; moreover, again unlike Fleetwood, he appears to have held the scales evenly between the different Protestant sects, and his undoubted popularity in Ireland is attested by Clarendon.
Gelatin occurs also in the cornea and the sclerotic coat of the eye; and in fish scales, the latter containing 80% of collagen, and 20% of ichthylepidin, a substance differing from gelatin in giving a wellmarked Millon's reaction.
Quint's Historical Memoranda of Persons and Places in Old Dover, N.H., edited by John Scales (Dover, 1900).
They all crystallize in the monoclinic system, often, however, in forms closely resembling those of the rhombohedral or orthorhombic systems. Crystals have usually the form of hexagonal or rhomb-shaped scales, plates or prisms, with plane FIG.
The liquid litharge when allowed to cool solidifies into a hard stone-like mass, which, however, when left to itself, soon crumbles up into a heap of resplendent dark yellow scales known as "flake litharge."
h, h, Brown scales covering it.
of the Old World; it has a short creeping rhizome, from which springs a slender, herbaceous or woody, often very much branched, erect or climbing stem, the ultimate branches of which are flattened or needle-like leaf-like structures (cladodes), the true leaves being reduced to scales or, in the climbers, forming short, hard more or less recurved spines.
(iii.) Scales of Notation lead, by considering, e.g., how to express in the scale of to a number whose expression in the scale of 8 is 2222222, to (iv.) Geometrical Progressions.
These scales were not, as is vulgarly supposed, wholly abolished in favour of our modern tonality in the 17th century.
The chief of them, written against Calvinism, are Five Checks to Antinomianism, Scripture Scales to weigh the Gold of Gospel Truth, and the Portrait of St Paul.
Sericite in the form of scales and films characterizes those portions which have been faulted, squeezed or sheared.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
The best known of the Venezuelan railways is the short line from La Guaira to Caracas (224 m.), which scales the steep sides of the mountain behind La Guaira and reaches an elevation of 3135 ft.
The latter bitterly offended the Londoners, who, finding that they could turn the scales to either side, named the Commune as the price of their support of John.
00 2 H 5, is obtained in the form of pearly scales when carbon dioxide is passed into an alcoholic solution of potassium ethylate, C02+KOC2H5 = KO CO.
When Filippo Strozzi, and above Second all his wife, threw their influence in the scales against expulsion the Medici, and the magistrates declared for their ex of the pulsion from power, Passerini, Ippolito and Alessandro Medici left Florence (17th of May 1527).
(2) The presence of variously formed scales on the body and its appendages: the head is clothed with scales, the thorax with hairs or scales, and the abdomen with either hairs or scales, or both; the legs and veins of the wings are always covered with scales, and the palpi are often (as in some Anophelinae) conspicuously scaly.
In dividing the Culicidae into genera reliance is placed chiefly upon characters derived from the scales on the three divisions of the body and on the wings.
The latter again are divided into Metanopsilae (in which the metanotum or posterior region of the thorax is bare) and Metanotrichae (in which the metanoturn is clothed with bristles or scales).
The old genus Anopheles (characterized by the palpi being long in both sexes) is now divided into a number of genera according to the character and shape of the scales on the different regions of the body and on the wings.
1, p. 25) obtained a purer product by heating the chloride with sodium in a steel cylinder; it then formed yellow scales.
H 2 O, forms white, shining, monoclinic scales.
Titanium trichloride, TiC131 forms involatile, dark violet scales, and is obtained by passing the vapour of the tetrachloride mixed with hydrogen through a red-hot tube, or by heating the tetrachloride with molecular silver to 200°.
The scales are close pressed to one another and are reddish in colour.
The veining of a cherry petal, for example, the tessellation of a carps scales, the serration of a leafs edgeall these lines remain intact, spared by the cutters tool, while the leaf itself, or the petal, or the scales of the fish, have the threads forming them cut so as to show the velvet nap and to appear in soft, low relief.
building (1885); the Saint Johnsbury Academy (1842); the Saint Johnsbury Athenaeum (1871), with a library (about 18,000 volumes in 1909) and an art gallery; the Fairbanks Museum of Natural Science (1891), founded by Colonel Franklin Fairbanks; St Johnsbury Hospital (1895) Brightlook Hospital (1899, private); the large scales manufactory of the E.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
More detail concerning skull, scales and teeth will be found in the diagnostic descriptions of the various families (vide infra); for further anatomical information the reader is referred to the article Reptiles (Anatomy).
They have a cylindrical rigid body, covered with generally smooth and polished scales; a short strong tail; a short rounded or pointed head with narrow mouth; teeth few in number; small or rudimentary eyes; no abdominal scutes or only narrow ones.
Their body is cylindrical, flexible in every part, covered with smooth or keeled scales, and provided with broad ventral and subcaudal scutes.
Their body is covered with small scales and the ventral scutes are mostly narrow; the tail tapering; head flat, rather short; and the eyes of small size.
The scales are sometimes rounded behind, but generally rhombic in shape and more or less elongate; they may be quite smooth or provided with a longitudinal ridge or keel in the middle line.
Eyes vestigial or hidden; lower jaw toothless; without enlarged ventral scales: Typhlopidae.
Eyes vestigial; teeth restricted to the lower jaw; without en- larged ventral scales: Glauconiidae.
Eyes very small; head not distinct; teeth in the upper and lower jaws; ventral scales scarcely enlarged; tail extremely short, ending obtusely and covered with peculiar scales: Uropettidae.
Ventral scales scarcely enlarged: Ilysiidae.
Ventral scales transversely enlarged: Boidae.
Eyes free; with a pair of poison-fangs in the front part of the mouth, carried by the otherwise toothless, much shortened, and vertically erectile maxillaries; ventral scales transversely enlarged: Viperidae.
- Burrowing snakes, mostly small, which have the body covered with smooth, shiny, uniform cycloid scales The teeth are restricted to the small maxillary bones.
The scales of the long, cylindrical body are smooth and small, scarcely enlarged on the ventral side.
- Three between the scales on either side of the vent, Views of Head of as in the Boidae.
The scales of the body are smooth and are but little larger on the belly.
The scales of the upper surface are usually small and smooth, while those of the belly form one broad series.
The subcaudal scales are mostly in two rows.
The subcaudal scales form mostly a single row.
Casarca dussumieri, differing from Boa chiefly by the rough and strongly-keeled scales, is confined to Round Island near Mauritius.
The smooth, black and brown scales of the back are highly iridescent, hence the generic name of this peculiar snake, which reaches the length of one yard.
Some of the usual characters employed for systematic purposes, for the making of convenient keys, are the following: The number of rows of scales across the body and in a longitudinal direction; shape and structure of scales, whether smooth or with a longitudinal keel; arrangement of the shields on the head; shape of the contracted pupil.
Chersydrus ranges from Madras to New Guinea; the body and tail are laterally compressed and form a ventral fold which is covered with tiny scales like the rest of the body.
Its coloration varies from pale golden brown to black; the scales are smooth and shiny.
Coelopeltis, with concave, or grooved scales; C. lacertina s.
But its scales are keeled and its form is more robust.
Good descriptions and figures of all these snakes are given in Krefft's Snakes of Australia (Sydney, 1869, t 40 Several genera of the Elapinae lead a more or less burrowing life; their body is of a uniform cylindrical shape, terminating in a short tail, and covered with short polished scales; their head is short, the mouth rather narrow, and the eye small.
The scales are very small, often very much reduced, and there are frequently no enlarged ventrals on the compressed belly, but Platurus has broad ventrals.
Lachesis has the upper surface of the head covered with very small shields, or with scales, and contains about 40 species, in S.
Except in the larger nuggets, which may be more or less angular, or at times even masses of crystals, with or without associated quartz or other rock, gold is generally found bean-shaped or in some other flattened form, the smallest particles being scales of scarcely appreciable thickness, which, from their small bulk as compared with their surface, subside very slowly when suspended in water, and are therefore readily carried away by a rapid current.
There are no scales developed on any part of the body, but a series of hard and large scutes protects a greater or lesser portion of the sides.
At their base they are provided with stipules, which are also modified to form the scales investing the winter buds.
o% over the value of the factory products in 1900; among its manufactures are tobacco, cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff (value in 1905, $2,879,217), patent medicines (value in 1905, $2,133,198), flour and grist mill products ($1,089,910), men's clothing ($ 8 33, 8 35), and, of less importance, commercial and computing scales and time recorders, chemicals, distilled liquor, beer, fire-alarm apparatus, overalls, agricultural implements, wagons, electrical apparatus, refined oil, sheet metal, paper bags and envelopes, tacks and nails, window glass, glass-ware, clocks, whips and furniture (especially Morris chairs).
Nataloin, 2C17H1807ï¿½H20, forms bright yellow scales, melting at 212°-222°; barbaloin, C 17 H 18 0 7, forms yellow prismatic crystals.
The stems are in most cases leafless, using the term in a popular sense; the leaves, if present at all, being generally reduced to minute scales.
In one group, represented by Cereus, they consist of a tube, more or less elongated, on the outer surface of which, towards the base, are developed small and at first inconspicuous scales, which gradually 0000 FIG.
a, Scale from beneath showing female and eggs; b, from above, magnified 24 times; c and e, female and male scales on twigs, natural size; d, male scale magnified 12 times.
focus, would correspond with 2" of arc. But, after all, this is no practical difficulty, for screws can be used to separate the lenses, and, by these screws, as in a Gascoigne micrometer, the separation of the lenses can be measured; or we can have scales for this purpose, read by microscopes, like the Troughton 1 circles of Piazzi or Pond, or those of the Carey circle, with almost any required accuracy.
The reading micrometers e, f also serve to measure, independently, the separation of the segments, by scales attached to the slides; such measurements can be employed as a check on those made by the screws.
Thus the simple connexion of the two screws by cogwheels to give them automatic opposite motion is not an available method unless the separation of the segments is independently measured by scales.
They provided a splendid, rigidly mounted, equatorial stand, fitted with every luxury in the way of slow motion, and scales for measuring the displacement of the segments were read by powerful micrometers from the eye-end.
4 The illumination of these scales is interesting as being the first application of electricity to the illumination of astronomical instruments.
means of measuring the focal point were provided; symmetrical motion was given to the slides; scales on each slide were provided instead of screws for measuring the separation of the segments, and both scales were read by the same micrometer microscope; a metallic thermometer was added to determine the temperature of the scales.
a is the eye-piece fixed in the optical axis, b the micrometer for reading both scales.
The scales are at n, n; they are fastened only at the middle, and are kept down by the brass pieces t, t.
The circles for position angle and declination are read by micrometer-microscopes illuminated by the lamp L; the scales are illuminated by the lamp 1.
a is the eye-piece, b the handle for moving the segments, c the micrometer microscope for reading the scales and scale micrometer, d the micrometer readers of the position and declination circles, e the handle for rotating the large wheel E which carries the screens.
Elkin found that the chief drawbacks to speed and convenience in working this heliometer were: (I) The loss of time involved in entering the corresponding readings of the micrometer pointings on two scales.
Accordingly, in reading the scales A and B (attached to the slides which carry the two halves of the object-glass), it is only necessary to turn the screws until the fixed 1 The primary object was to have the object-glass mounted in steel cells, which more nearly correspond in expansion with glass.
Thus the scales, the positionand declination-circles, the field of view, the heads of all the micrometer-microscopes, the focusing scale, &c., are read without the aid of a hand-lamp and with an amount of illumination that can be regulated at the observer's pleasure.
(d) The scales are made of iridio-platinum instead of silver, and the magnifying power of the reading microscope is increased fourfold (viz.
A special microscope is introduced for determining the division errors of the scales.
105-115) to determine the division error of every line on both scales with a probable error corresponding to 0 " 0092 arc.
The reading of the positioncircle of the finder is then the reading to which the position-circle of the heliometer should be set, and from the readings of the micrometerscrew he finds, by a convenient table, the proper settings of the heliometer scales in distance.
When the scales and position-circle of the heliometer have been set to these readings, the comet and the selected comparison-star appear together in the field of view.
Other improvements were: the gun was sighted on each side, tangent scales dropping into sockets in a sighting ring on the breech, thus enabling a long scale for all ranges to be used, and the foresights screwing into holes or dropping into sockets in the trunnions, thus obviating the fouling of the line of sight, and the damage to FIG.
In the South African war improvised detachable deflection scales of wood or iron placed over the fore-sight, called gun arcs, were used, but this device was clumsy, inaccurate and insufficient, as it only gave about 30° right or left deflection, and only a sight that admitted of all-round laying could really satisfy the requirements.
The yard scales were on detachable strips, so that fresh strips could be inserted for variations in velocity.
In subsequent patterns all the deflection was given on the tangent sight, which was provided with two scales, the upper one graduated in knots for speed of ship, and the lower one in degrees.
terminal scorpioid cymes, small blue, pink or white flowers, a five-cleft persistent calyx, a salveror funnel-shaped corolla, having its mouth closed by five short scales and hard, smooth, shining nutlets.
It is not necessary here to deal generally with the various musical scales.
It is evident that for exact diatonic scales for even a limited number of key-notes, key-board instruments would have to be provided with a great number of separate strings or pipes, and the corresponding keys would be required.
If X ---- r - i the scales are so chosen i that a inch represents 1 x ' n - "--, in.
With regard to the earnings of nurses in general, the salaries paid in hospitals have already been mentioned; for private work the scales in force at different institutions vary considerably, according to the other advantages and benefits provided.
The sprat cannot be confounded with the herring, as it has no teeth on the vomer and only 47 or 48 scales in the lateral line.
Of the acid orthophosphates, the mono-calcium salt, CaH4(P04)2, may be obtained as crystalline scales, containing one molecule of water, by evaporating a solution of the normal salt in hydrochloric or nitric acid.
The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during the winter producing a new crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh.
The scales are minute and smooth.
The species are numerous, and are distinguished one from another by the scales of the bulb being woolly or smooth on the inner surface, by the character of the flower-stalks, by the filaments being hairy or otherwise, and by other characters.
The faces of slates have usually a slightly silky lustre due to the abundance of minute scales of mica all lying parallel and reflecting light simultaneously from their pearly basal planes.
In microscopic section the best slates show much colourless mica in small, thin, irregular scales.
1, One of the scales which form the coronet in the flower, enlarged.
Further, unlike diamond, it never occurs as distinctly developed crystals, but only as imperfect six-sided plates and scales.
There is a perfect cleavage parallel to the surface of the scales, and the cleavage flakes are flexible but not elastic. The material is greasy to the touch, and soils everything with which it comes into contact.
Graphite occurs mainly in the older crystalline rocks - gneiss, granulite, schist and crystalline limestone - and also sometimes in granite: it is found as isolated scales embedded in these rocks, or as large irregular masses or filling veins.
Whilst the skin is mostly soft on the back, with little granular tubercles, scales (except on the belly) are absent, but they are present in Homopholis, in Geckolepis of Madagascar, and most fully developed in Teratoscincus scincus.
This peculiar little inhabitant of the steppes and desert regions of Turkestan and Persia, by rubbing the imbricating scales upon each other, produces a shrill cricket-like noise, whilst sitting at night in front of its hole in the ground.
Their scales are mixed with larger prominent spines, which in some species are particularly developed on the tail, and disposed in whorls.
The body is uniformly covered with granular scales, whilst the short, strong tail is armed with powerful spines disposed in whorls.
Their scales are generally rough and spinous; but otherwise they possess no strikingly distinguishing peculiarity, unless the loose skin of their throat, which is transversely folded and capable of inflation, be regarded as such.
The enlarged spiny scales scattered over the back look as if it were sprinkled with the dried husks of seeds.
The eyes and ears are concealed, the limbs are entirely absent, body and tail covered with soft, imbricating scales.
- Teeth solid, almost acrodont; tongue long and narrow, deeply bifid, beset with papillae; no osteoderms; scales of the back very small or quite granular; limbs sometimes reduced.
- The body is covered with soft skin, forming numerous rings with mere vestiges of scales.
Similar osteoderms underlie the scales of the body and tail.
Tiliqua of Australia, Tasmania and Malay Islands, has stout lateral teeth with rounded-off crowns; C. gigas of the Moluccas and of New Guinea is the largest member of the family, reaching a length of nearly 2 ft.; the limbs are well developed, as in Trachysaurus rugosus of Australia, which is easily recognized by the large and rough scales and the short, broad, stump-like tail.
The vermiform body is covered with cycloid imbricating scales, devoid of osteoderms. Limbs and even their arches are absent, excepting a pair of flaps which represent the hind-limbs in the males.
- Pleurodont, snake-shaped, covered with roundish, imbricating scales.
jicari, from the Fly river, has a very snake-like appearance, with a long, pointed snout like certain treesnakes, but with an easily visible ear-opening; their eyelids are reduced to a ring which is composed of two or three rows of small scales.
The two standards, the cubic inch and the cubic decimetre, may not be strictly comparable owing to a difference in the normal temperature (Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales) of the two units of extension, the metre and the yard.
The divided plotting scales lying on the drawing boards of the statues of Gudea (Nature, xxviii.
For engineering and manufacturing purposes the more important linear gauges are, however, now used, adjusted to some fundamental unit of measure as the inch; although in certain trades, as for wires and flat metals, gauges continue to be used of arbitrary scales and of merely numerical sizes, having no reference to a legal unit of measure; and such are rarely accurate.
The artificers in gold and silver melted the metals by means of a reed-blowpipe and cast them solid or hollow, and were also skilled in hammered work and chasing, as some fine specimens remain to show, though the famous animals modelled with gold and silver, fur, feathers and scales have disappeared.
Both bear their round or ovoid male catkins at the ends of the slender terminal branchlets; the ovoid cones, either terminal or on short lateral twigs, have thick woody scales dilated at the extremity, with a broad disk depressed in the centre and usually furnished with a short spine; at the base of the scales are from three to seven ovules, which become reversed or partially so by compression, ripening into small angular seed with a narrow wing-like expansion.
long, are at first of a bluish-green colour, but when mature change to a reddish brown; the scales are very small at the base, dilating into a broad thick head, with a short curved spine below the deep transverse depression.
long, ovoid, with scales thicker at the base than those of the redwood, and bearing below the depression a slender prickle.
Like the corresponding ammeters, they have the great advantage that the scales are equidivisional and that there is no dead part in the scale, whereas both the electrostatic and electrothermal voltmeters, above described, labour under the disadvantage that the scale divisions are not equal but increase with rise of voltages, hence there is generally a portion of the scale near the zero point where the divisions are so close as to be useless for reading purposes and are therefore omitted.
The work consists solely of a list of symbols of the various scales and modes, and is probably only a fragment.
To this end an immense variety of hydrometers have been devised, differing mainly in the character of their scales.
In Speer's hydrometer the stem has the form of an octagonal prism, and upon each of the eight faces a scale is engraved, indicating the percentage strength of the spirit corresponding to the several divisions of the scale, the eight scales being adapted respectively to the temperature 35°, 40°, 45 50°, 55, 60°, 65° and 70° F.
On the four sides of the stem AD are engraved four scales corresponding respectively to the unloaded FIG.
The thermometer is also provided with four scales corresponding to the scales above mentioned.
At the side of each of the four scales on the stem of the hydrometer is en r ' graved a set of small numbers indicating the contraction in volume which would be experienced if the requisite amount of water (or spirit) were added to bring the sample tested to the proof strength The hydrometer constructed by Dicas of Liverpool is provided with a sliding scale which FIG.
The instrument is provided with a sliding rule, with scales corresponding to the several weights, which indicate the specific gravity corresponding to the several divisions of the hydrometer scale compared with water at 55° F.
The slider is also provided with scales, marked respectively Dicas and Clarke, which serve to show the readings which would have been obtained had the instruments of those makers been employed.
The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.
The yellow stamen-bearing flowers are in sessile, nearly spherical catkins; the fertile ones vary in colour, from red or purple to greenish-white, in different varieties; the erect cones, which remain long on the branches, are above an inch in length and oblong-ovate in shape, with reddish-brown scales somewhat waved on the edges, the lower bracts usually rather longer than the scales.
in length, of a roundishoblong shape; the scales are very few in number, crimson in the young state, reddish-brown when ripe; the tree much resembles the European larch in general appearance but is of more slender growth; its trunk is seldom more than 2 ft.
long, purplish or green in the immature state, and dark brown when ripe, the scales somewhat more numerous, the bracts all shorter than the scales.
The leaves are short, thicker and more rigid than in any of the other larches; the cones are much larger than those of the hackmatacks, egg-shaped or oval in outline; the scales are of a fine red in the immature state, the bracts green and extending far beyond the scales in a rigid leaf-like point.
The Anomaluridae are characterized by having rooted cheek-teeth with shallow transverse enamel-folds, the two halves of the lower jaw movably articulated in front, very small post-orbital processes to the skull, and the presence of two rows of scales on the under surface of the base of the tail (figs.
Uromys differs from Mus in having the scales of the tail not overlapping, but set edge to edge, so as to form a sort of mosaic work.
The fish is characterized by its large scales (34 to 40 in the lateral line), its long dorsal fin, the first ray of which is stiff and serrated, and the presence of two small barbels on each side of the mouth.
But it varies much in form and scaling, and some most aberrant varieties have been fixed by artificial selection, the principal being the king-carp or mirror-carp, in which the scales are enlarged and reduced in number, forming more or less regular longitudinal series on the sides, and the leather-carp, in which the scales have all but disappeared, the fish being covered with a thick, leathery skin.
Rats have, however, generally more rows of scales on the tail (reaching to 210 or more) than mice, in which the number does not exceed 180.
Trochilium apiforme, crabroniforme - present to bees and wasps is effected in the main by the loss of the scales from the wings, leaving these organs transparent.
It is important to note that the scales are present when the moths first emerge from the pupa-case, but are loosely attached and fall off with the first flight.
Microscopical examination of the wings, moreover, has shown that the transparency of the wings, common to all, has been acquired by a different modification of the scales in each of the genera exhibiting the Ithomiine type of coloration.
size.) 1, Scales of primary thallus.
The Italian Government has published maps on scales of 1: 50,000 and 1: 100,000, the Austrian on a scale of 1: 75,000, and the Bavarian on a scale of 1: 50,000.
Diamonds are now employed not only for faceting precious stones, but also for cutting and drilling glass, porcelain, &c,; for fine engraving such as scales; in dentistry for drilling; as a turning tool for electric-light carbons, hard rubber, &c.; and occasionally for finishing accurate turning work such as the axle of a transit instrument.
Such are the scales of a bulb, and the various parts of the flower, and assuming that the structure ordinarily termed a leaf is the typical form, these other structures were designated changed or metamorphosed leaves, a somewhat misleading interpretation.
In some cases the leaves are reduced to mere scales - cataphyllary leaves; they are produced abundantly upon underground shoots.
In parasites (Lathraea, Orobanche) and in plants growing on decaying vegetable matter (saprophytes), in which no chlorophyll is formed, these scales are the only leaves produced.
In Pinus the only leaves produced on the main stern and the lateral shoots are scales, the acicular leaves of the tree growing from axillary shoots.
In Cycas whorls of scales alternate with large pinnate leaves.
35), which are composed of scales or modified leaves, the generating spiral cannot be determined easily.
These scales or protective appendages of the bud consist either of FIG.
A is with the scales or modified the very short axis to which the leaves numbered in the order leaves are attached.
The circles in the centre indicate a rectilinear series of indicate the five turns of the spiral, scales and two lateral secondand show the insertion of each of the ary spirals, one turning from leaves.
At other times they are at different levels, and are applied over each other, so as to be imbricated, as in lilac, and in the outer scales of sycamore; and occasionally the margin of one leaf overlaps that of another, while it in its turn is overlapped by a third, so as to be twisted, spiral or contortive.
The scales of a bud sometimes exhibit one kind of vernation and the leaves another.
From the absence of scales it was held by the Jews to be unclean, and some commentators suppose it to be the serpent of Matt.
They are more or less elongate in form, often eel-shaped, and naked or covered with minute scales.
Estimates of the intensity of the light have been based on various arbitrary scales, such for instance as the size of type which the observer can read at a given distance.
In other cases scales have been employed which make the result mainly depend on the brightest part of the display.
The bulb, which is the only part eaten, has membranous scales, in the axils of which are io or 12 cloves, or snialler bulbs.
The scutes or dermal portions of the scales are more or less ossified, especially on the back, and form the characteristic dermal armour.
Fish are plentiful in the Nile, both scaled and without scales.
A somewhat rare fish is the Polypterus, which has thick bony scales and 16 to 18 long dorsal fins.
Cuirasses of bronze scales were worn by the kings and other leaders.
Every organism is an individual, its different parts, organs and functions being associated in a degree of intimacy that varies, but that corresponds roughly with the integration of the individual and its place in the ascending scales of animal or vegetable life.
The simplest of such repeated elements are the cells of the tissues, more complex are cell-aggregates, from hairs, scales, teeth and the like, up to limbs or metameres in animals, or the .00 '00 leaves and their homologues in plants.
opposite to its lobes; this anomalous position is generally explained by assuming that an outer whorl of stamens opposite the sepals has disappeared, though sometimes represented by scales as in Samolus and Soldanella.
- Under Side of Worker, carrying Wax Scales (magnified three times).
thick, with a small head, covered on the forepart with large smooth scales; it is of a pale brown colour above, and the belly is of a bluish-white tinged with pale brown or yellow.
The telescope is now turned on the horizontal axis till the levels read near the centres of these scales and the telescope is clamped to the arm f.
It readily sublimes when heated in a current of chlorine, forming golden yellow scales.
inserted between the scales or into the pome, but on opening the mouth still more widely, the lateral motion of the mandible is once more brought to bear with great force to wrench aside the portion of the fruit attacked, and then the action of the tongue completes the operation, which is so rapidly performed as to defy scrutiny, except on very close inspection.
2KF WO 2 F 2 H 2 O, is obtained as crystalline scales by dissolving normal potassium tungstate in hydrofluoric acid and adding potassium hydroxide till a permanent precipitate is just formed.
The di-iodide is obtained as green metallic scales on passing iodine over red-hot tungsten.
- Catkin of Hazel (Corylus Avellana), consisting of an axis covered with bracts in the form of scales, each of which covers a male flower, the stamens of which are seen projecting beyond the scale.
It may be noticed that if the scales of x and be properly adjusted, the curve of positions in the present problem is the portion of a cycloid extending from a vertex to a cusp.
mechanism; so that, if b is guided in any curve, the point a will describe a similar curve turned through an angle baa, the scales of the curves being in the ratio ab to cc. Sylvester called an instrument based on this property aplagiograph or a skew pantograph.
These several images are not to the same scale, so that although the images may be considered to form collectively an image of the chain itself, the several members of this chain-image are to different scales in any one velocity diagram, and thus the chainimage is distorted from the actual proportions of the mechanism which it represents.
Many Aptera are covered with flattened scales like those of moths.
Questions of railways, of franchises, union scales and the recognition of the union in contracts, questions of sheep and cattle interests, politics, civic, legal and industrial questions, all entered into the economic troubles of these years.
the Jews are forbidden to eat animals other than cloven-footed ruminants; thus the camel, coney, hare and swine were forbidden; so also any water organisms that had not fins and scales, and a large choice of birds, including swan, pelican, stork, heron and hoopoe.
The energetic intervention of Bathory, however, speedily turned the scales in the opposite direction.
The numerous male catkins are generally arranged in dense whorls around the bases of the young shoots; the anther-scales, surmounted by a crest-like appendage, shed their abundant pollen by longitudinal slits; the two ovules at the base of the inner side of each fertile cone-scale develop into a pair of winged seeds, which drop from the opening scales when mature - as in the allied genera.
long, of a light shining brown hue, with thick scales terminating in a pyramidal apex; they are arranged around the branches in the radiating clusters that give name to the tree.
in diameter; the short dark-green leaves are in thick tufts, contrasting with the pale yellowish, usually clustered cones, the scales of which are furnished with small curved spines.
high, having sometimes a girth of 6 or 8 ft., with a broad spreading head; the leaves are rather long and of a light green tint, the cones generally in pairs, the scales terminating in a sharp incurved prickle.
in diameter, and weighing more than 4 lb); the scales end in long hooked points curving upwards; the leaves are long, rigid, and glaucous in hue.
in diameter, also with hooked scales; the large nut-like seeds are eaten by the Indians; the tree is one of the largest of the section, sometimes attaining a height of 120 ft.
P. longifolia, a Himalayan species, is remarkable for the great length of its lax slender leaves, of a grass-green tint; the cones have the points of the scales recurved.
long; in the earlier stages of growth it has a pyramidal form, in open glades the lower boughs often touching the ground, but in old age it acquires a wide almost cedar-like top. The light bluish-green foliage is somewhat lax, very dense in young trees; the cones are long and rather curved, with thin smooth scales a little thickened at the apex, and generally more or less covered with exuding white resin; they are about 5 or 6 in.
The so-called fir-cone potatoes, which are elongated and provided with scales at more or less regular intervals, show also very clearly that the tuber is only a thickened branch with "eyes" set in regular order, as in an ordinary shoot.
Boiling alcohol extracts from the root a neutral substance in the form of crystalline prisms, which crystallize in scales from boiling water.
These again have been connected by links of more or less regularity, so that, if the Baluchistan triangulation lacks the rigid accuracy of a " first class " system, it at least supports good topography on geographical scales.
It has roundish cones, with numerous scales and wingless seeds.
Atropos is most frequently represented with scales, a sun-dial or a cutting instrument, the "abhorred shears," with which she slits the thin-spun thread of life that has been placed on the spindle by Clotho and drawn off by Lachesis.
This consisted of a paf3Sos or bronze rod; a 7rM6aTcy, a small disk or basin, resembling a scale-pan; a larger disk (XEKavis); and (in 1 The epithet Kara&ros (let down) may refer to the rod, which might be' raised or lowered as required; to the lower disk, which might be moved up and down the stem; to the moving up and down of the scales, in the supposed variety of the game mentioned below.
lancella, a little balance), a balance formerly used in England; now, in dialectical use, a term for the weighing of meat by hand instead of by scales.
Specular iron ore occurs in the form of brilliant metallic scales on many lavas, as at Vesuvius and Etna, in the Auvergne and the Eifel, and notably in the Island of Ascension, where the mineral forms beautiful tabular crystals.
Micaceous iron ore consists of delicate steel-grey scales of specular haematite, unctuous to the touch, used as a lubricant and also as a pigment.
The narrow, pointed leaves are spirally arranged and persist for four or five years; the cones are small, globose and borne at the ends of the branchlets, the scales are thickened at the extremity and divided into sharply pointed lobes, three to five seeds are borne on each scale.
being due to the presence of microscopic scales.
But manlier counsels prevailed, the struggle was resumed, and after the bloody victory of Puck (September 17, 1462) the scales of fortune inclined decisively to the side of Poland.
long creeping or subterranean rhizomes, with elongated internodes and sheathing scales; the widely-creeping, slender rhizomes in Marram-grass (Psamma), Agropyrum junceum, Ely7nus arenarius, and other sand-loving plants render them useful as sand-binders.
The perianth is represented by very rudimentary, small, fleshy scales arising below the ovary, called lodicules; they are elongated FIG.
Anthony, who was knighted before he became of age, and fought at Towton in 1461, married the daughter of Lord Scales, and became a peer jure uxoris in 1462, two years after the death of that nobleman.
Decade after decade these processes went on, a rain of minute scales and grains falling, according to one witness, continually from the surface, till the picture seemed to be perishing altogether.
The ghost has now been brought back to much of true life again by the skill of the most scrupulous of all restorers, Cavaliere Cavenaghi, who, acting under the authority of a competent commission, and after long and patient experiment, found it possible to secure to the wall the innumerable blistered, mildewed and half-detached flakes and scales of the original work that yet remained, to clear the surface thus obtained of much of the obliterating accretions due to decay and mishandling, and to bring the whole to unity by touching tenderly in with tempera the spots and spaces actually left bare.
Steel plates and shapes, when delivered from the rolls which form them to the cooling beds, are largely covered with scales, which, adhering only partially to the surface, offer the intervening cracks or joints as vulnerable points for rust.
This period of open-air exposure allows the process of rust to start under the scales.
The various genera are distinguished from one another by the shape and manner of attachment of the pinnae, the form of the carpellary scales, and to some extent by anatomical characters.
- Large cones; the carpellary scales terminate in a peltate distal expansion.
A feature of interest in connexion with the phylogeny of cycads is the presence of long hairs clothing the scale-leaves, and forming a cap on the summit of the stem-apex or attached to the bases of petioles; on some fossil cycadean plants these outgrowths have the form of scales, and are identical in structure with the ramenta (paleae) of the majority of ferns.
In structure a cycadean sporangium recalls those of certain ferns (Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae and Schizaeaceae), but in the development of the spores there are certain peculiarities not met with among the Vascular Cryptogams. With the exception of Cycas, the female flowers are also in the form of cones, bearing numerous carpellary scales.
The axis of the cone bears numerous spirally disposed flat scales (cone-scales), each of which, if examined in a young cone, is found to be double, and to consist of a lower and an upper portion.
Abies pectinata, &c.) the ripe cone differs from those of Pinus, Picea and Cedrus in the large size of the carpellary scales, which project as conspicuous thin appendages beyond the distal margins of the broader and more woody seminiferous scales; the long carpellary scale is a prominent feature also in the cone of the Douglas pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii).
Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.
The Cupressineae have cones composed of a few scales arranged in alternate whorls; each scale bears two or more seeds, and shows no external sign of being composed of two distinct portions.
In the junipers the scales become fleshy as the seeds ripen, and the individual scales fuse together in the form of a berry.
The female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in Microcachrys (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially invested by an arillus; in Dacrydium the carpellary leaves are very similar to the foliage leaves - each bears one ovule with two integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus.
In Araucaria Cookii and some allied species each scale has a small pointed projection from its upper face near the distal end, the scales of Cunninghamia (China) are characterized by a somewhat ragged membranous projection extending across the upper face between the seeds and the distal end of the scale; in the scales of Athrotaxis (Tasmania) a prominent rounded ridge occupies a corresponding position.
The occurrence of buds in the axils of carpellary scales may, however, simply mean that buds, which are (C and D after Worsdell.) FIG.
16), in which the lower part bears stamens and the upper portion carpellary and seminiferous scales.
An interesting case has been figured by Masters, in which scales of a cone of Cupressus Lawsoniana bear ovules on the upper surface and stamens on the lower face.
Pinus and Picea) - in which the cone-scales persist for some time after the seeds are ripe - the cones hang down and so facilitate the fall of the seeds; in Cedrus, Araucaria and Abies the scales become detached and fall with the seeds, leaving the bare vertical axis of the cone on the tree.
The typical forms belonging to this family are distinguished by the large dewlap or pouch situated beneath the head and neck, and by the crest, composed of slender elongated scales, which extends in gradually diminishing height from the nape of the neck to the extremity of the tail.
The theory of the scale-beam is stated by Weisbach in his Mechanics of Machinery and Engineering, as follows - In fig I D is the fulcrum of the balance, S the centre of gravity of the beam alone without the scales, chains or weights; A and B the points of suspension of the chains.
If the length of the arms AC =BC =/,CD =a,SD=s, the angle of deviation of ° Z the balance from the horizontal =4), the weight of the beam alone G, the weight on one side = P, that on the other = P +Z, and lastly the weight of each scale with its appurtenances = Q then Zl tan:473 - 12 (P+Q)+Z la+G sj From this it is inferred that the deviation, and therefore the sensitive - ness, of the balance increases with the length of the beam, and de - creases as the distances, a and s, increase; also, that a heavy balance is, ceteris paribus, less sensitive than a light one, and that the sensitive - ness decreases continually the greater the weight put upon the scales.
fulcrum knife-edge, and X, Y the knife-edges on which the scales are hung.
The addition of weights in the scales will have the effect of raising the point H till it gets above Z, and the balance, becoming unstable, will turn till it is brought up by a stop of some kind.
The two outer arcs of the chart are occupied by the scales for the weight of the goods in lb and oz., and the rest of the chart is occupied by a series of 25 concentric arcs which show the money values of the goods for 25 rates per lb.
Scales of Notation 2.5 17.
The diversity of scales appears to be due mainly to four causes: (i) the tendency to group into scores (§ 20); (ii) the tendency to subdivide into twelve; (iii) the tendency to subdivide into two or four, with repetitions, making subdivision into sixteen or sixty-four; and (iv) the independent adoption of different units for measuring the same kind of magnitude.
From these data a temperature as measured on one scale can be expressed on either of the other two scales.
And it is pointed out that during the years of the cardinals ascendancy the alliance of England was sought in turn by the great princes of the continent, and proved the make-weight in the scales.
The male flowers are developed at the ends of short lateral branches, are rounded or oblong in form, and consist of several antheriferous scales in two or three rows, each scale bearing three or six almost spherical pollen-sacs on its under side.
The female flower is a small bud-like cone situated at the apex of a small branch, and consists of two or three whorls of two or three scales.
The scales of the upper or middle series each bear one or two erect ovules.
The mature cone is fleshy, with the succulent scales fused together and forming the fruit-like structure known to the older botanists as the galbulus, or berry of the juniper.
Black scales, which dissolve in water to form a red solution, are obtained by adding a trace of hydrochloric acid to a solution of basic ferric nitrate which has been heated to 100° for three days.
Ferrous chloride, FeC1 21 is obtained as shining scales by passing chlorine, or, better, hydrochloric acid gas, over red-hot iron, or by reducing ferric chloride in a current of hydrogen.
The scale preparations of iron, so called because they are dried to form scales, are three in number, the base of all being ferric hydrate: (a) Ferrum tartaratum, dark red scales, soluble in water.
(b) Ferri et quininae citratis, greenish yellow scales soluble in water.
(c) Ferri et ammonii citratis, red scales soluble in water, from which is prepared.
Gunter's Line, a logarithmic line, usually laid down upon scales, sectors, &c. It is also called the line of lines and the line of numbers, being only the logarithms graduated upon a ruler, which therefore serves to solve problems instrumentally in the same manner as logarithms do arithmetically.
Within the pale are two minute, ovate, pointed, white membranous scales called "lodicules."
The body is compressed and deep (more so than in the bream) and the scales are minute.
Metavanadic acid is obtained in the form of yellow scales by boiling copper vanadate with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide.
The head is covered with small scales, only one of the preoculars being enlarged.
Female flowers arranged, two to three together on scale-like structures formed by the union of bracts, in catkins; ovary two-celled; fruit small, flattened, protected between the ripened scales of the catkin.
There was no native coinage, the French 5-franc piece or dollar being the standard, and all sums under that amount were obtained by cutting up those coins into all shapes and sizes, which were weighed with small weights and scales into halves, quarters, eighths, twelfths and twenty-fourths of a dollar, and even reckoned down to the seven hundred and twentieth fraction of the same amount.
As the country districts could yield nothing more, it became necessary to demand money from the Parisians and from the citizens of the various towns, and to search out and furbish up old disused edictsedicts as to measures and scales of pricesat the very moment when the luxury and corruption of the parvenus was insulting the poverty and suffering of the people, and exasperating all those officials who took their functions seriously.
Fish scales and teeth, with bones and footprints of the Labyrinthodon, are met with in the sandstone.
south of Gainsborough, with a thin bone-bed full of fish teeth and scales.
The cuticle which covers the body is here and there raised into overlapping scales which may be prolonged into bristles.
An enlarged, frontal scale may cover the head, and a row of scales separates the ventral ciliated areas from one another, whilst two series of alternating rows cover the back and side.
As the errors in the graduation of the objective micrometer are also magnified, very exact scales are necessary.
glass plate bears two scales, over which two black thin metal plates bent back at right angles may be moved.
The comparison of the two scales gives directly the magnification.
They are sometimes mere scales or threads, and at other times are undeveloped, giving rise to the ebracteate inflorescence of Cruciferae and some Boraginaceae.
Thus, the cones of firs and the stroboli of the hop are composed of a series of spirally arranged bracts covering fertile flowers; and the scales on the fruit of the pine-apple are of the same nature.
In the artichoke the outer imbricated scales or bracts are in this condition, and it is from the membranous white scales or bracts (paleae) forming the choke attached to the edible receptacle that the flowers are produced.
A lengthening of the axis of the female strobilus of Coniferae is not of infrequent occurrence in Cryptomeria japonica, larch (Larix europaea), &c., and this is usually associated with a leaf-like condition of the bracts, and sometimes even with the development of leaf-bearing shoots in place of the scales.
14), or branching as in palms. A spike bearing female flowers only, and covered with scales, is a strobilus, as in the hop. In grasses FIG.
- Corymb of Cerasus Mahaleb, terminating an abortive branch, at the base of which are modified leaves in the form of scales, e.
- Amentum or catkin of Hazel (CorylusAvellana), consisting of an axis or rachis covered with bracts in the form of scales, each of which covers a male flower, the stamens of which are seen projecting beyond the scale.
In unisexual flowers it is not uncommon to find vestiges of the undeveloped stamens in the form of filiform bodies or scales.
Of this nature are the scales on the petals in Lychnis, Silene and Cynoglossum, which are formed in the same way as the ligules of grasses.
In other cases, as in Samolus, the scales are alternate with the petals, and may represent altered stamens.
Hairs, scales, teeth or processes of different kinds are some times developed on the filament.
It presents great varieties of form, such as a ring, scales, glands, hairs, petaloid appendages, &c., and in the progress of growth it often contains saccharine matter, thus becoming truly nectariferous.
In Gesneraceae and Cruciferae the disk consists of toothlike scales at the base of the stamens.
In Cycas the altered leaf, upon the margin of which the ovule is produced, and the peltate scales, from which they are pendulous in Zamia, are regarded by all botanists as carpellary leaves.
Cycads, but the ramenta, instead of having the form of long unicellular hairs like those on the petioles and bud-scales of existing species are exactly like the paleae or ramental scales characteristic of the majority of ferns.
Some examples of Jurassic Cycadean stems from Wyoming are characterized by an unusually [rich development of ramental scales; the ramenta from the old leaf-bases form an almost complete covering over the surface of the trunk.
It has been suggested by some authors that the almost complete investment of the small Bennettites seeds by the surrounding swollen ends of the interseminal scales (fig.
We have a combination in the same flower of stalked ovules, the structure of which has already been described, and interseminal scales constituting a complex gynoecium, which exhibits in certain features an approach to the angiospermous type, and differs in structure from other Gymnosperm flowers, associated with male organs constructed on a plan almost identical with that.
This fact suggests the possibility that the flowers described by Mr Wieland, in which the male organs are mature and the gynoecium is composed of very short and immature ovuliferous stalks and interseminal scales, are not essentially distinct from those which have lost the staminate leaves FIG.
7, Bennettites, female flower in longitudinal section; f, apex of peduncle; g, bracts (shown in surface view in 4); h, seeds and seminiferous pedicels; i, interseminal scales.
Many of the small female flowers borne on shoots with foliage of the Cupressus type consist of spirally disposed and not verticillate scales, e.g.
The important industries are the manufacture of scales and of other instruments of precision, and printing and publishing - the Knickerbocker Press of G.
A parietal foramen; scales or bony scutes frequently present, especially on the ventral region, which is further protected by three large bony plates - interclavicle and clavicles, the latter in addition to cleithra.
If the absence of limbs and the reduction of the tail were the only characteristic of the group, there would be, of course, no objection to unite the Caecilians with the Urodeles; but, to say nothing of the scales, present in many genera of Apodals and absent in all Caudates, which have been shown by H.
- In all recent batrachians, the skin is naked, or if small scales are present, as in many of the Apoda, they are concealed in the skin.
The extinct Stegocephalia, on the other hand, were mostly protected, on the ventral surface at least, by an armour of overlapping round, oval, or rhomboidal scales, often very similar to those of Crossopterygian or ganoid fishes, and likewise disposed in transverse oblique lines converging forwards on the middle line of the belly.
Sometimes these scales assumed the importance of scutes and formed a carapace, as in the "batrachian armadillo" discovered by E.
These may form more than one-third of an ordinary shale; the greater part, however, consists of still smaller scales of other minerals (o oi mm.
It was her catch-twenty-two: she needed him alive to use him as a tool to nudge the scales.
Work was carried out at various scales, from regional reconnaissance surveys or appraisal, to the drilling of a geochemical or geophysical anomaly.
aeronautical charts; British military mapping, world-wide, at all scales.
Instead of scales, the body and tail are apparently enclosed in rows of plates, making them feel slightly angular.
annulush at age of each pike was back-calculated using annuli of individual scales.
Different scales of operation are covered, from the Treasurer doing it all, to significant paid finance staff answerable to the Board.
Oh yeah head shop selling bongs, pipes, scales, dutch cannabis seeds, lights hydroponics books and scales.
bong s, scales, rolling papers, lighters as well as smoking accessories.
brainy Babies: Is it Genes, Diet, or Playing the Right baby Games that Tip the Scales?
In some lines these scales fused to form bony carapaces.
When using bathroom scales, these simple rules must be followed: 1. Always place the scale on thick shag carpeting.
There is also the frequent use of overlapping scales, which might derive from Chinese celadon.
The satin chrome plated body of the scales matches the most recent interior trends.
You've got sharp claws, my dear, you drop your scales on my clean floor.
We shall now consider the utility of these scales with respect to speech and video in real-time multimedia communication (MMC ).
Shorter pay scales, which accurately reflect the time needed to become fully competent at a job, are a positive step.
copepod abundances thus occurred repeatedly and across a wide range of scales.
cycloid scales but have comb-like teeth on their overlapping edge.
The top scales fall away, giving the impression of severe dandruff, whilst the bottom scales remain firmly attached to the scalp.
He almost died and was so debilitated that he lost about 70% of his scales!
We have observed that Nickel thin films may be partially demagnetized on time scales shorter than 300 fs.
deposition of sulfate over regional scales.
EUROMECH Colloquium 491: " vortex dynamics from quantum to geophysical scales " EUROMECH Colloquium 491 home page.
Global species richness of pelagic ecosystems is low, because of the broad geographical scales of distributions and processes.
Star shaped scales protect both the upper and the lower epidermis of the leaves.
eyeballing the data presented in the table shows some level of correspondence between these scales.
The range of textures he creates - tough hide, fluffy fur, preened feathers, dry scales - is extraordinary.
flaky, crusty patches covered with silvery scales, which are shed easily.
He spots a patch of scales on her shoulder and she explains everything to him, including flashbacks to the prolog.
fleshy scales which are modified leaves.
geographers ' spatial understandings take on a different emphasis at different scales.
The role of geology in influencing coastal or karst geomorphology at a range of scales.
Their bodies are covered in scales and, like sharks, they use gills to get oxygen from water.
gradualism: Intrinsically bound up with Darwin's theory is the notion of gradualism in evolution at all scales.
grandest of scales and heads for the safety of the Ocean floor.
heliocentric distances between the planets with musical scales.
Even one researcher said " At the morphological level feathers are traditionally considered homologous with reptilian scales.
The foul hookers that come off are obviously hooked in the side, hence coming back with scales on the hook.
The fatty acid made " highly significant improvements " in 12 out of 13 behavioral scales, including inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Patients visited at home may not have had scales or been too infirm to use them.
karst geomorphology at a range of scales.
latitude scales on the sides.
The ear flaps, the tympanic membranes, are the two large ' scales ' just behind the jaw-bone.
membranous wings which are covered with tiny scales.
The skink is a rather attractive animal with its shiny, almost metallic looking scales.
micrographs taken at a variety of resolutions have been analyzed to reveal how the area scales with resolution.
The true leaves are only microscopic scales of a brown, papery texture.
Midi based Ear Training Site This program randomly generates ear training exercises (as Midi based Ear Training Site This program randomly generates ear training exercises (as MIDI files) for intervals, chords, and scales.
Midi files, scales, violin know - how.
midpoint salary scales plus on-costs.
misalignment scales for the translations: 50 to 100 micrometers.
I have not misread the pointer of the scales to cheat the buyer.
Moth & Butterfly Wing Scales Wing of a noctuid moth & Butterfly Wing Scales Wing of a noctuid moth (Noctuidae) showing how the ordinary surface wing scales lie in overlapping rows.
Each solitary flower of 2.5 to 3cm in diameter is produced on a very short pedicel with a number of pale brown papery scales.
Observations of individual SLAMS also suggests that they are not planar on these scales.
However, these time scales are all much smaller than typical time scales for collisions, when considering the low densities in coronal plasmas.
plume moths can be identified by their characteristic scales.
Enter the new Nash scales in 56 or 112 lb with a quality padded pouch for just £ 29.99.
predominates at large scales of size.
preened feathers, dry scales - is extraordinary.
Why is the preliminary 1 test defined as " Scales of Training " and how does it differ from other prelim tests?
The variation in z is displayed on a computer screen as a series of gray scales denoting surface protrusions.
In classical, plaque psoriasis, the lesions are well defined, raised, reddish, slightly itchy plaques covered with loose silvery scales.
purplish red, papery scales often appear in autumn.
I thought about the labial pits - infra-red sensors on the first four upper lip scales of the reticulated python.
The measurement of black body temperature therefore links the primary spectral radiance and irradiance scales to primary detector scales.
Cosmogenic radionuclides allow the rates of erosion to be derived over the temporal scales which are pertinent to the operation of geomorphological processes.
salary scales are reviewed annually on 1 August.
satin chrome plated body of the scales matches the most recent interior trends.
In Norwegian scabies large numbers of mites exist in exfoliating scales.
In 1669 he invented the Roberval balance which is now almost universally used for weighing scales of the balance type.
The forecasts will make use of satellite and ground based measurements and a range of models for different spatial scales.
Charge: None Salary scales Description: Salary scales are published for the different categories of staff at Goldsmiths.
Investigations of the interval nature of the rating scales have generally been carried out using the graphic scaling method.
seeping very slowly from under some of its scales.
shovel the coal out of a railroad wagon into coal bags that we held open for them on the scales.
simultaneous measurements of variations in all three important scales would be made for the first time.
Also BW at Boddingtons do not have scales and a weigh sling.
soften up the scales first.
Responses on some labeled attitude measurement scales (e.g., interest in watching football) can also be nicely summarized via the frequency table.
Has anyone noticed how green tea tastes a bit like fish scales?
terrain roughness changes near the site which have an important effect on the length scales.
With the sling wet, the scales zeroed and the fish safely unhooked in the net it was time to lift it out.
These contain fossil teeth, scales and bones of marine vertebrates which are all very small.
welsh slate to make his scales, or he will be when he is finished!
But Adams, who would ride back to the scales sporting angry welts, certainly felt it.
whitefly scales and their larvae consume them from the inside out.
Since, however, this parachute is absent in some members of the family, the most distinctive character is the presence of a double row of spiny scales on the under surface of the tail, which apparently aid in climbing.
Micrometers used for subdividing the spaces on graduated circles and scales have, in general, only a single pair of cross-webs or parallel webs moved by a single screw.
But when the relative positions of two adjacent objects or scaledivisions have to be determined (as, for example, in the case of heliometer scales), much time is saved by retaining the motion of the micrometer box.
15, on one of the scales, by moving the whole micrometer box by means of the screw s; the pair of webs, moved by the screw S, is then pointed upon an adjacent division on the other scale.
Some shoots are sterile while others are fertile, bearing at the apex the so-called fructification - a dense oval, oblong conical or cylindrical spike, consisting of a number of shortly-stalked peltate scales, each of which has attached to its under surface a circle of spore-cases (sporangia) which open by a longitudinal slit on their inner side.
Other important manufactures are: flour and grist mill products, foundry and machineshop products, furniture, patent medicines and compounds, roofing materials, and scales and balances, manufactured especially at St Johnsbury.
Robur, and are dark-brown when ripe; the hemispherical cups are covered with long, narrow, almost bristly scales, giving them a mossy aspect; the fruit ripens the first autumn.
Besides the revolutionists and republicans who promoted con~ spiracy and insurrection whenever possible, and the moderates or Neo-Guelphs, as Giobertis followers were called, we must mention the Italian exiles who were learning the art of war in foreign countriesin Spain, in~ Greece, in aas Poland, in South Americaand those other exiles who, ~rn CX CS Paris or London, eked out a bare subsistence by teaching Italian or by their pen, and laid the foundations of that love of Italy which, especially in England, eventually brought the weight of diplomacy into the scales for Italian freedom.
The catkins of the poplars differ from those of the nearly allied willows in the presence of a rudimentary perianth, of obliquely cup-shaped form, within the toothed bracteal scales; the male flowers contain from eight to thirty stamens; the fertile bear a onecelled (nearly divided) ovary, surmounted by the deeply cleft stigmas; the two-valved capsule contains several seeds, each furnished with a long tuft of silky or cotton-like hairs.
In appearance it closely resembles the roach, usually attaining a length of 8 or 9 in., with the head and back of a dusky blue colour and the sides of a shining silvery aspect, with numerous dark lines running along the course of the scales.
It differs from the adder in having the head entirely covered with scales, shields being absent, and in having the snout somewhat turned up. The term "Asp" (Ã¡¼â‚¬ÃÆ’Ãâ‚¬ÃŽ¯Ãâ€š) seems to, have been employed by Greek and Roman writers, and by writers generally down to comparatively recent times, to designate more than one species of serpent; thus the asp, by means of which Cleopatra is said to have ended her life, and so avoided the disgrace of entering Rome a captive, is now generally supposed to have been the cerastes, or horned viper (Cerastes cornutus), of northern Africa and Arabia, a snake about 15 in.
Its body is well-proportioned, rather elongate, and somewhat like that of the European barbel, but covered with very large scales, of which there are only twentyfive or twenty-seven placed along the lateral line; the dorsal fin is armed with a long and strong spine, and the mouth provided with four slender and short barbels.
In a large number of Diptera an incision in the posterior margin of the wing, near the base, marks off a small lobe, the posterior lobe or alula, while connected with this but situated on the thorax itself there is a pair of membranous scales, or squamae, which when present serve to conceal the halteres.
In adopting a scale for their maps, cartographers will do well to choose a multiple of loon if possible, for such a scale can claim to be international, while in planning an atlas they ought to avoid a needless multiplicity of scales.
The free acid, which crystallizes in brilliant scales, is best prepared by decomposing the silver salt with an ethereal solution of hydrochloric acid.
In 1900 he was nominated for the presidency by the Democratic, Silver Republican, and Populist party conventions; but although "imperialism" was declared to be the paramount issue, he had insisted that the "platforms" should contain explicit advocacy of free-coinage, and this declaration, combined with the popularity of President McKinley, the Republican candidate for re-election, again turned the scales against him.
As the plant develops the veil is ruptured; the lower portion forms a sheath or volva round the base of the stem, while the upper portion persists as white patches or scales or warts on the surface of the cap. The stem usually bears an upper ring of tissue, the B C Amanita muscaria.
Titanium trichloride, TiC131 forms involatile, dark violet scales, and is obtained by passing the vapour of the tetrachloride mixed with hydrogen through a red-hot tube, or by heating the tetrachloride with molecular silver to 200Ã‚°.
The form and number of the scales and scutes, and the shape and arrangement of the head-shields, are of great value in distinguishing the genera and species, and it will therefore be useful to explain in the accompanying woodcut (fig.
Nataloin, 2C17H1807Ã¯¿½H20, forms bright yellow scales, melting at 212Ã‚°-222Ã‚°; barbaloin, C 17 H 18 0 7, forms yellow prismatic crystals.
In the South African war improvised detachable deflection scales of wood or iron placed over the fore-sight, called gun arcs, were used, but this device was clumsy, inaccurate and insufficient, as it only gave about 30Ã‚° right or left deflection, and only a sight that admitted of all-round laying could really satisfy the requirements.
C. Amory, General John Sullivan, A Vindication of his Character as a Soldier and a Patriot (Morrisania, N.Y., 1867); John Scales, "Master John Sullivan of Somersworth and Berwick and his Family," in the Proceedings of the New Hampshire Historical Society, vol.
As an artificial product, graphite is well known as dark lustrous scales in grey pig-iron, and in the "kish" of iron furnaces: it is also produced artificially on a large scale, together with .carborundum, in the electric furnace (see below).
In Speer's hydrometer the stem has the form of an octagonal prism, and upon each of the eight faces a scale is engraved, indicating the percentage strength of the spirit corresponding to the several divisions of the scale, the eight scales being adapted respectively to the temperature 35Ã‚°, 40Ã‚°, 45 50Ã‚°, 55, 60Ã‚°, 65Ã‚° and 70Ã‚° F.
Four small pins, which can be inserted into the counterpoise of the instrument, serve to adapt the instrument to the temperatures intermediate between those for which the scales are constructed.
It is provided with a sliding rule to adapt it to different temperatures, and has four scales, one of which is graduated for spirits and the other three serve to show the strengths of worts.
The instrument is provided with a sliding rule, with scales corresponding to the several weights, which indicate the specific gravity corresponding to the several divisions of the hydrometer scale compared with water at 55Ã‚° F.
Other black specks have been identified as haematite and ilmenite; gold has also been found; other included minerals recorded are rutile, topaz, quartz, pyrites, apophyllite, and green scales of chlorite (?).
In addition to the foliage-leaves several genera also possess scale-leaves of various kinds, represented by budscales in Pinus, Picea, &c., which frequently persist for a time at the base of a young shoot which has pushed its way through the yielding cap of protecting scales, while in some conifers the bud-scales adhere together, and after being torn near the base are carried up by the growing axis as a thin brown cap. The cypresses, araucarias and some other genera have no true bud-scales; in some species, e.g.
The latter view receives support from abnormal cones in which carpellary scales subtend axillary shoots, of which the first two leaves (fig.
If the length of the arms AC =BC =/,CD =a,SD=s, the angle of deviation of Ã‚° Z the balance from the horizontal =4), the weight of the beam alone G, the weight on one side = P, that on the other = P +Z, and lastly the weight of each scale with its appurtenances = Q then Zl tan:473 - 12 (P+Q)+Z la+G sj From this it is inferred that the deviation, and therefore the sensitive - ness, of the balance increases with the length of the beam, and de - creases as the distances, a and s, increase; also, that a heavy balance is, ceteris paribus, less sensitive than a light one, and that the sensitive - ness decreases continually the greater the weight put upon the scales.
Black scales, which dissolve in water to form a red solution, are obtained by adding a trace of hydrochloric acid to a solution of basic ferric nitrate which has been heated to 100Ã‚° for three days.
The temperature at which water freezes, and also at which ice melts, is so readily determined that it is employed as one of-the standard temperatures in the graduation of ordinary thermometer scales, this temperature being the zero of the Centigrade and Reaumur scales, and 32Ã‚° of the Fahrenheit (see Thermometry).
In grasses the outer scales or glumes of the spikelets are sterile bracts (fig.
In these strobili the peltate scales, like the vegetative leaves of the plant, are in superposed verticils; each appears to have borne four sporangia (fig.
In many of the flowers described by Mr Wieland the structure is identical in essential features with that of the female flowers of Bennettites Gibsonianus described by Carruthers and by Solms-Laubach, and with that of a French Liassic species described by Lignier: the whole consists of a convex receptacle bearing mature seeds at the tips of pedicels associated with interseminal scales (fig.
Only a few of them still move, rise, and feebly fly to settle on the enemy's hand, lacking the spirit to die stinging him; the rest are dead and fall as lightly as fish scales.
Bright blue berries surrounded by purplish red, papery scales often appear in autumn.
Both fur and feathers are, in any case, simply modified reptilian scales.
In addition, overall salary scales are reviewed annually on 1 August.
Wax scales are tiny flakes secreted from glands on the underneath the worker bees ' abdomen.
More... Q. A grayling had blood spots which seemed to be seeping very slowly from under some of its scales.
The pendant is carved with amazing detail, down to the scales on its serpentine body.
There they would shovel the coal out of a railroad wagon into coal bags that we held open for them on the scales.
Simultaneous measurements of variations in all three important scales would be made for the first time.
The warm bathing helps to soften up the scales first.
Its silver scales glisten and sparkle in the sunshine, its blood red fins move in time with its mouth and gills.
R.C.A. Hindmarsh (1997), Deforming beds: viscous and plastic scales of deformation of subglacial sediment ' ', Quat.
In practice there are often terrain roughness changes near the site which have an important effect on the length scales.
He is made of gray welsh slate to make his scales, or he will be when he is finished !
These insects lay eggs inside the whitefly scales and their larvae consume them from the inside out.
However, if feeding canned food seems inconvenient, feeding a raw diet may tip the scales.
Your credit score ranges from 300 to 850 on the most popularly used credit score scales.
Teacher pay scales are presented in lengthy charts with increases for seniority and completing college coursework.
Skin should appear shiny but not slimy, with well-attached scales.
If they have scales in the middle, you have what is called a waxless cross country ski.
The backcountry classic skis have scales on the bottom, middle section of the ski.
If they have scales in the middle, they are waxless cross country skis.
The one-time sex symbol now topped the scales at over 200 pounds.
At that time, she topped the scales at 307 pounds and said she was just ready to lose the weight.
The dino-mite green coat features decorative scales and a full dinosaur face.
For those on a playing path, being a part of the college's band program is likely, in addition to numerous classes focused on specific parts of playing like scales courses or keyboard harmony classes.
The dog's skin has developed heavy scales and it's losing its hair.
It is terrible with scales all over her body?
The branches are covered with rusty brown scales, and the somewhat leathery leaves are dark green above and silvery-white beneath.
The cones are 2 to 3 inches long, borne at the tips of the shoots, and composed of thin imbricated scales.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.